Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Croton: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. The common name of dragon's blood is also used for DRACAENA and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE). Croton tiglium is the source of CROTON OIL.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Methylazoxymethanol Acetate: The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Rats, Inbred ACIGastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Liniments: Heat-generating liquids that are thinner than ointments and are applied to the skin with friction. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Olea: A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle: A cellular subtype of malignant melanoma. It is a pigmented lesion composed of melanocytes occurring on sun-exposed skin, usually the face and neck. The melanocytes are commonly multinucleated with a "starburst" appearance. It is considered by many to be the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Osteotomy, Le Fort: Transverse sectioning and repositioning of the maxilla. There are three types: Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement or the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort II osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort III osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures with fracture of one or more facial bones. Le Fort III is often used also to correct craniofacial dysostosis and related facial abnormalities. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1203 & p662)Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.TriterpenesTrimebutine: Proposed spasmolytic with possible local anesthetic action used in gastrointestinal disorders.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Mice, Inbred C57BLNematospiroides: A genus of nematodes found mainly in mice. Its organisms are used in biomedical research.

Chronic inflammatory disease alters adhesion molecule requirements for acute neutrophil emigration in mouse skin. (1/87)

Mutant mice triply deficient in ICAM-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin did not develop the neutrophilic skin lesions that spontaneously arise in mutants doubly deficient in E-selectin and P-selectin. Thus, ICAM-1 is essential to skin disease resulting from endothelial selectin deficiency. During experimental dermatitis, acute neutrophil emigration was completely prevented in young mice deficient in both selectins (E/P and E/P/I mutants). However, older E/P mutants with spontaneous skin lesions displayed an endothelial selectin-independent pathway for acute neutrophil emigration. In contrast, emigration remained compromised in E/P/I mutants and CD18 mutants regardless of age or lesions. Experimentally induced chronic lesions elicited this pathway for acute emigration in young E/P mutants. Thus, an endothelial selectin-independent pathway for acute neutrophil emigration is induced in E/P mice by chronic inflammation at distant sites, and this pathway may contribute to skin disease resulting from endothelial selectin deficiency.  (+info)

Central and peripheral cannabinoid modulation of gastrointestinal transit in physiological states or during the diarrhoea induced by croton oil. (2/87)

We have evaluated the effect of cannabinoid drugs, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on upper gastrointestinal transit in control and in croton oil-treated mice. The cannabinoid agonists, WIN 55,212-2 (2-239 nmol mouse(-1)) and cannabinol (24-4027 nmol mouse(-1)), decreased while the CB(1) antagonist SR141716A (2-539 nmol mouse(-1)) increased transit in control mice. WIN 55,212-2, cannabinol and SR141716A had lower ED(50) values when administered i.c.v., than when administered i.p. The CB(2) antagonist SR144528 (52 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) was without effect. During croton oil (0.01 ml mouse(-1), p.o.)-induced diarrhoea, the ED(50) values of i.p. -injected WIN 55,212-2 and cannabinol (but not SR141716A) were significantly decreased (compared to control mice). However, the ED(50) values of WIN 55,212-2 were similar after i.p. or i.c.v. administration. The inhibitory effects of WIN 55,212-2 and cannabinol were counteracted by SR141716A (16 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) but not by SR144528 (52 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) both in control and croton-oil treated mice. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (69 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) did not modify the inhibitory effect of i.p. -injected cannabinoid agonists either in control or in croton-oil treated mice. The lower ED(50) values of cannabinoid drugs after i.c.v. administration suggest a central (CB(1)) site of action. However, a peripheral site of action is suggested by the lack of effect of hexamethonium. In addition, croton oil-induced diarrhoea enhances the effect of cannabinoid agonists by a peripheral mechanism.  (+info)

Intestinal inflammation and morphine tolerance alter the interaction between morphine and clonidine on gastrointestinal transit in mice. (3/87)

