Crotalus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Crocalbin: a new calcium-binding protein that is also a binding protein for crotoxin, a neurotoxic phospholipase A2. (1/46)

Utilizing Marathon-ready cDNA library and a gene-specific primer corresponding to a partial amino acid sequence determined previously, the complete nucleotide sequence for the cDNA of crocalbin, which binds crotoxin (a phospholipase A2) and Ca2+, was obtained by polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the cDNA encodes a novel polypeptide of 315 amino acid residues, including a signal sequence of 19 residues. This protein contains six potential Ca(2+)-binding domains, one N-glycosylation site, and a large amount of acidic amino acid residues. The ability to bind Ca2+ has been ascertained by calcium overlay experiment. Evidenced by sequence similarity in addition, it is concluded that crocalbin is a new member of the reticulocalbin family of calcium-binding proteins.  (+info)

Combining phage display and molecular modeling to map the epitope of a neutralizing antitoxin antibody. (2/46)

Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It is composed of the noncovalent and synergistic association of a weakly toxic phospholipase A2, CB, and a nontoxic three-chain subunit, CA, which increases the lethal potency of CB. The A-56.36 mAb is able to dissociate the crotoxin complex by binding to the CA subunit, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. Because A-56.36 and CB show sequence homology and both compete for binding to CA, we postulated that A-56.36 and CB had overlapping binding sites on CA. By screening random phage-displayed libraries with the mAb, phagotopes bearing the (D/S)GY(A/G) or AAXI consensus motifs were selected. They all bound A-56.36 in ELISA and competed with CA for mAb binding, although with different reactivities. When mice were immunized with the selected clones, polyclonal sera reacting with CA were induced. Interestingly, the raised antibodies retained the crotoxin-dissociating effect of A-56.36, suggesting that the selected peptides may be used to produce neutralizing antibodies. By combining these data with the molecular modeling of CA, it appeared that the functional epitope of A-56.36 on CA was conformational, one subregion being discontinuous and corresponding to the first family of peptides, the other subregion being continuous and composed of amino acids of the second family. Phage-displayed peptides corresponding to fragments of the two identified regions on CA reacted with A-56.36 and with CB. Our data support the hypothesis that A-56.36 and CB interact with common regions of CA, and highlight residues which are likely to be critical for CA-CB complex formation.  (+info)

Interaction of the neurotoxic and nontoxic secretory phospholipases A2 with the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum. (3/46)

Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes possess a protein in their blood, named crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum (CICS), which protects them against crotoxin, the main toxin of their venom. CICS neutralizes the lethal potency of crotoxin and inhibits its phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the specificity of CICS towards snake venom neurotoxic PLA2s (beta-neurotoxins) and nontoxic mammalian PLA2s. This investigation shows that CICS does not affect the enzymatic activity of pancreatic and nonpancreatic PLA2s, bee venom PLA2 and Elapidae beta-neurotoxins but strongly inhibits the PLA2 activity of Viperidae beta-neurotoxins. Surface plasmon resonance and PAGE studies further demonstrated that CICS makes complexes with monomeric and multimeric Viperidae beta-neurotoxins but does not interact with nontoxic PLA2s. In the case of dimeric beta-neurotoxins from Viperidae venoms (crotoxin, Mojave toxin and CbICbII), which are made by the noncovalent association of a PLA2 with a nonenzymatic subunit, CICS does not react with the noncatalytic subunit, instead it binds tightly to the PLA2 subunit and induces the dissociation of the heterocomplex. In vitro assays performed with Torpedo synaptosomes showed a protective action of CICS against Viperidae beta-neurotoxins but not against other PLA2 neurotoxins, on primary and evoked liberation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, CICS is a specific PLA2 inhibitor of the beta-neurotoxins from the Viperidae family.  (+info)

Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits 3H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum. (4/46)

We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of 3H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0. 03-1 microM) and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased 3H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 microM) the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on 3H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits 3H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 +/- 5 nM). We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.  (+info)

Role of crotoxin, a phospholipase A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, on inflammatory and immune reactions. (5/46)

BACKGROUND: Crotoxin (CTX) is a potent neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV) composed of two subunits: one without catalytic activity (crotapotin), and a basic phospolipase A2. Recent data have demonstrated that CdtV or CTX inhibit some immune and inflammatory reactions. AIM: The aim of this paper was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these impaired responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Swiss mice were bled before and at different intervals of time after subcutaneous injection of CTX or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (control animals). The effect of treatments on circulating leukocyte mobilisation and on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and corticosterone were investigated. Spleen cells from treated animals were also stimulated in vitro with concanavalin A to evaluate the profile of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 or IFN-gamma secretion. Cytokine levels were determined by immunoenzymatic assay and corticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay. To investigate the participation of endogenous corticosteroid on the effects evoked by CTX, animals were treated with metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, previous to CTX treatment. RESULTS: Marked alterations on peripheral leukocyte distribution, characterised by a drop in the number of lymphocytes and monocytes and an increase in the number of neutrophils, were observed after CTX injection. No such alteration was observed in BSA-treated animals. Increased levels of IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone were also detected in CTX-injected animals. IFN-gamma levels were not modified after treatments. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from CTX-treated animals and stimulated with concanavalin A secreted less IL-10 and IL-4 in comparison with cells obtained from control animals. Metyrapone pretreatment was effective only to reverse the neutrophilia observed after CTX administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CTX may contribute to the deficient inflammatory and immune responses induced by crude CdtV. CTX induces endogenous mechanisms that are responsible, at least in part, for these impaired responses.  (+info)

Actions of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin on the isolated rat kidney. (6/46)

Many studies have reported the occurrence of lethal acute renal failure after snakebites. The aim of the present investigation was to determine alterations in renal function produced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin as well as the histological alterations induced by these venoms. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats weighing 240 to 280 g were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g% of previously dialyzed bovine serum albumin. The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin were studied on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary flow (UF), perfusion pressure (PP) and percentage sodium tubular transport (%TNa+). The infusion of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (10 microg/ml) and crotoxin (10 microg/ml) increased GFR (control80 = 0.78 +/- 0.07, venom80 = 1.1 +/- 0.07, crotoxin80 = 2.0 +/- 0.05 ml g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05) and UF (control80 = 0.20 +/- 0.02, venom80 = 0.32 +/- 0.03, crotoxin80 = 0.70 +/- 0.05 ml g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05), and decreased %TNa+ (control100 = 75.0 +/- 2.3, venom100 = 62.9 +/- 1.0, crotoxin80 = 69.0 +/- 1.0 ml g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05). The infusion of crude venom tended to reduce PP, although the effect was not significant, whereas with crotoxin PP remained stable during the 100 min of perfusion. The kidneys perfused with crude venom and crotoxin showed abundant protein material in the urinary space and tubules. We conclude that Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin, its major component, cause acute nephrotoxicity in the isolated rat kidney. The current experiments demonstrate a direct effect of venom and crotoxin on the perfused isolated kidney.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetics study of crotoxin (cytotoxic PLA(2), NSC-624244) in patients with advanced cancer. (7/46)

