Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.

Conformational changes in the A3 domain of von Willebrand factor modulate the interaction of the A1 domain with platelet glycoprotein Ib. (1/687)

Bitiscetin has recently been shown to induce von Willebrand factor (vWF)-dependent aggregation of fixed platelets (Hamako J, et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226:273, 1996). We have purified bitiscetin from Bitis arietans venom and investigated the mechanism whereby it promotes a form of vWF that is reactive with platelets. In the presence of bitiscetin, vWF binds to platelets in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. The binding of vWF to platelets involves glycoprotein (GP) Ib because it was totally blocked by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 6D1 directed towards the vWF-binding site of GPIb. The binding also involves the GPIb-binding site of vWF located on the A1 domain because it was inhibited by MoAb to vWF whose epitopes are within this domain and that block binding of vWF to platelets induced by ristocetin or botrocetin. However, in contrast to ristocetin or botrocetin, the binding site of bitiscetin does not reside within the A1 domain but within the A3 domain of vWF. Thus, among a series of vWF fragments, 125I-bitiscetin only binds to those that overlap the A3 domain, ie, SpIII (amino acid [aa] 1-1365), SpI (aa 911-1365), and rvWF-A3 domain (aa 920-1111). It does not bind to SpII corresponding to the C-terminal part of vWF subunit (aa 1366-2050) nor to the 39/34/kD dispase species (aa 480-718) or T116 (aa 449-728) overlapping the A1 domain. In addition, bitiscetin that does not bind to DeltaA3-rvWF (deleted between aa 910-1113) has no binding site ouside the A3 domain. The localization of the binding site of bitiscetin within the A3 domain was further supported by showing that MoAb to vWF, which are specific for this domain and block the interaction between vWF and collagen, are potent inhibitors of the binding of bitiscetin to vWF and consequently of the bitiscetin-induced binding of vWF to platelets. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that an interaction between the A1 and A3 domains exists that may play a role in the function of vWF by regulating the ability of the A1 domain to bind to platelet GPIb.  (+info)

Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the epsilon form of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (2/687)

Neonatal mice resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. Because Waglerin-1 blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of mature end-plates, the appearance of lethality may result from the epsilon- for gamma-subunit substitution. In support of this hypothesis, adult knockout (KO) mice lacking the gene coding for the epsilon-subunit resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. In contrast, heterozygous litter mates respond to Waglerin-1 like adult wild-type mice. In vitro application of 1 microM Waglerin-1 inhibited spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials and evoked end-plate potentials of adult wild-type and heterozygous KO mice. Both miniature end-plate potentials and end-plate potentials of neonatal wild-type and adult homozygous KO mice resisted Waglerin-1. Waglerin-1 decreased the end-plate response of adult wild-type mice to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (ACh) with an IC50 value of 50 nM; 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 4 +/- 1% of control for adult heterozygous KO mice. In contrast, 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 73 +/- 2% of control for wild-type mice less than 11 days old and had no effect on the ACh response of adult homozygous KO mice. Between 11 and 12 days after birth, the suppressant effect of Waglerin-1 on wild-type end-plate responses to ACh dramatically increased. Waglerin-1 reduced binding of alpha-bungarotoxin to end-plates of adult but not neonatal wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor containing the epsilon-subunit.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of endothelial glycoprotein Ib using viper venom proteins modulating cell adhesion. (3/687)

The expression and function of a glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) complex on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is still a matter of controversy. We characterized HUVEC GPIb using viper venom proteins: alboaggregins A and B, echicetin, botrocetin, and echistatin. Echicetin is an antagonist, and alboaggregins act as agonists of the platelet GPIb complex. Botrocetin is a venom protein that alters von Willebrand factor (vWF) conformation and increases its binding affinity for the GPIb complex. Echistatin is a disintegrin that blocks alphavbeta3. Echistatin, but not echicetin, inhibited the adhesion to vWF of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with alphavbeta3. We found the following: (1) Binding of monoclonal antibodies against GPIbalpha to HUVECs was moderately increased after stimulation with cytokines and phorbol ester. Echicetin demonstrated an inhibitory effect. (2) Both echicetin and echistatin, an alphavbeta3 antagonist, inhibited the adhesion of HUVECs to immobilized vWF in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was additive when both proteins were used together. (3) Botrocetin potentiated the adhesion of HUVECs to vWF, and this effect was completely abolished by echicetin, but not by echistatin. (4) CHO cells expressing GPIbalphabeta/IX adhered to vWF (in the presence of botrocetin) and to alboaggregins; GPIbalpha was required for this reaction. Echicetin, but not echistatin, inhibited the adhesion of cells transfected with GPIbalphabeta/IX to immobilized vWF. (5) HUVECs adhered strongly to immobilized vWF and alboaggregins with extensive spreading, which was inhibited by LJ1b1, a monoclonal antibody against GPIb. The purified alphavbeta3 receptor did not interact with the alboaggregins, thereby excluding the contribution of alphavbeta3 in inducing HUVEC spreading on alboaggregins. In conclusion, our data confirm the presence of a functional GPIb complex expressed on HUVECs in low density. This complex may mediate HUVEC adhesion and spreading on immobilized vWF and alboaggregins.  (+info)

Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys pallas. (4/687)

A cDNA encoding a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys Pallas with an N-terminus highly homologous to that of BPLA2 and a C-terminus sequence almost the same as that of APLA2 was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in Escherichia coli RR1. The protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies. After partial purification by washing, the inclusion bodies with Triton X-100, denaturing and refolding, the renatured recombinant protein was purified by FPLC column superose 12. The purified recombinant enzyme with an isoelectric point of pH 6.8 could cross-react with antiserum prepared against acidic phospholipase A2. The enzymatic activity of the expressed basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II is close to that of denatured-refolded native basic phospholipase A2, and has the same inhibiting effect on platelet aggregation as denatured-refolded acidic phospholipase A2, but lacks the hemolytic activity of denatured-refolded basic phospholipase A2. To study the structural relationships among basic phospholipase A2, acidic phospholipase A2 and basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II, molecular modeling of basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II was done. The roles of various amino acid residues in the enzymatic activity and pharmacological activities of phospholipase A2 are discussed.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and tyrosine-phosphatase activation positively modulate Convulxin-induced platelet activation. Comparison with collagen. (5/687)

In this report we have studied the role of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) and tyrosine phosphatase activation on platelet activation by Convulxin (Cvx). Wortmannin, a specific PI3-K inhibitor, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), block Cvx-induced platelet aggregation, granule secretion, inositol phosphate production, and increase in [Ca2+]i. However, PAO does not inhibit Cvx-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, including Syk and PLCgamma2, but blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2. In contrast, Cvx-induced PLCgamma2 tyrosyl phosphorylation was partially inhibited by wortmannin. We conclude that (i) although Cvx and collagen activate platelets by a similar mechanism, different regulatory processes are specific to each agonist; (ii) mechanisms other than tyrosine phosphorylation regulate PLCgamma2 activity; and (iii) besides protein tyrosine kinases, PI3-K (and PTPase) positively modulate platelet activation by both Cvx and collagen, and this enzyme is required for effective transmission of GPVI-Fc receptor gamma chain signal to result in full activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 in Cvx-stimulated platelets.  (+info)

Reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced thrombocytopenia by triflavin in a rat model of septicemia. (6/687)

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia frequently occurs early in the course of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Triflavin, an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing disintegrin, has been suggested to interfere with the interaction of fibrinogen with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. The present study was undertaken to determine whether triflavin could prevent thrombocytopenia in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 51Cr-labeled platelets were used to assess blood and tissue platelet accumulation after LPS challenge. The administration of LPS (4 mg/kg IV bolus) for 4 hours induced a reduction in radiolabeled platelets in blood and an obvious accumulation of platelets in liver. Triflavin (500 microg/kg) but not GRGDS (20 mg/kg) significantly prevented the alteration of radiolabeled platelet distribution in blood and liver when induced by LPS. Furthermore, triflavin but not GRGDS markedly suppressed the elevation in plasma thromboxane B2 concentration within the 4-hour period of LPS administration. In LPS-treated rats, the 5-hydroxytryptamine level was lower in the blood and higher in the liver compared with levels in normal saline-treated rats. Pretreatment with triflavin (500 microg/kg) significantly reversed the 5-hydroxytryptamine concentration in blood and liver of LPS-treated rats. In histological examinations and platelet adhesion assay, triflavin markedly inhibited the adhesion of platelets to subendothelial matrixes in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that triflavin effectively prevents thrombocytopenia, possibly through the following 2 mechanisms: (1) Triflavin markedly inhibits platelet aggregation, resulting in decreased thromboxane A2 formation. (2) It inhibits the adhesion of platelets to subendothelial matrixes, thereby leading to a reversal in the distribution of platelets in blood and liver in LPS-treated rats.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding a common precursor of disintegrin flavostatin and hemorrhagic factor HR2a from the venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis. (7/687)

The venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis has three disintegrins that act as platelet aggregation inhibitors by binding to integrin alphaIIb beta3 on platelets through its Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. We isolated the cDNA encoding the flavostatin precursor that is one of the disintegrins in T. flavoviridis venom. The open reading frame consisted of four regions, a pre-peptide region, a metalloprotease region, a spacer region and a disintegrin region, indicating that the flavostatin precursor belongs to the metalloprotease/disintegrin family. Surprisingly, the deduced amino acid sequence of the metalloprotease region was completely consistent with that of hemorrhagic metalloprotease HR2a, which indicated that this metalloprotease released from the flavostatin precursor functions as a hemorrhagic factor. These observations indicated that a disintegrin and a hemorrhagic metalloprotease were synthesized as a common precursor. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that a disintegrin is synthesized as a metalloprotease/disintegrin precursor and matures by cleavage from the precursor molecule.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom. (8/687)

Crystals of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis have been obtained. They diffracted at 2.5 A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source and belong to space group P3(1)21. Preliminary analysis shows that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit.  (+info)

PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant ACL myotoxin, a Lys49PLA2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus snake venom and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 115-129 of venom of the two different Agkistrodon species on water permeability in the toad urinary bladder. The water flow through the membrane was measured gravimetrically in bag preparations of the bladder. The addition of recombinant ACL myotoxin-MBP (maltose binding protein) fusion protein (10 nM) to the bathing solution significantly increased (above 60%) the water transport compared with the control hemibladders. The addition of the Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides in several concentrations to the bathing solution did not affect the water transport across membrane. These results suggest that the ACL myotoxin effect on water transport is not related to the cytotoxic C-terminal region ...
Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues constitute a group of catalytically-inactive proteins, present in the venoms of many crotalid snakes, which induce myonecrosis. Current evidence supports the mapping of their toxic site to the C-terminal region, where amino acids comprised within the sequence 115-129 appear to play a central role in toxicity. This study evaluated the possible toxic effects of several synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence 115-129 of different Lys49 myotoxins, using in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo myotoxicity assays. Peptides varied widely in their activities, ranging from fully toxic to harmless. Thus, the toxic actions of Lys49 myotoxins cannot always be reproduced by their free peptides 115-129. Peptides from Agkistrodon p. piscivorus (AppK) and A. contortrix laticinctus Lys49 myotoxins exerted both cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. Random scrambling of peptide AppK resulted in complete loss of toxicity, demonstrating that its specific sequence of residues, rather than ...
Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues constitute a group of catalytically-inactive proteins, present in the venoms of many crotalid snakes, which induce myonecrosis. Current evidence supports the mapping of their toxic site to the C-terminal region, where amino acids comprised within the sequence 115-129 appear to play a central role in toxicity. This study evaluated the possible toxic effects of several synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence 115-129 of different Lys49 myotoxins, using in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo myotoxicity assays. Peptides varied widely in their activities, ranging from fully toxic to harmless. Thus, the toxic actions of Lys49 myotoxins cannot always be reproduced by their free peptides 115-129. Peptides from Agkistrodon p. piscivorus (AppK) and A. contortrix laticinctus Lys49 myotoxins exerted both cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. Random scrambling of peptide AppK resulted in complete loss of toxicity, demonstrating that its specific sequence of residues, rather than ...
Shop Snaclec convulxin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Snaclec convulxin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
LATOXAN, the leading world supplier of venoms, created KITOXAN®, the first Libraries of venom fractions, to give a facilitated access to venom molecules and allow the effective activity screening of these natural compounds. Despite their promising future in Pharmaceuticals, Crop Science or Cosmetics most of them are still unknown. Because pure venoms are made of hundreds of active molecules, and because they contain some cytotoxic enzymes that prevent the use of ex vivo activity screening methods. the hit identification was arduous.. ...
Poison vs. Venom - - Poison and venom are very similar and often confused. Venom is actually a type of poison. The difference is in the method of delivery. Poison can be ingested in many different ways, whereas venom is injected by the animal that produces it. Both cause reactions ranging from mild irritation to death.
Venom DRIVE batteries now include the Venom Universal 2.0 (UNI 2.0) Plug System! This means compatibility with the following plugs: XT60 - Yellow (base... VNR15057
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. You are subscribed to one of CDCs code sets email subscription service. This email serves to inform you that information has recently been updated and is now available. The NDC tables have been updated with new flu vaccines for the 2015-2016 season. More NDC…
The previous section highlighted the current drugs that have been developed from venoms and toxins. This section brings about new and invigorating research that is currently being conducted and how new discoveries have the potential to cure diseases that, to date, have no known cure or drugs treatment. *Please note the posts are not in…
After news that Sony will be producing the Spider-Man villain spin-off film, Venom, its been reported that the film is set to start shooting in fall 2017.
Venoms to Drugs: Venom as a Source for the Development of Human Therapeutics Venoms to Drugs: Venom as a Source for the Development of Human Therapeutics ...
Sony Pictures has brought online the new Venom trailer! Tom Hardy stars in the upcoming feature film as Eddie Brock. The film opens on October 5, 2018.
Dreadfang Venom Sac is a quest item needed for Strained Supplies. It is looted from Skithian Dreadhawk. In the Items category. Added in World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade.
Ever since the Venom inspired outer layers have been trending on the internet, its a sin not to invest in such outfits. Read more to understand Eddies...
Venom je jedna z prvých black/thrash metalových hudobných skupín, ktorá bola založená v roku 1978 v anglickom Newcastli. ...
Were grateful to BruceH, our latest supporter!. Were 12 people from our target today. Why dont you be one of them?. You can support NG too and get tons of perks for just $2.99.. ...
The caster leaps onto a random enemy within 6 yards, searing them for 214 Nature damage every 2 seconds for 10 sec. In the NPC Abilities category.
I know this is probably a dumb noobish question, but how can I add my own weapon sound effect replacements? Im using jDoom. Thanks in advance for any help ...
Offer. No c/o No auto ...https://uploads.tapatalk-cdn.com/20200108/66c135d3175bed5074757cddffc08ffa.jpghttps://uploads.tapatalk-cdn.com/20200108/ac811b5321384e939ad021c934a561cd.jpg Enviado de meu Moto G Play usando o Tapatalk
Whos that? Is that Spider-Man? Venom? No, its Carnage! One might think that they had a pretty uniform template for designing characters in the S
Define Western diamondback rattlesnake. Western diamondback rattlesnake synonyms, Western diamondback rattlesnake pronunciation, Western diamondback rattlesnake translation, English dictionary definition of Western diamondback rattlesnake. Noun 1. Western diamondback rattlesnake - largest and most dangerous North American snake; of southwestern United States and Mexico Crotalus atrox, Western...
A 50 kDa protein that inhibits platelet adhesion to collagen has been isolated from snake venom of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) and has been named catrocollastatin. The cDNA cloning of catrocollastatin has been accomplished. A full-length cDNA of 2310 bp with an open reading frame between nucleotides 51 and 1880 was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 609 amino acids. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of haemorrhagic metalloproteinase jararhagin from Bothrops jararaca venom, HR1B from Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Ht-e from C. atrox and trigramin from T. gramineus. Like jararhagin and HR1B, catrocollastatin is a multidomain molecule composed of an N-terminal domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. In the disintegrin-like domain, the frequently seen RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence is replaced by SECD (Ser-Glu-Cys-Asp). This cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (fall ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional and sequence characterization of agkicetin, a new glycoprotein IB antagonist isolated from agkistrodon acutus venom. AU - Chen, Yuh Ling. AU - Tsai, Inn Ho. PY - 1995/5/16. Y1 - 1995/5/16. N2 - A new glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) antagonist, agkicetin, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and characterized. It is a disulfide-linked heterodimer consisting subunits of 15 and 14 kDa. The subunits are homologous to each other and to other snake venom proteins of the C-type (Ca2+-dependent) lectin superfamily. Agkicetin behaved as a potent antagonist of von Willebrand Factor (vWF)-induced platelet agglutination (IC50=12.5 nM) and bound specifically to GPIb of fixed platelets with high affinity (Kd=38 nM). It did not bind coagulation factor IX and thrombin. Monoclonal antibody against epitope on the N-terminal domain of GPIb competed the binding of agkicetin with platelets. Reduced and alkylated agkicetin lost most of its inhibitory efficacy toward vWF-induced platelet ...
The ability of pre-existing antibodies to neutralize locally-acting toxins of Bothrops asper snake venom was investigated. Hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and edema were markedly reduced in actively immunized mice, although none of these effects was completely abolished. In mice passively immunized with equine antivenom, hemorrhage was prevented completely, while myonecrosis and edema were partially reduced. Pre-existing antibodies did not modify the early stage ( , 3 hr) of venom-induced edema, but significantly accelerated the normalization of this effect within 24 hr. Passive administration of antivenom either 5 or 120 min before venom injection gave similar results, suggesting that the presence of antibodies in the intravascular compartment may fully neutralize locally acting toxins, in this experimental animal model. Overall, the homologous or heterologous origin of antibodies was not a significant factor influencing their in uit,o neutralizing efficiency against local venom effects. Antibody ...
