Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Crotalus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)ColombiaIctaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.D-Amino-Acid OxidaseBungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Toxic Actions: A broad category of chemical actions with harmful or deadly effect on living organisms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Laryngeal Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Bites and StingsUrticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Compartment Syndromes: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Anterior Compartment Syndrome: Rapid swelling, increased tension, pain, and ischemic necrosis of the muscles of the anterior tibial compartment of the leg, often following excessive PHYSICAL EXERTION.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Burn Units: Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.

Conformational changes in the A3 domain of von Willebrand factor modulate the interaction of the A1 domain with platelet glycoprotein Ib. (1/687)

Bitiscetin has recently been shown to induce von Willebrand factor (vWF)-dependent aggregation of fixed platelets (Hamako J, et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226:273, 1996). We have purified bitiscetin from Bitis arietans venom and investigated the mechanism whereby it promotes a form of vWF that is reactive with platelets. In the presence of bitiscetin, vWF binds to platelets in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. The binding of vWF to platelets involves glycoprotein (GP) Ib because it was totally blocked by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 6D1 directed towards the vWF-binding site of GPIb. The binding also involves the GPIb-binding site of vWF located on the A1 domain because it was inhibited by MoAb to vWF whose epitopes are within this domain and that block binding of vWF to platelets induced by ristocetin or botrocetin. However, in contrast to ristocetin or botrocetin, the binding site of bitiscetin does not reside within the A1 domain but within the A3 domain of vWF. Thus, among a series of vWF fragments, 125I-bitiscetin only binds to those that overlap the A3 domain, ie, SpIII (amino acid [aa] 1-1365), SpI (aa 911-1365), and rvWF-A3 domain (aa 920-1111). It does not bind to SpII corresponding to the C-terminal part of vWF subunit (aa 1366-2050) nor to the 39/34/kD dispase species (aa 480-718) or T116 (aa 449-728) overlapping the A1 domain. In addition, bitiscetin that does not bind to DeltaA3-rvWF (deleted between aa 910-1113) has no binding site ouside the A3 domain. The localization of the binding site of bitiscetin within the A3 domain was further supported by showing that MoAb to vWF, which are specific for this domain and block the interaction between vWF and collagen, are potent inhibitors of the binding of bitiscetin to vWF and consequently of the bitiscetin-induced binding of vWF to platelets. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that an interaction between the A1 and A3 domains exists that may play a role in the function of vWF by regulating the ability of the A1 domain to bind to platelet GPIb.  (+info)

Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the epsilon form of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (2/687)

Neonatal mice resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. Because Waglerin-1 blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of mature end-plates, the appearance of lethality may result from the epsilon- for gamma-subunit substitution. In support of this hypothesis, adult knockout (KO) mice lacking the gene coding for the epsilon-subunit resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. In contrast, heterozygous litter mates respond to Waglerin-1 like adult wild-type mice. In vitro application of 1 microM Waglerin-1 inhibited spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials and evoked end-plate potentials of adult wild-type and heterozygous KO mice. Both miniature end-plate potentials and end-plate potentials of neonatal wild-type and adult homozygous KO mice resisted Waglerin-1. Waglerin-1 decreased the end-plate response of adult wild-type mice to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (ACh) with an IC50 value of 50 nM; 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 4 +/- 1% of control for adult heterozygous KO mice. In contrast, 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 73 +/- 2% of control for wild-type mice less than 11 days old and had no effect on the ACh response of adult homozygous KO mice. Between 11 and 12 days after birth, the suppressant effect of Waglerin-1 on wild-type end-plate responses to ACh dramatically increased. Waglerin-1 reduced binding of alpha-bungarotoxin to end-plates of adult but not neonatal wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor containing the epsilon-subunit.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of endothelial glycoprotein Ib using viper venom proteins modulating cell adhesion. (3/687)