A Phase I clinical trial was performed on patients with solid tumors refractory to conventional therapy. Crotoxin was administered i.m. for 30 consecutive days at doses ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 mg/m(2). Patients entered the study after providing a written informed consent. Although 26 patients were entered only 23 were evaluated. Reversible, nonlimiting neuromuscular toxicity evidenced as diplopia because of pareses of the external ocular muscles was present in 13 patients. It started at doses of 0.18 mg/m(2) and lasted from 2 to 6 h. These episodes did not require dose adjustment and disappeared in 1-3 weeks of treatment. Three patients experienced palpebral ptosis, nystagmus (grade 2), and anxiety (grade 2-3) at the dose-limiting toxicity of 0.22 mg/m(2). Also at dose-limiting toxicity, 1 patient showed nystagmus (grade 2) and anxiety (grade 3) without evidence of palpebral ptosis. Transient increases (grades 1-3) in the levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase attributed to crotoxin myotoxicity were observed but returned to normal by the last week of treatment. At 0.21 mg/m(2) there was a case of grade-3 anaphylactic reaction on day 31, which required treatment. Hypersensitivity was regarded as an adverse drug-related reaction, and the patient was removed from the protocol. Two patients at different doses (0.12 mg/m(2) and 0.22 mg/m(2)) had sialorrhea. Four patients had asymptomatic transient increase in blood pressure (up to 20 mm Hg) 12 h after the first injection, which lasted 24 h. No treatment was required and toxicity did not reappear. Six patients experienced slight eosinophilia during the first 2 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose was set at 0.21 mg/m(2). Objective measurable partial responses (>50% reduction of tumor mass) were noted in 2 patients treated at 0.21 mg/m(2) and 1 at 0.12 mg/m(2). One patient (at 0.21 mg/m(2)) presented a complete response on day 110. Crotoxin pharmacokinetics showed rapid absorption from the injection site to blood (t(1/2 A) = 5.2 +/- 0.6 min). Plasma concentration reached a peak (C(max) = 0.79 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) at tau(max) = 19 +/- 3 min. The half-life of the distribution (alpha) phase is 22 +/- 2 min. Starting at 1.5 h after injection, the decrease in plasma concentration becomes slower, reaching 14 +/- 3 pg/ml 24 h after injection. The profile is dominated by the elimination (beta) phase with a half-life of 5.2 +/- 0.6 h. Consequently, 24 h after the injection ( approximately 5 half-life) 97% of the product was eliminated. The area under plasma concentration versus time curve was 0.19 +/- 0.05 microg/min/ml. Assuming availability (F) approximately 1, the clearance is C(L) = 26.3 +/- 7 ml/min, and the apparent volume of distribution is V(d) = 12 +/- 3 liter/kg. The recommended dose for a Phase II study is 0.18 mg/m(2).  (+info)

Molecular evolution and structure-function relationships of crotoxin-like and asparagine-6-containing phospholipases A2 in pit viper venoms. (8/46)

Some myotoxic or neurotoxic PLA2s (phospholipases A2) from pit viper venoms contain characteristic N6 substitutions. Our survey of the venoms of more than ten pit viper genera revealed that N6-PLA2s exist only in limited Asian pit vipers of two genera, Protobothrops and Gloydius, and exist as either monomers or the basic subunits of heterodimers in some New World pit vipers. For the newly identified N6-PLA2s, the neuromuscular blocking activities were assayed with the chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue, whereas the increased serum creatine kinase level assessed their myotoxicities. The purified N6-PLA2s from Protobothrops mangshanensis and Gloydius intermedius saxatilis were found to be presynaptic neurotoxins. In contrast, all N6-PLA2s from the venoms of Sistrurus miliarius strackeri, S. m. barbouri, Crotalus viridis viridis, C. lepidus lepidus, Cerrophidion godmani and Bothreichis schlegelii were myotoxins without neurotoxicity even in the presence of crotoxin A. Crotoxin-like complexes were for the first time purified from the venoms of Sitrurus catenatus tergeminus, C. mitchelli mitchelli, C. horridus atricaudatus, C. basiliscus and C. durissus cumanensis. The cDNAs encoding six novel N6-PLA2s and subunits of the crotoxin-like complex from S. c. tergeminus were cloned and fully sequenced. Phylogeny analysis showed that two structural subtypes of N6-PLA2s with either F24 or S24 substitution have been evolved in parallel, possibly descended respectively from species related to present-day Protobothrops and Gloydius. Calmodulin binds all the N6-PLA2s but crotoxin A may inhibit its binding to crotoxin B and to other neurotoxic N6-PLA2s. Structure-activity relationships at various regions of the PLA2 molecules were extensively discussed.  (+info)

*Carbendazim

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*GV (nerve agent)

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*alpha-Pinene

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Botulinum toxin

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Ethylsarin

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Vesamicol

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Latrophilin

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Anticholinergic

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Arisugacin A

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Bulbocapnine

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Management of strabismus

Crotoxin appears to act similarly. To weaken an eye muscle, 1 to 12 units (a few nanograms) of toxin are injected directly into ... Crotoxin, a snake neurotoxin, is being developed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a potential alternative. Botulinum toxin ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT, Sá ML (Oct 2012). "Study of crotoxin on the ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT (2012-12-01). "Crotoxin in humans: analysis of ...

*Crotalus simus

Only venom from neonates contains crotoxin; a constituent typically found in C. durissus venom that produces neurotoxic ...

*Spotlight Innovation

Crotoxin was tested on patients in the George Pompidou University Hospital in Paris. In 2014, Celtic Biotech LTD entered into a ... "Crotoxin Administration for Cancer Treatment and Pain Relief". www.google.com/patents. Google Patents. Retrieved 7 September ... In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech Iowa was granted a patent by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office entitled Crotoxin ... Celtic Biotech made headlines in 2011 when they announced a clinical trial to test the effectiveness of Crotoxin, a protein ...