BACKGROUND: Morphine and clonidine show synergy or antagonism inhibiting gastrointestinal transit depending on their proportion and level of effect. Their interaction during morphine tolerance and intestinal inflammation were assessed. METHODS: Gastrointestinal transit in mice was evaluated with charcoal and antitransit effects expressed as percent mean values +/- SEM. Tolerance was induced with a morphine pellet (75 mg) implanted for 72 h, and inflammation with intragastric croton oil. Dose-response curves for morphine and clonidine alone and combined at a 1:1 potency ratio were obtained, and doses producing a 50% and 60% inhibition were calculated (ED50, ED60). Interaction was established by isobolograms, interaction indexes, and analysis of variance. RESULTS: In naive and tolerant mice, the combination induced linear dose-response curves up to the ED60 and then reached a plateau. In naive mice, ED50 values were as follows: morphine 1.52 +/- 0.15 mg/kg, clonidine 0.09 +/- 0.008 mg/kg, and combined 0.506 +/- 0.084 mg/kg (0.478 +/- 0.08 mg/kg morphine plus 0.028 +/- 0.004 mg/kg clonidine). During tolerance, ED50 values were as follows: morphine 9.73 +/- 0.8 mg/kg, clonidine 0.09 +/- 0.007 mg/kg, combination 0.131 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (morphine 0. 13 +/- 0.09 mg/kg plus clonidine 0.0013 +/- 0.0005 mg/kg). In both groups, the interaction was synergistic up to the ED60 and antagonistic thereafter; synergy was enhanced during tolerance. During inflammation, ED50 values were as follows: morphine 0.17 +/- 0.04 mg/kg, clonidine 0.015 +/- 0.006 mg/kg, combined 0.62 +/- 0.04 mg/kg (morphine 0.568 +/- 0.04 mg/kg plus clonidine 0.052 +/- 0.004 mg/kg); thus, potencies of morphine and clonidine increased 9.3 and 7.1 times, while the combination remained unaltered. Moreover, inflammation transformed synergy into antagonism. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction between morphine and clonidine was significantly altered during tolerance and inflammation. During tolerance, synergy was present up to 60% effect and then became antagonistic. Inflammation converted synergy to antagonism. A common pathway in signal transduction could partially explain the results.  (+info)

Ozonation of mutagenic and carcinogenic polyaromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water. (4/87)

The Salmonella-microsome assay for mutagenesis was used to determine the effect of ozone on the mutagenesis of selected carcinogens and mutagens in water. Short periods of ozonation were shown to completely inactivate the mutagenicity of several polyaromatic amine mutagens including acriflavine, proflavine, and beta-naphthylamine. Selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also sensitive to ozonation. Kinetic studies revealed that the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene was destroyed after short periods of ozonation. To correlate loss of mutagenicity with loss of carcinogenicity, two polyaromatic hydrocarbons were treated with ozone, extracted from water with hexane, and tested for carcinogenicity in mice. When 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene and 3-methyl-cholanthrene were treated with ozone, there was a substantial reduction in carcinogenicity compared to control groups treated with oxygen alone. However, a small number of tumors developed in the group of animals receiving a hexane extract of ozonated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. This activity may be due to breakdown products of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene that are not mutagenic.  (+info)

Chemical activation of innate and specific immunity in contact dermatitis. (5/87)