The expression and function of a glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) complex on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is still a matter of controversy. We characterized HUVEC GPIb using viper venom proteins: alboaggregins A and B, echicetin, botrocetin, and echistatin. Echicetin is an antagonist, and alboaggregins act as agonists of the platelet GPIb complex. Botrocetin is a venom protein that alters von Willebrand factor (vWF) conformation and increases its binding affinity for the GPIb complex. Echistatin is a disintegrin that blocks alphavbeta3. Echistatin, but not echicetin, inhibited the adhesion to vWF of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with alphavbeta3. We found the following: (1) Binding of monoclonal antibodies against GPIbalpha to HUVECs was moderately increased after stimulation with cytokines and phorbol ester. Echicetin demonstrated an inhibitory effect. (2) Both echicetin and echistatin, an alphavbeta3 antagonist, inhibited the adhesion of HUVECs to immobilized vWF in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was additive when both proteins were used together. (3) Botrocetin potentiated the adhesion of HUVECs to vWF, and this effect was completely abolished by echicetin, but not by echistatin. (4) CHO cells expressing GPIbalphabeta/IX adhered to vWF (in the presence of botrocetin) and to alboaggregins; GPIbalpha was required for this reaction. Echicetin, but not echistatin, inhibited the adhesion of cells transfected with GPIbalphabeta/IX to immobilized vWF. (5) HUVECs adhered strongly to immobilized vWF and alboaggregins with extensive spreading, which was inhibited by LJ1b1, a monoclonal antibody against GPIb. The purified alphavbeta3 receptor did not interact with the alboaggregins, thereby excluding the contribution of alphavbeta3 in inducing HUVEC spreading on alboaggregins. In conclusion, our data confirm the presence of a functional GPIb complex expressed on HUVECs in low density. This complex may mediate HUVEC adhesion and spreading on immobilized vWF and alboaggregins.  (+info)

Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys pallas. (4/687)

A cDNA encoding a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys Pallas with an N-terminus highly homologous to that of BPLA2 and a C-terminus sequence almost the same as that of APLA2 was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in Escherichia coli RR1. The protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies. After partial purification by washing, the inclusion bodies with Triton X-100, denaturing and refolding, the renatured recombinant protein was purified by FPLC column superose 12. The purified recombinant enzyme with an isoelectric point of pH 6.8 could cross-react with antiserum prepared against acidic phospholipase A2. The enzymatic activity of the expressed basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II is close to that of denatured-refolded native basic phospholipase A2, and has the same inhibiting effect on platelet aggregation as denatured-refolded acidic phospholipase A2, but lacks the hemolytic activity of denatured-refolded basic phospholipase A2. To study the structural relationships among basic phospholipase A2, acidic phospholipase A2 and basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II, molecular modeling of basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II was done. The roles of various amino acid residues in the enzymatic activity and pharmacological activities of phospholipase A2 are discussed.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and tyrosine-phosphatase activation positively modulate Convulxin-induced platelet activation. Comparison with collagen. (5/687)

In this report we have studied the role of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) and tyrosine phosphatase activation on platelet activation by Convulxin (Cvx). Wortmannin, a specific PI3-K inhibitor, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), block Cvx-induced platelet aggregation, granule secretion, inositol phosphate production, and increase in [Ca2+]i. However, PAO does not inhibit Cvx-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, including Syk and PLCgamma2, but blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2. In contrast, Cvx-induced PLCgamma2 tyrosyl phosphorylation was partially inhibited by wortmannin. We conclude that (i) although Cvx and collagen activate platelets by a similar mechanism, different regulatory processes are specific to each agonist; (ii) mechanisms other than tyrosine phosphorylation regulate PLCgamma2 activity; and (iii) besides protein tyrosine kinases, PI3-K (and PTPase) positively modulate platelet activation by both Cvx and collagen, and this enzyme is required for effective transmission of GPVI-Fc receptor gamma chain signal to result in full activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 in Cvx-stimulated platelets.  (+info)

Reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced thrombocytopenia by triflavin in a rat model of septicemia. (6/687)