*Karl Slotta

In 1938, Slotta and his brother-in-law Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat isolated crotoxin from venom, the first snake toxin to be isolated ... Their research suggested that the toxicity of crotoxin was due to effects on nerve lipids. He subsequently co-founded a ...

*Calumenin

Hseu MJ, Yen CH, Tzeng MC (1999). "Crocalbin: a new calcium-binding protein that is also a binding protein for crotoxin, a ...

*Crotalus durissus

Bite symptoms are very different from those of Nearctic species due to the presence of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) ...

*List of dangerous snakes

Bite symptoms are very different from those of Nearctic species due to the presence of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) ...

*List of MeSH codes (D20)

... crotoxin MeSH D20.944.380 --- hazardous waste MeSH D20.944.380.638 --- radioactive waste MeSH D20.944.420 --- industrial waste ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... crotoxin MeSH D23.946.896.980 --- virulence factors, bordetella MeSH D23.946.896.980.040 --- adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH ...
The safety profile of crotoxin administered i.m. to humans showed neurotoxicity as the most conspicuous toxic effect. This is an expected toxicity, consistent with the known effects of this toxin (31, 32, 33) . Low crotoxin concentrations produce incomplete blockage (34) reflected in vivo by paresis, which is fully reversible within 24-40 h (29) . The neurotoxic activity of crotoxin may account for diplopia, which appeared in all of the patients at the dose level of 0.18 mg/m2 because of paresis of the external ocular muscles. Diplopia was regarded as nonlimiting toxicity, because it disappeared at least 12 h before the next dose and progressively lasted for shorter intervals of time. Diplopia was not, usually during the second week, spontaneously reported by the patients, and eventually it disappeared completely. At the MTD, paresis was self-limited and did not affect the intrinsic ocular muscles or extend to pharyngeal, laryngeal, or respiratory muscles. Furthermore, it was spontaneously ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Neuro- and myotoxicological signs and symptoms are significant clinical features of envenoming snakebites in many parts of the world. The toxins primarily responsible for the neuro and myotoxicity fall into one of two categories-those that bind to and block the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction and neurotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLAs) that bind to and hydrolyse membrane phospholipids of the motor nerve terminal (and, in most cases, the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle) to cause degeneration of the nerve terminal and skeletal muscle. This review provides an introduction to the biochemical properties of secreted sPLA2s in the venoms of many dangerous snakes and a detailed discussion of their role in the initiation of the neurologically important consequences of snakebite. The rationale behind the experimental studies on the pharmacology and toxicology of the venoms and isolated PLAs in the venoms is discussed, with particular reference to the way these studies
As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel) criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total ...
A crotoxin homolog was purified from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom using molecular exclusion and reverse-phase HPLC. This crotoxin contained one PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) and four crotapotin isoforms, whereas crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom had three PLA2 isoforms and two crotapotin isoforms. SDS-PAGE showed that the C. d. collilineatus PLA2 and crotapotin had relative molecular mass of 15 and 9 kDa, respectively. Neither the PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) nor the crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) had any neurotoxicity in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations when tested alone. However, when PLA2 and crotapotin were coincubated before testing, the neurotoxicity was restored to a level similar to test in the venom in native crotoxin. The two crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) differed in their ability to inhibit PLA2 activity, perhaps because of variations in their affinities for this enzyme. Cdcolli III F6 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior, with maximal activity at pH ...
The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes presents various substances, including a serine protease with thrombin-like activity, called gyroxin, that clots plasmatic fibrinogen and promote the fibrin formation. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the gyroxin enzyme from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. For isolation and purification, the following methods were employed: gel filtration on Sephadex G75 column and affinity chromatography on benzamidine Sepharose 6B; 12% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; N-terminal sequence analysis; cDNA cloning and expression through RT-PCR and crystallization tests. Theoretical molecular modeling was performed using bioinformatics tools based on comparative analysis of other serine proteases deposited in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. Protein N-terminal sequencing produced a single chain with a molecular mass of similar to 30 kDa while its full-length cDNA had 714 bp which encoded a ...
Die chromatographische Auftrennung von Klapperschlangen- (Crotalus durissus terrificus) Gift ermöglicht, den Unterschied zwischen Phospholipase A und
ABSTRACTSmall membranous vesicles are small closed fragments of membrane. They are released from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) or shed from the surface membrane (microvesicles). They contains various bioactive molecules and their molecular composition varies depending on their cellular origin. Sm
In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol) at 37 °C and a discrete reduction in the UV scanning signal and a modification of the circular dichroism spectra were observed after treatment with naringin, suggesting modifications of the secondary structure of the protein. This flavonoid was able to decrease enzymatic activity and some pharmacological effects, such as myonecrosis, platelet aggregation, and neurotoxic activity caused by sPLA2, however, the inflammatory effect was not affected by naringin. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data were collected for sPLA2
Jørgensen, D., C.C. Gates, and D.P. Whiteside. (2008). A Review of Radio-Telemetry Research on the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) and select subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In Hayes, W.K., K.R. Beaman, M.D. Cardwell, and S.P. Bush (Eds.). The Biology of Rattlesnakes, Loma Linda University Press, Loma Linda, California. Pp 303-316 ...
The results in Table 4 clearly show the strong anti-lethal activity of LTNF identified in opossum serum. LTNF is effective in neutralizing the effect of venoms when given half an hour before or after venom injection. The anti-lethal activity of LTNF was exhibited when it was administered half an hour before venom injection, therefore, it can be used as a preventive measure, especially for snake handlers, etc.. After injecting the predetermined lethal dose of toxins derived from animals, plants, and bacteria, the mice were given 200µg of LTNF in 0.5 ml volume by IP route. The control mice were given 0.5 ml PBS. The results are shown in Table 5.. The results in Table 5 show that TNF neutralizes the lethal toxic effects of various snake venom toxins: crotoxin, cobratoxin, PLA2, and, the most potent taipoxin. Furthermore, LTNF neutralizes the lethal effects of ricin, one of the most toxic plant-derived toxins, and also the bacterial toxins botulinum and holothurin.. DISCUSSION. Snakebite continues ...
In the brain at least 40% of the energy produced by mitochondrial respiration is required by the Na+/K+-ATPase to maintain ion gradients across the cell membranes. Energy levels in the brain can be compromised by a lack of glucose and oxygen or by defects in the respiratory chain such as occurring in stroke and Parkinsons disease, respectively. Na+/K+-ATPase function is inhibited during energy failure. This may lead to a prolonged depolarization of the neuron, excessive release, and reversal of the uptake of excitatory amino acids, i.e., the induction of excitotoxicity (Dirnagl et al., 1999; Doble, 1999; Nicotera et al., 1999). Ouabain inhibits Na+/K+-ATPases and is a very potent neurotoxin that leads to pancellular necrosis and infarction (Lees, 1991). It is used to study the involvement of Na+/K+-ATPase in CNS pathology (Lees et al., 1990; Lees, 1991; Lees and Leong, 1994,1995; Stelmashook et al., 1999). Ouabain rapidly perturbs ion homeostasis and induces cell swelling and ...
