A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the release of a N-terminal pyroglutamyl group from a polypeptide provided the next residue is not proline. It is inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents and occurs in mammalian tissues, microorganisms, and plants. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.19.3.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
A plant genus of the family PROTEACEAE that is the source of edible NUTS.
A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A genus of fungi in the family Ophiostomataceae, order OPHIOSTOMATALES. Several species are the source of Dutch elm disease, which is spread by the elm bark beetle.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
A highly toxic saponin occurring in HOLOTHUROIDEA. This marine toxin is an anionic surfactant, hemolyzing ERYTHROCYTES.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.

Crocalbin: a new calcium-binding protein that is also a binding protein for crotoxin, a neurotoxic phospholipase A2. (1/46)

Utilizing Marathon-ready cDNA library and a gene-specific primer corresponding to a partial amino acid sequence determined previously, the complete nucleotide sequence for the cDNA of crocalbin, which binds crotoxin (a phospholipase A2) and Ca2+, was obtained by polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the cDNA encodes a novel polypeptide of 315 amino acid residues, including a signal sequence of 19 residues. This protein contains six potential Ca(2+)-binding domains, one N-glycosylation site, and a large amount of acidic amino acid residues. The ability to bind Ca2+ has been ascertained by calcium overlay experiment. Evidenced by sequence similarity in addition, it is concluded that crocalbin is a new member of the reticulocalbin family of calcium-binding proteins.  (+info)

Combining phage display and molecular modeling to map the epitope of a neutralizing antitoxin antibody. (2/46)

Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It is composed of the noncovalent and synergistic association of a weakly toxic phospholipase A2, CB, and a nontoxic three-chain subunit, CA, which increases the lethal potency of CB. The A-56.36 mAb is able to dissociate the crotoxin complex by binding to the CA subunit, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. Because A-56.36 and CB show sequence homology and both compete for binding to CA, we postulated that A-56.36 and CB had overlapping binding sites on CA. By screening random phage-displayed libraries with the mAb, phagotopes bearing the (D/S)GY(A/G) or AAXI consensus motifs were selected. They all bound A-56.36 in ELISA and competed with CA for mAb binding, although with different reactivities. When mice were immunized with the selected clones, polyclonal sera reacting with CA were induced. Interestingly, the raised antibodies retained the crotoxin-dissociating effect of A-56.36, suggesting that the selected peptides may be used to produce neutralizing antibodies. By combining these data with the molecular modeling of CA, it appeared that the functional epitope of A-56.36 on CA was conformational, one subregion being discontinuous and corresponding to the first family of peptides, the other subregion being continuous and composed of amino acids of the second family. Phage-displayed peptides corresponding to fragments of the two identified regions on CA reacted with A-56.36 and with CB. Our data support the hypothesis that A-56.36 and CB interact with common regions of CA, and highlight residues which are likely to be critical for CA-CB complex formation.  (+info)

Interaction of the neurotoxic and nontoxic secretory phospholipases A2 with the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum. (3/46)

Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes possess a protein in their blood, named crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum (CICS), which protects them against crotoxin, the main toxin of their venom. CICS neutralizes the lethal potency of crotoxin and inhibits its phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the specificity of CICS towards snake venom neurotoxic PLA2s (beta-neurotoxins) and nontoxic mammalian PLA2s. This investigation shows that CICS does not affect the enzymatic activity of pancreatic and nonpancreatic PLA2s, bee venom PLA2 and Elapidae beta-neurotoxins but strongly inhibits the PLA2 activity of Viperidae beta-neurotoxins. Surface plasmon resonance and PAGE studies further demonstrated that CICS makes complexes with monomeric and multimeric Viperidae beta-neurotoxins but does not interact with nontoxic PLA2s. In the case of dimeric beta-neurotoxins from Viperidae venoms (crotoxin, Mojave toxin and CbICbII), which are made by the noncovalent association of a PLA2 with a nonenzymatic subunit, CICS does not react with the noncatalytic subunit, instead it binds tightly to the PLA2 subunit and induces the dissociation of the heterocomplex. In vitro assays performed with Torpedo synaptosomes showed a protective action of CICS against Viperidae beta-neurotoxins but not against other PLA2 neurotoxins, on primary and evoked liberation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, CICS is a specific PLA2 inhibitor of the beta-neurotoxins from the Viperidae family.  (+info)

Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits 3H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum. (4/46)

We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of 3H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0. 03-1 microM) and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased 3H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 microM) the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on 3H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits 3H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 +/- 5 nM). We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.  (+info)

Role of crotoxin, a phospholipase A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, on inflammatory and immune reactions. (5/46)

BACKGROUND: Crotoxin (CTX) is a potent neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV) composed of two subunits: one without catalytic activity (crotapotin), and a basic phospolipase A2. Recent data have demonstrated that CdtV or CTX inhibit some immune and inflammatory reactions. AIM: The aim of this paper was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these impaired responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Swiss mice were bled before and at different intervals of time after subcutaneous injection of CTX or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (control animals). The effect of treatments on circulating leukocyte mobilisation and on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and corticosterone were investigated. Spleen cells from treated animals were also stimulated in vitro with concanavalin A to evaluate the profile of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 or IFN-gamma secretion. Cytokine levels were determined by immunoenzymatic assay and corticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay. To investigate the participation of endogenous corticosteroid on the effects evoked by CTX, animals were treated with metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, previous to CTX treatment. RESULTS: Marked alterations on peripheral leukocyte distribution, characterised by a drop in the number of lymphocytes and monocytes and an increase in the number of neutrophils, were observed after CTX injection. No such alteration was observed in BSA-treated animals. Increased levels of IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone were also detected in CTX-injected animals. IFN-gamma levels were not modified after treatments. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from CTX-treated animals and stimulated with concanavalin A secreted less IL-10 and IL-4 in comparison with cells obtained from control animals. Metyrapone pretreatment was effective only to reverse the neutrophilia observed after CTX administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CTX may contribute to the deficient inflammatory and immune responses induced by crude CdtV. CTX induces endogenous mechanisms that are responsible, at least in part, for these impaired responses.  (+info)

Actions of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin on the isolated rat kidney. (6/46)