Recent reports have suggested that chemical-induced allergic contact dermatitis may not be a traditional type IV hypersensitivity, in part due to the dual irritant and antigenic properties of sensitizing chemicals. In order to investigate the contribution of these properties to the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying allergic contact dermatitis, we evaluated oxazolone-induced changes in cell populations and cytokine production in the dermis of transgenic mice with impaired innate immunity (the FcgammaR subunit knockout mouse), and absent specific immunity (the athymic mouse), and the appropriate B6,129F2 and C57BL/6 control mice. Oxazolone and croton oil were applied in a single sensitizing dose, or in sensitizing and challenge doses, and the dermal response was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In the wild type mice, with or without sensitization to oxazolone or croton oil, we observed mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine production and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes; however, the neutrophil was the predominant cell in the dermis, even 72 h after final chemical application. Athymic mice displayed a similar neutrophil response with moderate Th1/Th2 cytokine production, and FcgammaR subunit knockout mice exhibited very mild dermatitis when treated with either oxazolone or croton oil. These results provide support for the hypothesis that allergic contact dermatitis is not a classic delayed type hypersensitivity, demonstrate the importance of the interaction between the irritant and antigenic properties of sensitizing chemicals in the development of allergic contact dermatitis, and suggest that the irritant effect of chemicals may be mediated through the cutaneous innate immune system.  (+info)

Neutral endopeptidase terminates substance P-induced inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis. (6/87)

Sensory nerve-derived neuropeptides such as substance P demonstrate a number of proinflammatory bioactivities, but less is known about their role in inflammatory skin disease. The cell surface metalloprotease neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is the principal proteolytic substance P-degrading enzyme. This study tests the hypothesis that the absence of NEP results in dysregulated inflammatory skin responses. The effector phase of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) responses was examined in NEP(-/-) knockout and NEP(+/+) wild-type mice and compared with the irritant contact dermatitis response in these animals. NEP was found to be normally immunolocalized in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels. The ACD ear swelling response was 2.5-fold higher in animals lacking NEP and was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma extravasation and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. The augmented ACD response in NEP(-/-) animals was abrogated by either administration of a neurokinin receptor 1 antagonist or by repeated pretreatment with topical capsaicin. Similar to NEP(-/-) mice, the acute inhibition of NEP in NEP(+/+) animals resulted in an augmented ACD response. In contrast to the ACD responses, little differences were observed in the irritant contact dermatitis response of NEP(-/-) compared with NEP(+/+) animals after epicutaneous application of the skin irritants croton oil or SDS. Thus, these results indicate that NEP and cutaneous neuropeptides have a significant role in the pathogenesis of ACD.  (+info)

Intestinal inflammation enhances the inhibitory effects of opioids on intestinal permeability in mice. (7/87)

The inhibitory effects of central and peripherally acting opioid agonists on intestinal permeability (PER) were evaluated during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice. Inflammation was induced by the intragastric (p.o.) administration of one (acute) or two (chronic) doses of croton oil (CO), whereas controls received saline (SS). Intestinal PER was assessed by the blood-to-lumen transfer of 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (51Cr-EDTA). CO significantly increased PER during acute (2.5 times) and chronic (3.2 times) inflammation. The potency of s.c. morphine-inhibiting PER was enhanced 3.8 and 8.7 times in acute and chronic CO, whereas that of s.c. fentanyl was increased 2.0 and 4.3 times, respectively, compared with SS. Similarly, s.c. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin was 4.7 and 11.1 times more potent during acute and chronic CO, and the E(max) values of the dose-response curves increased 35% during inflammation. The potency of s.c. U50,488H was 5.6 (acute) and 6.7 times (chronic) greater compared with SS. All effects were reversed by specific antagonists. The i.p. administration of beta-funaltrexamine differentially blocked morphine effects during acute and chronic CO, suggesting that the effects are mediated by different populations of functional mu-opioid receptors (OR). The increase in potencies of s.c. PL017 and ICI-204,448 during CO were comparable to those observed with fentanyl and U50,488H and their effects were antagonized by s.c. naloxone methiodide. Moreover, the potency of the agonists during inflammation was unaltered when administered i.c.v. The results show that intestinal inflammation enhances the effects of delta- > mu- > kappa-opioid agonists on PER by activation of peripheral OR.  (+info)

Nonspecific inhibition of DNA repair synthesis by tumor promoters in human diploid fibroblasts damaged with N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene. (8/87)