Nine of the 17 venoms here tested were found capable of coagulating citrated blood or plasma. As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus). The optimum pH for this coagulation was determined for 3 of these, and was found in each case to be approximately pH 6.5, the same as that for the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Unlike thrombin, however, the fibrinogen-coagulating activity of the venoms was unaffected by the antithrombin elaborated in the course of anaphylactic shock.. In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or ...
The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was designated Extirpated by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) in 2001 and was officially listed under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in June 2003. SARA (Section 37) requires the competent Minister to prepare a recovery strategy for all listed extirpated, endangered, or threatened species. The Canadian Wildlife Service - Ontario, Environment Canada, led the development of this recovery strategy, and it was developed in cooperation with the Government of Ontario. All responsible jurisdictions reviewed and acknowledged receipt of this strategy. The strategy meets SARA requirements in terms of content and process (Sections 39-41).
Stem cells, the prodigious precursors of all the tissues in our body, can make almost anything, given the right circumstances. Including, unfortunately, cancer. Now research from Rockefeller University shows that having too many stem cells, or stem cells that live for too long, can increase the odds of developing cancer. By identifying a mechanism that regulates programmed cell death in precursor cells for blood, or hematopoietic stem cells, the work is the first to connect the death of such cells to a later susceptibility to tumours in mice. It also provides evidence of the potentially carcinogenic downside to stem cell treatments, and suggests that nature has sought to balance stem cells regenerative power against their potentially lethal potency ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
"Mercury poisoning" . The three most dangerous poisons to never eat, drink or inject again. more toxins than just fluoride itself.• The truth about how fluoride consumption is linked to lowered IQs in children.• Poison #3: Mercury in flu shots. Why mercury is a potent neurotoxin
Synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta. 3 synonyms for Crotalus viridis: prairie rattler, prairie rattlesnake, Western rattlesnake. What are synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta?
massasauga: Sistrurus catenatus small North American rattlesnake of the family Viperidae, found in prairies, swamps, and woodlands from the Great Lakes to Arizona. It is typically 45 to 75...
The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. Within 24 h of injection, axons in this nerve becam
https://youtu.be/wNCD3rLbCBk When a bullet ant stings you it feels like youve been shot by a gun. In the above video, watch Dr. Corrie Moreau milk one of these incredibly aggressive and alarmingly big venomous ants. From Brain Scoop: Researchers are interested in what makes the sting so painful and if this potent neurotoxin could have…
Ive seen the response that they didnt owe you a voucher for something a previous guest left. That may be correct. I think they do owe you medical testing for exposing your grand-daughter to a potent neurotoxin - Mercury. I also think they owe you for failure to notify you. If they didnt find that crack pipe, then they didnt clean up the mercury contamination in the room resulting from breaking the bulb. Similar incidents involve motels failing to notify guests theyre staying in a former methamphetamine lab ...
Der IBM® CICS® Universal Client bietet Funktionen zur Einbindung von Desktopanwendungen, die die Kommunikation zwischen Workstationanwendungen und CICS-Servern unterstützen.
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Rattlesnake Lyrics: Rattlesnake, rattlesnake / Rattlesnake, rattles me / Rattlesnake, rattlesnake / Rattlesnake, rattles me / Rattlesnake, rattlesnake / Rattlesnake, rattles me / Rattlesnake
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that inhibits neuromuscular transmission by blocking acetylcholine release from the nerve termini. PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides (By similarity).
Cohorts. Am J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;40(11):2648-2652. PubMed. Gowd KH, Blais KD [student], Elmslie KS, Steiner AM, Olivera BM, Bulaj G. Dissecting a role of evolutionary-conserved but noncritical disulfide bridges in cysteine-rich peptides using ω-conotoxin GVIA and its selenocysteine analogs. Biopolymers. 2012;98(3):212-23. doi: 10.1002/bip.22047. PubMed. Fry BG, Casewell NR, Wüster W, Vidal N, Young B, Jackson TN. The structural and functional diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system. Toxicon. 2012 Sep 15;60(4):434-48. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 Mar 14. PubMed. Kohl T, Colayori SE, Westhoff G, Bakken GS, Young BA. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Biol. 2012 Aug 1;215(Pt 15):2630-6. doi:10.1242/jeb.065896. PubMed. Kondrashov PE, Agadjanian AK. A nearly complete skeleton of Ernanodon (Mammalia, Palaeanodonta) from Mongolia: morphofunctional analysis. J Vert Paleontol ...
There are a lot of amazing rattlesnake facts out there. For many people, just the idea of coming across a rattlesnake while out on a hike or gardening is too much to bear. They illicit a type of fear that is very intense and most times unwarranted. Often, people who run across these snakes will assume the worst and go running for the hills. While they are indeed animals that you want to keep your distance from, its not necessary to recoil in horror at the very mention of them. Theyre actually really interesting little animals. Here are ten of the amazing rattlesnake facts that set them apart from other animals.. ...
James Tyler Kent describes the symptoms of the homeopathic medicine Crotalus Horridus in great detail and compares it with other homeopathy remedies. ...
The emergence of a skin-destroying fungal disease is having a deadly impact on snake populations, including a threatened species of rattlesnake in the United States.
Resumo: Venenos de serpentes constituem uma rica fonte de moléculas biologicamente ativas capazes de atuar em alvos celulares específicos e modular uma distinta variedade de funções fisiológicas. Fosfolipases A2 homólogas Lys49 são abundantes proteínas presentes nessas complexas secreções, que embora cataliticamente inativas, desempenham uma ampla gama de atividades, tais como: miotoxicidade, citotoxicidade, atividade antibacteriana, antifúngica, entre outras. O veneno de Crotalus oreganus abyssus não tem sido muito estudado, portanto, a caracterização de seus componentes representa uma ferramenta biotecnológica valiosa para o estudo dos eventos fisiopatológicos do envenenamento e para uma melhor compreensão de seus efeitos biológicos. No presente trabalho, uma fosfolipase A2 homóloga Lys49, denominada CoaTx-II, do veneno de Crotalus oreganus abyssus foi purificada e caracterizada estrutural e farmacologicamente. CoaTx-II foi isolada com elevado grau de pureza através da ...
They are commonly found in rock and debris piles, animal burrows and crevices. They will seek out roads, open sandy areas and rocks to sun themselves during cooler temperatures.. They are more active in spring and summer. But it is important to remember you can encounter rattlesnakes anytime and anywhere. Rattlesnakes prey on mice and other small rodents. They dont lay eggs, but rather give live birth to young snakes about 9 to 12 inches long.. Like other snakes, mammals and birds, rattlesnakes fill an important place in the ecosystem by preying on rodents and keeping their populations in balance. When the rattlesnake is found in a backyard, this ecological role may not seem so apparent or important.. Other snakes such as the gopher snake, red racer and king snake are common on Edwards. Many people kill gopher snakes confusing their tan coloration and indistinct black markings for a rattlesnake.. Gopher snakes, red racers and other snakes often hiss and shake their tails imitating the motion ...
Researchers suggest that timber rattlesnake, whose scientific name is Crotalus horridus, plays an important role in keeping Lyme disease in check.
Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated ...
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in the animals ...