Many studies have reported the occurrence of lethal acute renal failure after snakebites. The aim of the present investigation was to determine alterations in renal function produced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin as well as the histological alterations induced by these venoms. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats weighing 240 to 280 g were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g% of previously dialyzed bovine serum albumin. The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin were studied on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary flow (UF), perfusion pressure (PP) and percentage sodium tubular transport (%TNa+). The infusion of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (10 microg/ml) and crotoxin (10 microg/ml) increased GFR (control80 = 0.78 +/- 0.07, venom80 = 1.1 +/- 0.07, crotoxin80 = 2.0 +/- 0.05 ml g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05) and UF (control80 = 0.20 +/- 0.02, venom80 = 0.32 +/- 0.03, crotoxin80 = 0.70 +/- 0.05 ml g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05), and decreased %TNa+ (control100 = 75.0 +/- 2.3, venom100 = 62.9 +/- 1.0, crotoxin80 = 69.0 +/- 1.0 ml g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05). The infusion of crude venom tended to reduce PP, although the effect was not significant, whereas with crotoxin PP remained stable during the 100 min of perfusion. The kidneys perfused with crude venom and crotoxin showed abundant protein material in the urinary space and tubules. We conclude that Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin, its major component, cause acute nephrotoxicity in the isolated rat kidney. The current experiments demonstrate a direct effect of venom and crotoxin on the perfused isolated kidney.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetics study of crotoxin (cytotoxic PLA(2), NSC-624244) in patients with advanced cancer. (7/46)

A Phase I clinical trial was performed on patients with solid tumors refractory to conventional therapy. Crotoxin was administered i.m. for 30 consecutive days at doses ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 mg/m(2). Patients entered the study after providing a written informed consent. Although 26 patients were entered only 23 were evaluated. Reversible, nonlimiting neuromuscular toxicity evidenced as diplopia because of pareses of the external ocular muscles was present in 13 patients. It started at doses of 0.18 mg/m(2) and lasted from 2 to 6 h. These episodes did not require dose adjustment and disappeared in 1-3 weeks of treatment. Three patients experienced palpebral ptosis, nystagmus (grade 2), and anxiety (grade 2-3) at the dose-limiting toxicity of 0.22 mg/m(2). Also at dose-limiting toxicity, 1 patient showed nystagmus (grade 2) and anxiety (grade 3) without evidence of palpebral ptosis. Transient increases (grades 1-3) in the levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase attributed to crotoxin myotoxicity were observed but returned to normal by the last week of treatment. At 0.21 mg/m(2) there was a case of grade-3 anaphylactic reaction on day 31, which required treatment. Hypersensitivity was regarded as an adverse drug-related reaction, and the patient was removed from the protocol. Two patients at different doses (0.12 mg/m(2) and 0.22 mg/m(2)) had sialorrhea. Four patients had asymptomatic transient increase in blood pressure (up to 20 mm Hg) 12 h after the first injection, which lasted 24 h. No treatment was required and toxicity did not reappear. Six patients experienced slight eosinophilia during the first 2 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose was set at 0.21 mg/m(2). Objective measurable partial responses (>50% reduction of tumor mass) were noted in 2 patients treated at 0.21 mg/m(2) and 1 at 0.12 mg/m(2). One patient (at 0.21 mg/m(2)) presented a complete response on day 110. Crotoxin pharmacokinetics showed rapid absorption from the injection site to blood (t(1/2 A) = 5.2 +/- 0.6 min). Plasma concentration reached a peak (C(max) = 0.79 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) at tau(max) = 19 +/- 3 min. The half-life of the distribution (alpha) phase is 22 +/- 2 min. Starting at 1.5 h after injection, the decrease in plasma concentration becomes slower, reaching 14 +/- 3 pg/ml 24 h after injection. The profile is dominated by the elimination (beta) phase with a half-life of 5.2 +/- 0.6 h. Consequently, 24 h after the injection ( approximately 5 half-life) 97% of the product was eliminated. The area under plasma concentration versus time curve was 0.19 +/- 0.05 microg/min/ml. Assuming availability (F) approximately 1, the clearance is C(L) = 26.3 +/- 7 ml/min, and the apparent volume of distribution is V(d) = 12 +/- 3 liter/kg. The recommended dose for a Phase II study is 0.18 mg/m(2).  (+info)

Molecular evolution and structure-function relationships of crotoxin-like and asparagine-6-containing phospholipases A2 in pit viper venoms. (8/46)

Some myotoxic or neurotoxic PLA2s (phospholipases A2) from pit viper venoms contain characteristic N6 substitutions. Our survey of the venoms of more than ten pit viper genera revealed that N6-PLA2s exist only in limited Asian pit vipers of two genera, Protobothrops and Gloydius, and exist as either monomers or the basic subunits of heterodimers in some New World pit vipers. For the newly identified N6-PLA2s, the neuromuscular blocking activities were assayed with the chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue, whereas the increased serum creatine kinase level assessed their myotoxicities. The purified N6-PLA2s from Protobothrops mangshanensis and Gloydius intermedius saxatilis were found to be presynaptic neurotoxins. In contrast, all N6-PLA2s from the venoms of Sistrurus miliarius strackeri, S. m. barbouri, Crotalus viridis viridis, C. lepidus lepidus, Cerrophidion godmani and Bothreichis schlegelii were myotoxins without neurotoxicity even in the presence of crotoxin A. Crotoxin-like complexes were for the first time purified from the venoms of Sitrurus catenatus tergeminus, C. mitchelli mitchelli, C. horridus atricaudatus, C. basiliscus and C. durissus cumanensis. The cDNAs encoding six novel N6-PLA2s and subunits of the crotoxin-like complex from S. c. tergeminus were cloned and fully sequenced. Phylogeny analysis showed that two structural subtypes of N6-PLA2s with either F24 or S24 substitution have been evolved in parallel, possibly descended respectively from species related to present-day Protobothrops and Gloydius. Calmodulin binds all the N6-PLA2s but crotoxin A may inhibit its binding to crotoxin B and to other neurotoxic N6-PLA2s. Structure-activity relationships at various regions of the PLA2 molecules were extensively discussed.  (+info)