The effects of selected tumor-promoting agents and their nonpromoting analogs on DNA repair synthesis were examined in human diploid fibroblasts (WI-38) damaged with N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene. Over a range of doses, three promoters (croton oil, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and anthralin) were found to inhibit DNA repair synthesis while their nonpromoting analogs (phorbol and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone) had little effect. Another tumor promoter, phenol, inhibited DNA repair synthesis only at very high concentrations while an analog, 4-nitrophenol, produced inhibition of DNA repair synthesis at molar concentrations at which phenol had no effect. To investigate the specificity of this phenomenon, the effects of these agents on DNA-replicative synthesis, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and cell morphology were evaluated. At equimolar concentrations, tumor promoters were found to inhibit DNA-replicative synthesis as effectively as repair synthesis. RNA and protein synthesis were similarly inhibited over the same range of concentrations. Extensive morphological changes, interpreted as evidence of toxicity, were seen at concentrations of promoters that inhibited the macromolecular syntheses studied. The nonpromoting analogs, with the exception of nitrophenol, had little effect on these processes and showed only slight morphological damage. Thus tumor-promoting agents appeared to inhibit a number of macromolecular synthetic events, including DNA repair synthesis. It is suggested that the effect of tumor promoters on DNA repair synthesis is part of a general response to cellular injury rather than a selective response involving a single metabolic pathway. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the inhibition of repair synthesis represents the major mode of action of promoting agents in the carcinogenic process.  (+info)