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia frequently occurs early in the course of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Triflavin, an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing disintegrin, has been suggested to interfere with the interaction of fibrinogen with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. The present study was undertaken to determine whether triflavin could prevent thrombocytopenia in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 51Cr-labeled platelets were used to assess blood and tissue platelet accumulation after LPS challenge. The administration of LPS (4 mg/kg IV bolus) for 4 hours induced a reduction in radiolabeled platelets in blood and an obvious accumulation of platelets in liver. Triflavin (500 microg/kg) but not GRGDS (20 mg/kg) significantly prevented the alteration of radiolabeled platelet distribution in blood and liver when induced by LPS. Furthermore, triflavin but not GRGDS markedly suppressed the elevation in plasma thromboxane B2 concentration within the 4-hour period of LPS administration. In LPS-treated rats, the 5-hydroxytryptamine level was lower in the blood and higher in the liver compared with levels in normal saline-treated rats. Pretreatment with triflavin (500 microg/kg) significantly reversed the 5-hydroxytryptamine concentration in blood and liver of LPS-treated rats. In histological examinations and platelet adhesion assay, triflavin markedly inhibited the adhesion of platelets to subendothelial matrixes in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that triflavin effectively prevents thrombocytopenia, possibly through the following 2 mechanisms: (1) Triflavin markedly inhibits platelet aggregation, resulting in decreased thromboxane A2 formation. (2) It inhibits the adhesion of platelets to subendothelial matrixes, thereby leading to a reversal in the distribution of platelets in blood and liver in LPS-treated rats.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding a common precursor of disintegrin flavostatin and hemorrhagic factor HR2a from the venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis. (7/687)

The venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis has three disintegrins that act as platelet aggregation inhibitors by binding to integrin alphaIIb beta3 on platelets through its Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. We isolated the cDNA encoding the flavostatin precursor that is one of the disintegrins in T. flavoviridis venom. The open reading frame consisted of four regions, a pre-peptide region, a metalloprotease region, a spacer region and a disintegrin region, indicating that the flavostatin precursor belongs to the metalloprotease/disintegrin family. Surprisingly, the deduced amino acid sequence of the metalloprotease region was completely consistent with that of hemorrhagic metalloprotease HR2a, which indicated that this metalloprotease released from the flavostatin precursor functions as a hemorrhagic factor. These observations indicated that a disintegrin and a hemorrhagic metalloprotease were synthesized as a common precursor. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that a disintegrin is synthesized as a metalloprotease/disintegrin precursor and matures by cleavage from the precursor molecule.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom. (8/687)

Crystals of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis have been obtained. They diffracted at 2.5 A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source and belong to space group P3(1)21. Preliminary analysis shows that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D20)

... viper venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200 --- crotalid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.050 --- ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 ... wasp venoms MeSH D20.888.230 --- cnidarian venoms MeSH D20.888.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D20.888.590 --- mollusk venoms MeSH ... arthropod venoms MeSH D20.888.065.055 --- ant venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115 --- bee venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115.060 --- apamin ... elapid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325.139 --- bungarotoxins MeSH D20.888.850.325.220 --- cobra venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325.220.190 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... viper venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200 --- crotalid venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.050 --- ancrod MeSH D23.946.833.850. ... arthropod venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.055 --- ant venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115 --- bee venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115.060 ... wasp venoms MeSH D23.946.833.230 --- cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.833.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D23.946.833.590 --- mollusk ... fish venoms MeSH D23.946.580.450 --- holothurin MeSH D23.946.580.565 --- lyngbya toxins MeSH D23.946.580.590 --- mollusk venoms ...