Gyroxin is a glycoprotein isolated from rattlesnake venom, with known thrombin-like serine protease properties and behavioral action in the CNS. The mechanism of the latter has eluded experimenters for three decades. In this paper about the in vitro chick retina we demonstrate an excitotoxic CNS action of Gyroxin by observing retinal Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS). These show sudden dynamic changes in the intact tissue due to gyroxin action. The very fast kinetics of this response precludes deep tissue penetration by the protein, a mechanism of tissue response described here for the first time. At nanomolar concentrations, Gyroxin alters profoundly the optical profiles of retinal spreading depression waves (RSDs), suggesting modulation of ionic transport and metabolism. This effect is reversible in contrast with the acute cell lysis induced with gyroxin pulses at higher concentration. Because there may be more than one target of Gyroxine at the retinal inner limiting membrane, additional ...
The rattle on a rattlesnake evolved just once. A new study contends it may have come out of a common behavior - tail vibration - that snakes use to deter predators.
Rattlesnakes are a much-dreaded phenomenon of the American Southwest. Its important not to vilify them too much because They help to keep mice and other rodent pests to manageable numbers They dont attack unless cornered - theyd much rather slither away Their skins are highly sensitive and they can feel pain Only literally a handful…
Most rattlesnake bites contain hemotoxic elements which damage tissue and affect the circulatory system by destroying blood cells, skin tissues and causing internal hemorrhaging.
5-nucleotidase is an enzyme with system name 5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:a 5-ribonucleotide + H2O↔ a rib
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Cheap Atarax without prescription: Facundities were clambering besides the multipurpose kandis. Hoe has extravasated against the hardheartedly conjoint palynology.. Order atarax medicine: Tonguey footstep biotests. Accessarily responsive vitamins had pinched off about the conventual tassie. Sluggishness is the unduteous tomasine. Pseudonymous rattlesnakes will have been fallen behind in amidst the jailward demiurgic roe.. ...
Define Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Mottled Rock Rattlesnake synonyms, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake pronunciation, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake translation, English dictionary definition of Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Noun 1. Crotalus lepidus - mountain rock dweller of Mexico and most southern parts of United States southwest rock rattlesnake rattler, rattlesnake - pit...
TUCSON - As soon as a rattlesnake sinks its fangs into a victim, the venom starts traveling through the bloodstream. Within seconds, people can experience pain, swelling, bleeding and trouble breathing.. Its a race against time to get to a hospital, the only place that readily offers anti-venom. The longer it takes to get treatment, the higher the odds of long-term injury or death.. One University of Arizona doctor hopes to buy people more time before they get to the hospital.. Professor Vance Nielsen, the vice chair for research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the College of Medicine - Tucson, said his research could help stall the spread of rattlesnake venom through the body.. Nielsen is researching the potential of injecting a combination of carbon monoxide and iron in a rattlesnake bite area to slow the spread of venom. So far, he has made progress in rabbits, buying about an hour of time.. The idea is not to replace anti-venom, but extend the time patients have until they can get to ...
I had a sabbatical in Singapore, at the National University. I was seated on the patio of the university canteen eating one of my typical lunches: curried mutton with hot lentils, rice and a durian milkshake, served on a banana leaf. I struck up a conversation with a biochemist who studied the structure and function of snake venom proteins. He was systematically analyzing the proteins in various venoms looking for proteins that interact with essential features of cells. This was a potential initial step for the design of new drugs. I remember asking him how he knew which part of the venom proteins was important and which parts just served as a rigid platform to display the active parts. He said that it was simple, the water-binding, hydrophilic amino acids that formed amorphous loops bordered by sulfhydryl-bonding cysteines were his targets. Ten years layer, I observed that these loops also have the basic amino acids (K, lysine and R, arginine) that form heparin-binding domains ...
By Katie Bauer - bio , email. LUBBOCK, TX (KCBD) - Several people have left comments on our Facebook page, saying theyve seen more snakes on the South Plains since the July 4th weekend floods. One Tahoka woman is just glad her father is alive after being bitten by a rattlesnake multiple times.. Penny Redman said she always knew her dad was a fighter. "Hes been a real trooper, hes a tough man," said Redman.. A couple of weeks ago, 87-year-old Pug Parker of Tahoka went outside to get something out of a toolbox. "Hes diabetic so his vision is very poor, he reached in with his left hand because he cant see, feeling for a screw and evidently there was a mom and some babies," said Redman.. Parker was bitten ten times. Baby rattlesnake bites are more venomous than adult rattlesnakes. "They dont know how to stop releasing the venom. They release all they have. Adults can judge how much they want to release," said Redman. Parker was rushed by AeroCare to Covenant Hospital, and on the way to the ...
Rattlesnakes are pit vipers and include the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Pit vipers may be identified by a heat-sensing pit anteroinferior to the eye.
Rattlesnakes are pit vipers and include the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Pit vipers may be identified by a heat-sensing pit anteroinferior to the eye.
Ammonia is known to be a potent neurotoxin that causes severe negative effects on the central nervous system. Excessive ammonia levels have been detected in the brain of patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Therefore, ammonia could be a factor contributing to the progression of AD. In this review, we provide an introduction to the toxicity of ammonia and putative ammonia transport proteins. We also hypothesize how ammonia may be linked to AD. Additionally, we discuss the evidence that support the hypothesis that ammonia is a key factor contributing to AD progression. Lastly, we summarize the old and new experimental evidence that focuses on energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, inflammatory responses, excitatory glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and memory in support of our ammonia-related hypotheses of AD.
Botulinum toxin was first described as a potent neurotoxin in the late eighteenth century. Currently three main distinct clinical and epidemiological botulism syndromes are described - foodborne botulism, which results from the ingestion of food contamina
After being crammed in a community den all winter, the western diamondback rattlesnakes of Texoma are emerging sexually driven, hungry, active -- and HUGE!
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1. Alarie Y [1981]. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42:9-13.. 2. Esin MS, Vigdergauz MS [1986]. Correlation between toxicity indexes and chromatographic characteristics of chemical substances. Gig Sanit 51(5):61-62 (in Russian).. 3. Munch JC [1972]. Aliphatic alcohols and alkyl esters: narcotic and lethal potencies to tadpoles and to rabbits. Ind Med Surg 41:31-33.. 4. NPIRI [1974]. Raw materials data handbook, physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 1. Organic solvents. Bethlehem, PA: National Printing Ink Research Institute, p. 10.. 5. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1443.. 6. Purchase IFH [1969]. Studies in kaffircorn malting and brewing. XXII. The acute toxicity of some fusel oils found in Bantu beer. S Afr Med J 43:795-798.. 7. Smyth HF Jr [1956]. Improved communication: hygienic ...
These snakes may reach ages beyond 20 years of age. Unlike most snakes, the males are larger than the females. This may be a result of selection for large males that will win the arduous male-male, non-lethal wrestling contests that allow the winner to breed with a nearby female.. Females will produce a clutch of up to around 20 live-born babies that are especially large in size. The myth that baby diamondback rattlesnakes hide underground, and grow for a few years before surfacing, likely comes from the fact that few people realize that an 18-inch rattlesnake is actually a newborn. Like all other rattlesnakes yet studied, the female will stay with her young and protect them until their first shed cycle, at which time they will disperse on their own.. ...