  • The anti-inflammatory properties of hydrophilic extracts of the capsular polymers of twelve cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Phormidium and Nostoc from marine and terrestrial habitats were tested topically on croton oil-induced oedema in mice ear skin. (
  • The Croton oil peels are impressive for peri-oral wrinkles (those around the mouth) and of the lower eyelids. (
  • The croton oil peel (also called modified phenol peel or Hetter peel) is a chemical treatment that penetrates deeply into the skin. (
  • Croton Oil an old psychiatric punishment for patients being held at a psychiatric hospital and is these days used for skin exfoliation. (
  • The croton oil peel is nearly painless postoperatively, patients report the first few days feeling like a bad sunburn. (
  • Croton gratissimus (commonly known as lavender croton or lavender fever berry), is a tropical African shrub or small tree with corky bark, growing to 8 m and belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae or spurges. (
  • Croton is a genus of Euphorbiaceae comprising around 1,300 species, widespread in tropical regions of the Old and New Worlds. (
  • Croton é um gênero de Euphorbiaceae com cerca de 1300 espécies, amplamente distribuídas em regiões tropicais do Novo e Velho Mundos. (
  • Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron el estudio de la composición química volátil del aceite esencial (AE) de Croton trinitatis Millsp (Euphorbiaceae) obtenido de plantas colectadas en el municipios Maria La Baja (Bolívar). (
  • The objectives of this work were to study the volatile chemical composition of essential oil (EO) from Croton trinitatis Millsp (Euphorbiaceae), obtained from plants collected in Maria la Baja (Bolívar). (
  • Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice. (
  • Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. (
  • The results of the present study demonstrate that the oral administration of FSO has the potential to modulate the levels of LPO, antioxidants, and detoxification enzymes in the DMBA-croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. (
  • Patil CR, Sonara BM, Mahajan UB, Patil KR, Patil DD, Jadhav RB, Goyal SN, Ojha S. Chemomodulatory Potential of Bartogenic Acid Against DMBA/Croton Oil Induced Two-Step Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice. (
  • The chemopreventive efficacy of BA was evaluated against the DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.BA was orally administered at the doses of 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day or applied topically every day for 12 weeks following DMBA application. (
  • The in vivo datacollected from mice model of DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis revealed that BA administered orally or applied topically, both reduced the precancerous skin lesions andthe incidence of tumor bearing. (
  • Repeated topical exposures to DMBA along with a promoter agent like croton oil lead to the development of skin tumors [ 6 ]. (
  • Our aim of this study was to examine the chemopreventive potential of fish oil on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and croton oil-promoted skin papillomagenesis model in mice. (
  • Oral treatment of fish oil at a dose of 25 μl per animal resulted in significant reduction of tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and the cumulative number of papillomas in DMBA+croton oil+fish oil treated group compared to only DMBA +croton oil administered positive control group. (
  • Chemoprevention by Triticum Aestivum of mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and croton oil. (
  • Croton is a genus of some 600 widely distributed tropical and sub-tropical species. (
  • Sangre de grado is a common name for several trees in the genus Croton - all have a red sap and can be used interchangeably. (
  • An extract is derived from a mixture of the bark of the genus Phellodendron and the defatted seed of the genus Croton and has excellent therapeutic activity in treating various disorders of the immune system. (
  • The present invention relates to novel compositions of matter having excellent activity with respect to cancers, tumours, thyroid disorders, etc., which are extracted from a mixture of the bark of the genus Phellodendron and the defatted seed of the genus Croton, a method for extraction therefor and a drug containing the same. (
  • Since croton oil is very irritating and painful, it is used in laboratory animals to study how pain works, pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory drugs, and immunology. (
  • He described the plant as "a handsome bushy shrub from four to seven foot high, closely resembling a species peculiar to Madagascar" - the species he had in mind being Croton farinosus. (
  • Originally hailing from Indonesia, the croton plant is a colorful shrub that can be raised in USDA hardiness zones 10A through 11. (
  • A great part of pharmacological assays with Croton substances dealt with the clerodane trans- dehydrocrotonin, a wide diversity of effects having been noticed, including hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic, anti-oestrogen and anti-cancer. (
  • The article states, "In humans estragole usually enters the body as a component of fennel tea, or as a food that has been seasoned with herb that contains many other substances like nevadensin, epigallocatechine, other flavonoids, and anethole [in essential oil], that have a protective role and so counterbalance to the possible effect of pure estragole. (
  • The term 'vegetable oil' can be narrowly defined as referring only to substances that are liquid at room temperature. (
  • The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. (
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. (
  • These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. (
  • Air -dried and pulverized leaves were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus to obtained pale yellow volatile oil whose chemical constituents was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. (
