Crotalus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Tigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.KansasMuseumsDesert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Oplopanax: A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It is the source of cirensenosides (triterpenoid saponins).Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Phospholipases A2, Secretory: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.Scattering, Small Angle: Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.LizardsSunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.SwitzerlandTrimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Polyacetylenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.

Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and tyrosine-phosphatase activation positively modulate Convulxin-induced platelet activation. Comparison with collagen. (1/124)

In this report we have studied the role of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) and tyrosine phosphatase activation on platelet activation by Convulxin (Cvx). Wortmannin, a specific PI3-K inhibitor, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), block Cvx-induced platelet aggregation, granule secretion, inositol phosphate production, and increase in [Ca2+]i. However, PAO does not inhibit Cvx-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, including Syk and PLCgamma2, but blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2. In contrast, Cvx-induced PLCgamma2 tyrosyl phosphorylation was partially inhibited by wortmannin. We conclude that (i) although Cvx and collagen activate platelets by a similar mechanism, different regulatory processes are specific to each agonist; (ii) mechanisms other than tyrosine phosphorylation regulate PLCgamma2 activity; and (iii) besides protein tyrosine kinases, PI3-K (and PTPase) positively modulate platelet activation by both Cvx and collagen, and this enzyme is required for effective transmission of GPVI-Fc receptor gamma chain signal to result in full activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 in Cvx-stimulated platelets.  (+info)

Combining phage display and molecular modeling to map the epitope of a neutralizing antitoxin antibody. (2/124)

Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It is composed of the noncovalent and synergistic association of a weakly toxic phospholipase A2, CB, and a nontoxic three-chain subunit, CA, which increases the lethal potency of CB. The A-56.36 mAb is able to dissociate the crotoxin complex by binding to the CA subunit, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. Because A-56.36 and CB show sequence homology and both compete for binding to CA, we postulated that A-56.36 and CB had overlapping binding sites on CA. By screening random phage-displayed libraries with the mAb, phagotopes bearing the (D/S)GY(A/G) or AAXI consensus motifs were selected. They all bound A-56.36 in ELISA and competed with CA for mAb binding, although with different reactivities. When mice were immunized with the selected clones, polyclonal sera reacting with CA were induced. Interestingly, the raised antibodies retained the crotoxin-dissociating effect of A-56.36, suggesting that the selected peptides may be used to produce neutralizing antibodies. By combining these data with the molecular modeling of CA, it appeared that the functional epitope of A-56.36 on CA was conformational, one subregion being discontinuous and corresponding to the first family of peptides, the other subregion being continuous and composed of amino acids of the second family. Phage-displayed peptides corresponding to fragments of the two identified regions on CA reacted with A-56.36 and with CB. Our data support the hypothesis that A-56.36 and CB interact with common regions of CA, and highlight residues which are likely to be critical for CA-CB complex formation.  (+info)

Interaction of the neurotoxic and nontoxic secretory phospholipases A2 with the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum. (3/124)

Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes possess a protein in their blood, named crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum (CICS), which protects them against crotoxin, the main toxin of their venom. CICS neutralizes the lethal potency of crotoxin and inhibits its phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the specificity of CICS towards snake venom neurotoxic PLA2s (beta-neurotoxins) and nontoxic mammalian PLA2s. This investigation shows that CICS does not affect the enzymatic activity of pancreatic and nonpancreatic PLA2s, bee venom PLA2 and Elapidae beta-neurotoxins but strongly inhibits the PLA2 activity of Viperidae beta-neurotoxins. Surface plasmon resonance and PAGE studies further demonstrated that CICS makes complexes with monomeric and multimeric Viperidae beta-neurotoxins but does not interact with nontoxic PLA2s. In the case of dimeric beta-neurotoxins from Viperidae venoms (crotoxin, Mojave toxin and CbICbII), which are made by the noncovalent association of a PLA2 with a nonenzymatic subunit, CICS does not react with the noncatalytic subunit, instead it binds tightly to the PLA2 subunit and induces the dissociation of the heterocomplex. In vitro assays performed with Torpedo synaptosomes showed a protective action of CICS against Viperidae beta-neurotoxins but not against other PLA2 neurotoxins, on primary and evoked liberation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, CICS is a specific PLA2 inhibitor of the beta-neurotoxins from the Viperidae family.  (+info)

The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom. (4/124)

The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed.  (+info)

Shaking up glycolysis: Sustained, high lactate flux during aerobic rattling. (5/124)

Substantial ATP supply by glycolysis is thought to reflect cellular anoxia in vertebrate muscle. An alternative hypothesis is that the lactate generated during contraction reflects sustained glycolytic ATP supply under well-oxygenated conditions. We distinguished these hypotheses by comparing intracellular glycolysis during anoxia to lactate efflux from muscle during sustained, aerobic contractions. We examined the tailshaker muscle of the rattlesnake because of its uniform cell properties, exclusive blood circulation, and ability to sustain rattling for prolonged periods. Here we show that glycolysis is independent of the O(2) level and supplies one-third of the high ATP demands of sustained tailshaking. Fatigue is avoided by rapid H(+) and lactate efflux resulting from blood flow rates that are among the highest reported for vertebrate muscle. These results reject the hypothesis that glycolysis necessarily reflects cellular anoxia. Instead, they demonstrate that glycolysis can provide a high and sustainable supply of ATP along with oxidative phosphorylation without muscle fatigue.  (+info)

A comparison of RAPD versus microsatellite DNA markers in population studies of the massasauga rattlesnake. (6/124)

We compared genetic differentiation among populations of the threatened massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus c. catenatus) using two types of nuclear molecular markers: randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and microsatellites. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) and G(ST) and F(ST) analyses indicated that levels of among-population differentiation between regional populations (>100 km) were comparable for both markers. However, microsatellites were superior in population assignment tests and at discerning fine-scale genetic differentiation between subpopulations separated by tens of kilometers. These results argue that both types of markers are suitable for defining broad-scale genetic structures in snake populations and can provide important inputs into conservation initiatives of focal taxa. However, our analyses suggest that microsatellites 3re better for detecting structure at limited spatial scales.  (+info)

Insights into population ecology and sexual selection in snakes through the application of DNA-based genetic markers. (7/124)

Hypervariable genetic markers have revolutionized studies of kinship, behavioral ecology, and population biology in vertebrate groups such as birds, but their use in snakes remains limited. To illustrate the value of such markers in snakes, we review studies that have used microsatellite DNA loci to analyze local population differentiation and parentage in snakes. Four ecologically distinct species of snakes all show evidence for differentiation at small spatial scales (2-15 km), but with substantial differences among species. This result highlights how genetic analysis can reveal hidden aspects of the natural history of difficult-to-observe taxa, and it raises important questions about the ecological factors that may contribute to restricted gene flow. A 3-year study of genetic parentage in marked populations of the northern water snake showed that (1) participation in mating aggregations was a poor predictor of genetic-based measures of reproductive success; (2) multiple paternity was high, yet there was no detectable fitness advantage to multiple mating by females; and (3) the opportunity for selection was far higher in males than in females due to a larger variance in male reproductive success, and yet this resulted in no detectable selection on morphological variation in males. Thus genetic markers have provided accurate measures of individual reproductive success in this species, an important step toward resolving the adaptive significance of key features including multiple paternity and reversed sexual size dimorphism. Overall these studies illustrate how genetic analyses of snakes provide previously unobtainable information of long-standing interest to behavioral ecologists.  (+info)

Purification and characterisation of a haemorrhagic fraction from the venom of the Uracoan rattlesnake Crotalus vegrandis. (8/124)

Uracoan rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis) venom was subjected to chromatographic, electrophoretic, biochemical and in vivo haemorrhagic analysis. A haemorrhagic toxin (Uracoina-1) active on skin at the site of inoculation in mice was purified by Mono Q2 anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion (SE) high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified preparation was a protein of M(r) 58,000 as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denatured conditions and with silver staining. The use of EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited haemorrhagic and proteolytic activities. Inhibitors of serine proteinases such as PMSF and TCLK had no effect on the haemorrhagic fraction. Uracoina-1 hydrolyses casein, hide powder azure and fibrinogen have an optimal pH of 8.2. It rapidly digests the A alpha-chain of fibrinogen. Thermal denaturation of Uracoina-1 after exposure at 60 degrees C for 15 min led to inactivation of the haemorrhagic activity. In addition, Uracoina-1 is myotoxic, lacking haemolytic, defibrinating and lethal effects. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 residues) was determined.  (+info)

*Eastern diamondback rattlesnake

Images of Crotalus adamanteus at SREL Herpetology. Accessed 2 March 2007.. *Crotalus adamanteus at Munich AntiVenom INdex. ... Clinical Resource Center (Crotalus adamanteus) *^ a b c d Norris R (2004). "Venom Poisoning in North American Reptiles". In: ... "Crotalus adamanteus ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 November 2006.. *^ Wood, Gerald (1983). The ... Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 297-298).. *Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr (1982). Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification ...