Order Recombinant Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 03015123706 at Gentaur Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2[Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2]
Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. These changes can be ascribed to the presence of enzymes, primarily serine proteinases some of which are structurally similar to thrombin and specifically cleave fibrinogen releasing fibrinopeptides. A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to routinely purify serine proteinases from the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni. The serine proteinase from B. alternatus displays an apparent molecular mass of similar to 32 kDa whereas the two closely related serine proteinases from B. moojeni display apparent molecular masses of similar to 32 kDa and similar to 35 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. The partial sequences indicated that these enzymes share high identity with serine proteinases from the venoms of other Bothrops species. These proteins coagulate plasma and possess fibrinogenolytic activity but lack fibrinolytic activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
In this study, a modified on-column frit preparation method for fused silica capillaries was used to analyze a venom mixture which contained the milkings from approximately ten snakes of the Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (southern copperhead) species. One hundred and twenty-three proteins were identified by in-gel digestion coupled with nano-HPLC MS. Among them, twenty proteins matched the references and databases identified as snake venom proteins. In addition, de novo sequencing is applied to analyze the collision-induced dissociation (CID) data generated by in-solution digestion coupled with nano-HPLC MS. Twenty-three proteins matched the databases and references previously identified as snake venom proteins.; Because of insufficient sequences in the database, many peptides and hypothetical proteins could not be matched to the venom proteins. Some venom proteins we identified were found in other species. To build up an intact knowledge base to help toxicant study and clinical treatment, ...
The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is the largest rattlesnake species and is one of the heaviest known species of venomous snake, with one specimen shot in 1946 measuring 7.8 ft (2.4 m) in length and weighing 15.4 kg (34 lb). However, other venomous snakes may rival this species in weight. The much longer but more slender king cobra is probably greater in average body mass if not maximum weight, and the shorter but even bulkier Gaboon viper could (but is not verified to) exceed the eastern diamondback rattlesnake in both mean adult body mass and possibly even maximum body mass.[6][7][8] Maximum reported lengths for the eastern diamondback rattlesnake are 8 ft (2.4 m)[9] and 8.25 ft (2.5 m).[10][11] However, the stated maximum sizes have been called into question due to a lack of voucher specimens.[12][13] Males are larger than females. Specimens over 7 ft (2.1 m) are rare, but well documented. Klauber (1998) included a letter he received from E. Ross Allen in 1953, in which Allen explains how ...
Trimeresurus flavoviridis GPLI-I protein: serum protein that inhibits phospholipase A2; isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AB003472 and AB003473
I. H. Tsai, Y. M. Wang, Y. H. Chen, T. S. Tsai and Mc. Tu. Venom phospholipase A2 of bamboo veper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri): Molecular characterization, geographic variations and evidence of multiple ancestries. Biochemical Journal, 2004, 377: 215-223.
Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are important components of Bothrops snake venoms, that can induce several effects on envenomations such as myotoxicity, inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation and edema. It is known that venomous and non-venomous snakes present PLA(2) inhibitory proteins (PLIs) in their blood plasma. An inhibitory protein that neutralizes the enzymatic and toxic activities of several PLA2s from Bothrops venoms was isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake plasma by affinity chromatography using the immobilized myotoxin BthTX-I on CNBr-activated Sepharose. Biochemical characterization of this inhibitory protein, denominated alpha BaltMIP, showed it to be a glycoprotein with Mr of similar to 24,000 for the monomeric subunit. CD spectra of the PLA(2)/inhibitor complexes are considerably different from those corresponding to the individual proteins and data deconvolution suggests that the complexes had a relative gain of helical structure elements in comparison to the individual ...
A myotoxic phospholipase has been isolated from Bothrops asper venom by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. The toxin is a basic polypeptide with an estimated molecular weight of 10,700. It has both phospholipase A and indirect hemolytic activities, but is devoid of proteolytic, direct hemolytic and hemorrhagic effects. When injected i.m. into mice the toxin induces a rapid increase in plasma creatine kinase levels and a series of degenerative events in skeletal muscle which lead to myonecrosis. The toxin induces an increase in intracellular calcium levels and is able to hydrolyze muscle phospholipids in vivo. Pretreatment with the calcium antagonist verapamil failed to prevent the myotoxic activity. It is proposed that B. asper myotoxin causes cell injury by disrupting the integrity of skeletal muscle plasma membrane and that myotoxicity is at least partially due to the phospholipase A activity of the toxin ...
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Snake envenoming in pregnancy may cause fetal death and maternal mortality or morbidity. However, little is known about the toxic effects and optimal management of snake envenoming because of the rarity of cases. We report three cases in Taiwan in the past 15 years of pregnant women who were treated successfully after being bitten by Trimeresurus stejnegeri with local envenoming. Two of the three patients received treatment with equine-derived hemotoxic bivalent F(ab′)2 antivenom without development of any adverse effects. All three women recovered uneventfully and subsequently had normal deliveries. Telephone follow-up of the three children 6-10 years later showed no developmental delay of the children.
A novel non-hemorrhagic basic metalloprotease, rubelase, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. Rubelase hydrolyzes succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl p-nitroanilide (STANA), a specific substrate for elastase, and the hydrolytic activity was inhibited by chelating agents. It also hydrolyzes collagen and fibrinogen. However, hemorrhagic activity was not observed. By ESI/Q-TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry combined with Edman sequencing procedure, the molecular mass of rubelase was determined to be 23,266 Da. Although its primary structure was similar to rubelysin (HT-2), a hemorrhagic metalloprotease isolated from the same snake venom, the circumstances surrounding putative zinc binding domain HEXXHXXGXXH were found to be different when the three-dimensional computer models of both metalloproteases were compared. The cytotoxic effects of rubelase and rubelysin on cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells were also different, indicating that the substitution of several amino acid
Introdução: Neste estudo foi avaliada a eficácia do soro antibotrópico (SAB) em camundongos prenhes submetidos ao veneno bruto da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Bj). Para tanto, o veneno foi administrado em camundongos no 7,5º dia de prenhez (dp), data importante, onde, de acordo com a literatura, alterações teratogênicas podem ocorrer. Métodos: Na manhã do 7,5ºdp, um grupo de animais (VBj+SAB) recebeu, por via intramuscular, 0,24mg de veneno de Bj/kg de peso de animal e, após 3h foi tratado, por via endovenosa, com o SAB. Foram utilizados dois grupos controles onde os animais receberam salina estéril e foram submetidos ao soro, após 3h (Sal+SAB) e outro grupo onde os animais receberam o veneno de Bj e não foram tratados com soro (VBj). Após 24h dos tratamentos, foi avaliada a morfologia do útero (mais especificamente a interface materno-fetal, na região antimesometrial) e foi feita a avaliação hemostática (dosagem de fibrinogênio - Fg), em todos os animais pertencentes ao ...
5-nucleotidase is an enzyme with system name 5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:a 5-ribonucleotide + H2O↔ a rib
Loss of venom from the venom gland after biting or manual extraction leads to morphological changes in venom secreting cells and the start of a cycle of production of new venom. We have previously shown that stimulation of both (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the secretory cells of the venom gland is essential for the onset of the venom production cycle in Bothrops jararaca. We investigated the signaling pathway by which the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor initiates the venom production cycle. Our results show that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype is present in venom gland of the snake. in quiescent cells, stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor with phenylephrine increased the total inositol phosphate concentration, and this effect was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Phenylephrine mobilized Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive stores and increased protein kinase C activity. in addition, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation increased the activity of ERK 1/2, partially via protein kinase C. ...
Thrombin-like enzyme that shows clotting activity upon human plasma. Shows specific fibrinogenolytic activity for Aalpha chain (FGA). Hydrolyzes fibrin, BAPNA and TAME, as well as chromogenic artificial substrates of the blood coagulation cascasde: S-27654 for factor X (F10), S-2302 for kallikrein (KLK), factor XIa (F11), and XIIa (F12), and S-2266 for kallikrein and factor XIa (F11). Subcutaneous injection into mice induces a mild edema. Intravenous and intramuscular injection reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration and increase the levels of fibrin(ogen) degradation products. Intramuscular injection also promotes an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but is unable to activate it.
These snakes may reach ages beyond 20 years of age. Unlike most snakes, the males are larger than the females. This may be a result of selection for large males that will win the arduous male-male, non-lethal wrestling contests that allow the winner to breed with a nearby female.. Females will produce a clutch of up to around 20 live-born babies that are especially large in size. The myth that baby diamondback rattlesnakes hide underground, and grow for a few years before surfacing, likely comes from the fact that few people realize that an 18-inch rattlesnake is actually a newborn. Like all other rattlesnakes yet studied, the female will stay with her young and protect them until their first shed cycle, at which time they will disperse on their own.. ...
Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Photos, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Photos, Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com
Define Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Mottled Rock Rattlesnake synonyms, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake pronunciation, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake translation, English dictionary definition of Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Noun 1. Crotalus lepidus - mountain rock dweller of Mexico and most southern parts of United States southwest rock rattlesnake rattler, rattlesnake - pit...
Angiogenesis and wound repair are mediated by several growth factors that are strictly released. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus induces in vivo angiogenesis as well as the cyclic peptide derived from its primary structure, with the ECD motif (ALT-C PEP). This study investigated the effects of ALT-C and ALT-C PEP on angiogenesis and expression of growth factors in a model of wounded rat skin. The rats were anaesthetized; one cutaneous excision (4 mm diameter) was made on the back of each animal, close to the cervical area. Animals were then divided into 7 groups (five rats/group): control (treated with vehicle); locally treated with 10, 60 and 100 ng ALT-C or 10, 20 and 100 ng ALT-C PEP ALT-C PEP for 1, 3, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of experiments animals were killed, the skin was removed; the cranial portion was used for histological analysis and from the caudal portion; protein were extracted, separated by SDS-PAGE and VEGF, ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
The Trans-Pecos copperhead (A. contortrix pictigaster) is similar to the Broad-banded, is of equal size, and has slightly hourglass-shaped markings, usually with a lighter patch at the base of each band. The genus Agkistrodon, of which the American copperhead is a member, includes 10 species, three of them native to North America (one being the well-known Cottonmouth. The rest can be found in Asia and the islands nearby - notable members include the Siberian moccasin, the Himalayan viper, and the Okinawan habu. Note that the three Australian copperheads are elapids and not related.. American copperheads breed in late summer but not to a fixed pattern: sometimes a female will give produce young for several years running, then not breed at all for a time. They give birth to live young about 20 cm long: a typical litter is 4 to 7, but it can be as few as 1 or as many as 20. Other than size, the young are similar to the adults, but lighter in color, and with a yellow-marked tip to the tail, which is ...
Bothrops jararacussu snake venom produces myonecrosis and nerve degeneration. In this work, we investigated whether nerve lesions or impaired muscle regeneration contributed to the permanent loss of muscle mass, a long-term sequela of envenoming. The right soleus muscle of adult male mice was injected with B. jararacussu venom (80 mug) while the left muscle received only saline (control). The mice were killed after 2 and 3 months and the muscles were removed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The nerve fibers, Schwann cells and neuromuscular junctions had regenerated in venom-treated muscle. The total number of muscle fibers was significantly lower (p , 0.05) than in the control (617 +/- 48 versus 1235 +/- 97, respectively; mean +/- SEM, n = 10). These results show that the loss of muscle mass was most likely related to a decrease in the ability of the muscle to regenerate rather than to nerve lesions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Common names: fer-de-lance, terciopelo, Bothrops asper is a highly venomous pit viper species ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. Sometimes referred to as the ultimate pit viper, these snakes are found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. Its proximity to human habitations and temperament are likely the reasons why it is considered more dangerous to humans than others. This species is the main cause of snakebite incidents within its range. No subspecies are currently recognized. The generic name, Bothrops, comes from the Greek words bothros and ops, which mean pit and face (or eye), respectively. This is a reference to these snakes highly sensitive heat-detecting pit organs. The specific epithet, asper, which is a Latin word meaning rough or harsh, may allude to the species keeled dorsal scales. Some of the common names applied to this snake are terciopelo, fer-de-lance, Mapepire balsain (Trinidad), barba amarilla (Guatemala, ...
I had a sabbatical in Singapore, at the National University. I was seated on the patio of the university canteen eating one of my typical lunches: curried mutton with hot lentils, rice and a durian milkshake, served on a banana leaf. I struck up a conversation with a biochemist who studied the structure and function of snake venom proteins. He was systematically analyzing the proteins in various venoms looking for proteins that interact with essential features of cells. This was a potential initial step for the design of new drugs. I remember asking him how he knew which part of the venom proteins was important and which parts just served as a rigid platform to display the active parts. He said that it was simple, the water-binding, hydrophilic amino acids that formed amorphous loops bordered by sulfhydryl-bonding cysteines were his targets. Ten years layer, I observed that these loops also have the basic amino acids (K, lysine and R, arginine) that form heparin-binding domains ...
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Zinc-dependent metalloprotease; adamalysin_II_like subfamily. Adamalysin II is a snake venom zinc endopeptidase. This subfamily contains other snake venom metalloproteinases, as well as membrane-anchored metalloproteases belonging to the ADAM family. ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) are glycoproteins, which play roles in cell signaling, cell fusion, and cell-cell interactions. ...
1998 Jane and Whitney Harris Lecture. The Jane and Whitney Harris lecture was held at the St. Louis Zoo (Living World Auditorium) on Tuesday 14 April. Dr. Harry W. Greene, herpetologist and evolutionary biologist with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley lectured on: Frogs and snakes: The texture of biodiversity. The lecture not only provided an intimate look into the details of some of the worlds most fascinating creatures, but also into the man who has devoted his life to understanding and conserving these organisms. Dr. Greenes dedication to education and scientific research was evident as he described how snakes manage to swallow food items much larger than their head and why female western diamondback rattlesnakes forgo food for several months to take care of their offspring. Dr. Greenes presentation and the spectacular slides, many photographed by Michael and Patricia Fogden, enthralled the audience of 200.. DIRECTOR IS DISTINGUISHED VISITING ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
copperhead: Any of several unrelated snakes named for their reddish head colour. The North American copperhead Agkistrodon (also spelled Ancistrodon) contortrix is a venomous species found...
Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated ...
Bothrops marajoensis is found in the savannah of Marajo Island in the State of Par S and regions of Amapa State, Brazil. The aim of the work was to study the renal and cardiovascular effects of the B. marajoensis venom and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). The venom was fractionated by Protein Pack 5PW. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of sPLA(2) showed amino acid identity with other lysine K49sPLA(2)s of snake venom. B. marajoensis venom (30 mu g/mL) decreased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate and sodium tubular transport. PLA(2) did not change the renal parameters. The perfusion pressure of the mesenteric bed did not change after infusion of venom. In isolated heart, the venom decreased the force of contraction and increased PP but did not change coronary flow. In the arterial pressure, the venom and PLA(2) decreased mean arterial pressure and cardiac frequency. The presence of atrial flutter and late hyperpolarisation reversed, indicating ...
We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were
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A bradykinin-potentiating factor (bpf) present in the venom of bothrops jararaca. Continuous prepositively buy viraday online india visual snow started in these patients 2 weeks to 15 years after the first episode? You should see improvement within 2 to 3 weeks, but it may take more than 6 weeks before you see definite beneficial effects. I have suffered so much memory loss, even simple things and alot of memories. He suggested the boys be buried in one coffin, nizoral shampoo reviews uk ironically according to multiple witnesses! Strains that were tet(B)- or tet(A)-positive carried the genes for P fimbriae and aerobactin, respectively, more often than susceptible strains? The products are sourced from various countries as well as those listed above! Increased risk of death in elderly people with dementia-related psychosis. Not only does the report cover a holistic view of the industry from a global standpoint, kamagra oral jelly kaufen per paypal but it also covers individual regions and their ...
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There are a lot of amazing rattlesnake facts out there. For many people, just the idea of coming across a rattlesnake while out on a hike or gardening is too much to bear. They illicit a type of fear that is very intense and most times unwarranted. Often, people who run across these snakes will assume the worst and go running for the hills. While they are indeed animals that you want to keep your distance from, its not necessary to recoil in horror at the very mention of them. Theyre actually really interesting little animals. Here are ten of the amazing rattlesnake facts that set them apart from other animals.. ...
The American Copperhead does create venom but it isnt a powerful as many other snakes. Facts and Information. Feeding, habitat, distribution and more.
Dr. Vivekananda Chakravorty gives a brief description of the symptoms of Cenchris Contortrix. These include ailments from anticipation, marked, alternation of mood and dreamy absentmindedness.
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Venom is a kind of poison used by animals. It is made in an animals body. It is injected into the body of another animal by a bite or sting. Animals that use venom include some kinds of insects, fish, reptiles, and even mammals. Some animals use venom to kill another animal that they are going to eat. One animal that does that is the rattlesnake. Some animals use venom to protect themselves. Some animals that do that are bees and ants. Some animals use venom for both of these things. ...
Good morning all tought I would share this story,so as I was removing my pair of copperheads out of there inclosure I put the both of them in a large container closed the lid and was off cleaning and the next moment I heard a really good scuffle in the container and as I opend the container saw the male going crazy turns out the female had a good nick at him with one fang entering the venom gland and the other behind the neck area a was really upset and hope that he would make it but unfortunately he did not after approx 25min he was gone so they are not imune to there venom ...