  • The chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from leaves of L. nobilis, collected in Southern Italy, was studied by GC and GC-MS. In all, 55 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil. (
  • In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo . (
  • Sage oil is often adulterated by the addition of thujone derived from the leaves of Juniperus virginiana (red cedar). (
  • In this study and in order to contribute for the search of new natural drugs for leishmaniasis, the essential oils of H. tuberculatum leaves, stems and aerial parts (leaves+stems) collected in two different periods, 2013 and 2015, and their components by GC/FID and GC/MS analyses were investigated. (
  • Anthracnose, sometimes referred to as leaf spot or blight, is a bacterial disease that makes tan-colored dead spots on the croton plant's leaves. (
  • We now report studies comparing HDL before and during an acute phase response (APR) in both humans and a croton oil rabbit model. (
  • The extracted oils were screened in vitro for anti-leishmanial activity on Leishmania mexicana mexicana ( L.m.m. ) promastigotes and cytotoxicity on the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line. (
  • of the right ear applying 80 [micro]g of Croton oil dissolved in 42% aqueous ethanol (for extracts and the relevant controls) or acetone (for fractions, compounds and their controls). (
  • The laxative effect of ethanolic seed extract of Croton penduliflorous was evaluated in loperamide-induced constipated male rats on daily basis for 7 days. (
  • Sailors devised crude stills to separate the alcohol from the croton oil, as alcohol evaporates at a lower temperature than croton oil. (
  • To avoid the Croton oil, sailors devised crude stills to slowly separate the alcohol from the poison, as alcohol evaporated at a lower temperature than Croton oil. (
  • The active componenets of the essential oil mixture Components (mg/kg) Thymol (thyme oil) 2000 B-phellanderene (thymeoil) 1300 Limonene (thyme oil+pepermint oil) 3525 B-pinene (thyme oil+pepermit oil) 1977 Linalool (oreganum oil) 3645 Carcacrol (oreganum oil) 8910 Anethole (anise oil) 10712 Menthole (pepermint oil) 6375 Table 2. (
  • Várias espécies de Croton têm um látex vermelho que contém, em algumas espécies, pró-antocianidinas e/ou alcalóides. (
  • such oils consist of a mixture of fatty acids and their esters, and are classified as solid, semisolid, and liquid, or as drying, semidrying, and nondrying as a function of their tendency to solidify on exposure to air. (
  • The mixture may also be separated bydistilling the oil away from the plant material. (
  • Norwegian partisans, ordered by the Quisling government to turn over a catch of sardines to the Nazi German government for shipment to Saint-Nazaire (a U-boat base of operations) arranged with the British for a large shipment of croton oil to poison the sardines, whose fishy taste was expected to conceal the tampering. (
  • In El Dorado starring John Wayne, cayenne pepper, hot mustard, ipecac, asafoetida, croton oil, and gunpowder are the ingredients in an emetic administered to the drunken sheriff J. P. Harrah (Robert Mitchum) to sober him up and prevent him from drinking for the foreseeable future. (
  • Mustard oil. (
  • Available studies have dealt only with the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. nepetaefolius (EOCn) and its pharmacological effects on intestinal, respiratory and vascular smooth muscle and on arterial pressure (2-6). (
  • After condensation, the aqueous phase with its solutes was separated from an oily phase, the essential oil. (
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis . (
  • Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). (
  • In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. (
  • To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. (
  • The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. (
  • These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. (
  • The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Croton zambesicus Müll. (
  • Extraction of essential oil from the air -dried leaf samples of C. zambesicus and investigation of its chemical constituents. (
  • The obtained essential oil was dried over sodium sulphate and stored at 4°C in dark vials until tested. (
  • Monomer-essential-oil-of-Linalo. (
  • Natural-essential-oil-of-natural. (
  • Monomer-essential-oil-of-Pure-Na. (
  • clove-oil,clove-essential-oil,eu. (
  • Avocado-Essential-Oil,Persea-Gra. (
  • Regarding its phytochemical composition, some studies have been performed on the essential oil (Talenti, 1976), sesquiterpenes (Bohlmann et al. (
  • Bioactivity of Mentha arvensis L. essential oil in phytopathogenic fungi control. (
  • Croton nuts are the source of an oil that can power generators, water pumps and other internal combustion engines and, with processing, can be used in place of diesel fuel in cars and trucks. (
  • Drinking alcohol with the oil additive caused painful cramps, internal bleeding and a violent emptying of the bowels. (
  • Faye is poisoned with a combination of first strychnine (unsuccessfully) and then two drops of croton oil, on a salad of home-canned beans, mimicking accidental botulism poisoning. (
  • One-tenth of a drop of "Short's Croton Oil" was a dose, while of the Oil sold at the Druggists, it took usually from a quarter of a drop to two drops, to have the same effect. (
  • Angelic acid is found as an ester in angelica root, whereas tiglic acid occurs in croton oil and in several other natural products. (
  • Evatt, G. J. H. : The Duties of the Bearer Company of the Medical Corps that profuse haemorrhage occurs perhaps once in five ous kinds of malnutrition, cod-liver oil displays remark- so by presenting to the State Board of Medical Registration and the joining together of many small nodules, maybe seen. (
  • It occurs when the croton plant starts absorbing more water through its roots than it can release or use. (
  • The effects of the oil taken or applied are recorded in the Encyclop dia, vol. 3, p. 606, the principal symptoms being from J. Buchner's collection of provings published in Archiv. (