*Crotalidae polyvalent immune fab

Crotalid snakebites can range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the size and type of snake, the amount of venom ... Untreated, the snake venom can cause severe pain and tissue damage that can result in the loss of a limb or even death. Prompt ... It was developed by the Venom Immunochemistry, Pharmacology and Emergency Response (VIPER) Institute, University of Arizona, ... indicated for minimal or moderate North American Crotalid (Rattlesnake, Copperhead and Cottonmouth/Water moccasin) snake ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant ACL myotoxin, a Lys49PLA2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus snake venom and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 115-129 of venom of the two different Agkistrodon species on water permeability in the toad urinary bladder. The water flow through the membrane was measured gravimetrically in bag preparations of the bladder. The addition of recombinant ACL myotoxin-MBP (maltose binding protein) fusion protein (10 nM) to the bathing solution significantly increased (above 60%) the water transport compared with the control hemibladders. The addition of the Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides in several concentrations to the bathing solution did not affect the water transport across membrane. These results suggest that the ACL myotoxin effect on water transport is not related to the cytotoxic C-terminal region ...
Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues constitute a group of catalytically-inactive proteins, present in the venoms of many crotalid snakes, which induce myonecrosis. Current evidence supports the mapping of their toxic site to the C-terminal region, where amino acids comprised within the sequence 115-129 appear to play a central role in toxicity. This study evaluated the possible toxic effects of several synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence 115-129 of different Lys49 myotoxins, using in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo myotoxicity assays. Peptides varied widely in their activities, ranging from fully toxic to harmless. Thus, the toxic actions of Lys49 myotoxins cannot always be reproduced by their free peptides 115-129. Peptides from Agkistrodon p. piscivorus (AppK) and A. contortrix laticinctus Lys49 myotoxins exerted both cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. Random scrambling of peptide AppK resulted in complete loss of toxicity, demonstrating that its specific sequence of residues, rather than ...
Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues constitute a group of catalytically-inactive proteins, present in the venoms of many crotalid snakes, which induce myonecrosis. Current evidence supports the mapping of their toxic site to the C-terminal region, where amino acids comprised within the sequence 115-129 appear to play a central role in toxicity. This study evaluated the possible toxic effects of several synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence 115-129 of different Lys49 myotoxins, using in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo myotoxicity assays. Peptides varied widely in their activities, ranging from fully toxic to harmless. Thus, the toxic actions of Lys49 myotoxins cannot always be reproduced by their free peptides 115-129. Peptides from Agkistrodon p. piscivorus (AppK) and A. contortrix laticinctus Lys49 myotoxins exerted both cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. Random scrambling of peptide AppK resulted in complete loss of toxicity, demonstrating that its specific sequence of residues, rather than ...
Shop Snaclec convulxin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Snaclec convulxin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
LATOXAN, the leading world supplier of venoms, created KITOXAN®, the first Libraries of venom fractions, to give a facilitated access to venom molecules and allow the effective activity screening of these natural compounds. Despite their promising future in Pharmaceuticals, Crop Science or Cosmetics most of them are still unknown. Because pure venoms are made of hundreds of active molecules, and because they contain some cytotoxic enzymes that prevent the use of ex vivo activity screening methods. the hit identification was arduous.. ...
... - - Poison and venom are very similar and often confused. Venom is actually a type of poison. The difference is in the method of delivery. Poison can be ingested in many different ways, whereas venom is injected by the animal that produces it. Both cause reactions ranging from mild irritation to death.
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. You are subscribed to one of CDCs code sets email subscription service. This email serves to inform you that information has recently been updated and is now available. The NDC tables have been updated with new flu vaccines for the 2015-2016 season. More NDC…
The previous section highlighted the current drugs that have been developed from venoms and toxins. This section brings about new and invigorating research that is currently being conducted and how new discoveries have the potential to cure diseases that, to date, have no known cure or drugs treatment. *Please note the posts are not in…