The safety profile of crotoxin administered i.m. to humans showed neurotoxicity as the most conspicuous toxic effect. This is an expected toxicity, consistent with the known effects of this toxin (31, 32, 33) . Low crotoxin concentrations produce incomplete blockage (34) reflected in vivo by paresis, which is fully reversible within 24-40 h (29) . The neurotoxic activity of crotoxin may account for diplopia, which appeared in all of the patients at the dose level of 0.18 mg/m2 because of paresis of the external ocular muscles. Diplopia was regarded as nonlimiting toxicity, because it disappeared at least 12 h before the next dose and progressively lasted for shorter intervals of time. Diplopia was not, usually during the second week, spontaneously reported by the patients, and eventually it disappeared completely. At the MTD, paresis was self-limited and did not affect the intrinsic ocular muscles or extend to pharyngeal, laryngeal, or respiratory muscles. Furthermore, it was spontaneously ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Neuro- and myotoxicological signs and symptoms are significant clinical features of envenoming snakebites in many parts of the world. The toxins primarily responsible for the neuro and myotoxicity fall into one of two categories-those that bind to and block the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction and neurotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLAs) that bind to and hydrolyse membrane phospholipids of the motor nerve terminal (and, in most cases, the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle) to cause degeneration of the nerve terminal and skeletal muscle. This review provides an introduction to the biochemical properties of secreted sPLA2s in the venoms of many dangerous snakes and a detailed discussion of their role in the initiation of the neurologically important consequences of snakebite. The rationale behind the experimental studies on the pharmacology and toxicology of the venoms and isolated PLAs in the venoms is discussed, with particular reference to the way these studies
1 mg, Basal cell Cytokein, actin Alpha-cardiac, Crotalus durissus terrificus venom Phospholipase A2, Micrococcus luteus Polynucleotide phosphorylase, Saccharomyces 6-Phosphogluconic dehydrogenase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
An antivenom protein has been identified in the blood of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus and proved to act by specifically neutralizing crotoxin, the
Academic Journals Database is a universal index of periodical literature covering basic research from all fields of knowledge, and is particularly strong in medical research, humanities and social sciences. Full-text from most of the articles is available. Academic Journals Database contains complete bibliographic citations, precise indexing, and informative abstracts for papers from a wide range of periodicals.
As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel) criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total ...
FREITAS, A. P.... Crotoxin Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Modulates the Functional Activity of Dendritic Cells via Formyl Peptide Receptors. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH n. p. 2018. Journal article.
A crotoxin homolog was purified from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom using molecular exclusion and reverse-phase HPLC. This crotoxin contained one PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) and four crotapotin isoforms, whereas crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom had three PLA2 isoforms and two crotapotin isoforms. SDS-PAGE showed that the C. d. collilineatus PLA2 and crotapotin had relative molecular mass of 15 and 9 kDa, respectively. Neither the PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) nor the crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) had any neurotoxicity in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations when tested alone. However, when PLA2 and crotapotin were coincubated before testing, the neurotoxicity was restored to a level similar to test in the venom in native crotoxin. The two crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) differed in their ability to inhibit PLA2 activity, perhaps because of variations in their affinities for this enzyme. Cdcolli III F6 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior, with maximal activity at pH ...
The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes presents various substances, including a serine protease with thrombin-like activity, called gyroxin, that clots plasmatic fibrinogen and promote the fibrin formation. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the gyroxin enzyme from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. For isolation and purification, the following methods were employed: gel filtration on Sephadex G75 column and affinity chromatography on benzamidine Sepharose 6B; 12% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; N-terminal sequence analysis; cDNA cloning and expression through RT-PCR and crystallization tests. Theoretical molecular modeling was performed using bioinformatics tools based on comparative analysis of other serine proteases deposited in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. Protein N-terminal sequencing produced a single chain with a molecular mass of similar to 30 kDa while its full-length cDNA had 714 bp which encoded a ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The plates were washed three times with PBS/Tween and used immediately for ELISA. To measure the serum titers, 100 ml of serial dilutions of serum (ACS or rabbit anti-sera; 80 mg.ml-1 of initial protein concentration which is used in antivenom therapy routine) were added to the plates and incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. The plates were then washed and incubated for 1 h with 100 µl of a goat anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase conjugate (Sigma, 1:10.000 in PBS), followed by further washing. The substrate solution for the peroxidase assay (H2O2/OPD) was added and the enzymatic reaction allowed proceeding for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. The reaction was stopped with 50 µl of H2SO4 3N and the absorbance was read at 492 nm with a SpectraMax 340 multi-well plate reader.. Immunoblotting. Antigen (PLA2) and whole venom (1 mg.ml-1) were separated on 12.5% in SDS-PAGE at 200 V for 45 min and the proteins then transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose membranes (0.45 mm) in a transfer tank at 300 ...
The B-chain of the acidic subunit of crotoxin proved refractory to Edman degradation. When subjected to sequence analysis using tandem mass spectrometry, pyroglutamate was found at the amino-terminal end, even though earlier attempts to de-block with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase were unsuccessful. The B-chain contained 35 amino acids and showed 91% amino acid identity with the corresponding segment from Mojave toxin, a homologous neurotoxin from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus. The sequence of the last 24 residues of the B-chain is consistent with that previously published (Aird, S.D., Kaiser, I.I., Lewis, R.V. and Kruggel, W.G. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 7054-7058), except at position 20, where Edman degradation gave glycine and mass spectrometry gave glutamic acid ...
Die chromatographische Auftrennung von Klapperschlangen- (Crotalus durissus terrificus) Gift ermöglicht, den Unterschied zwischen Phospholipase A und
ABSTRACTSmall membranous vesicles are small closed fragments of membrane. They are released from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) or shed from the surface membrane (microvesicles). They contains various bioactive molecules and their molecular composition varies depending on their cellular origin. Sm
In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol) at 37 °C and a discrete reduction in the UV scanning signal and a modification of the circular dichroism spectra were observed after treatment with naringin, suggesting modifications of the secondary structure of the protein. This flavonoid was able to decrease enzymatic activity and some pharmacological effects, such as myonecrosis, platelet aggregation, and neurotoxic activity caused by sPLA2, however, the inflammatory effect was not affected by naringin. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data were collected for sPLA2