*List of snakes of Georgia (U.S. state)

Eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) Pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus ...

*Rattlesnake round-up

Crotalus atrox. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. . Downloaded on 11 March 2015. "American Society of ... Most roundups target the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), though some events target prairie rattlesnakes (C. ... Effects of rattlesnake roundups on the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). Herpetological Conservation and ...

*List of amphibians and reptiles of Oregon

The western rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus) is a venomous pitviper species found in North America in the western United States ... "Crotalus oreganus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 November 2006. ...

*List of U.S. state reptiles

Under Crotalus (one of two rattlesnake genera), Arizona named Crotalus willardi willardi, while West Virginia chose Crotalus ... "Crotalus horridus". The IUCN red list of threatened species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ... Shearer 1994, p. 311 "Crotalus willardi". The IUCN red list of threatened species. International Union for Conservation of ...

*Lee Fitzgerald

Crotalus atrox. Morphology. Herpetological Review 30(1): 44 Minutes of the Board of Trustees Meeting of the Herpetologists' ...

*Golden banana frog

The AmphibiaWeb includes Afrixalus crotalus in this species as a subspecies, whereas the Amphibian Species of the World and the ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2013). "Afrixalus crotalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e. ... IUCN Red List of Threatened Species treat A. crotalus as a full species. Adult males measure 19-24 mm (0.75-0.94 in) and ...

*Isla Tortuga

It has a surface area of 11.374 km² (4.39 sq mi). The Tortuga Island rattlesnake (Crotalus tortugensis) is a species endemic to ... in Spanish). Frost DR (2007). "Crotalus tortugensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2007: e.T64336A12771629. ...

*Sistrurus ravus

Crotalus pusillus, Crotalus aquilus, and Crotalus lepidus. This study also confirmed strong genetic differentiation among the ... A study using mitochondrial DNA strongly suggests that S. ravus is part of a species complex including Crotalus triseriatus, ... "Crotalus ravus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2007: e.T64330A12771045. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS. ... a case study of the Crotalus triseriatus species group of montane rattlesnakes". Journal of Biogeography. 38 (4): 697-710. doi: ...

*Isla San Lorenzo Sur

... has seven species of reptiles: Aspidoscelis cana (Isla Salsipuedes whiptail), Crotalus lorenzoensis (San ... Frost, D.R. & Hollingsworth, B. (2007). "Crotalus lorenzoensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2007: e. ... Crotalus lorenzoensis is endemic to the island-it is found nowhere else. It is abundant on the island. "Isla San Lorenzo Sur". ...

*Santa Catalina rattlesnake - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Santa Catalina Rattlesnake (Crotalus catalinensis), also known as the "Santa Catalina Island Rattlesnake", is a species of ... While other rattlesnakes of the genus "Crotalus" are mainly terrestrial (live on land), the Santa Catalina Rattlesnake's small ...

*Black-tailed jackrabbit

Rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.) and garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) prey on black-tailed jackrabbit young. Raccoons (Procyon ...

*Hemipenis

Hemipenes on the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Hemipenes can be examined on a living snake or lizard by ...

*Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus

Crotalus tergeminus, p. 342.) Sistrurus catenatus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 5 December 2007. Sistrurus ...

*Snake venom

The tropical rattlesnake Crotalus durissus produces convulxin, a coagulant. Snake cytotoxin InterPro: IPR003572 The toxicity of ... In Brazil, serum prepared with the venom of lanceheads (Bothrops spp.) is without action on rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) venom. ... However, studies of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), a snake with highly proteolytic venom, show that ... Mackessy, Stephen P. (2010). "Evolutionary trends in venom composition in the Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis sensu lato ...

*Burrough Valley

"Crotalus oreganus oreganus - Northern Pacific Rattlesnake". CalHerps.com. 2000. Retrieved 2010-09-05. http://www. ...

*Southwestern United States

Crotalus cerastes cercobombus); the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus cerberus); the western rattlesnake (Crotalus ... Crotalus willardi), the most recent rattlesnake species to be discovered in the United States, including the New Mexico ridge- ... nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus), and the Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake, the state reptile of Arizona; and the ... Crotalus atrox); the Trans-Pecos copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster); the Sonoran sidewinder ( ...

*Lachesis muta

Crotalus mutus, new species, p. 373). (in Latin). O'Shea M (2005). Venomous Snakes of the World. Princeton, New Jersey: ...

*Tracy M. Barker

Trailing Behavior in Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Journal of Herpetology, 16, No 3, 1982, p 284-293 T. J. Miller: ...

*Western diamondback rattlesnake

List of crotaline species and subspecies Crotalus by common name Crotalus by taxonomic synonyms Crotalinae by common name ... Crotalus atrox can be active at any time of the day or night when conditions are favorable. It is primarily diurnal and ... Crotalus atrox, pp. 5-6.) Yancey FD II, Meinzer W, Jones C. 1997. Aberrant morphology in western diamondback rattlesnakes ( ... Crotalus atrox Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake. Encyclopedia of Life Feldman, A., & Meiri, S. (2012). Length-mass allometry ...

*Snake - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) sidewinding. This is most often used by colubroid snakes (colubrids, elapids, and ...

*Arizona diamond rattlesnake

... is a common name that may refer to either of the following species: Crotalus atrox, a.k.a. the ... Crotalus oreganus, a.k.a. the western rattlesnake.. ...

*L-amino-acid oxidase

Wellner D.; Meister A. (1960). "Crystalline L-amino acid oxidase of Crotalus adamanteus". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2013-2018. PMID ... "Isolation of a new L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom". Toxicon. 47 (1): 47-57. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon ...

*Snake skeleton

A rattlesnake skull (Crotalus sp.). Solenoglyphous snakes (pipe grooved) have the most advanced venom delivery method of any ...

*Silas Weir Mitchell

Crotalus mitchellii, the speckled rattlesnake, was named after Mitchell. Weir Mitchell skin - a red, glossy, perspiring skin ...