After news that Sony will be producing the Spider-Man villain spin-off film, Venom, its been reported that the film is set to start shooting in fall 2017.
Venoms to Drugs: Venom as a Source for the Development of Human Therapeutics Venoms to Drugs: Venom as a Source for the Development of Human Therapeutics ...
Sony Pictures has brought online the new Venom trailer! Tom Hardy stars in the upcoming feature film as Eddie Brock. The film opens on October 5, 2018.
Ever since the Venom inspired outer layers have been trending on the internet, its a sin not to invest in such outfits. Read more to understand Eddies...
Venom je jedna z prvých black/thrash metalových hudobných skupín, ktorá bola založená v roku 1978 v anglickom Newcastli. ...
Were grateful to BruceH, our latest supporter!. Were 12 people from our target today. Why dont you be one of them?. You can support NG too and get tons of perks for just $2.99.. ...
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Whos that? Is that Spider-Man? Venom? No, its Carnage! One might think that they had a pretty uniform template for designing characters in the S
A 50 kDa protein that inhibits platelet adhesion to collagen has been isolated from snake venom of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) and has been named catrocollastatin. The cDNA cloning of catrocollastatin has been accomplished. A full-length cDNA of 2310 bp with an open reading frame between nucleotides 51 and 1880 was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 609 amino acids. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of haemorrhagic metalloproteinase jararhagin from Bothrops jararaca venom, HR1B from Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Ht-e from C. atrox and trigramin from T. gramineus. Like jararhagin and HR1B, catrocollastatin is a multidomain molecule composed of an N-terminal domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. In the disintegrin-like domain, the frequently seen RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence is replaced by SECD (Ser-Glu-Cys-Asp). This cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (fall ...
The ability of pre-existing antibodies to neutralize locally-acting toxins of Bothrops asper snake venom was investigated. Hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and edema were markedly reduced in actively immunized mice, although none of these effects was completely abolished. In mice passively immunized with equine antivenom, hemorrhage was prevented completely, while myonecrosis and edema were partially reduced. Pre-existing antibodies did not modify the early stage ( , 3 hr) of venom-induced edema, but significantly accelerated the normalization of this effect within 24 hr. Passive administration of antivenom either 5 or 120 min before venom injection gave similar results, suggesting that the presence of antibodies in the intravascular compartment may fully neutralize locally acting toxins, in this experimental animal model. Overall, the homologous or heterologous origin of antibodies was not a significant factor influencing their in uit,o neutralizing efficiency against local venom effects. Antibody ...
Order Recombinant Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 03015123706 at Gentaur Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2[Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2]
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
In this study, a modified on-column frit preparation method for fused silica capillaries was used to analyze a venom mixture which contained the milkings from approximately ten snakes of the Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (southern copperhead) species. One hundred and twenty-three proteins were identified by in-gel digestion coupled with nano-HPLC MS. Among them, twenty proteins matched the references and databases identified as snake venom proteins. In addition, de novo sequencing is applied to analyze the collision-induced dissociation (CID) data generated by in-solution digestion coupled with nano-HPLC MS. Twenty-three proteins matched the databases and references previously identified as snake venom proteins.; Because of insufficient sequences in the database, many peptides and hypothetical proteins could not be matched to the venom proteins. Some venom proteins we identified were found in other species. To build up an intact knowledge base to help toxicant study and clinical treatment, ...
Trimeresurus flavoviridis GPLI-I protein: serum protein that inhibits phospholipase A2; isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AB003472 and AB003473
I. H. Tsai, Y. M. Wang, Y. H. Chen, T. S. Tsai and Mc. Tu. Venom phospholipase A2 of bamboo veper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri): Molecular characterization, geographic variations and evidence of multiple ancestries. Biochemical Journal, 2004, 377: 215-223.
Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are important components of Bothrops snake venoms, that can induce several effects on envenomations such as myotoxicity, inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation and edema. It is known that venomous and non-venomous snakes present PLA(2) inhibitory proteins (PLIs) in their blood plasma. An inhibitory protein that neutralizes the enzymatic and toxic activities of several PLA2s from Bothrops venoms was isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake plasma by affinity chromatography using the immobilized myotoxin BthTX-I on CNBr-activated Sepharose. Biochemical characterization of this inhibitory protein, denominated alpha BaltMIP, showed it to be a glycoprotein with Mr of similar to 24,000 for the monomeric subunit. CD spectra of the PLA(2)/inhibitor complexes are considerably different from those corresponding to the individual proteins and data deconvolution suggests that the complexes had a relative gain of helical structure elements in comparison to the individual ...