For the comics character, see Anti-Venom (comics).. Antivenom, also known as antivenin, venom antiserum and antivenom ... Polyvalent crotalid antivenin (CroFab-Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine)) North American pit vipers (all rattlesnakes, ... However, cytotoxic venom causes injury even at low doses meant to build resistance and the long-term effects of venom dosing in ... Thus, they should be given as soon as possible after the venom has been injected, but are of some benefit as long as venom is ...
LATOXAN, the leading world supplier of venoms, created KITOXAN®, the first Libraries of venom fractions, to give a facilitated ... Venom fractions. Venoms have been cleared from molecules over 10 KDa (cytotoxic enzymes) to make the fractions compatible with ... Natural Active Ingredients - Venoms - Toxins - Alkaloids - Plant Compounds - Ion Channel & Receptor Ligands. LATOXAN SAS - 20, ... Then, each venom has been split up in 20 fractions by HPLC. Each fraction is expected to contain 5 to 10 peptides at a ~10 ...
The effects with whole venoms plus lecithin were compared with effects caused by boiled venom supernatant fluids containing ... Heparin altered the lytic behavior of C. scutulatus whole venom but did not influence the other venoms. ... Phospholipase A in the supernatant fluids of all venoms with lecithin caused stabilization of red-blood-cell membranes. A. c. ... mokeson, A. p. leucostoma, and C. scutulatus whole venoms demonstrated a specific lytic behavior, whereas C. atrox whole venom ...
In this study, a panel of eight PLA(2) myotoxins purified from crotalid snake venoms, including both Lys49 and Asp49-type ... Antimicrobial activity of myotoxic phospholipases A2 from crotalid snake venoms and synthetic peptide variants derived from ...
Snake Venom, Snake Envenomation, Crotalid Venom, Pit Viper Venom, Elapid Venom. ... Crotalid Venoms, Pit Viper Venoms, Venoms, Crotalid, Venoms, Pit Viper, Crotalid Venom, Venom, Crotalid, Pit Viper Venom, Venom ... Snake Venoms, Venoms, Snake, Snake Venom, Venom, Snake, Snake Venoms [Chemical/Ingredient], snake venom, snake venoms, venom ... Elapid Venoms, Venoms, Elapid, Elapid Venom, Venom, Elapid, Elapid Venoms [Chemical/Ingredient], Elapid venom, Elapid venom ( ...
Crotalid Venoms. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. *Ovid Technologies, Inc. ... The dose of venom resulted in 100% mortality. The median survival was longer in the pressure immobilization group (191 minutes ... After anesthesia, C atrox venom (20 mg/kg) was injected with a 22-gauge needle 10 mm deep into the tibialis anterior muscle of ... We measured time to death, intracompartmental pressure before venom injection and at 2 hours after injection, and leg ...
Some Effects of Heat-Labile Venom Components on Indirect Hemolysis by Crotalid Venoms * Franklin E. Byrd and Bob D. Johnson ... The effects with whole venoms plus lecithin were compared with effects caused by boiled venom supernatant fluids containing ... Heparin altered the lytic behavior of C. scutulatus whole venom but did not influence the other venoms. ... A. c. mokeson, A. p. leucostoma, and C. scutulatus whole venoms demonstrated a specific lytic behavior, whereas C. atrox whole ...
... present in the venoms of crotalid snakes. This study evaluated the influence of molecular weight on the ability of fucoidan to ... present in the venoms of crotalid snakes. This study evaluated the influence of molecular weight on the ability of fucoidan to ... When tested against crude venom, which contains several myotoxin isoforms, the immediate in situ i.m. injection of F(H) still ... Ability of fucoidan to prevent muscle necrosis induced by snake venom myotoxins: comparison of high- and low-molecular weight ...
... has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. Among … ... and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of ... Crotalid Venoms / metabolism * Glycoproteins / metabolism * Mammals / metabolism * Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects* * ... A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with ...
0 (Blood Proteins); 0 (Bothrops jararaca inhibitor); 0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Isoflavones); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Snake Venoms ... Preincubation of TM (200 g/mL) with venom attenuated the venom-induced neuromuscular blockade by 84% 5% (mean SEM; n = 4). The ... compared to venom alone (50.3% 5.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3), and preincubation of TM with venom significantly attenuated the ... venom-induced damage (only 17% 3.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3; p < 0.05 compared to venom alone). TM showed no mutagenicity in ...
0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Reptilian Proteins); EC 3.1.1.4 (Group II Phospholipases A2); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2); EC 3.1. ... Immunoblotting showed that venom components of ~25-100kDa interacted with CAv. SE-HPLC profiles for venom incubated with CAv or ... 0 (Antibodies, Neutralizing); 0 (Antidotes); 0 (Antivenins); 0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Reptilian Proteins); EC 3.1.- (Esterases ... Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom.. ...
Categories: Crotalid Venoms Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 5 ...
Crotalid Venoms (antagonists & inhibitors) *Female. *Humans. *Hypersensitivity (epidemiology, etiology) *Immunoglobulin Fab ... There are limited data on the use of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune FAB-Ovine (CroFab) in the management of crotalid ...
Crotalid venom is produced and stored in paired glands below the eye. It is discharged from hollow fangs located in the upper ... 1] Venom is mostly water. Enzymatic proteins in venom impart its destructive properties. Proteases, collagenase, and arginine ... Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution. Proc Biol Sci. ... Venom dosage per bite depends on the elapsed time since the last bite, the degree of threat perceived by the snake, and size of ...
These animals are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. They have metalloproteinase inhibitors in ... Opossum serum contains metalloproteinase inhibitors which neutralize toxins from Crotalid venoms." (Pornmanee et al. 2008:187) ... Pit viper venom is a complex mixture of various enzymes called metalloproteinases. These enzymes wreak havoc inside the bodies ... The sera of Virginia opossum avoid toxic reactions to snake venom by containing compounds that block the key enzymes in the ...
Affinity-purified, mixed monospecific crotalid antivenom ovine Fab for the treatment of crotalid venom poisoning. Ann Emerg Med ... Snake venom coagulopathy: use and abuse of blood products in the treatment of pit viper envenomation. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Jul. ... Severe toxicity from crotalid envenomation after early resolution of symptoms. Ann Emerg Med. 1995 Sep. 26(3):387-9. [Medline] ... Rattlesnake venom-induced thrombocytopenia response to Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent: a case series. Acad Emerg Med. 2000 ...
Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g); however, ... Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid) for spermine, spermidine, ... it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed. All elapid venoms contained larger molar quantities of putrescine ... As with venom purines, polyamines impact numerous physiological targets in ways that are consistent with the objectives of prey ...
A monomeric disintegrin (q.v.) isolated from crotalid venom.. [fr. Trimeresurus flavoviridis, species of source viper, + -in] ...
As typical of many viperid/crotalid snakes, the venom of B. asper induces severe coagulation disturbances (Barrantes et al. ... Venom. The venom of Bothrops asper was a pool obtained from more than 30 specimens collected in the Atlantic region of Costa ... Keywords: Snake venom, disintegrin, Bothrops, platelet aggregation. Snake venoms constitute rich sources of proteins that ... Isolation of bothrasperin, a disintegrin with potent platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, from the venom of the snake ...
Venoms from crotalid and viperid snakes contain several peptide inhibitors which regulate the proteolytic activities of their ... Venoms from crotalid and viperid snakes contain several peptide inhibitors which regulate the proteolytic activities of their ... Crystal Structure of a Taiwan Habu Venom Metalloproteinase complexed with pEKW.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1KUK/pdb ... Determinants of the inhibition of a Taiwan habu venom metalloproteinase by its endogenous inhibitors revealed by X-ray ...
Viperid and crotalid venoms contain PLA2s with the ability to cause rapid necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers, thus being ... 28 nmoles/min/mg) when compared with the whole venom (8.. .24 nmoles/min/mg). PLA2 enzyme from snake venom shows classic ... Venom and Reagents. Bothriopsis bilineata venom was donated by Dr. Corina Vera Gonzáles. All chemicals and reagents used in ... for the PLA2 of Bothrops jararacussu venom and Damico et al. [19] for the PLA2 isoform purified from Lachesis muta muta venom. ...
Other snakes in the Crotalid family, such as the hundred-pace viper, create venoms containing hemorrhagic and proteolytic ... acutus venom. CSL are used to investigate platelet glycoprotein receptors. Qualitative determination of snake venom by sandwich ... was designed on the peptide inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme derived from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Venoms of ... Snake venom proteins are the mechanism whereby animals kill or immobilize their prey. They are of considerable interest because ...
... but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized. ... Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms ... Elapid Venoms. Subscribe to New Research on Elapid Venoms Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, ... but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized. ...
B. Lomonte, Y. Angulo, and L. Calderón, "An overview of lysine-49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins from crotalid snake venoms and ... "Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) extracts and ... G. Rosenfeld, "Symptomatology, pathology and treatment of snake bites in South America," in Venomous Animals and their Venoms, ... P. A. Melo and G. Suarez-Kurtz, "Release of sarcoplasmic enzymes from skeletal muscle by Bothrops jararacussu venom: antagonism ...