*Topanga State Park

Snakes present include the Southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri). Topanga State Park is home to many species ...
As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel) criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total ...
The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes presents various substances, including a serine protease with thrombin-like activity, called gyroxin, that clots plasmatic fibrinogen and promote the fibrin formation. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the gyroxin enzyme from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. For isolation and purification, the following methods were employed: gel filtration on Sephadex G75 column and affinity chromatography on benzamidine Sepharose 6B; 12% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; N-terminal sequence analysis; cDNA cloning and expression through RT-PCR and crystallization tests. Theoretical molecular modeling was performed using bioinformatics tools based on comparative analysis of other serine proteases deposited in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. Protein N-terminal sequencing produced a single chain with a molecular mass of similar to 30 kDa while its full-length cDNA had 714 bp which encoded a ...
These snakes may reach ages beyond 20 years of age. Unlike most snakes, the males are larger than the females. This may be a result of selection for large males that will win the arduous male-male, non-lethal wrestling contests that allow the winner to breed with a nearby female.. Females will produce a clutch of up to around 20 live-born babies that are especially large in size. The myth that baby diamondback rattlesnakes hide underground, and grow for a few years before surfacing, likely comes from the fact that few people realize that an 18-inch rattlesnake is actually a newborn. Like all other rattlesnakes yet studied, the female will stay with her young and protect them until their first shed cycle, at which time they will disperse on their own.. ...
A crotoxin homolog was purified from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom using molecular exclusion and reverse-phase HPLC. This crotoxin contained one PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) and four crotapotin isoforms, whereas crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom had three PLA2 isoforms and two crotapotin isoforms. SDS-PAGE showed that the C. d. collilineatus PLA2 and crotapotin had relative molecular mass of 15 and 9 kDa, respectively. Neither the PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) nor the crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) had any neurotoxicity in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations when tested alone. However, when PLA2 and crotapotin were coincubated before testing, the neurotoxicity was restored to a level similar to test in the venom in native crotoxin. The two crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) differed in their ability to inhibit PLA2 activity, perhaps because of variations in their affinities for this enzyme. Cdcolli III F6 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior, with maximal activity at pH ...
The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was designated Extirpated by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) in 2001 and was officially listed under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in June 2003. SARA (Section 37) requires the competent Minister to prepare a recovery strategy for all listed extirpated, endangered, or threatened species. The Canadian Wildlife Service - Ontario, Environment Canada, led the development of this recovery strategy, and it was developed in cooperation with the Government of Ontario. All responsible jurisdictions reviewed and acknowledged receipt of this strategy. The strategy meets SARA requirements in terms of content and process (Sections 39-41).
A 50 kDa protein that inhibits platelet adhesion to collagen has been isolated from snake venom of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) and has been named catrocollastatin. The cDNA cloning of catrocollastatin has been accomplished. A full-length cDNA of 2310 bp with an open reading frame between nucleotides 51 and 1880 was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 609 amino acids. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of haemorrhagic metalloproteinase jararhagin from Bothrops jararaca venom, HR1B from Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Ht-e from C. atrox and trigramin from T. gramineus. Like jararhagin and HR1B, catrocollastatin is a multidomain molecule composed of an N-terminal domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. In the disintegrin-like domain, the frequently seen RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence is replaced by SECD (Ser-Glu-Cys-Asp). This cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (fall ...
Die chromatographische Auftrennung von Klapperschlangen- (Crotalus durissus terrificus) Gift ermöglicht, den Unterschied zwischen Phospholipase A und
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Nine of the 17 venoms here tested were found capable of coagulating citrated blood or plasma. As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus). The optimum pH for this coagulation was determined for 3 of these, and was found in each case to be approximately pH 6.5, the same as that for the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Unlike thrombin, however, the fibrinogen-coagulating activity of the venoms was unaffected by the antithrombin elaborated in the course of anaphylactic shock.. In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or ...
In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol) at 37 °C and a discrete reduction in the UV scanning signal and a modification of the circular dichroism spectra were observed after treatment with naringin, suggesting modifications of the secondary structure of the protein. This flavonoid was able to decrease enzymatic activity and some pharmacological effects, such as myonecrosis, platelet aggregation, and neurotoxic activity caused by sPLA2, however, the inflammatory effect was not affected by naringin. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data were collected for sPLA2
James Tyler Kent describes the symptoms of the homeopathic medicine Crotalus Horridus in great detail and compares it with other homeopathy remedies. ...
Define Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Mottled Rock Rattlesnake synonyms, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake pronunciation, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake translation, English dictionary definition of Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Noun 1. Crotalus lepidus - mountain rock dweller of Mexico and most southern parts of United States southwest rock rattlesnake rattler, rattlesnake - pit...
Researchers suggest that timber rattlesnake, whose scientific name is Crotalus horridus, plays an important role in keeping Lyme disease in check.
Cohorts. Am J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;40(11):2648-2652. PubMed. Gowd KH, Blais KD [student], Elmslie KS, Steiner AM, Olivera BM, Bulaj G. Dissecting a role of evolutionary-conserved but noncritical disulfide bridges in cysteine-rich peptides using ω-conotoxin GVIA and its selenocysteine analogs. Biopolymers. 2012;98(3):212-23. doi: 10.1002/bip.22047. PubMed. Fry BG, Casewell NR, Wüster W, Vidal N, Young B, Jackson TN. The structural and functional diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system. Toxicon. 2012 Sep 15;60(4):434-48. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 Mar 14. PubMed. Kohl T, Colayori SE, Westhoff G, Bakken GS, Young BA. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Biol. 2012 Aug 1;215(Pt 15):2630-6. doi:10.1242/jeb.065896. PubMed. Kondrashov PE, Agadjanian AK. A nearly complete skeleton of Ernanodon (Mammalia, Palaeanodonta) from Mongolia: morphofunctional analysis. J Vert Paleontol ...
A hiker remained hospitalized Tuesday after receiving a rare rattlesnake bite while he was hiking in southeastern Minnesota, officials said. The 28-year-old Mounds View man was in fair condition Tuesday at Gundersen Lutheran Health System in La Crosse, Wis., where he was taken by ambulance Friday after being bitten by a timber rattlesnake in Beaver Creek Valley State Park near Caledonia, known habitat for the venomous snake. The man, who declined to be interviewed, was recovering from what appears to be an extremely rare event: a timber rattlesnake striking out at a human without provocation. "Nobody knows what provoked the strike," said Ed Quinn, a wildlife biologist and coordinator of natural resource management for parks and trails with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. "Its just really rare for this to happen." The last known time a timber rattler bit a person in Minnesota was 2000; the last time one bit without provocation was 1996. The last known fatality in Minnesota from a ...
Jørgensen, D., C.C. Gates, and D.P. Whiteside. (2008). A Review of Radio-Telemetry Research on the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) and select subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In Hayes, W.K., K.R. Beaman, M.D. Cardwell, and S.P. Bush (Eds.). The Biology of Rattlesnakes, Loma Linda University Press, Loma Linda, California. Pp 303-316 ...
Antivenin activity of melanin extracted from black tea (MEBT) was reported for the first time. The antagonistic effect of MEBT was evaluated for Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broadbanded copperhead), Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) snake venoms administered i.p. to ICR mice. MEBT was injected i.p. immediately after the venom administration in dose of 3 mg per mouse in the same place of venom injection. MEBT demonstrated neutralization effect against all venoms tested. The greatest antivenin effect of MEBT was found against Japanese mamushi snake venom. In this case, half the mice died within 2.5 +/- 0.7 h after injection of 0.9 mg/kg of venom. An immediate injection of MEBT substantially reduced the toxic effect of venom and extended time at the 50% level of survival up to 52.3 +/- 2.3 h. The antivenin activity of MEBT is due to chelating of Ca++ and non-specific binding of phospholipase A2. The inhibitory effe
After being crammed in a community den all winter, the western diamondback rattlesnakes of Texoma are emerging sexually driven, hungry, active -- and HUGE!
TUCSON - As soon as a rattlesnake sinks its fangs into a victim, the venom starts traveling through the bloodstream. Within seconds, people can experience pain, swelling, bleeding and trouble breathing.. Its a race against time to get to a hospital, the only place that readily offers anti-venom. The longer it takes to get treatment, the higher the odds of long-term injury or death.. One University of Arizona doctor hopes to buy people more time before they get to the hospital.. Professor Vance Nielsen, the vice chair for research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the College of Medicine - Tucson, said his research could help stall the spread of rattlesnake venom through the body.. Nielsen is researching the potential of injecting a combination of carbon monoxide and iron in a rattlesnake bite area to slow the spread of venom. So far, he has made progress in rabbits, buying about an hour of time.. The idea is not to replace anti-venom, but extend the time patients have until they can get to ...
They are commonly found in rock and debris piles, animal burrows and crevices. They will seek out roads, open sandy areas and rocks to sun themselves during cooler temperatures.. They are more active in spring and summer. But it is important to remember you can encounter rattlesnakes anytime and anywhere. Rattlesnakes prey on mice and other small rodents. They dont lay eggs, but rather give live birth to young snakes about 9 to 12 inches long.. Like other snakes, mammals and birds, rattlesnakes fill an important place in the ecosystem by preying on rodents and keeping their populations in balance. When the rattlesnake is found in a backyard, this ecological role may not seem so apparent or important.. Other snakes such as the gopher snake, red racer and king snake are common on Edwards. Many people kill gopher snakes confusing their tan coloration and indistinct black markings for a rattlesnake.. Gopher snakes, red racers and other snakes often hiss and shake their tails imitating the motion ...
Resumo: Venenos de serpentes constituem uma rica fonte de moléculas biologicamente ativas capazes de atuar em alvos celulares específicos e modular uma distinta variedade de funções fisiológicas. Fosfolipases A2 homólogas Lys49 são abundantes proteínas presentes nessas complexas secreções, que embora cataliticamente inativas, desempenham uma ampla gama de atividades, tais como: miotoxicidade, citotoxicidade, atividade antibacteriana, antifúngica, entre outras. O veneno de Crotalus oreganus abyssus não tem sido muito estudado, portanto, a caracterização de seus componentes representa uma ferramenta biotecnológica valiosa para o estudo dos eventos fisiopatológicos do envenenamento e para uma melhor compreensão de seus efeitos biológicos. No presente trabalho, uma fosfolipase A2 homóloga Lys49, denominada CoaTx-II, do veneno de Crotalus oreganus abyssus foi purificada e caracterizada estrutural e farmacologicamente. CoaTx-II foi isolada com elevado grau de pureza através da ...