A need exists to develop specific and clinically useful inhibitors of toxic enzymes present in snake venoms, responsible for severe tissue damage and life-threatening effects occurring in thousands of people suffering envenomations globally. LY315920 (Varespladib, S-5920, A-001), a low molecular weight drug developed to inhibit several human secreted phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), was recently shown to also inhibit PLA2s in whole snake venoms with high potency, yet no studies have examined its direct effect on purified snake venom PLA2s. This work evaluated the ability of LY315920 to neutralize the enzymatic and toxic activities of three isolated PLA2 toxins of structural groups I (pseudexin) and II (crotoxin B and myotoxin I), and their corresponding whole venoms. In vitro, LY315920 inhibited the catalytic activity of these three enzymes upon a synthetic substrate. The drug also blocked their cytotoxic effect on cultured murine myotubes. In mice, preincubation of the toxins or venoms with LY315920, ...
Jørgensen, D., C.C. Gates, and D.P. Whiteside. (2008). A Review of Radio-Telemetry Research on the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) and select subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In Hayes, W.K., K.R. Beaman, M.D. Cardwell, and S.P. Bush (Eds.). The Biology of Rattlesnakes, Loma Linda University Press, Loma Linda, California. Pp 303-316 ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
The results in Table 4 clearly show the strong anti-lethal activity of LTNF identified in opossum serum. LTNF is effective in neutralizing the effect of venoms when given half an hour before or after venom injection. The anti-lethal activity of LTNF was exhibited when it was administered half an hour before venom injection, therefore, it can be used as a preventive measure, especially for snake handlers, etc.. After injecting the predetermined lethal dose of toxins derived from animals, plants, and bacteria, the mice were given 200µg of LTNF in 0.5 ml volume by IP route. The control mice were given 0.5 ml PBS. The results are shown in Table 5.. The results in Table 5 show that TNF neutralizes the lethal toxic effects of various snake venom toxins: crotoxin, cobratoxin, PLA2, and, the most potent taipoxin. Furthermore, LTNF neutralizes the lethal effects of ricin, one of the most toxic plant-derived toxins, and also the bacterial toxins botulinum and holothurin.. DISCUSSION. Snakebite continues ...
In the brain at least 40% of the energy produced by mitochondrial respiration is required by the Na+/K+-ATPase to maintain ion gradients across the cell membranes. Energy levels in the brain can be compromised by a lack of glucose and oxygen or by defects in the respiratory chain such as occurring in stroke and Parkinsons disease, respectively. Na+/K+-ATPase function is inhibited during energy failure. This may lead to a prolonged depolarization of the neuron, excessive release, and reversal of the uptake of excitatory amino acids, i.e., the induction of excitotoxicity (Dirnagl et al., 1999; Doble, 1999; Nicotera et al., 1999). Ouabain inhibits Na+/K+-ATPases and is a very potent neurotoxin that leads to pancellular necrosis and infarction (Lees, 1991). It is used to study the involvement of Na+/K+-ATPase in CNS pathology (Lees et al., 1990; Lees, 1991; Lees and Leong, 1994,1995; Stelmashook et al., 1999). Ouabain rapidly perturbs ion homeostasis and induces cell swelling and ...
Castro WM de, Baldasso PA, Honório KM, Maltarollo VG, Ribeiro RIMA, Carvalho BMA de, Soares AM, Calderon L de A, Stábeli RG, Odena Caballol MA, Acosta GA, Oliveira E de, Marangoni S, Alberício F, Silva SL da. A novel phospholipase A2 (D49) from the venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon Rattlesnake) [Internet]. BioMed Research International. 2014 ; 2014 1-15.Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/ ...
Nine of the 17 venoms here tested were found capable of coagulating citrated blood or plasma. As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus). The optimum pH for this coagulation was determined for 3 of these, and was found in each case to be approximately pH 6.5, the same as that for the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Unlike thrombin, however, the fibrinogen-coagulating activity of the venoms was unaffected by the antithrombin elaborated in the course of anaphylactic shock.. In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or ...
The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was designated Extirpated by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) in 2001 and was officially listed under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in June 2003. SARA (Section 37) requires the competent Minister to prepare a recovery strategy for all listed extirpated, endangered, or threatened species. The Canadian Wildlife Service - Ontario, Environment Canada, led the development of this recovery strategy, and it was developed in cooperation with the Government of Ontario. All responsible jurisdictions reviewed and acknowledged receipt of this strategy. The strategy meets SARA requirements in terms of content and process (Sections 39-41).
Stem cells, the prodigious precursors of all the tissues in our body, can make almost anything, given the right circumstances. Including, unfortunately, cancer. Now research from Rockefeller University shows that having too many stem cells, or stem cells that live for too long, can increase the odds of developing cancer. By identifying a mechanism that regulates programmed cell death in precursor cells for blood, or hematopoietic stem cells, the work is the first to connect the death of such cells to a later susceptibility to tumours in mice. It also provides evidence of the potentially carcinogenic downside to stem cell treatments, and suggests that nature has sought to balance stem cells regenerative power against their potentially lethal potency ...
"Mercury poisoning" . The three most dangerous poisons to never eat, drink or inject again. more toxins than just fluoride itself.• The truth about how fluoride consumption is linked to lowered IQs in children.• Poison #3: Mercury in flu shots. Why mercury is a potent neurotoxin
Synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta. 3 synonyms for Crotalus viridis: prairie rattler, prairie rattlesnake, Western rattlesnake. What are synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta?
massasauga: Sistrurus catenatus small North American rattlesnake of the family Viperidae, found in prairies, swamps, and woodlands from the Great Lakes to Arizona. It is typically 45 to 75...
The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. Within 24 h of injection, axons in this nerve becam
https://youtu.be/wNCD3rLbCBk When a bullet ant stings you it feels like youve been shot by a gun. In the above video, watch Dr. Corrie Moreau milk one of these incredibly aggressive and alarmingly big venomous ants. From Brain Scoop: Researchers are interested in what makes the sting so painful and if this potent neurotoxin could have…
Ive seen the response that they didnt owe you a voucher for something a previous guest left. That may be correct. I think they do owe you medical testing for exposing your grand-daughter to a potent neurotoxin - Mercury. I also think they owe you for failure to notify you. If they didnt find that crack pipe, then they didnt clean up the mercury contamination in the room resulting from breaking the bulb. Similar incidents involve motels failing to notify guests theyre staying in a former methamphetamine lab ...
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Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that inhibits neuromuscular transmission by blocking acetylcholine release from the nerve termini. PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides (By similarity).
Cohorts. Am J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;40(11):2648-2652. PubMed. Gowd KH, Blais KD [student], Elmslie KS, Steiner AM, Olivera BM, Bulaj G. Dissecting a role of evolutionary-conserved but noncritical disulfide bridges in cysteine-rich peptides using ω-conotoxin GVIA and its selenocysteine analogs. Biopolymers. 2012;98(3):212-23. doi: 10.1002/bip.22047. PubMed. Fry BG, Casewell NR, Wüster W, Vidal N, Young B, Jackson TN. The structural and functional diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system. Toxicon. 2012 Sep 15;60(4):434-48. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 Mar 14. PubMed. Kohl T, Colayori SE, Westhoff G, Bakken GS, Young BA. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Biol. 2012 Aug 1;215(Pt 15):2630-6. doi:10.1242/jeb.065896. PubMed. Kondrashov PE, Agadjanian AK. A nearly complete skeleton of Ernanodon (Mammalia, Palaeanodonta) from Mongolia: morphofunctional analysis. J Vert Paleontol ...