... to determine the effect of crotalid venom on CHO-K1 cells, particularly its action on actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum ... Venom treatment. The CHO-K1 cells were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom at 10, 50 and 100µg/ml, diluted in medium ... The action of Crotalus durissus venom in vitro demonstrated the need for more studies of the proteins present in the venom and ... Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom ...
In vitro, the venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, and L-amino acid oxidase activities, as well as angiotensin- ... Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that ... The protein composition of B. punctatus venom shows a good correlation with toxic activities here and previously reported, and ... In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the snake venomics analytical strategy. ...
Viperid venoms often contain mixtures of Asp49 and Lys49 PLA2 myotoxin isoforms, relevant to development of myonecrosis. Given ... An overview of Lysine-49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins from crotalid snake venoms and their structural determinants of myotoxic ... Figure 1: Isolation of myotoxic phospholipases A2 from the venom of Bothrops asper (Pacific versant of Costa Rica).. (A) Venom ... Snake venom, Asp49, Myotoxin, Phospholipase A2, Bothrops asper Copyright. © 2014 Mora-Obando et al. Licence. This is an open ...
Crotalid (rattlesnake) Venom Toxoid. Rattlesnake vaccine must be administered to dogs who have strong chances of being exposed ...
  • The hemolytic activities of the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson, Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma, Crotalus atrox , and Crotalus scutulatus were studied by using hypotonic solutions. (ajtmh.org)
  • Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. (scielo.br)
  • Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and its components can affect a variety of cell types, including macrophages (9), neutrophils (34), mast cells (8), platelets (7) and cells in culture (14), as well as the function of organs such as the heart (19) and the kidney (22). (scielo.br)
  • A very well studied sv C-type lectin is the heterodimeric toxin, convulxin (CVX), from the venoms of South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus terrificus and C. d. cascavella. (bvsalud.org)
  • By gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC, Lys49-phospholipase-like proteins were purified from the venoms of two rattlers, Crotalus atrox and Crotalus m. molossus, and five nonrattlers, Porthidium nummifer, Porthidium godmani, Bothriechis schlegelii, Trimeresurus puniceus, and Trimeresurus albolabris. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • Our work shows that preconditioning with Crotalus rattlesnake venom, known for its hemorrhagic and inflammatory effects, mitigates some harmful effects of SBI. (llu.edu)
  • We have identified two proteins of interest in Crotalus venom: snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), an enzyme with hemorrhagic effects, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), an enzyme upstream to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the inflammatory cascade. (llu.edu)
  • We have found that preconditioning Crotalus venom increases endogenous fibrinogen, decreases perioperative hemorrhage, attenuates COX-2 activity, and reduces postoperative brain edema. (llu.edu)
  • One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ such as Mojave toxin (MTX). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • During behavioral discrimination trials (vomeronasal responsiveness) to euthanized mice injected with size-fractionated venom, Crotalus atrox responded significantly to only one protein peak. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, the present study aims to describe the oxidative stress induced by Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom using erythrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human erythrocytes were washed and incubated with different Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom concentrations (0-640 μg/mL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom provokes hemolysis and oxidative stress, which induces methemoglobin formation, loss of protein structure and lipid peroxidation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that Crotalus durissus terrificus venom cause a local muscular tissue damage in human envenoming represented by edema and hemorrhage. (scielo.br)
  • Crotalus durissus terrificus venom shows higher toxicity than other viperid venoms, especially in relation to systemic neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and myotoxic activities (2). (scielo.br)
  • Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave ( Crotalus scutulatus ), South American ( C. durissus ), and timber ( C. horridus ) rattlesnakes, resulting in some populations with extremely potent, neurotoxic venoms without the hemorrhagic effects typical of rattlesnake bites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crotalus horridus lacked significant expression of the hemorrhagic snake-venom metalloproteinases and C-type lectins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Anti-sera Raised In Rabbits Against Crotoxin And Phospholipase A2 From Crotalus Durissus Cascavella Venom Neutralize The Neurotoxicity Of The Venom And Crotoxin. (unicamp.br)
  • Crotoxin, the principal neurotoxin in venom of the South American rattlesnakes Crotalus durissus terrificus and Crotalus durissus cascavella, contains a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and an acidic protein, crotapotin. (unicamp.br)
  • Opossum serum contains metalloproteinase inhibitors which neutralize toxins from Crotalid venoms. (asknature.org)
  • Only few studies have been conducted to identify toxins affecting hemostasis in B. asper venom, despite their potential relevance for its lethal action. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. (curehunter.com)
  • The systematic fractionation of C. d. terrificus venom has revealed the presence of various toxins (convulxin, crotamine, crotoxin and gyroxin) and enzymes (5, 11), some of which may exert a potentially damaging effect on cells. (scielo.br)
  • Snake venom (sv) C-type lectins encompass a group of hemorrhagic toxins, which are able to interfere with hemostasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • A particular subgroup of toxins with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) structure, but devoid of this enzymatic activity, is commonly found in the venoms of snakes of the family Viperidae, and known as the PLA2 homologues. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Interest in studies on the neutralization of snake venoms and toxins by diverse types of inhibitors is two-fold. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Some of these symptoms may be provoked by the envenomation itself, but others are secondary effects of the produced oxidative stress that enhances the damage produced by the venom toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It should be pointed out here, that the previously established practice of classifying a venom as either hematoxic or neurotoxic has proven to be flawed and insufficient in defining the true nature of snake venoms and toxins. (serpentoxin.com)
  • Q: What technology does VenomVet™ use to combat the effects of Crotalid venin toxins? (venomvet.com)
  • Another significant difference is that it has two antigen binding sites per molecule and works by binding and neutralizing venom toxins. (venomvet.com)
  • In vitro antimicrobial activity of natural toxins and animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei. (rie2016.info)
  • CroFab ® is a venom-specific Fab fragment of immunoglobulin G which binds and neutralizes toxins [ 3 , 4 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The effects with whole venoms plus lecithin were compared with effects caused by boiled venom supernatant fluids containing phospholipase A and lecithin to gain insight into the role of heat-labile venom components on lysing human red blood cells. (ajtmh.org)
  • Phospholipase A in the supernatant fluids of all venoms with lecithin caused stabilization of red-blood-cell membranes. (ajtmh.org)
  • In vitro , the venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A 2 , and L-amino acid oxidase activities, as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity, in agreement with the obtained proteomic profile. (peerj.com)
  • Basic phospholipase A 2 homologs with Lys49 substitution at the essential Ca 2+ -binding site are present in the venom of pit vipers under many genera. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • Group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2) myotoxins found in the venoms of Crotalidae snakes can be divided into `Asp49' and `Lys49' isoforms, the latter being considered catalytically-inactive variants. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2) myotoxins isolated from Viperidae/Crotalidae snake venoms induce a rapid cytolytic effect upon diverse cell types in vitro. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Assays for enzymes common in rattlesnake venoms, such as exonuclease, L-amino acid oxidase, metalloproteinase, thrombin-like and kallikrein-like serine proteases and phospholipase A 2 , showed that vomeronasal responsiveness was not dependent on enzymatic activity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Venom of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer (jumping viper) from Guatemala and Honduras: comparative toxicological characterization, isolation of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2). (conare.ac.cr)
  • A crystallographic and site-directed mutagenesis study of the phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus. (rie2016.info)
  • An overview of lysine phospholipase A2 myotoxins from crotalid snake venoms and their structural determinants of myotoxic action. (rie2016.info)
  • In the present work, venoms from five species of the genus Agkistrodon were evaluated in terms of their enzymatic (Phospholipase A 2 and caseinolytic) and biological (edema forming, hemorrhagic, procoagulant and lethal) effects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues constitute a group of catalytically-inactive proteins, present in the venoms of many crotalid snakes, which induce myonecrosis. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The venom of bees, hornets, and wasps, contains phospholipase A which is thought to be responsible for IgE sensitization. (bobbybukamd.com)
  • During envenomation, venom components mainly affect the hemostatic system [causing hemorrhage]. (asknature.org)
  • As with venom purines, polyamines impact numerous physiological targets in ways that are consistent with the objectives of prey envenomation, prey immobilization via hypotension and paralysis. (mdpi.com)
  • however, venom-induced liberation of endogenous, intracellular stores of polyamines could potentially have systemic implications and may contribute significantly to envenomation sequelae. (mdpi.com)
  • The normal reaction to envenomation involves a series of complex immunologic cascades that ensures a prompt protective response to venom in humans [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper is not intended as an all-inclusive presentation of all components of snake venoms nor does it propose to explain all the physiological processes involved in snake envenomation. (serpentoxin.com)
  • Venom Vet™ is indicated for the management of minimal to severe North American crotalid envenomation in dogs 6 months of age and older. (pattersonvet.com)