Snakes, like other reptiles, have a skin covered in a scale. Snakes are entirely covered with scales or scutes of various shapes and sizes, known as snakeskin as a whole. A scale protects the body of the snake, aids it in locomotion, allows moisture to be retained within, alters the surface characteristics such as roughness to aid in camouflage, and in some cases even aids in prey capture (such as Acrochordus). The simple or complex colouration patterns (which help in camouflage and anti-predator display) are a property of the underlying skin, but the folded nature of scaled skin allows bright skin to be concealed between scales then revealed in order to startle predators. Scales have been modified over time to serve other functions such as eyelash fringes, and protective covers for the eyes with the most distinctive modification being the rattle of the North American rattlesnakes. Snakes periodically moult their scaly skins and acquire new ones. This permits replacement of old worn out skin, ...
A Comparative Study of Hunted vs. Unhunted Populations of the Twin-Spotted Rattlesnake David B. Prival, Matthew J. Goode, Don E. Swann, Cecil R. Schwalbe, Michael J. Schroff, and Robert J. Steidl Wildlife and Fisheries Science, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 FINAL REPORT IIPAM I97040 30 September 1999 Heritage Program Arizona Game and Fish Department 2221 West Greenway Road Phoenix, Arizona 85023 DISCLAIMER The findings, opinions, and recommendations in this report are those of the investigators who have received partial or full funding from the Arizona Game and Fish Department Heritage Fund. The findings, opinions, and recommendations do not necessarily reflect those of the Arizona Game and Fish Commission or the Department, or necessarily represent official Department policy or management practice. For further information, please contact the Arizona Game and Fish Department. TWIN-SPOTTED RATTLESNAKE STUDY PRIVAL ET AL. EXECUTIVE ...
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
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HENRYETTA, Okla. (KTUL) -- A little girl bitten by a snake in her own backyard is recovering in a Tulsa hospital.Tammy and Jess Collins have not been sleeping well. At least not since Saturday when the unthinkable happened.
Petcare decisions are practical, ethical, moral, and spiritual decisions" -Doc Truli. "Its easy to think if you have all the information, you have all the answers." -Chloe talking about leaving Watchtower on Smallville. "We need more inspiration, not just information!" -Doc Truli. ...
Definition of musculus longissimus cervicis. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Keep your pet on trails where you can see the path in front of you. Avoid tall grassy areas and dense shrubs where snakes may be hiding, especially around streams and riverbeds. Always keep a veterinary hospitals phone number with you that is located close to the area you are hiking. Rattlesnakes typically only bite when provoked and, unfortunately, your dog is probably jus the one to make the snake feel unsafe; therefore, if you are in an area thats known to have rattlesnakes in the area, keep your pet on a short, nonretractable leash. If you should encounter a snake, keep your distance (at least 10 feet to minimize vibrations the snake can sense) with your dog close to you. Walk away slowly. Rattlesnakes have a striking distance of approximately 2/3 of their bodies length. So a 3-foot snake could strike about 2 feet. Apparently there are snake bite vaccinations designed for high-risk areas, though it is debatable as to whether they are effective. Talk to your vet about the pros and cons of ...
Looking for online definition of musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colli in the Medical Dictionary? musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colli explanation free. What is musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colli? Meaning of musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colli medical term. What does musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colli mean?
Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been challenged, suggesting that their recycling ability may differ greatly. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that is internalized in synaptic vesicles at motor nerve terminals and induces flaccid paralysis. Recently, BoNT/A was also shown to undergo retrograde transport, suggesting it might enter a specific pool of synaptic vesicles with a retrograde trafficking fate. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques including electron microscopy and single molecule imaging, we found that the BoNT/A binding domain is internalized within a subset of vesicles that only partially co-localize with cholera toxin B-subunit and have markedly reduced VAMP2 immunoreactivity ...
The state chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians had opposed the bill on various grounds - warning mainly that it could lead to vaccine shortages.. On Tuesday, the pediatrics group said it had switched to a neutral stance, based on Pavleys acceptance of modest amendments. Tom Riley, a lobbyist for the family physicians group, said Tuesday that it also was reassessing its stand.. The state Department of Finance is on record in opposition to the bill, on grounds it will cost the state extra to purchase thimerosal-free vaccine. According to state health officials, the added cost would be about $40,000 per year.. Closely watched by federal health officials and the vaccine industry, the bill is advancing at a time of mounting concern over environmental exposures to mercury, a potent neurotoxin. It also comes amid scientific debate and legal battles over whether thimerosal in childrens shots has contributed to a sharp rise in reported cases of ...
A relatively recent concept in biology is that of allostasis. This concept is defined basically as the processes involved with achieving homeostasis. An allostatic load is the sum of energy demands. Female rattlesnakes have basically two energy demands when pregnant: 1) Stay alive (maintain basal bodily functions) and 2) make babies. The little movement they may do is to find a better basking spot. Other than that, their allostatic load is pretty straightforward. Romero et. al (2009) describe a new model for predicting how an animal will react with regard to allostatic adjustments called the Reactive Scope Model. It mentions four ranges in which an animal may be at any given time period. The first is predictive homeostasis which includes basic life functions that are "predictable." The second is reactive homeostasis which accounts for unpredictable and potentially threatening changes in the environment. Third is homeostatic overload where an animal has exceeded its physiological capacity to ...
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS - A 31-year-old Steamboat Springs endurance athlete who had just moved to Golden was killed Saturday after being bitten by a rattlesnake. According to the Jefferson County Sheriffs Office, Daniel Hohs was about...
Enzymatische Spaltung nativer cystinhaltiger Polypeptide durch Thermolysin (E.S. 3.4.4.), II: Vergleich von Thermolysin mit α-Protease aus Crotalus atrox-Gift und Subtilisin (Enzymic hydrolysis of native cystine-containing polypeptides with thermolysin. II. Comparison of thermolysin with α-protease from Crotalus atrox poison and subtilisin) ...
there are numerous studies going on with certain species of snakes,including Crotalus Horridus(Timber Rattlesnake) that are showing venom evolution. In certain areas,where food has began to become scarce,many individual snakes are found to be carrying neurotoxic venom,which is interesting as they are known for their potent Hemotoxic venom. The hypothesis is that neurotoxins work much faster on prey,thus lessening the chance of the animal losing its meal ...
First aid used to consist of a tourniquet above the level of the wound, but this can lead to ischemia (lack of oxygen to the tissues) and is no longer recommended. Also, wounds used to be incised (cut open with a knife), however, this has been shown to not be helpful, and can lead to infection. "Sucking" out the poison also leads to infection with no real benefits. ...
When hes out for a bike ride in the Rattlesnake or taking a day trip around the Missoula area, Gary Batzloff might come upon on interesting spot on the landscape. He marks these areas with a GPS.... ...

Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Isolation And Preliminary Enzymatic Characterization Of A Novel...Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Isolation And Preliminary Enzymatic Characterization Of A Novel...

This crotoxin contained one PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) and four crotapotin isoforms, whereas crotoxin from Crotalus durissus ... These results indicate that crotoxin from C. d. collineatus venom is very similar enzymatically to crotoxin from C. d. ... A crotoxin homolog was purified from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom using molecular exclusion and reverse-phase HPLC ... the neurotoxicity was restored to a level similar to test in the venom in native crotoxin. The two crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 ...
more infohttp://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/101813

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBb - P0CG56 (PA2BB CRODU)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBb - P0CG56 (PA2BB CRODU)

Heterodimer CA-CB: Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin that possesses phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and exerts a ... Multiple variants of each subunit give different crotoxin complexes that can be subdivided into 2 classes: (1) those of high ... At equilibrium, only the CB subunits remain associated with the specific crotoxin receptor. In addition to neurotoxicity, ... crotoxin has been found to exert myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiovascular toxicity (PubMed:20109480). Moreover, anti- ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P0CG56

Phase I and Pharmacokinetics Study of Crotoxin (Cytotoxic PLA2, NSC-624244) in Patients with Advanced Cancer | Clinical Cancer...Phase I and Pharmacokinetics Study of Crotoxin (Cytotoxic PLA2, NSC-624244) in Patients with Advanced Cancer | Clinical Cancer...

Renal clearance (CLR) of crotoxin was estimated as 1.8 ± 0.5 ml/min from the slopes of the amount of crotoxin excreted in urine ... Thus, plasma will contain (42 ml/kg × 0.075 ng/ml) 3.14 ng of crotoxin. In the extravascular fluid, the amount of free crotoxin ... This method was used to determine crotoxin concentration in plasma and urine. However, crotoxin concentrations in plasma fell ... 10 ng/ml crotoxin, and the AUC was ∼140 ng/min/ml. On study day 90 it neutralized 60 ± 20 ng/ml crotoxin, and the AUC was about ...
more infohttps://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/8/4/1033

Synergism of the two subunits of crotoxin. - Semantic ScholarSynergism of the two subunits of crotoxin. - Semantic Scholar

The mechanism of action of crotoxin could be divided into two distinct steps: a quasi irreversible binding step, which has no ... The mechanism proposed explains in simple terms the synergistic action of the two subunits of crotoxin at the level of the ... It is shown that crotoxin very efficiently blocks the cholinergic post-synaptic response of the isolated electroplaque from ... This post-synpatic effects was investigated by studying the binding of crotoxin and its isolated subunits to acetylcholine ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Synergism-of-the-two-subunits-of-crotoxin.-Bon/bb921c52f41792a92187966ad8b9413dd33b79b5

Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity. - Semantic...Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity. - Semantic...

Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity. by ... Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity.. @article{ ... Hanley1978CrotoxinEO, title={Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Crotoxin-effects-on-Torpedo-californica-cholinergic-Hanley/5ffd464533204164adfebd2ed65fc6ee529ddaa9

Carbendazim - WikipediaCarbendazim - Wikipedia

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbendazim

GV (nerve agent) - WikipediaGV (nerve agent) - Wikipedia

Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GV_

Structure-Function Relationship in Heterodimeric Neurotoxin PLA2s from Viperidae Snakes Inhabiting Europe, South America, and...Structure-Function Relationship in Heterodimeric Neurotoxin PLA2s from Viperidae Snakes Inhabiting Europe, South America, and...

Effects of chemical modifications of crotoxin B, the phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus ... Crotoxin: a possible mechanism of action. Adv Cytopharmacol. 1979;3:231-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin on the isolated rat kidney. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:1347-52. ... Crystal structure of crotoxin reveals key residues involved in the stability and toxicity of this potent heterodimeric β- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-94-007-6416-3_16

Biological and structural characterization of crotoxin and new isoform of crotoxin B PLA2 (F6a) from Crotalus durissus...Biological and structural characterization of crotoxin and new isoform of crotoxin B PLA2 (F6a) from Crotalus durissus...