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Snake envenoming in pregnancy may cause fetal death and maternal mortality or morbidity. However, little is known about the toxic effects and optimal management of snake envenoming because of the rarity of cases. We report three cases in Taiwan in the past 15 years of pregnant women who were treated successfully after being bitten by Trimeresurus stejnegeri with local envenoming. Two of the three patients received treatment with equine-derived hemotoxic bivalent F(ab′)2 antivenom without development of any adverse effects. All three women recovered uneventfully and subsequently had normal deliveries. Telephone follow-up of the three children 6-10 years later showed no developmental delay of the children.
A novel non-hemorrhagic basic metalloprotease, rubelase, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. Rubelase hydrolyzes succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl p-nitroanilide (STANA), a specific substrate for elastase, and the hydrolytic activity was inhibited by chelating agents. It also hydrolyzes collagen and fibrinogen. However, hemorrhagic activity was not observed. By ESI/Q-TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry combined with Edman sequencing procedure, the molecular mass of rubelase was determined to be 23,266 Da. Although its primary structure was similar to rubelysin (HT-2), a hemorrhagic metalloprotease isolated from the same snake venom, the circumstances surrounding putative zinc binding domain HEXXHXXGXXH were found to be different when the three-dimensional computer models of both metalloproteases were compared. The cytotoxic effects of rubelase and rubelysin on cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells were also different, indicating that the substitution of several amino acid
5-nucleotidase is an enzyme with system name 5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:a 5-ribonucleotide + H2O↔ a rib
Loss of venom from the venom gland after biting or manual extraction leads to morphological changes in venom secreting cells and the start of a cycle of production of new venom. We have previously shown that stimulation of both (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the secretory cells of the venom gland is essential for the onset of the venom production cycle in Bothrops jararaca. We investigated the signaling pathway by which the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor initiates the venom production cycle. Our results show that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype is present in venom gland of the snake. in quiescent cells, stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor with phenylephrine increased the total inositol phosphate concentration, and this effect was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Phenylephrine mobilized Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive stores and increased protein kinase C activity. in addition, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation increased the activity of ERK 1/2, partially via protein kinase C. ...
Thrombin-like enzyme that shows clotting activity upon human plasma. Shows specific fibrinogenolytic activity for Aalpha chain (FGA). Hydrolyzes fibrin, BAPNA and TAME, as well as chromogenic artificial substrates of the blood coagulation cascasde: S-27654 for factor X (F10), S-2302 for kallikrein (KLK), factor XIa (F11), and XIIa (F12), and S-2266 for kallikrein and factor XIa (F11). Subcutaneous injection into mice induces a mild edema. Intravenous and intramuscular injection reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration and increase the levels of fibrin(ogen) degradation products. Intramuscular injection also promotes an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but is unable to activate it.
These snakes may reach ages beyond 20 years of age. Unlike most snakes, the males are larger than the females. This may be a result of selection for large males that will win the arduous male-male, non-lethal wrestling contests that allow the winner to breed with a nearby female.. Females will produce a clutch of up to around 20 live-born babies that are especially large in size. The myth that baby diamondback rattlesnakes hide underground, and grow for a few years before surfacing, likely comes from the fact that few people realize that an 18-inch rattlesnake is actually a newborn. Like all other rattlesnakes yet studied, the female will stay with her young and protect them until their first shed cycle, at which time they will disperse on their own.. ...
Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Photos, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Photos, Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com