There are a lot of amazing rattlesnake facts out there. For many people, just the idea of coming across a rattlesnake while out on a hike or gardening is too much to bear. They illicit a type of fear that is very intense and most times unwarranted. Often, people who run across these snakes will assume the worst and go running for the hills. While they are indeed animals that you want to keep your distance from, its not necessary to recoil in horror at the very mention of them. Theyre actually really interesting little animals. Here are ten of the amazing rattlesnake facts that set them apart from other animals.. ...
James Tyler Kent describes the symptoms of the homeopathic medicine Crotalus Horridus in great detail and compares it with other homeopathy remedies. ...
An 8-year-old Concord boy bitten Wednesday evening by a baby rattlesnake reminds us that although summer has given way to autumn, rattlesnakes can remain active through October.. The rattlers, the Bay Areas only venomous snakes, can be deadly, but they try to avoid humans at all costs. We need to do our part by avoiding the snakes whenever we can.. Here are some tips for staying safe:. ...
The emergence of a skin-destroying fungal disease is having a deadly impact on snake populations, including a threatened species of rattlesnake in the United States.
Resumo: Venenos de serpentes constituem uma rica fonte de moléculas biologicamente ativas capazes de atuar em alvos celulares específicos e modular uma distinta variedade de funções fisiológicas. Fosfolipases A2 homólogas Lys49 são abundantes proteínas presentes nessas complexas secreções, que embora cataliticamente inativas, desempenham uma ampla gama de atividades, tais como: miotoxicidade, citotoxicidade, atividade antibacteriana, antifúngica, entre outras. O veneno de Crotalus oreganus abyssus não tem sido muito estudado, portanto, a caracterização de seus componentes representa uma ferramenta biotecnológica valiosa para o estudo dos eventos fisiopatológicos do envenenamento e para uma melhor compreensão de seus efeitos biológicos. No presente trabalho, uma fosfolipase A2 homóloga Lys49, denominada CoaTx-II, do veneno de Crotalus oreganus abyssus foi purificada e caracterizada estrutural e farmacologicamente. CoaTx-II foi isolada com elevado grau de pureza através da ...
They are commonly found in rock and debris piles, animal burrows and crevices. They will seek out roads, open sandy areas and rocks to sun themselves during cooler temperatures.. They are more active in spring and summer. But it is important to remember you can encounter rattlesnakes anytime and anywhere. Rattlesnakes prey on mice and other small rodents. They dont lay eggs, but rather give live birth to young snakes about 9 to 12 inches long.. Like other snakes, mammals and birds, rattlesnakes fill an important place in the ecosystem by preying on rodents and keeping their populations in balance. When the rattlesnake is found in a backyard, this ecological role may not seem so apparent or important.. Other snakes such as the gopher snake, red racer and king snake are common on Edwards. Many people kill gopher snakes confusing their tan coloration and indistinct black markings for a rattlesnake.. Gopher snakes, red racers and other snakes often hiss and shake their tails imitating the motion ...
The genus Porthidium includes nine pitviper species inhabiting Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Porthidium porrasi is a species endemic to the Southwest of Costa Rica, for which no information on its venom was available. In this study, the proteomic composition and functional activities of P. porrasi venom are described. The most abundant venom proteins were identified as metalloproteinases (36.5%). In descending order of abundance, proteins belonging to the disintegrin, phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, C-type lectin/ lectin-like, vascular endothelial growth factor, Cysteine-rich secretory protein, L-amino acid oxidase, phospholipase B, and phosphodiesterase families were also identified. P. porrasi venom showed a weak lethal potency in mice (10 μg/g body weight by intraperitoneal route), induced marked hemorrhage and edema, and weak myotoxic effect. These in vivo activities, as well as those assayed in vitro (proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities) correlated with ...
Researchers suggest that timber rattlesnake, whose scientific name is Crotalus horridus, plays an important role in keeping Lyme disease in check.
Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated ...
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in the animals ...
Gyroxin is a glycoprotein isolated from rattlesnake venom, with known thrombin-like serine protease properties and behavioral action in the CNS. The mechanism of the latter has eluded experimenters for three decades. In this paper about the in vitro chick retina we demonstrate an excitotoxic CNS action of Gyroxin by observing retinal Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS). These show sudden dynamic changes in the intact tissue due to gyroxin action. The very fast kinetics of this response precludes deep tissue penetration by the protein, a mechanism of tissue response described here for the first time. At nanomolar concentrations, Gyroxin alters profoundly the optical profiles of retinal spreading depression waves (RSDs), suggesting modulation of ionic transport and metabolism. This effect is reversible in contrast with the acute cell lysis induced with gyroxin pulses at higher concentration. Because there may be more than one target of Gyroxine at the retinal inner limiting membrane, additional ...
The rattle on a rattlesnake evolved just once. A new study contends it may have come out of a common behavior - tail vibration - that snakes use to deter predators.
Rattlesnakes are a much-dreaded phenomenon of the American Southwest. Its important not to vilify them too much because They help to keep mice and other rodent pests to manageable numbers They dont attack unless cornered - theyd much rather slither away Their skins are highly sensitive and they can feel pain Only literally a handful…
Two herpetologists, both named Dave, have discovered a rare, two-headed rattlesnake in the New Jersey woods. They have named him … Double-Dave.
Most rattlesnake bites contain hemotoxic elements which damage tissue and affect the circulatory system by destroying blood cells, skin tissues and causing internal hemorrhaging.
5-nucleotidase is an enzyme with system name 5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:a 5-ribonucleotide + H2O↔ a rib
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Sistrurus miliarius barbouri, the Dusky pigmy rattlesnake; Volusia county, Florida (24 June 2020). Learn more about this species at iNaturalist.org.
Cheap Atarax without prescription: Facundities were clambering besides the multipurpose kandis. Hoe has extravasated against the hardheartedly conjoint palynology.. Order atarax medicine: Tonguey footstep biotests. Accessarily responsive vitamins had pinched off about the conventual tassie. Sluggishness is the unduteous tomasine. Pseudonymous rattlesnakes will have been fallen behind in amidst the jailward demiurgic roe.. ...
Crotoxin appears to act similarly. To weaken an eye muscle, 1 to 12 units (a few nanograms) of toxin are injected directly into ... Crotoxin, a snake neurotoxin, is being developed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a potential alternative. Botulinum toxin ... S2CID 25420765.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT (2012-12-01). "Crotoxin in humans ... "Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model". Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia. ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
... a toxin found in cone snail venom Crotoxin, toxic compound in snake venom Cyclophosphamide, an anticancer drug Centrex, a ...
Heterodimer CA-CB: Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin that possesses phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and exerts a ... Multiple variants of each subunit give different crotoxin complexes that can be subdivided into 2 classes: (1) those of high ... At equilibrium, only the CB subunits remain associated with the specific crotoxin receptor. In addition to neurotoxicity, ... crotoxin has been found to exert myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiovascular toxicity (PubMed:20109480). Moreover, anti- ...