  • Venom-specific immunoglobulin G fragments are used for the management of patients with North American crotalid envenomation. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The extent of injury due to crotalid envenomation varies greatly depending on characteristics of the snake and victim [ 1 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • This mainstay of therapy for crotalid snakebites is used for patients experiencing progressive local, hematologic, and systemic effects of envenomation [ 3 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Treatment of rattlesnake envenomation depends upon the amount and type of venom the animal has been exposed to. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • The cost of treatment for rattlesnake envenomation depends greatly on the amount and type of venom the animal has been exposed to as well as on the length of time it takes to receive veterinary help (delaying veterinary assistance increases the number of expensive complications). (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • We have now screened for this protein in the venom of rattlesnakes and other less studied pit vipers. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Snake venoms generally show sequence and quantitative variation within and between species, but some rattlesnakes have undergone exceptionally rapid, dramatic shifts in the composition, lethality, and pharmacological effects of their venoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different kinds of rattlesnakes carry different types and strengths of venom and some may inject no venom at all. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Pit viper venom is a complex mixture of various enzymes called metalloproteinases. (asknature.org)
  • Opossum sera were capable of neutralizing metalloproteinases from Malayan pit viper venom including hemorrhagins, fibrinogenases, and gelatinases. (asknature.org)
  • Venoms from crotalid and viperid snakes contain several peptide inhibitors which regulate the proteolytic activities of their snake-venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in a reversible manner under physiological conditions. (rcsb.org)
  • Characterization of multiple metalloproteinases with fibrinogenolytic activity from the venom of Taiwan habu (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus): protein microsequencing coupled with cDNA sequence analysis. (rcsb.org)
  • The venom components responsible for cytotoxicity include disintegrins (27, 28) as well as enzymes such as L-amino acid oxidase (6), metalloproteinases (29) and phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 ) (20, 21). (scielo.br)
  • Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) participate in snakebite pathology such as hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis. (nih.gov)
  • The sequence is highly similar to those of high-molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases from viperid and crotalid venoms comprised of metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like, and Cys-rich domains. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, our results imply that the corresponding part of the Cys-rich domain in other snake venom metalloproteinases also has a synergistic disturbing effect on platelet aggregation, serving as a second disintegrin-like domain. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Metalloproteinases (MPs) are Zn+-dependent endoproteolytic enzymes, abundant in crotalid and viperid snake venoms. (unifesp.br)
  • Most snake venom metalloproteinases (svMPs) are active on extracellular matrix components and this effect is thought to result in bleeding as a consequence of the basement membrane disruption in capillaries. (unifesp.br)
  • The role of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in these systemic alterations was assessed by inhibition with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa(2)EDTA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The predominance of type PIII metalloproteinases agrees with the well-known hemorrhagic activity of this venom, whereas the lower content of serine proteases and C-type lectins could contribute to less marked coagulopathy following envenoming by this species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Relative to the toxin transcription of C. adamanteus , which consisted primarily of snake-venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, snake-venom serine proteinases, and myotoxin-A, the toxin transcription of C. horridus was far simpler in composition and consisted almost entirely of snake-venom serine proteinases, phospholipases A 2 , and bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is based on the ability of endogenous APC, generated by activation of protein C by an extract from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix venom, to prolong an activated partial thromboplastin time. (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluation of Snake Venoms among Agkistrodon Species in China. (reptarium.cz)
  • They have metalloproteinase inhibitors in their sera that neutralize the hemorrhagic and other proteolytic activities caused by many snake venoms. (asknature.org)
  • In the present work, we fractionated B. asper venom in order to investigate the possible presence of inhibitors of platelet aggregation. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Serum samples taken from patients at intervals during their stay in the hospital and at followup approximately four weeks later were tested by enzyme immunoassay for the presence of whole venom and therapeutic antivenom. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Results indicated that in patients treated with the standard regimen of either four (40 ml) or eight (80 ml) ampules of each antivenom, venom was cleared from the circulation within four days of antivenom administration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that the venoms of A. piscivorus (USA) and A. bilineatus would be ideal to use as immunogens for the production of a polyvalent antivenom with good neutralizing potency against the venoms of all the species of the genus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Efficacy of North American crotalid antivenom against the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper). (springer.com)
  • A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of snake envenomations, has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymatic proteins in venom impart its destructive properties. (medscape.com)
  • While decades of research have focused on snake venom proteins, far less attention has been paid to small organic venom constituents. (mdpi.com)
  • Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. (peerj.com)
  • Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes and proteins which many of it not harmless to humans, but some are very toxic. (ukessays.com)
  • As mentioned, snake venom is modified saliva which contains a variety of proteins and enzymes. (ukessays.com)
  • 1KUK: Crystal Structure of a Taiwan Habu Venom Metalloproteinase complexed with pEKW. (rcsb.org)
  • The primary structure of kaouthiagin, a metalloproteinase from the venom of the cobra snake Naja kaouthia which specifically cleaves human von Willebrand factor (VWF), was determined by amino acid sequencing. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • This is the first report of an elapid venom metalloproteinase with two disintegrin-like sequences. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Proteases, collagenase, and arginine ester hydrolase have been identified in pit viper venom. (medscape.com)
  • In this study we investigate the effect of green pit viper venom (Trimeresurus albolabris) on platelet volume (MPV), number and morphology of platelets in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • The test was carried out by washing platelets in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 to remove fibrinogen, then the washed platelets were mixed with green pit viper venom. (bvsalud.org)
  • Green pit viper venom can directly effect platelet morphology, decreasing platelet volume. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pit viper venom is coagulopathic, and coral snake venom is neurotoxic - so what are the differences in ED management between the 2 types of envenomations? (ebmedicine.net)
  • Local inflammation is a prominent characteristic of snakebite envenomations by viperid and crotalid species [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It may seem that all patients with snakebite, especially crotalid snake bite, would fulfill these criteria. (acmt.net)
  • When tested against crude venom, which contains several myotoxin isoforms, the immediate in situ i.m. injection of F(H) still inhibited myonecrosis by nearly one-half of the effect recorded in the untreated group, whereas F(L) was ineffective. (nih.gov)
  • Viperid venoms often contain mixtures of Asp49 and Lys49 PLA 2 myotoxin isoforms, relevant to development of myonecrosis. (peerj.com)
  • Both antibodies completely neutralized myotoxic activity of myotoxin I and crude venom. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • P. A. Melo, M. C. D. Nascimento, W. B. Mors, and G. Suarez-Kurtz, "Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata ( Asteraceae ) extracts and constituents," Toxicon , vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 595-603, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • A snake C-type lectin-like (snaclec) and a type P-III hemorrhagic SVMP were isolated and characterized from this venom, and the effect of venom and the isolated snaclec on human platelet aggregation was studied in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • In some studies, these extracts were administered to mice before or after treatment with different elapid or crotalid venoms. (heilpflanzen-welt.de)
  • Systemic effects (lethality, pulmonary hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy) induced by intravenous (i.v.) administration of B. caribbaeus venom were studied in mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Results indicate that SVMPs play an important role in the overall toxicity of B. caribbaeus venom, being responsible for systemic hemorrhage and lethality, but not thrombocytopenia, whereas the isolated snaclec is involved in the thrombocytopenic effect. (ox.ac.uk)
  • type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • SVMPs, major components in most Crotalid venoms, have a relevant role in venom-induced local damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein composition of B. punctatus venom shows a good correlation with toxic activities here and previously reported, and adds further data in support of the wide diversity of strategies that have evolved in snake venoms to subdue prey, as increasingly being revealed by proteomic analyses. (peerj.com)
  • Phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 s) are abundant components of snake venoms, where they play major toxic roles in the immobilization and/or killing of prey. (peerj.com)
  • Evidence suggests that the differences between the venom components of different snake species resulted from a diet/prey directed evolution occurring over time. (medscape.com)
  • Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Snake venom is adapted saliva that is formed by distinct glands of only certain species of snakes. (ukessays.com)
  • Horses were used to produce monovalent hyperimmune sera against each of three venoms ( A. bilineatus, A. contortrix and A. piscivorus ) and their neutralizing potency, expressed as Median Effective Dose (ED 50 ), was determined against the venoms of all five species. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have examined the venom composition of several species in this genus, but many others remain to be studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results represent the first complete, sequence-based comparison between the venoms of closely related snake species and reveal in unprecedented detail the rapid evolution of snake venoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is true in particular for those species whose venom primarily contains components that have direct fibrinogen-coagulating activity ("thrombin-like" activity). (vapaguide.info)