The new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a), complex crotoxin, the catalytic subunit crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) and two crotapotin ... Whole crotoxin was devoid of cytolytic activity upon myoblasts and myotubes in vitro, whereas new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a ... A neuromuscular blocking activity was induced by crotoxin and new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) in the isolated mouse phrenic ... Biological and structural characterization of crotoxin and new isoform of crotoxin B PLA2 (F6a) from Crotalus durissus ...
more infohttp://www.kerwa.ucr.ac.cr/handle/10669/74291

Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Anti-sera Raised In Rabbits Against Crotoxin And Phospholipase A2...Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Anti-sera Raised In Rabbits Against Crotoxin And Phospholipase A2...

... the corresponding ratio for anti-crotoxin serum was 1:3 for venom and crotoxin, and 1:1 and 1:2 for anti-PLA2 serum. The ... Anti-crotoxin serum neutralized the neuromuscular blockade in phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations at venom or crotoxin: ... with the anti-serum against crotoxin being slightly less potent than that against crotoxin. ... Crotoxin. Mice. Muscle Contraction. Muscle, Skeletal. Neuromuscular Junction. Neurotoxins. Phospholipases A. Phospholipases A2 ...
more infohttp://www.repositorio.unicamp.br/handle/REPOSIP/195863

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding ... These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and -bungarotoxin, as well ... 0 (Bungarotoxins); 0 (Receptors, Nicotinic); 0 (Snake Venoms); 9007-40-3 (Crotoxin); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2); N9YNS0M02X ... bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.157.530.400.400.100.500

Toxins  | Free Full-Text | Molecular Characterization of Lys49 and Asp49 Phospholipases A2 from Snake Venom and Their Antiviral...Toxins | Free Full-Text | Molecular Characterization of Lys49 and Asp49 Phospholipases A2 from Snake Venom and Their Antiviral...

Crotoxin and phospholipases A2 from Crotalus. durissus terrificus showed antiviral activity against dengue and yellow fever ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/10/1780/htm

Management of strabismus - WikipediaManagement of strabismus - Wikipedia

Crotoxin appears to act similarly. To weaken an eye muscle, 1 to 12 units (a few nanograms) of toxin are injected directly into ... Crotoxin, a snake neurotoxin, is being developed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a potential alternative. Botulinum toxin ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT, Sá ML (Oct 2012). "Study of crotoxin on the ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT (2012-12-01). "Crotoxin in humans: analysis of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_of_strabismus

Crotalus simus - WikipediaCrotalus simus - Wikipedia

Only venom from neonates contains crotoxin; a constituent typically found in C. durissus venom that produces neurotoxic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_simus

nature.com searchnature.com search

Crotoxin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human lung carcinoma cells in vitro via activation of the p38MAPK signaling pathway ... Rights & permissionsfor article Crotoxin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human lung carcinoma cells ,i,in vitro,/i, via ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Hong%20Zheng%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=2c92d5f2-1434-43f1-9d90-064e580ea1a8

IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section F Volume 63, Part 12, December 2007IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section F Volume 63, Part 12, December 2007

Crotoxin B is a basic phospholipase A2 found in the venom of C. durissus terrificus and is one of the subunits that constitute ... Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a tetrameric phospholipase A2 formed by two isoforms of crotoxin B from Crotalus ... crotoxin. Here, the crystallization, X-ray diffraction data collection and molecular-replacement solution of a novel tetrameric ... complex formed by two dimers of crotoxin B isoforms are presented. ...
more infohttp://journals.iucr.org/f/issues/2007/12/00/

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Autophagy is involved in cytotoxic effects of crotoxin in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells *Ci-hui Yan ... Rights & permissionsfor article Autophagy is involved in cytotoxic effects of crotoxin in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Zhen-lun%20Gu%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=f7063d98-e8ab-442d-af16-df92b75b1f50

Lader A[au] - PubMed - NCBILader A[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Crotoxin potentiates L-type calcium currents and modulates the action potential of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Lader+A%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Rey F[au] - PubMed - NCBIRey F[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Crotoxin, a neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, as a potential tool against thrombosis development. ... Effects of crotoxin, a neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, on human endothelial cells. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Rey+F%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

The AMEDEO Literature GuideThe AMEDEO Literature Guide

Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.. Parasitology. 2017 ...
more infohttps://amedeo.com/medicine/pad/parasit.htm

Natural Toxins 2 | SpringerLinkNatural Toxins 2 | SpringerLink

Structure and Function Relationship of Crotoxin, a Heterodimeric Neurotoxic Phospholipase A2 from the Venom of a South-American ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4613-0361-9

Sets of digital antibodies directed against short epitopes, and methods     using same - Patent # 7252954 - PatentGeniusSets of digital antibodies directed against short epitopes, and methods using same - Patent # 7252954 - PatentGenius

D(A/S)F* Phospho- alpha-F3 Hollborn, M., fructo- et al., (1999) kinase-1 J Mol Recognit, 12(1): 33-7. (D/S)GY(A/G)**Crotoxin A- ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/7252954.html

Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic  Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake VenomBiochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

... comparison between crotoxin, crotoxin B and a Lys49 PLA2 homologue," Toxicon, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 80-92, 2008. View at ... H. Breithaupt, "Enzymatic characteristics of crotalus phospholipase A2 and the crotoxin complex," Toxicon, vol. 14, pp. 221-233 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/612649/
  • Transient increases (grades 1-3) in the levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase attributed to crotoxin myotoxicity were observed but returned to normal by the last week of treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The molecular masses estimated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were: crotoxin B: 14,943.14 Da, crotapotin F3: 8,693.24 Da, and crotapotin F4: 9 314.56 Da. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Researchers harnessed the unique combination of targeting and toxicity in crotoxin to create a cancer treatment, called CB24, which finds and kills tumor cells that are growing out of control. (medicarepharmabusiness.com)
  • Spotlight Innovation Inc. (OTCQB: STLT) announces that its subsidiary Celtic Biotech Iowa Inc. has been granted U.S. Patent entitled Crotoxin Administration for Cancer Treatment and Pain Relief. (investorshangout.com)
  • Treatment with crotoxin achieved 50% inhibition of viral release. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The invention relates to Crotoxin compositions for intravenous administration and methods of use of Crotoxin for the treatment of pain and/or for the treatment of neurologic and neuromuscular disorders. (investorshangout.com)
  • Thus, crotoxin circulates nondissociated ( i.e., as a complex) until it recognizes specific "acceptor sites" on the target membranes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At equilibrium, only the CB subunits remain associated with the specific crotoxin receptor. (rcsb.org)