Renal clearance (CLR) of crotoxin was estimated as 1.8 ± 0.5 ml/min from the slopes of the amount of crotoxin excreted in urine ... Thus, plasma will contain (42 ml/kg × 0.075 ng/ml) 3.14 ng of crotoxin. In the extravascular fluid, the amount of free crotoxin ... This method was used to determine crotoxin concentration in plasma and urine. However, crotoxin concentrations in plasma fell ... 10 ng/ml crotoxin, and the AUC was ∼140 ng/min/ml. On study day 90 it neutralized 60 ± 20 ng/ml crotoxin, and the AUC was about ...
The mechanism of action of crotoxin could be divided into two distinct steps: a quasi irreversible binding step, which has no ... The mechanism proposed explains in simple terms the synergistic action of the two subunits of crotoxin at the level of the ... It is shown that crotoxin very efficiently blocks the cholinergic post-synaptic response of the isolated electroplaque from ... This post-synpatic effects was investigated by studying the binding of crotoxin and its isolated subunits to acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity. by ... Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity.. @article{ ... Hanley1978CrotoxinEO, title={Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its ...
... crotoxin (CTX), and its crotapotin (CA) and phospholipase A(2) (CB) subunits modulate the immune system. Formyl peptide ... Crotoxin Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Modulates the Functional Activity of Dendritic Cells via Formyl ... Interaction crotoxin and macrophages: study of the participation of formyl peptide.... Mechanisms involved in the modulation of ... Crotoxin Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Modulates the Functional Activity of Dendritic Cells via Formyl ...
Crotoxin appears to act similarly. To weaken an eye muscle, 1 to 12 units (a few nanograms) of toxin are injected directly into ... Crotoxin, a snake neurotoxin, is being developed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a potential alternative. Botulinum toxin ... S2CID 25420765.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT (2012-12-01). "Crotoxin in humans ... "Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model". Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia. ...
The B-chain of the acidic subunit of crotoxin proved refractory to Edman degradation. When subjected to sequence analysis using ... The amino acid sequence of the acidic subunit B-chain of crotoxin Academic Article ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Crotoxin is the major neurotoxic component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. The ... The crotoxin molecule is composed of two subunits: a basic and weakly toxic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) called component-B (CB), ... Crotoxin is the major neurotoxic component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. ... We propose three-dimensional structures of the crotoxin subunits in which we localize amino acid residues that might be ...
... been identified in the blood of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus and proved to act by specifically neutralizing crotoxin ... The molecular mechanism of the interaction between CICS and crotoxin seems to be very similar to that of crotoxin with its ... The aim of this study was to purify the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum (CICS), and to analyze its mechanism of action. ... CICS binds to the phospholipase subunit CB of crotoxin, but not to the acidic chaperon subunit CA; it efficiently inhibits the ...
Role of crotoxin, a phospholipase A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, on inflammatory and immune ...
Effects of chemical modifications of crotoxin B, the phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus ... Crotoxin: a possible mechanism of action. Adv Cytopharmacol. 1979;3:231-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin on the isolated rat kidney. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:1347-52. ... Crystal structure of crotoxin reveals key residues involved in the stability and toxicity of this potent heterodimeric β- ...
Phospholipase A2 Crotoxin B Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Exert Antiviral Effect against Dengue Virus ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the catalytic activity of the phospholipase A2 crotoxin subunit B on the ... The antiviral effect was abolished by the use of a chemically inhibited phospholipase A2 crotoxin subunit B, a Ca+2 (co-factor ... Phospholipase A2 Crotoxin B Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Exert Antiviral Effect against Dengue Virus ...
The new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a), complex crotoxin, the catalytic subunit crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) and two crotapotin ... Whole crotoxin was devoid of cytolytic activity upon myoblasts and myotubes in vitro, whereas new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a ... A neuromuscular blocking activity was induced by crotoxin and new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) in the isolated mouse phrenic ... Biological and structural characterization of crotoxin and new isoform of crotoxin B PLA2 (F6a) from Crotalus durissus ...
Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Behavior, Animal / Crotalid Venoms / Crotoxin / Exploratory Behavior Limits: Animals ... Crotoxin is the major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. In view of the presence of high-affinity specific ... dose of 500 mug/kg also decreased rearing (from 24.9 to 17.5). In the hole-board test, 500 mug/kg of crotoxin decreased head- ... Adult male Wistar rats (l80-220 g) treated with crotoxin, 1OO, 250 and 500 mug/kg, ip, administered 2 h before the test, ...
... the corresponding ratio for anti-crotoxin serum was 1:3 for venom and crotoxin, and 1:1 and 1:2 for anti-PLA2 serum. The ... Anti-crotoxin serum neutralized the neuromuscular blockade in phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations at venom or crotoxin: ... with the anti-serum against crotoxin being slightly less potent than that against crotoxin. ... Crotoxin. Mice. Muscle Contraction. Muscle, Skeletal. Neuromuscular Junction. Neurotoxins. Phospholipases A. Phospholipases A2 ...
In addition, high concentrations (2 mM) of BPB did not avoid the action of crotoxin on the neurotransmitters uptake. Crotoxin ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: GABA Agents / Crotalid Venoms / Crotoxin / Glutamates / Neurotoxins ... Crotoxin concentrations over 1 µM caused an inhibitory effect of ³H-L-glutamate and ³H-GABA, and reversibly inhibited L- ... Crotoxin kept its inhibitory effect on neurotransmitters uptake even when Ca2+ ions were removed from the medium, therefore, ...
The results in Table 5 show that TNF neutralizes the lethal toxic effects of various snake venom toxins: crotoxin, cobratoxin, ...
Electron Diffraction Study of Crotoxin Complex At 1.6 Å. Chiu, W. (et al.) ...
The phospholipase from the South American rattlesnake is called crotoxin… ...
Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding ... These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and -bungarotoxin, as well ... 0 (Bungarotoxins); 0 (Receptors, Nicotinic); 0 (Snake Venoms); 9007-40-3 (Crotoxin); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2); N9YNS0M02X ... bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether ...
Crotoxin and phospholipases A2 from Crotalus. durissus terrificus showed antiviral activity against dengue and yellow fever ...
Crotoxin is a reversible heterodimeric protein complex consisting of crotapotin (CA; crotoxin A or acid component), which is an ... Crotoxin, which is a potent neurotoxin and the main component of the venom of snakes of the genus Crotalus, was the first toxin ... The major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom is a heterodimeric complex called crotoxin, which is constituted by ... Faure G, Harvey AL, Thomson E, Saliou B, Radvanyi F, Bon C (1993) Comparison of crotoxin isoforms reveals that stability of the ...
Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a ... Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits ... Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. ...
Systemic skeletal muscle necrosis induced by crotoxin. Toxicon, 2001, 39, 1141-9. [ Links ]. 16 ZANARDI VS., BUCARETCHI F., ... crotoxin) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom are capable of producing increased muscular enzymes and also systemic ...