  • There are limited data on the use of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune FAB -Ovine ( CroFab ) in the management of crotalid envenomations in children. (curehunter.com)
  • In March 2010, approval was received from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to supplement the biologics licence application for CroFab™ (Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine)) to remove the phrase "minimal or moderate" from the currently approved indication, thereby allowing CroFab™ to be used for all degrees of severity of Crotalid envenomations. (btgplc.com)
  • The sera of Virginia opossum avoid toxic reactions to snake venom by containing compounds that block the key enzymes in the venom. (asknature.org)
  • Thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) snake venom is used for fibrinogen breakdown assay and for the fibrinogen dysfunction detection. (ukessays.com)
  • Though most snake venoms have enzymes that act as toxic constituents, all are composed of several enzymes. (serpentoxin.com)
  • More than 20 enzymes have been detected in snake venoms, and 12 are found in all venoms. (serpentoxin.com)
  • One of the enzymes that are present in all snake venom is Hyalurondase . (serpentoxin.com)
  • The brown recluse spider causes a necrotic presentation, because its venom contains hyaluronidase and sphingomyelinase D among other enzymes. (toxhype.com)
  • The cytotoxins and proteolytic enzymes of rattlesnake venom can result in local erythema, ecchymosis, compartment syndrome, neurologic deficits, renal failure, and respiratory compromise. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml) for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. (scielo.br)
  • The neutralizing capacity of the sera in mouse preparations was comparable to that of commercial anti-serum raised against C. d. terrificus venom. (unicamp.br)
  • Crotacetin was purified from C. durissus venoms by gel permeation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. (bvsalud.org)
  • In plants, a short note is made of WSG, a newly described anti-toxic-PLA2 glycoprotein isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda), a medicinal plant whose aqueous extracts neutralize the PLA2 activity of the Naja naja venom. (nih.gov)
  • This paper describes the isolation and biochemical and pharmacological characterization of new PLA 2 s from Bothriopsis bilineata venom, Bbil-TX, and also the study of its various toxic activities, including myotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. (scielo.br)
  • Cytotoxic activity on murine C2C12 myoblasts was negative, suggesting that the majority of venom phospholipases A 2 likely belong to the acidic type, which often lack major toxic effects. (peerj.com)
  • The venom of most North American pit vipers (crotalids) contains toxic protein components, which produce local and systemic effects. (redmondvetclinic.com)
  • Although clinically similar to an allergic reaction, toxic systemic reactions due to multiple stings are caused by the vasoactive constituents of the venom rather than an allergic mechanism, and radioallergosorbent testing, which detects allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the serum suggesting an allergic reaction, is recommended to distinguish the etiology. (bobbybukamd.com)
  • In this study, a panel of eight PLA(2) myotoxins purified from crotalid snake venoms, including both Lys49 and Asp49-type isoforms, were all found to express bactericidal activity, indicating that this may be a common action of the group IIA PLA(2) protein family. (pasteur.fr)
  • It is concluded that, in this model, and in contrast to expectations, the use of smaller fucoidan fragments to prevent muscle damage induced by snake venom myotoxins is not advantageous, when compared with larger fucoidan molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The purification procedure described here is simple, rapid and reproducible and may prove useful to isolate pure protein for investigation into the contribution of this enzyme to the biological activities of A. bilineatus venom and PDE-I insight, in general. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neurotoxins comprise the majority of coral snake venom. (medscape.com)
  • venomous snakes snakes that secrete venoms capable of producing a deleterious effect on either the blood ( hemotoxin ) or the nervous system ( neurotoxin ), with the venom injected into the body of the victim by the snake's bite. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The venom these snakes inject into their victims is a strong neurotoxin (nerve toxin) and hemotoxin (blood cell toxin). (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Dogs who receive more of the neurotoxin in the venom tend to experience more life-threatening reactions, including rapid paralysis that may affect the respiratory muscles. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Not all snake venoms are dangerous to humans as they contain phosphodiesterase, cholinesterase, hyalurinodase, ATPase. (ukessays.com)
  • We have also cloned the cDNAs and solved the complete sequences of four novel Lys49-phospholipases from the venom glands of C. atrox, P. godmani, B. schlegelii, and Deinagkistrodon acutus (hundred-pace). (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • All arrangements are being finalised in preparation for marketing and selling CroFab™ (Crotalid anti-venom) and DigiFab™ (Digoxin antidote) from 1 October 2010, when the current distribution arrangement with Nycomed ends, or earlier if BTG acquires other products to sell itself. (btgplc.com)
  • The Department of Homeland Security list, known as the Critical Foreign Dependencies Initiative, included oil and gas pipelines, telecom cables, rare metal and other mines, military contractors, ocean navigation chokepoints and such obscure facilities as an Australian laboratory described as the sole supplier of Crotalid Polyvalent Antivenin - an antidote to rattlesnake venom. (pressherald.com)
  • With severe venom injection, a host of systemic symptoms and complications that include cardiovascular instability, internal hemorrhaging, and kidney failure may be noted in some individuals. (dovemed.com)
  • If these requirements cannot be met within a suitable period of time, it is necessary to weigh the risk of the systemic effects of the venom that could occur after removing the tourniquet against the risk of progressive local tissue damage that may arise if the bandage is left in place. (vapaguide.info)
  • Those at increased risk for severe systemic reactions include those with increased age, prior venom sensitization, underlying cardiovascular disease, and patients with mastocytosis. (bobbybukamd.com)
  • Additionally, all patients with systemic reactions should be referred to an allergist for skin prick or serum immunoassays to confirm venom-specific IgE[4] as well as venom immunotherapy which is available for both honeybee and vespid allergies. (bobbybukamd.com)
  • Venom immunotherapy is highly effective and has been demonstrated to lower the risk of a subsequent systemic allergic reaction from 30-60% to less than 5%[5-11]. (bobbybukamd.com)
  • These findings reveal the evolutionary significance of free disintegrins in venoms as the molecular mechanism in vipers allowing for effective relocation of envenomated prey. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The venom of most North American pit vipers causes only minor neuromuscular disease, although Mojave and Eastern diamondback rattlesnake venom may cause serious neurologic deficits. (redmondvetclinic.com)
  • The sera from the North American Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) were able to neutralize the venom of the Malayan pit viper. (asknature.org)
  • The ability of the plant extract "Danya" (Sc/erocarya birrea) to neutralize the necrotic and haemorrhagic effect of Naja naja and Naja nigricol/is venom was investigated. (edu.ng)
  • In this work, we examined the ability of rabbit anti-sera against crotoxin and its PLA2 subunit to neutralize the neurotoxicity of venom and crotoxin from C. d. cascavella in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and chick biventer cervicis preparations. (unicamp.br)
  • Veterinarians will neutralize any absorbed venom by injecting antivenin. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • this technique is used to make the anti-venom treatments. (ukessays.com)
  • Describe the characteristics of available anti-venom. (netce.com)
  • Venom stock solutions (2.5mg/ml) were prepared in phosphate buffered saline (0.1M sodium phosphate, 0.15M NaCl), pH 7.2, sterilized using a 0.22µm filter (Millipore) and kept at 4°C. Crude venom solutions were diluted in cell culture medium before use. (scielo.br)
  • It exhibited an anticoagulant effect, and increased the normal clotting time of normal citrated human plasma, whereas the crude venom showed strong coagulant effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • These animals are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. (asknature.org)
  • Neutralization of lethality and proteolytic activities of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom with North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. (asknature.org)
  • Viperid and crotalid venoms contain PLA 2 s with the ability to cause rapid necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers, thus being referred to as myotoxic PLA 2 s [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of the local actions of snake venoms are mediated by a direct action on skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, and platelets (17). (scielo.br)
  • Its N-terminal sequence has high similarity to disintegrins isolated from different snake venoms, which are known to bind to cellular integrins such as the GPIIb/IIIa fibrinogen receptor on platelets. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Our results demonstrate a novel and critical biological role for venom disintegrins far beyond their well-established role in disruption of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Fucoidan, a natural polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibits the myotoxic phospholipases A(2) present in the venoms of crotalid snakes. (nih.gov)
  • Both venom and snaclec induce platelet aggregation/agglutination. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are studies that suggest that some of these co-constituents may play an active role in the lethality of venoms. (serpentoxin.com)
  • In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the 'snake venomics' analytical strategy. (peerj.com)
  • B.lanceolatus venom (50 micro g/ml) and the caseinolytic protein (20 micro g/ml) produced contracture and progressive irreversible blockade (50% in 25+/-5 min (SEM) and 45+/-15 min, respectively), in indirectly stimulated chick biventer cervicis preparations. (unicamp.br)
  • 37 and 74 micro M, n=6) were inhibited by venom and the caseinolytic protein, whereas those to potassium (13.4mM, n=6) were not. (unicamp.br)
  • Membrane resting potential measurements in mouse hemidiaphragm preparations showed that B.lanceolatus venom and the purified protein caused depolarization which was prevented by D-tubocurarine (14.6mM). (unicamp.br)
  • Venom dosage per bite depends on the elapsed time since the last bite, the degree of threat perceived by the snake, and size of the prey. (medscape.com)
  • Nostril pits respond to the heat emission of the prey, which may enable the snake to vary the amount of venom delivered. (medscape.com)
  • A unique array of predatory strategies occur among snakes, ranging from mechanical modes of constriction and jaw-holding in non-venomous snakes, to a chemical means, venom, for quickly dispatching prey. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To the consternation of some, venomoids are venomous snakes that have had a surgical procedure to render them incapable of administering venom with a bite (usually the removal of the venom gland). (thefreelibrary.com)