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
ABSTRACTSmall membranous vesicles are small closed fragments of membrane. They are released from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) or shed from the surface membrane (microvesicles). They contains various bioactive molecules and their molecular composition varies depending on their cellular origin. Sm
By Katie Bauer - bio , email. LUBBOCK, TX (KCBD) - Several people have left comments on our Facebook page, saying theyve seen more snakes on the South Plains since the July 4th weekend floods. One Tahoka woman is just glad her father is alive after being bitten by a rattlesnake multiple times.. Penny Redman said she always knew her dad was a fighter. "Hes been a real trooper, hes a tough man," said Redman.. A couple of weeks ago, 87-year-old Pug Parker of Tahoka went outside to get something out of a toolbox. "Hes diabetic so his vision is very poor, he reached in with his left hand because he cant see, feeling for a screw and evidently there was a mom and some babies," said Redman.. Parker was bitten ten times. Baby rattlesnake bites are more venomous than adult rattlesnakes. "They dont know how to stop releasing the venom. They release all they have. Adults can judge how much they want to release," said Redman. Parker was rushed by AeroCare to Covenant Hospital, and on the way to the ...
Gyroxin is a glycoprotein isolated from rattlesnake venom, with known thrombin-like serine protease properties and behavioral action in the CNS. The mechanism of the latter has eluded experimenters for three decades. In this paper about the in vitro chick retina we demonstrate an excitotoxic CNS action of Gyroxin by observing retinal Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS). These show sudden dynamic changes in the intact tissue due to gyroxin action. The very fast kinetics of this response precludes deep tissue penetration by the protein, a mechanism of tissue response described here for the first time. At nanomolar concentrations, Gyroxin alters profoundly the optical profiles of retinal spreading depression waves (RSDs), suggesting modulation of ionic transport and metabolism. This effect is reversible in contrast with the acute cell lysis induced with gyroxin pulses at higher concentration. Because there may be more than one target of Gyroxine at the retinal inner limiting membrane, additional ...
Status Assessment for Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus c. catenatus) 1998 Written by: Jennifer Szymanski U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Division 1 Federal Drive Fort Snelling, Minnesota 55111 Acknowledgements: Numerous State and Federal agency personnel and interested individuals provided information regarding Sistrurus c. catenatus status. The following individuals graciously provided critical input and numerous reviews on portions of the manuscript: Richard Seigel, Robert Hay, Richard King, Bruce Kingsbury, Glen Johnson, John Legge, Michael Oldham, Kent Prior, Mary Rabe, Andy Shiels, Doug Wynn, and Jeff Davis. Mary Mitchell and Kim Mitchell provided graphic assistance. Cover photo provided by Bruce Kingsbury Table of Contents Taxonomy....................................................................................................................... 1 Physical Description....................................................................................................... 3 ...
Armstrong, B.L. and Murphy, J.B. 1979. The natural history of Mexican rattlesnakes. University of Kansas Museum Natural History, Special Publications 1(5): 1-88.. Beck, D.D. 1995. Ecology and energetics of three sympatric rattlesnakes in the Sonoran Desert. Journal of Herpetology 29: 211-223.. Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 743 pp.. Brattstrom, B.H. 1964. Evolution of the pit vipers. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 13: 185-286.. Campbell, J.A. and Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.. Campbell, J.A. and Lamar, W.W. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Comstock, Ithaca, New York and London, UK.. Ernst, C.H. 1992. Venomous Reptiles of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.. Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, ...
Rattlesnakes are pit vipers and include the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Pit vipers may be identified by a heat-sensing pit anteroinferior to the eye.
Rattlesnakes are pit vipers and include the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Pit vipers may be identified by a heat-sensing pit anteroinferior to the eye.
5-nucleotidase is an enzyme with system name 5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:a 5-ribonucleotide + H2O↔ a rib
1998 Jane and Whitney Harris Lecture. The Jane and Whitney Harris lecture was held at the St. Louis Zoo (Living World Auditorium) on Tuesday 14 April. Dr. Harry W. Greene, herpetologist and evolutionary biologist with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley lectured on: Frogs and snakes: The texture of biodiversity. The lecture not only provided an intimate look into the details of some of the worlds most fascinating creatures, but also into the man who has devoted his life to understanding and conserving these organisms. Dr. Greenes dedication to education and scientific research was evident as he described how snakes manage to swallow food items much larger than their head and why female western diamondback rattlesnakes forgo food for several months to take care of their offspring. Dr. Greenes presentation and the spectacular slides, many photographed by Michael and Patricia Fogden, enthralled the audience of 200.. DIRECTOR IS DISTINGUISHED VISITING ...
massasauga: Sistrurus catenatus small North American rattlesnake of the family Viperidae, found in prairies, swamps, and woodlands from the Great Lakes to Arizona. It is typically 45 to 75...
A novel non-hemorrhagic basic metalloprotease, rubelase, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. Rubelase hydrolyzes succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl p-nitroanilide (STANA), a specific substrate for elastase, and the hydrolytic activity was inhibited by chelating agents. It also hydrolyzes collagen and fibrinogen. However, hemorrhagic activity was not observed. By ESI/Q-TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry combined with Edman sequencing procedure, the molecular mass of rubelase was determined to be 23,266 Da. Although its primary structure was similar to rubelysin (HT-2), a hemorrhagic metalloprotease isolated from the same snake venom, the circumstances surrounding putative zinc binding domain HEXXHXXGXXH were found to be different when the three-dimensional computer models of both metalloproteases were compared. The cytotoxic effects of rubelase and rubelysin on cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells were also different, indicating that the substitution of several amino acid
Keep your pet on trails where you can see the path in front of you. Avoid tall grassy areas and dense shrubs where snakes may be hiding, especially around streams and riverbeds. Always keep a veterinary hospitals phone number with you that is located close to the area you are hiking. Rattlesnakes typically only bite when provoked and, unfortunately, your dog is probably jus the one to make the snake feel unsafe; therefore, if you are in an area thats known to have rattlesnakes in the area, keep your pet on a short, nonretractable leash. If you should encounter a snake, keep your distance (at least 10 feet to minimize vibrations the snake can sense) with your dog close to you. Walk away slowly. Rattlesnakes have a striking distance of approximately 2/3 of their bodies length. So a 3-foot snake could strike about 2 feet. Apparently there are snake bite vaccinations designed for high-risk areas, though it is debatable as to whether they are effective. Talk to your vet about the pros and cons of ...
there are numerous studies going on with certain species of snakes,including Crotalus Horridus(Timber Rattlesnake) that are showing venom evolution. In certain areas,where food has began to become scarce,many individual snakes are found to be carrying neurotoxic venom,which is interesting as they are known for their potent Hemotoxic venom. The hypothesis is that neurotoxins work much faster on prey,thus lessening the chance of the animal losing its meal ...
There are a lot of amazing rattlesnake facts out there. For many people, just the idea of coming across a rattlesnake while out on a hike or gardening is too much to bear. They illicit a type of fear that is very intense and most times unwarranted. Often, people who run across these snakes will assume the worst and go running for the hills. While they are indeed animals that you want to keep your distance from, its not necessary to recoil in horror at the very mention of them. Theyre actually really interesting little animals. Here are ten of the amazing rattlesnake facts that set them apart from other animals.. ...
The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) is considered an endangered species with only 45% of historic populations known to be extant today. This study aims to identify the presence of the Eastern Massasauga through genetic analysis and to determine genetic variability and diversity of populations in Michigan. Digestion of shed skins was performed by collagenase incubation followed by Proteinase K. Intronic regions of the TBP gene within the nuclear genome were amplified using PCR. A total of 7 out of 14 samples presented bands within expected product range (800pb). The purified PCR products will be sequenced and aligned with other sequences obtained from similar studies.
Texas Roadhouse shows us how to make Rattlesnake Bites.   Ingredients Step 1 3 large jalapenos, seeded and cut in half 1/2 large red pepper 2 cups Monterey jack cheese, shredded   Step 2 1 large egg 2 tablespoons milk 1 tablespoon flour 1 teaspoon Parmesan, grat...
Most rattlesnake bites contain hemotoxic elements which damage tissue and affect the circulatory system by destroying blood cells, skin tissues and causing internal hemorrhaging.
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
His throat began to swell and his blood pressure dropped.. The 50-year-old man had driven to the store for some cleaning supplies and gasoline for his chain saw. But then he saw the snake - an eastern diamondback rattler he estimated to be about 6 feet long - stretched along a dirt road about a half-mile from his Putnam County home in Florahome.. He doesnt like to see snakes killed and knows most of his neighbors - including his wife - couldnt resist speeding up and running over the rattler. Petruski said he stopped and attempted to shoo it into the woods.. "He wasnt getting off that damn road," Petruski said. "... Normally they just take off.". Petruski said he moved closer, picked up a stick and tried to prod it along. Thats when the snake lashed out and bit him on the hand.. A metallic taste invaded his mouth, he said, as the venom was absorbed.. He remembers calling his wife, driving home then going inside to find a belt for a tourniquet. But instead he collapsed on the couch, his wife, ...
The amino acid sequence of rattlesnake cytochrome c was originally reported in 1965, and was one of the earlier sequences to be studied. When compared with other mitochondrial cytochromes c, the snake sequence was soon seen to be anomalous. There were several positions in which the snake protein resembled human cytochrome c, although comparable anomalies were not reported for the protein from other reptiles such as lizard and turtle. Explanations of these results have included accelerated evolution in the snake lineage, paralogy rather than orthology, and faulty determination of the sequence, and the rattlesnake is now often omitted from cytochrome c phylogenetic trees. We have re-investigated the sequence of the snake protein, and believe that the correct sequence differs in nine places from that used for evolutionary theorizing since 1965. Four of these differences are near the haem-attachment site, in a region that was only analysed for amino acid composition in the original investigation. ...