Crotoxin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human lung carcinoma cells in vitro via activation of the p38MAPK signaling pathway ... Rights & permissionsfor article Crotoxin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human lung carcinoma cells ,i,in vitro,/i, via ...
Crotoxin B is a basic phospholipase A2 found in the venom of C. durissus terrificus and is one of the subunits that constitute ... Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a tetrameric phospholipase A2 formed by two isoforms of crotoxin B from Crotalus ... crotoxin. Here, the crystallization, X-ray diffraction data collection and molecular-replacement solution of a novel tetrameric ... complex formed by two dimers of crotoxin B isoforms are presented. ...
... have also been attributed to crotoxin.. Crotoxin consists of a basic, weakly toxic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) subunit and an ... both of which are also expressed by crotoxin, the principal toxin of this venom. Crotoxin contains a basic phospholipase A2 ( ... Crotoxin, the major toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) (C.d.t.) venom1, is a potent ... 6. Hendon RA, Fraenkel-Conrat H. Biological roles of the two components of crotoxin. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 1971; 68: 1560-3. ...
... a toxin found in cone snail venom Crotoxin, toxic compound in snake venom Cyclophosphamide, an anticancer drug Centrex, a ...
  • Transient increases (grades 1-3) in the levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase attributed to crotoxin myotoxicity were observed but returned to normal by the last week of treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and ( b ) the specific binding of 125 I-crotoxin to target membranes (13 , 14) suggests that subunit A may be involved in target recognition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, crotoxin circulates nondissociated ( i.e., as a complex) until it recognizes specific "acceptor sites" on the target membranes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Heterodimer CA-CB: Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin that possesses phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and exerts a lethal action by blocking neuromuscular transmission. (rcsb.org)
  • Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, is composed of an acidic subunit which is non-toxic and enzymatically inactive and a basic subunit which possesses a phospholipase activity and low toxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Crotoxin: novel activities for a classic beta-neurotoxin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Crotoxin, a snake neurotoxin, is being developed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a potential alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunochemical analysis of a snake venom phospholipase A2 neurotoxin, crotoxin, with monoclonal antibodies. (pasteur.fr)
  • Bouchier C, Boulain JC, Bon CA, Menez A. Analysis of cDNAs encoding the two subunits of crotoxin, a phospholipase A 2 neurotoxin from rattlesnake venom: the acidic non-enzymatic subunit derives from a phospholipase A 2 -like precursor. (springer.com)
  • Crotoxin, the principal neurotoxin in venom of the South American rattlesnakes Crotalus durissus terrificus and Crotalus durissus cascavella, contains a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and an acidic protein, crotapotin. (unicamp.br)
  • Crotoxin, the major toxin of South American rattlesnake ( Crotalus durissus terrificus ) ( C.d.t .) venom 1 , is a potent phospholipase A 2 neurotoxin that produces neuromuscular blockade 2 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Suramin has been reported to inhibit the toxic effects of β-bungarotoxin and another PLA(2) neurotoxin, crotoxin in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Detection and quantification of a b-neurotoxin (crotoxin homologs) in the venom of the rattlesnakes Crotalus simus, C. culminatus and C. tzabcan from Mexico Toxicon X, 2, 100007. (unam.mx)
  • Venom characterization of the three species of Ophryacus and proteomic profiling of O. sphenophrys unveils Sphenotoxin, a novel Crotoxin-like heterodimeric beta-neurotoxin Journal of Proteomics, 192, 196-207. (unam.mx)
  • This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin,the main neurotoxin from this venom. (ufc.br)
  • Crotoxin is a cytotoxic PLA 2 3 compound isolated from a South American snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus , venom. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Role of crotoxin, a phospholipase A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, on inflammatory and immune reactions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Crotoxin Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificu. (fapesp.br)
  • The Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake venom, its main toxin, crotoxin (CTX), and its crotapotin (CA) and phospholipase A(2) (CB) subunits modulate the immune system. (fapesp.br)
  • Crotoxin is the major neurotoxic component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. (pasteur.fr)
  • Molecular structure and mechanism of action of the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus serum. (pasteur.fr)
  • An antivenom protein has been identified in the blood of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus and proved to act by specifically neutralizing crotoxin, the main lethal component of rattlesnake venoms. (pasteur.fr)
  • The aim of this study was to purify the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum (CICS), and to analyze its mechanism of action. (pasteur.fr)
  • Recently, we have found that phospholipase A 2 crotoxin subunit B and phospholipase A 2 "inter-cro" isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus had an antiviral activity against Dengue virus serotype 2 and Yellow fever virus. (scitechnol.com)
  • A new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a), from Crotalus durissus collilineatus was purified from by one step reverse phase HPLC chromatography using l-Bondapack C-18 column analytic. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a), complex crotoxin, the catalytic subunit crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) and two crotapotin isoforms (F3 and F4), were isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Crotoxin is the major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. (bvsalud.org)
  • Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Anti-sera Raised In Rabbits Against Crotoxin And Phospholipase A2 From Crotalus Durissus Cascavella Venom Neutralize The Neurotoxicity Of The Venom And Crotoxin. (unicamp.br)
  • The major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom is a heterodimeric complex called crotoxin, which is constituted by an inactive peptide (crotapotin) and a phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 -CB). (springer.com)
  • Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, which contains crotoxin as a major active component, significantly inhibited edema and migration of polymorphonuclear cells in carrageenan-induced arthritis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Opiate and acetylcholine-independent analgesic actions of crotoxin isolated from crotalus durissus terrificus venom. (mysciencework.com)
  • The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus is reported to have analgesic activity and the administration of Crotoxin (Cro) to cancer patients is reported to reduce the consumption of analgesics. (mysciencework.com)
  • The South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) possesses several biologically active proteins in its venom, such as giroxin, crotamine, convulxin, crotoxin and peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SEVARINO-SILVA, C. and OGUIURA, N.. A functional and thromboelastometric-based micromethod for assessing crotoxin anticoagulant activity and antiserum relative potency against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. (ecoevo.com.br)
  • In this work, we examined the ability of rabbit anti-sera against crotoxin and its PLA2 subunit to neutralize the neurotoxicity of venom and crotoxin from C. d. cascavella in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and chick biventer cervicis preparations. (unicamp.br)
  • Anti-crotoxin serum neutralized the neuromuscular blockade in phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations at venom or crotoxin:anti-serum ratios of 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. (unicamp.br)
  • Anti-PLA2 serum also neutralized this neuromuscular activity at a venom or crotoxin:anti-serum ratio of 1:1. (unicamp.br)