Define Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Mottled Rock Rattlesnake synonyms, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake pronunciation, Mottled Rock Rattlesnake translation, English dictionary definition of Mottled Rock Rattlesnake. Noun 1. Crotalus lepidus - mountain rock dweller of Mexico and most southern parts of United States southwest rock rattlesnake rattler, rattlesnake - pit...
Angiogenesis and wound repair are mediated by several growth factors that are strictly released. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus induces in vivo angiogenesis as well as the cyclic peptide derived from its primary structure, with the ECD motif (ALT-C PEP). This study investigated the effects of ALT-C and ALT-C PEP on angiogenesis and expression of growth factors in a model of wounded rat skin. The rats were anaesthetized; one cutaneous excision (4 mm diameter) was made on the back of each animal, close to the cervical area. Animals were then divided into 7 groups (five rats/group): control (treated with vehicle); locally treated with 10, 60 and 100 ng ALT-C or 10, 20 and 100 ng ALT-C PEP ALT-C PEP for 1, 3, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of experiments animals were killed, the skin was removed; the cranial portion was used for histological analysis and from the caudal portion; protein were extracted, separated by SDS-PAGE and VEGF, ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
The Trans-Pecos copperhead (A. contortrix pictigaster) is similar to the Broad-banded, is of equal size, and has slightly hourglass-shaped markings, usually with a lighter patch at the base of each band. The genus Agkistrodon, of which the American copperhead is a member, includes 10 species, three of them native to North America (one being the well-known Cottonmouth. The rest can be found in Asia and the islands nearby - notable members include the Siberian moccasin, the Himalayan viper, and the Okinawan habu. Note that the three Australian copperheads are elapids and not related.. American copperheads breed in late summer but not to a fixed pattern: sometimes a female will give produce young for several years running, then not breed at all for a time. They give birth to live young about 20 cm long: a typical litter is 4 to 7, but it can be as few as 1 or as many as 20. Other than size, the young are similar to the adults, but lighter in color, and with a yellow-marked tip to the tail, which is ...
Bothrops jararacussu snake venom produces myonecrosis and nerve degeneration. In this work, we investigated whether nerve lesions or impaired muscle regeneration contributed to the permanent loss of muscle mass, a long-term sequela of envenoming. The right soleus muscle of adult male mice was injected with B. jararacussu venom (80 mug) while the left muscle received only saline (control). The mice were killed after 2 and 3 months and the muscles were removed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The nerve fibers, Schwann cells and neuromuscular junctions had regenerated in venom-treated muscle. The total number of muscle fibers was significantly lower (p , 0.05) than in the control (617 +/- 48 versus 1235 +/- 97, respectively; mean +/- SEM, n = 10). These results show that the loss of muscle mass was most likely related to a decrease in the ability of the muscle to regenerate rather than to nerve lesions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Common names: fer-de-lance, terciopelo, Bothrops asper is a highly venomous pit viper species ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. Sometimes referred to as the "ultimate pit viper", these snakes are found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. Its proximity to human habitations and temperament are likely the reasons why it is considered more dangerous to humans than others. This species is the main cause of snakebite incidents within its range. No subspecies are currently recognized. The generic name, Bothrops, comes from the Greek words bothros and ops, which mean "pit" and "face" (or "eye"), respectively. This is a reference to these snakes highly sensitive heat-detecting pit organs. The specific epithet, asper, which is a Latin word meaning "rough" or "harsh", may allude to the species keeled dorsal scales. Some of the common names applied to this snake are terciopelo, fer-de-lance, Mapepire balsain (Trinidad), barba amarilla (Guatemala, ...
Agkistrodon is a genus of venomous pit vipers found in North America from the United States south to northern Costa Rica. Three species are currently recognized, all of them polytypic and closely related. Common names include: cottonmouths, copperheads, cantils. Some varieties are known as "moccasins" or "moccasin snakes", such as Agkistrodon piscivorus, the water moccasin. The name Agkistrodon comes from the Greek words agkistron (ἄγκιστρον, fishhook, with the irregular transliteration gk rather than the usual nk) and odous (ὁδοὐς, tooth, from the stem ὁδόντ-) and is likely a reference to the fangs. Some varieties of the genus are given the common name "moccasin" or "moccasin snake" in the United States, which is the Algonquian word for "shoe". The origin of this nickname are unknown. The first known use of "moccasin" to refer to a deadly venomous snake was in a 1765 publication. The nickname is used to refer to both cottonmouths and copperheads. According to the Word ...