The fact that a patient has been bitten by a known venomous snake and the presence of bite marks do not automatically allow the conclusion that a clinically relevant injection of venom has taken place.. It is estimated that in 75% of North American crotalid bites no clinically relevant envenoming occurs (Minton 1987a); in contrast, in only 40-75% of Micrurus fulvius bites does envenoming not take place (Russell 1983, Kitchens and van Mierop 1987).. Following North American crotalid bites, strong local pain, swelling, discolouration of the skin and occasionally hyposensitivity in the region of the bite are early signs of a relevant injection of venom. If these do not occur within 15-30 min after the bite, it is highly likely that no venom was injected. Important exceptions to this rule are some populations of Crotalus scutulatus ("type A"), C. mitchelli, C. lepidus and C. tigris, which can cause systemic envenoming without significant local effects (Minton 1987a). Local symptoms may also be ...
However, if you suspect a fracture affecting a milk duct chance of sperm being present to the joints, is a possibility. Transport through membranes for distribution by heyl chemisch-pharmazeutische fabrik gmbh & co. Decreases potential for enhancing medication adherence. These activities relate to each of the self-system. A particularly vulnerable group are monobactams such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone. Action your doctor may rmend a cosmetic coating that can be prevented. Prevent heat loss during first trimester of about 1. 6 mg/kg up to a negative impact on the self and others in discussion and questioning before discharge. Thus promoting self-care, use language the client and family. An possible cause your childs clumsiness. 1118 2003 by the eastern and western diamondback crotalus cerastes cerastes mojave desert rattlesnake (c. Administration of naloxone is approximately 26% of the family. Offer support and accurate information, during the day. ...
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS - A 31-year-old Steamboat Springs endurance athlete who had just moved to Golden was killed Saturday after being bitten by a rattlesnake. According to the Jefferson County Sheriffs Office, Daniel Hohs was about...
Enzymatische Spaltung nativer cystinhaltiger Polypeptide durch Thermolysin (E.S. 3.4.4.), II: Vergleich von Thermolysin mit α-Protease aus Crotalus atrox-Gift und Subtilisin (Enzymic hydrolysis of native cystine-containing polypeptides with thermolysin. II. Comparison of thermolysin with α-protease from Crotalus atrox poison and subtilisin) ...
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Synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta. 3 synonyms for Crotalus viridis: prairie rattler, prairie rattlesnake, Western rattlesnake. What are synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta?
I had a sabbatical in Singapore, at the National University. I was seated on the patio of the university canteen eating one of my typical lunches: curried mutton with hot lentils, rice and a durian milkshake, served on a banana leaf. I struck up a conversation with a biochemist who studied the structure and function of snake venom proteins. He was systematically analyzing the proteins in various venoms looking for proteins that interact with essential features of cells. This was a potential initial step for the design of new drugs. I remember asking him how he knew which part of the venom proteins was important and which parts just served as a rigid platform to display the active parts. He said that it was simple, the water-binding, hydrophilic amino acids that formed amorphous loops bordered by sulfhydryl-bonding cysteines were his targets. Ten years layer, I observed that these loops also have the basic amino acids (K, lysine and R, arginine) that form heparin-binding domains ...
The emergence of a skin-destroying fungal disease is having a deadly impact on snake populations, including a threatened species of rattlesnake in the United States.
Bruce Peninsula National Park is home to an abundance of wildlife, including the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake, poison ivy and black bears, be prepared with safety information.
Using head shape and genetic analyses, new research challenges the formerly designated subspecies within the western rattlesnake species. These findings have important implications for ecological conservation efforts across the United States and could provide the basis for new species designations.
Rattlesnakes are a much-dreaded phenomenon of the American Southwest. Its important not to vilify them too much because They help to keep mice and other rodent pests to manageable numbers They dont attack unless cornered - theyd much rather slither away Their skins are highly sensitive and they can feel pain Only literally a handful…
aka rattlesnake hawkweed Hieracium venosum Asteraceae This species of hawkweed is found in all US states east of Mississippi, as well as Quebec, and west of the Mississippi in Missouri and British Columbia. Its endangered in Maine. There are 37 native and 15 alien species of Heiracium in North America; at least one grows…
HENRYETTA, Okla. (KTUL) -- A little girl bitten by a snake in her own backyard is recovering in a Tulsa hospital.Tammy and Jess Collins have not been sleeping well. At least not since Saturday when the unthinkable happened.
Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated ...
It is great you made them aware, and maybe with gentle pushing you can get it changed. There must be other less lethal ways to do erosion control, i.e. sisal or soft fabric type mesh rather than plastic which makes ligature like gill nets fatal or disfiguring to reptiles and birds getting trapped under it. There is no excuse for this on a public works project, I really encourage you and applaud you for making them and us aware of it. I have seen similar, on smaller scale in state parks and other protected areas, the masses just dont know what this stuff will do. I formerly used it myself in the garden, and it quickly ensnared and maimed or killed Pituophis Crotalus and even Sceloporus. I recall someone posting photos of Lampropeltis in Florida, ensnared in the similar netting under carpet...bad stuff, and people need to be educated. Yes, I quit using it once I saw what could happen ...
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Just a little note to let anyone who cares know that Im officially over Texas... Last night, I noticed a postcard-size advertisement on the ground on my front porch, so I thought I should go out and pick it up before it blows away and litters someone elses front porch. I saw what I thought was a piece of rope next to one of my pumpkins thats decorating my porch. Oh, but wait, that rope is moving... Oh yeah, thats right... It was a SNAKE!! I screamed, Bryan hung up the phone with his parents (who he was talking to at the time... sorry about that), and he came running. He went out to the shed in the backyard and got the garden hoe, but was unable to get it before it slithered into the bushes in front of the house... We never found him again... So, now, I have a nasty rattlesnake living in my front bushes!! And, yes, Bryan (who knows a great deal more about snakes than I do) verified that it was, indeed, a rattlesnake!! That makes the SECOND snake Ive seen and weve not been able to kill since ...
BTG has endorsed rattlesnake conservation efforts in Texas, a state with a high snake population, according to the complaint. It opposes "roundups," which the lawsuit describes as "bloody state fairs at which rattlesnakes captured by locals sometimes by gassing (the use of noxious fumes to force snakes from their dens and into the clutches of hunters) are brought in for a bounty, milked for venom, and then usually butchered for their meat and skins ...
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For my leg, the plan is to make two great big and deep incisions, from just below my knee to my ankle. One on the inside of my calf, the other on the outside of my leg. The cuts are made deep, in order to cut through the fascia (the tough membrane that covers groups of muscles). Each group of enclosed muscle is called a compartment. When the compartment fills with blood, fluid, etc. the pressure on blood vessels and nerves can cause permanent damage. When the pressure is too great, muscle and tissue quickly begins to die and decay…Hence the emergency to cut it open in a large way ...
For my leg, the plan is to make two great big and deep incisions, from just below my knee to my ankle. One on the inside of my calf, the other on the outside of my leg. The cuts are made deep, in order to cut through the fascia (the tough membrane that covers groups of muscles). Each group of enclosed muscle is called a compartment. When the compartment fills with blood, fluid, etc. the pressure on blood vessels and nerves can cause permanent damage. When the pressure is too great, muscle and tissue quickly begins to die and decay…Hence the emergency to cut it open in a large way ...
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The following are some things we can do to prevent rattlesnake bite. When walking in the desert or in any area known for reptile habitation, always look where you step, or place your foot, or feet (caution should always be used at night, late evening, and early morning). Always look where you are placing your hands or fingers. Use extreme caution before placing your hands where you can not see what you are touching. Always look before sitting down, especially around or near boulders or brush. Think before defecating or urinating in the outdoors. I have observed a variety of bites during the past fifty years that resulted from total lack of common sense. Small children must be closely supervised at all times in areas of possible snake infestation or inhabitation ...
Like most teams, the Diamondbacks plan to focus in on pitching. However, they are planning to look at both free agents and through trades. They were very pleased with the success of Doug Davis and may try to pull of another trade like that. In an interview with MLB Rumors, GM Josh Byrnes said, "Livan is going to be entering the free agent market and we feel that there are some good pitchers that could help out our club." So who could those pitchers be? Livan is already out the door and probably on his way to the Mets. My guess is he will look to the Angels and Ervin Santana, the Indians and Jake Westbrook or Cliff Lee, the Orioles and Daniel Cabrera, and the Marlins and Dontrelle Willis. Although the Marlins might not want to trade him, the Diamondbacks have a lot of depth and could offer a deal including top prospect Carlos Gonzalez. However, they could also load a deal with Carlos Quentin that would include Juan Cruz, Connor Jackson, and Dustin Nippert. Personally, I think the Diamondbacks ...
Wendy Townsend says the Rattlesnake Roundup, where 4,000 pounds of snakes were slaughtered, is barbaric. The event should celebrate, not torment, snakes.
TEXAS troubadour Joe Ely named his two most recent albums - "Silver City" and "Happy Songs from Rattlesnake Gulch" - after...
A MAN IN THE WHEATFIELD by Robert Laxalt. 178 pages. Harper & Row. $3.95.Smale Calder kept rattlesnakes. He tamed them, talked with them, let them crawl on his arms and shoulders and dart their...
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We understand that an emergency trip to the vet can stressful for both owners and their pets. Our goal is to minimize the stress of your experience, and to be responsive to all of your needs.. Whether your horse is colicing, your dog has been bitten by a rattlesnake, or your cow is having trouble giving birth…we are here to help. ...
Ever since the release of the 1972Nuggets: Original Artyfacts comp there have been bands like the Creeps, and most likely there always will be. The Swedish retro act aims squarely at mid-60s garage rock, aping the bands that aped the yardbirds, but thanks to inspired playing and inventive arrangements, they succeed in adding to the tradition rather than just running in place. Recorded with period-appropriate atmosphere (i.e. a thick, dirty echo), the Creeps bang out nine originals that channel the Animals and Them, delivered with power and precision. "Down at the Nightclub" leads off Enjoy the Creeps with a stiff swing and a booze-positive philosophy, then breaks down with a jazzy piano coda. Other highlights include the lascivious "Hi, Hi, Pretty Girl," the Farfisa-driven instrumental "Rattlesnake Shake," and the frantic drum rolls and fuzz solo on "Aint No Square." A medley of Sonics covers ("Maintaining My Cool" and "Im A Rolling Stone") is reverent and energetic, but wont change anyones ...
Before the start of the race, I asked James Varner, Race Director and all around nice guy, which Brooks trail shoes, the Pure Grit or the Cascadia would work best. He thought about it for a second then said "well, its a little rocky, so maybe the Cascadia would be the better choice." As I was heading down from aid station 10.5 to the main trail I thought about what James had said. "A little rocky" would be like saying Bill Gates had "a little money". There were rocks of all sizes and shapes, some hiding rattlesnakes. I wore my Cascadias, which did a good job in protecting my foot, but I did catch a rock and bruise the outside of my right foot. I was now running/walking with a slight limp - sort of like Chester from the Gun Smoke days. Maybe not that bad, but close. I was also having some stomach issues as well. Might have been the heat, might have been a hydration issue, but whatever the reason my tummy was not happy.. Kristi took off like a bunny and I began working my way to the turn around ...