  • In biventer cervicis preparations, the corresponding ratio for anti-crotoxin serum was 1:3 for venom and crotoxin, and 1:1 and 1:2 for anti-PLA2 serum. (unicamp.br)
  • These results show that anti-sera against crotoxin and PLA2 from C. d. cascavella venom neutralized the neuromuscular blockade induced by venom and crotoxin in both nerve-muscle preparations, with the anti-serum against crotoxin being slightly less potent than that against crotoxin. (unicamp.br)
  • South American rattlesnake) venom possesses myotoxic and neurotoxic activities, both of which are also expressed by crotoxin, the principal toxin of this venom. (scielo.org.ar)
  • In the past, medical experts believe that the toxin in rattlesnake venom, crotoxin, is a promising compound for the treatment of chronic pain. (news-medical.net)
  • Six horses (two per group) were selected to be immunized with C. d. terrificus venom, purified crotoxin or PLA2 venom components. (camkkinase.com)
  • Multiple variants of each subunit give different crotoxin complexes that can be subdivided into 2 classes: (1) those of high toxicity, low PLA2 activity (CBb, CBc and CBd linked with high affinity to any CA) and high stability (K(d)=4.5 nM) and (2) those of moderate toxicity, high PLA2 activity (CBa2 linked with low affinity to any CA) and low stability (K(d)=25 nM). (rcsb.org)
  • The crotoxin molecule is composed of two subunits: a basic and weakly toxic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) called component-B (CB), and an acidic, nonenzymatic and nontoxic subunit called component-A (CA). Crotoxin exists as a mixture of several isoforms (or variants) resulting from the association of several subunit isoforms. (pasteur.fr)
  • The new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) contained 122 amino acid residues and a pI of 8.58. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • A neuromuscular blocking activity was induced by crotoxin and new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) in the isolated mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm and the biventer cervicis chick nerve-muscle preparation. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Whole crotoxin was devoid of cytolytic activity upon myoblasts and myotubes in vitro, whereas new crotoxin B isoform PLA2 (F6a) was clearly cytotoxic to these cells. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Immunoblotting showed that the anti-sera recognized C. d. cascavella crotoxin and PLA2. (unicamp.br)
  • Crotoxin kept its inhibitory effect on neurotransmitters uptake even when Ca2+ ions were removed from the medium, therefore, independently of its PLA2 activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is, therefore, tempting to suggest that CICS acts physiologically as a false crotoxin acceptor that would retain the toxin in the vascular system, thus preventing its action on the neuromuscular system. (pasteur.fr)
  • The B-chain of the acidic subunit of crotoxin proved refractory to Edman degradation. (scripps.edu)
  • One of the protein structures in this search is crotoxin B ( 2QOG ), an enzyme (a "phospholipase") that cleaves lipid molecules in the vicinity of a rattlesnake bite, disrupting membrane barriers and thereby causing pain and severe tissue damage. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The molecular masses estimated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were: crotoxin B: 14,943.14 Da, crotapotin F3: 8,693.24 Da, and crotapotin F4: 9 314.56 Da. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Crotoxin contains a basic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) and a non toxic acidic protein, crotapotin. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Crotoxin consists of a basic, weakly toxic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) subunit and an acidic, non-toxic subunit (crotapotin) devoid of enzymatic activity 6, 7 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Thus, the stability of the interaction between PLA 2 and crotapotin plays a major role in the toxicity of crotoxin 9 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • We determined the dissociation constants of each MAb for CA and CB isoforms and their capacities to neutralize the lethality and to inhibit the catalytic activity of crotoxin. (pasteur.fr)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the catalytic activity of the phospholipase A 2 crotoxin subunit B on the antiviral effect. (scitechnol.com)
  • Moreover, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor and analgesic effects of crotoxin have also been reported (PubMed:20109480). (rcsb.org)
  • The neutralizing effect of purified CICS towards the neurotoxic effects of crotoxin has been demonstrated in vivo by lethality assays. (pasteur.fr)
  • In view of the presence of high-affinity specific binding sites for crotoxin in the brain, the objective of this work was to investigate whether crotoxin induces behavioral effects in the open-fleld and hole-board tests. (bvsalud.org)
  • it efficiently inhibits the phospholipase activity of crotoxin and its isolated CB subunit and evokes the dissociation of the crotoxin complex. (pasteur.fr)
  • In addition to neurotoxicity, crotoxin has been found to exert myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiovascular toxicity (PubMed:20109480). (rcsb.org)
  • Venomics and biochemical analysis of the black-tailed horned pitviper, Mixcoatlus melanurus, and characterization of Melanurutoxin, a novel crotoxin homolog Journal of Proteomics, 225, 103865. (unam.mx)
  • The molecular mechanism of the interaction between CICS and crotoxin seems to be very similar to that of crotoxin with its acceptor. (pasteur.fr)
  • Crotoxin: a possible mechanism of action. (springer.com)
  • This paper describes a brief study on the crotoxin mechanism of action, regarding the transport of GABA and L-glutamate in rats cortico-cerebral synaptosomes and in heterologous systems, such as COS-7 cells expressing gabaergic transporters, and C6 glioma cells and Xenopus oocytes expressing glutamatergic transporters. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is shown that crotoxin very efficiently blocks the cholinergic post-synaptic response of the isolated electroplaque from Electrophorus electricus and of cellular microsacs fromTorpedo marmorata. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Crotoxin effects on Torpedo californica cholinergic excitable vesicles and the role of its phospholipase A activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, an evaluation of the lactic dehydrogenase activity indicated that uptake inhibition does not involve a hydrolytic action of crotoxin upon the membrane. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment with crotoxin achieved 50% inhibition of viral release. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Bon C, Changeux J-P, Jeng T-W, Fraenkel-Conrat H. Postsynaptic effects of crotoxin and of its isolated subunits. (springer.com)
  • All the crotoxin- induced behavioral effects were antagonized by an anxiolytic dose of diazepam (1.5 mg/kg, ip, 30 min before the tests). (bvsalud.org)
  • These results show that crotoxin reduced open-field activity and exploratory behavior as well. (bvsalud.org)
  • Crotoxin potentiates L-type calcium currents and modulates the action potential of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, crotoxin circulates nondissociated ( i.e., as a complex) until it recognizes specific "acceptor sites" on the target membranes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are found in natura as subunits of the crotoxin protein complex, which the researchers also tested. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Crotoxin concentrations over 1 µM caused an inhibitory effect of ³H-L-glutamate and ³H- GABA , and reversibly inhibited L-glutamate uptake by C6 glioma cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • We may also suggest that crotoxin acts, at least partially, altering the electrogenic equilibrium, as evidenced by confocal microscopy, when a fluorescent probe was used to verify cell permeability on C6 glioma cells in presence of crotoxin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The antiviral effect was abolished by the use of a chemically inhibited phospholipase A 2 crotoxin subunit B, a Ca +2 (co-factor of the phospholipase) free medium or a Ca +2 -chelating agent (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the experiments. (scitechnol.com)
  • In addition, high concentrations (2 mM) of BPB did not avoid the action of crotoxin on the neurotransmitters uptake. (bvsalud.org)