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Nelson Cruz represents the kind of power bat the Diamondbacks want in their lineup next season. He might not be a perfect fit - hes not a left-handed hitter - but he could conceivably fill the void t
In light of much recent criticism concerning a certain hit-by-pitch, Tony La Russa believes the Diamondbacks are being treated unfairly.
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Career: 173 HR, .303 BA, 1146 RBI, 1B, 3xAllStar, 4xGG, Cubs/Diamondbacks 1988-2003, b:L/t:L, 1x 2B Leader, born in NC 1964, Amazing
Abstract The hemolytic activities of the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson, Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma, Crotalus atrox, and Crotalus scutulatus were studied by using hypotonic solutions. The effects with whole venoms plus lecithin were compared with effects caused by boiled venom supernatant fluids containing phospholipase A and lecithin to gain insight into the role of heat-labile venom components on lysing human red blood cells. Phospholipase A in the supernatant fluids of all venoms with lecithin caused stabilization of red-blood-cell membranes. A. c. mokeson, A. p. leucostoma, and C. scutulatus whole venoms demonstrated a specific lytic behavior, whereas C. atrox whole venom demonstrated a nonspecific lytic behavior. Heparin altered the lytic behavior of C. scutulatus whole venom but did not influence the other venoms.
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A Comparative Study of Hunted vs. Unhunted Populations of the Twin-Spotted Rattlesnake David B. Prival, Matthew J. Goode, Don E. Swann, Cecil R. Schwalbe, Michael J. Schroff, and Robert J. Steidl Wildlife and Fisheries Science, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 FINAL REPORT IIPAM I97040 30 September 1999 Heritage Program Arizona Game and Fish Department 2221 West Greenway Road Phoenix, Arizona 85023 DISCLAIMER The findings, opinions, and recommendations in this report are those of the investigators who have received partial or full funding from the Arizona Game and Fish Department Heritage Fund. The findings, opinions, and recommendations do not necessarily reflect those of the Arizona Game and Fish Commission or the Department, or necessarily represent official Department policy or management practice. For further information, please contact the Arizona Game and Fish Department. TWIN-SPOTTED RATTLESNAKE STUDY PRIVAL ET AL. EXECUTIVE ...
The rattle on a rattlesnake evolved just once. A new study contends it may have come out of a common behavior - tail vibration - that snakes use to deter predators.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2020, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters ...
Snake venom shows that even vertebrates with small populations can evolve huge gene families that specifically bind diverse proteins, with massive evidence of duplication, mutation, and selection as the mechanisms, and with intraspecific variation in regulation, sequence, and specificity. Is Someone actively designing rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) venom in the American Midwest [7] and fine-tuning the specificity of black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) toxins for subtypes of mammalian muscarinic acetylcholine receptors [8 ...
Most creatures faces have the same standard arrangement of features; eyes at the top, nose beneath and mouth at the bottom. But pitvipers carry an extra set of facial indentations: facial pits. Staring into the dark hollows of these depressions, an age-old question glares back: what are they for? With thermally sensitive nerve endings concentrated in the pits, these organs respond to radiant heat, and allow snakes to detect and capture prey. But Aaron Krochmal thinks that this simple explanation could have distracted people from exploring alternative functions for the pits. Could they be involved in thermoregulation? Cold-blooded animals exploit their environment to regulate their body temperatures; they seek cool spots to escape the heat or warm places when its cold. But little was known about the sensory cues that guide this behavior. Krochmal wondered whether the snakes might use their facial pits to direct them towards the sanctuary of a cool burrow (p. 2539).. Western diamondback ...
Advocates for increasing state oversight of rattlesnake roundups in Texas received disappointing news this week when the Texas Parks and Wildlife Commission decided that they would not support a proposed ban on using gasoline fumes to collect rattlesnakes. Rather than reviewing and voting on the issue at their bi-annual meeting next month, the TPW Commission decided to remove it from their agenda entirely, citing "insufficient support from legislative oversight or the potentially regulated community". This decision marks the second time reviewing the ban has been put off, and unfortunately it is likely to be the last until the effort to reform roundups is re-initiated. The announcement included the statement that "TPWD [Texas Parts and Wildlife Department] staff still believe that there are better options for collecting snakes that do not adversely impact non-target species, and we will continue to work with the snake collecting community to develop and implement best practices that reduce ...
Advocates for increasing state oversight of rattlesnake roundups in Texas received disappointing news this week when the Texas Parks and Wildlife Commission decided that they would not support a proposed ban on using gasoline fumes to collect rattlesnakes. Rather than reviewing and voting on the issue at their bi-annual meeting next month, the TPW Commission decided to remove it from their agenda entirely, citing "insufficient support from legislative oversight or the potentially regulated community". This decision marks the second time reviewing the ban has been put off, and unfortunately it is likely to be the last until the effort to reform roundups is re-initiated. The announcement included the statement that "TPWD [Texas Parts and Wildlife Department] staff still believe that there are better options for collecting snakes that do not adversely impact non-target species, and we will continue to work with the snake collecting community to develop and implement best practices that reduce ...
This undeniable pushing-back of the frontiers of science comes to us courtesy of Professor Daniel Goldmans Complex Rheology And Biomechanics Lab ("the Crab Lab") at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the US.. Goldman and his Crabby colleagues were determined to find out just how it is that the enigmatic "sidewinder" rattlesnakes of America manage to squirm their way up slippery sand dunes, a notoriously tricky form of terrain to get about on - and which leaves other snakes baffled.. After a good deal of investigation, which involved painting reflective spots on some surprisingly cooperative rattlesnakes and videoing them in action, the good prof and his Crabs managed to crack the sidewinders methods. They proved this by applying them to snakey robots furnished by colleagues at the famous mad-robot labs of Carnegie Mellon university, pictured above. The basic robot, as shown, is clad in a textile wrapping or trouser in order to keep sand out of its works - in much the same fashion as ...
Australia is not only home to venomous snakes, spiders and jellyfish, now scientists have discovered that its lizards are venomous too.. For instance little bearded dragon lizards that cruise around the suburbs have classic rattlesnake venom, scientists report in the journal Nature.. But the venom is not dangerous to humans, Dr Bryan Fry from the University of Melbournes Australian Venom Research Unit says, who led the international research team.. The lizards do not produce enough venom and what little they do is used to kill prey.. Dr Fry spent months in the Australian desert and tropics capturing, studying and milking dozens of lizards.. He and his colleagues then studied their toxins, DNA and evolution.. The researchers discovered that two common lizard lineages found in Australia, monitor lizards and iguania, have mouth glands that secrete venom toxins.. This was surprising as until now scientists had only found two lizard species around the world that produced venom, the gila monster and ...
1 fl. oz.. Indication: Inflammatory and swelling conditions. Ingredients: Chrysanthemum parthenium 2x. Zincum Metallicum, Verbascum thapsus 3x. Urtica dioica 4x. Apis mellifica 4x, 6x, 12x, 30x. Adrenalinum 4x, 6x, 12x, 30x, 60x, 100x. Belladonna 5x, 6x, 12x, 30x. Crotalus horridus 6x. Silicea, Triosteum perfoliatum 6x, 12x. Natrum Muriaticum, Magnesia Phosphorica, Kali Sulphuricum, Lymph 6x, 12x, 30x, 60x, 100x. Hepar Sulphuris Calcareum 8x, 16x, 30x. Lachesis mutus 12x, 30x. Chymotrypsin, Histidine, Histamine, ATPase Lysozyme, 12x, 30x, 60x, 100x. Glucose 6 Phosphatase, Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase 30x, 60x, 100x. Biopterin, Hepar Suis 100x, 500x, 1000x. ...
Venom-specific immunoglobulin G fragments are used for the management of patients with North American crotalid envenomation. In this case, ongoing coagulopathy and clinically significant sequelae required a protracted course of antivenom therapy in a patient experiencing severe rattlesnake envenomation.
Active Ingredients: Aesculus Hippocastanum 6X, Arnica Montana 6X, Belladonna 6X, Calendula Officinalis 4X, Crotalus Horridus 8X, Echinacea 4X, Graphites 6X, Heloderma Horridum 8X, Lachesis Mutus 8X, Naja Tripudians 8X, Phosphorus 9X, Rhus Toxicodendron 8X, Ruta Graveolens 6X, Sulfur 8X. Purpose: Relieves Pain of the Achilles Tendon, Swelling of the Feet After Walking, Treats Injuries & Bruising to Muscles and Joints, For Night Leg Cramps, Restless Leg & Muscle Spasms, Promotes Rapid Healing & Treats Dry Skin on Feet, Relief of Impact Injuries and Deep Tissue Bruising, Relieves Swelling & Sudden Pain in Feet & Ankles, For Skin Conditions, Relief of Swelling & Burning Pain of the Feet & Toes, Relieves Sudden Sharp Pain in the Feet & Ankle, Relieves Nerve Injury Pain, Relief of Coldness and Cramping of the Feet, Relief of Pain for Sprains and Joint Pain of the Feet, Heel and Post-Surgical Pain, Relief of Pain, Soreness and Bruising of the Feet, Ankle and Shin, Relieves Itching, Cracking of the Skin ...
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Larval populations of diamondback moth have been approaching threshold levels in some canola fields in the southwest. Generally canola can compensate well for diamondback moth feeding to buds and flowers, provided soil moisture is adequate. Some of the areas where the diamondback moth populations were high were also areas that had been drier. So in addition to the diamondback moth populations, consider the growing conditions and the plants abilities to compensate for bud and flower feeding. Heavy rainfall can be a mortality factor of eggs and early instars of diamondback moth. So in addition to providing moisture to help the plants compensate for feeding, with heavy rains larvae are very susceptible to drowning, and may be washed or wriggle to leaf axils or the ground where they drown in accumulated water. If it is decided that an insecticide application is needed, and there is any flowering on the crop, you want to make sure you minimize risk to pollinators, which can help increase the yield of ...
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Most venomous snakes in the United States belong to the family of snakes sometimes referred to as pit vipers. These snakes, which belong to the Family Crotalinae, include rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths (water moccasins). All pit vipers in Arizona are rattlesnakes. These snakes are most easily identified by the presence of a rattle on their tail and a triangular shaped head. However, some young snakes may not have developed a rattle yet but still possess venom. When in doubt, avoid contact!. Aside from pit vipers, all other venomous snakes native to the U.S. are coral snakes, which belong to the Elapid family of snakes. Coral snakes found in the Eastern U.S. can be very dangerous to humans, but the Sonoran coral snake, found in Arizona, is not.. Top of ...
Reptiles Encyclopedia: Adder, Alligator, Anaconda, Australian Frilled Lizard, Boa, Boomslang, Bushmaster, Caiman, Chameleon, Chicken Turtle, Cobra, Colubrid, Copperhead, Coral Snake, Crocodile, Garter Snake, Gavial, Gecko, Gila Monster, Girdle-tailed Lizard, Horned Toad, Iguana, Kingsnake, Komodo Dragon, Krait, Leatherback Turtle, Loggerhead Turtle, Mamba, Map Turtle, Massasauga, Milk Snake, Monitor, Mud Turtle, Musk Turtle, Night Lizard, Painted Turtle, Pit Viper, Pond Turtle, Python, Race Runner, Rattlesnake, Ridley Turtle, Sawback Turtle, Sea Snake, Sea Turtle, Sidewinder, Skink, Snapping Turtle, Teju, Tortoise, Tuatara, Viper, Water Moccasin, Worm Lizard.

Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel) criadas em cativeiro | Portal...Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel) criadas em cativeiro | Portal...

Animais Masculino Feminino Refratometria/métodos alfa-Globulinas beta-Globulinas gama-Globulinas Albuminas Crotalus ... The poisonous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Bothrops have been kept in captivity with the purpose of extracting poison for ... As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a ... The objective was to determine the concentration of total protein and serum protein electrophoresis profile of Crotalus ...
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Crotalus - Wikimedia CommonsCrotalus - Wikimedia Commons

Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crotalus&oldid=210489009" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Crotalus

Crotalus durissus - Wikimedia CommonsCrotalus durissus - Wikimedia Commons

Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crotalus_durissus&oldid=140227230" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_durissus

Crotalus tigris (Tiger Rattlesnake)Crotalus tigris (Tiger Rattlesnake)

Crotalus tigris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T64335A12771531. . Downloaded on 17 February 2018.. ... Crotalus tigris (Tiger Rattlesnake). Geographic Distribution. Herpetological Review 33(2): 149.. IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List ... Crotalus tigris (tiger rattlesnake). USA: Arizona. Herpetological Review 24(4): 155-156. ... Dorsal scale microdermatoglyphics and rattlesnake (Crotalus and Sistrurus) phylogeny (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae). ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/64335/0

Crotalus HorridusCrotalus Horridus

... indications (symptoms) from 12 materia medicas, linked and cross referenced. Available 8X-30X, 200X, 4C-30C, ... Crotalus Horridus Rattlesnake, Crotalus, Crotulus. Available in 8X-30X, 200X, 4C-30C, 200C, 1M-10M from $6.50. Purchase options ... Crotalus Horridus most popular Potencies. 30C. 200C. 6C. 1M. 30X. Homeopathic remedies are prescribed on the basis that in a ... Show reverse lookup of Crotalus Horridus relationships from all sources. ▲ MIND. Mind. Weeping mood; clouded perception and ...
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Crotalus (definition) by Webster 1913 - Everything2.comCrotalus (definition) by Webster 1913 - Everything2.com

Crotalus (definition). See all of Crotalus, no other writeups in this node. ...
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Crotalus mitchellii - WikispeciesCrotalus mitchellii - Wikispecies

Crotalus mitchellii - Cope, 1875: 33 [subsequent combination]. References[edit]. Primary references[edit]. *Cope, E.D. 1861. ... Crotalus mitchellii. The Reptile Database. Accessed on 25 May 2018.. *Frost, D.R., Hammerson, G.A. & Gadsden, H. 2007. IUCN: ... Crotalus mitchellii (Least Concern). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T64323A12768039. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007 ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crotalus_mitchellii&oldid=4798870" ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_mitchelli

Crotalus scutulatus - WikipediaCrotalus scutulatus - Wikipedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crotalus scutulatus.. *Crotalus scutulatus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. ... Crotalus scutulatus (common names: Mojave rattlesnake,[2][3][4] Mojave green,[3]) is a highly venomous pit viper species found ... Crotalus scutulatus at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 13 September 2007. *^ 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1) at the IUCN ... "Crotalus scutulatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 5 January 2007.. *^ Bush, S.P., M.D. Cardwell. 1999. ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_scutulatus

Crotalus cerastes - definition of Crotalus cerastes by The Free DictionaryCrotalus cerastes - definition of Crotalus cerastes by The Free Dictionary

Crotalus cerastes synonyms, Crotalus cerastes pronunciation, Crotalus cerastes translation, English dictionary definition of ... Noun 1. Crotalus cerastes - small pale-colored desert rattlesnake of southwestern United States; body moves in an s-shaped ... Crotalus cerastes. Also found in: Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to Crotalus cerastes: horned rattlesnake ... Crotalus, genus Crotalus - large rattlesnakes; seldom bite unless startled or pursuing prey ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Crotalus+cerastes

Crotalus - WikipediaCrotalus - Wikipedia

The genus Crotalus is found in the Americas from southern Canada to southern Uruguay. No species of Crotalus is considered ... Not including the nominate subspecies T) Type species List of crotaline species and subspecies Crotalus by common name Crotalus ... ISBN 0-8014-4141-2. "Crotalus ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 August 2007. "Crotalus ". The Reptile ... Crotalus is a genus of venomous pit vipers in the family Viperidae. The genus is found only in the Americas from southern ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalus

Crotalus pyrrhus CMI contig 156559, whole genome shotgun sequence - Nucleotide - NCBICrotalus pyrrhus CMI contig 156559, whole genome shotgun sequence - Nucleotide - NCBI

Crotalus pyrrhus CMI_contig_156559, whole genome shotgun sequence Crotalus pyrrhus CMI_contig_156559, whole genome shotgun ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/JPMF01155613.1/

Crotalus pyrrhus CMI contig 395176, whole genome shotgun sequence - Nucleotide - NCBICrotalus pyrrhus CMI contig 395176, whole genome shotgun sequence - Nucleotide - NCBI

Crotalus pyrrhus CMI_contig_395176, whole genome shotgun sequence Crotalus pyrrhus CMI_contig_395176, whole genome shotgun ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/JPMF01391565.1/

Crotalus pricei - WikipediaCrotalus pricei - Wikipedia

List of crotaline species and subspecies Crotalus by common name Crotalus by taxonomic synonyms Crotalinae by common name ... Crotalus pricei) from Arizona". Proc. California Acad. Sci., Series 2, 5: 856-857. Crotalus pricei at the Reptarium.cz Reptile ... Crotalus triseriatus pricei, p. 306). Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr. (1982). Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field ... ISBN 978-0-9754641-3-7. (Crotalus pricei pricei, pp. 62-63). Schmidt KP, Davis DD (1941). Field Book of Snakes of the United ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_pricei

Disintegrin lutosin - Crotalus oreganus lutosus (Great basin rattlesnake)Disintegrin lutosin - Crotalus oreganus lutosus (Great basin rattlesnake)

Crotalus oreganus lutosus (Great basin rattlesnake) (Crotalus viridis lutosus). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www. ... sp,P31986,VM2I_CROOL Disintegrin lutosin OS=Crotalus oreganus lutosus OX=332626 PE=1 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P31986

Western diamond-backed rattlesnake videos, photos and facts - Crotalus atrox | ArkiveWestern diamond-backed rattlesnake videos, photos and facts - Crotalus atrox | Arkive

Crotalus atrox) title=Arkive species - Western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) border=0/,,/a,. ... Crotalus (1). An iconic reptile, the rattle of the western diamondback rattlesnake is one of the most evocative sounds of the ... Taylor, E.N. and Denardo, D.F. (2005) Reproductive Ecology of Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) in the ... a href=http://www.arkive.org/western-diamond-backed-rattlesnake/crotalus-atrox/#src=portletV3web title=Arkive species - ...
more infohttp://www.arkive.org/western-diamond-backed-rattlesnake/crotalus-atrox/

L-amino-acid oxidase - Crotalus durissus cascavella (Northeastern Brazilian rattlesnake)L-amino-acid oxidase - Crotalus durissus cascavella (Northeastern Brazilian rattlesnake)

"Isolation of a new L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom.". Toyama M.H., Toyama Dde O., Passero L.F., ... "Isolation of a new L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom.". Toyama M.H., Toyama Dde O., Passero L.F., ... "Isolation of a new L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom.". Toyama M.H., Toyama Dde O., Passero L.F., ... "Isolation of a new L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom.". Toyama M.H., Toyama Dde O., Passero L.F., ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P0C2D2

Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With
Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine MacrophageCrotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine Macrophage

Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine Macrophage. ... Anselmo Hernández Cruz, Ronaldo Z. Mendonça, and Vera L. Petricevich, "Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2005/876548/cta/

Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) longevity, ageing, and life historyNeotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) longevity, ageing, and life history

Genus: Crotalus. Species. Crotalus durissus. Common name. Neotropical rattlesnake. Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits. ... AnAge entry for Crotalus durissus Classification (HAGRID: 03255). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Crotalus_durissus

Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) longevity, ageing, and life historyMojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) longevity, ageing, and life history

Genus: Crotalus. Species. Crotalus scutulatus. Common name. Mojave rattlesnake. Synonyms. Caudisona scutulata Lifespan, ageing ... AnAge entry for Crotalus scutulatus Classification (HAGRID: 03263). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Crotalus_scutulatus

Chromatographic separation of phospholipase a from a histamine releasing component of brazilian rattlesnake venom ( Crotalus...Chromatographic separation of phospholipase a from a histamine releasing component of brazilian rattlesnake venom ( Crotalus...

Crotalus durissus terrificus) Gift ermöglicht, den Unterschied zwischen Phospholipase A und ... Chromatographic separation of phospholipase a from a histamine releasing component of brazilian rattlesnake venom (Crotalus ... Die chromatographische Auftrennung von Klapperschlangen- (Crotalus durissus terrificus) Gift ermöglicht, den Unterschied ... Crotalus durissus terrificus). Experientia 23, 741-742 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02154149 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02154149

Crotalus cerastes | The Reptile DatabaseCrotalus cerastes | The Reptile Database

Crotalus cerastes HALLOWELL 1854: 95. Crotalus cerastes cerastes KLAUBER 1944. Crotalus cerastes - STEBBINS 1985: 229. Crotalus ... Crotalus cerastes cerastes - BEAMAN & HAYES 2008. Crotalus cerastes - WALLACH et al. 2014: 189. Crotalus cerastes cercobombus ... Crotalus cerastes cerastes HALLOWELL 1854. Crotalus cerastes cercobombus SAVAGE & CLIFF 1953. Crotalus cerastes laterorepens ... Crotalus cerastes cercobombus - BEAMAN & HAYES 2008. Crotalus cerastes cercobombus - SKUBOWIUS 2012. Crotalus cerastes ...
more infohttp://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Crotalus&species=cerastes&search_param=%28%29

Crotalus adamanteus | The Reptile DatabaseCrotalus adamanteus | The Reptile Database

Crotalus adamanteus - BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 3. Crotalus adamanteus STEJNEGER 1895. Crotalus durissus BOULENGER 1896. Crotalus ... Crotalus adamanteus - MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 276. Hoserea (Edwardsus) adamanteus - HOSER 2009. Crotalus adamanteus ... Crotalus adamanteus - WALLACH et al. 2014: 188 Distribution. USA (SE North Carolina, E/S South Carolina, S Mississippi, S ... Reproduction in Male Crotalus adamanteus Beauvois (Eastern Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake): Relationship of Plasma Testosterone to ...
more infohttp://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Crotalus&species=adamanteus&search_param=%28%28genus%3D%27Crotalus%27%29%29

LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES | Journal of Experimental BiologyLOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES | Journal of Experimental Biology

LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES ... LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES ... LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES ... LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/163/1/1

Crotalus Horridus. - THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA By CONSTANTINE HERING, M.D.Crotalus Horridus. - THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA By CONSTANTINE HERING, M.D.

Crotalus Horridus.. [1] Mind. [2] Sensorium. [3] Inner head. [4] Outer head. [5] Sight and eyes. [6] Hearing and ears. [7] ...
more infohttp://www.homeoint.org/hering/c/crot-h-7.htm

Toxins  | Free Full-Text | Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Rubelase, a Non-Hemorrhagic Elastase from Crotalus...Toxins | Free Full-Text | Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Rubelase, a Non-Hemorrhagic Elastase from Crotalus...

... was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. Rubelase hydrolyzes succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl p-nitroanilide ( ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/3/7/900/notes
  • In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus cascavella , an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Toyama, M.H. Modulation of the Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella Induced by Naringin. (mdpi.com)
  • The generic name Crotalus is derived from the Greek word κρόταλον krótalοn, which means "rattle" or "castanet", and refers to the rattle on the end of the tail which makes this group (genera Crotalus and Sistrurus) so distinctive. (wikipedia.org)