I had a sabbatical in Singapore, at the National University. I was seated on the patio of the university canteen eating one of my typical lunches: curried mutton with hot lentils, rice and a durian milkshake, served on a banana leaf. I struck up a conversation with a biochemist who studied the structure and function of snake venom proteins. He was systematically analyzing the proteins in various venoms looking for proteins that interact with essential features of cells. This was a potential initial step for the design of new drugs. I remember asking him how he knew which part of the venom proteins was important and which parts just served as a rigid platform to display the active parts. He said that it was simple, the water-binding, hydrophilic amino acids that formed amorphous loops bordered by sulfhydryl-bonding cysteines were his targets. Ten years layer, I observed that these loops also have the basic amino acids (K, lysine and R, arginine) that form heparin-binding domains ...
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Zinc-dependent metalloprotease; adamalysin_II_like subfamily. Adamalysin II is a snake venom zinc endopeptidase. This subfamily contains other snake venom metalloproteinases, as well as membrane-anchored metalloproteases belonging to the ADAM family. ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) are glycoproteins, which play roles in cell signaling, cell fusion, and cell-cell interactions. ...
1998 Jane and Whitney Harris Lecture. The Jane and Whitney Harris lecture was held at the St. Louis Zoo (Living World Auditorium) on Tuesday 14 April. Dr. Harry W. Greene, herpetologist and evolutionary biologist with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley lectured on: Frogs and snakes: The texture of biodiversity. The lecture not only provided an intimate look into the details of some of the worlds most fascinating creatures, but also into the man who has devoted his life to understanding and conserving these organisms. Dr. Greenes dedication to education and scientific research was evident as he described how snakes manage to swallow food items much larger than their head and why female western diamondback rattlesnakes forgo food for several months to take care of their offspring. Dr. Greenes presentation and the spectacular slides, many photographed by Michael and Patricia Fogden, enthralled the audience of 200.. DIRECTOR IS DISTINGUISHED VISITING ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
copperhead: Any of several unrelated snakes named for their reddish head colour. The North American copperhead Agkistrodon (also spelled Ancistrodon) contortrix is a venomous species found...
Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated ...
Bothrops marajoensis is found in the savannah of Marajo Island in the State of Par S and regions of Amapa State, Brazil. The aim of the work was to study the renal and cardiovascular effects of the B. marajoensis venom and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). The venom was fractionated by Protein Pack 5PW. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of sPLA(2) showed amino acid identity with other lysine K49sPLA(2)s of snake venom. B. marajoensis venom (30 mu g/mL) decreased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate and sodium tubular transport. PLA(2) did not change the renal parameters. The perfusion pressure of the mesenteric bed did not change after infusion of venom. In isolated heart, the venom decreased the force of contraction and increased PP but did not change coronary flow. In the arterial pressure, the venom and PLA(2) decreased mean arterial pressure and cardiac frequency. The presence of atrial flutter and late hyperpolarisation reversed, indicating ...
We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Isabel C O Morais, Gustavo J S Pereira, M Orzáez, Roberta J B Jorge, Claudia Bincoletto, Marcos H Toyama, Helena S A Monteiro, Soraya S Smaili, Enrique Pérez-Payá, Alice M C Martins].
There are a lot of amazing rattlesnake facts out there. For many people, just the idea of coming across a rattlesnake while out on a hike or gardening is too much to bear. They illicit a type of fear that is very intense and most times unwarranted. Often, people who run across these snakes will assume the worst and go running for the hills. While they are indeed animals that you want to keep your distance from, its not necessary to recoil in horror at the very mention of them. Theyre actually really interesting little animals. Here are ten of the amazing rattlesnake facts that set them apart from other animals.. ...
The American Copperhead does create venom but it isnt a powerful as many other snakes. Facts and Information. Feeding, habitat, distribution and more.
Dr. Vivekananda Chakravorty gives a brief description of the symptoms of Cenchris Contortrix. These include ailments from anticipation, marked, alternation of mood and dreamy absentmindedness.
Good morning all tought I would share this story,so as I was removing my pair of copperheads out of there inclosure I put the both of them in a large container closed the lid and was off cleaning and the next moment I heard a really good scuffle in the container and as I opend the container saw the male going crazy turns out the female had a good nick at him with one fang entering the venom gland and the other behind the neck area a was really upset and hope that he would make it but unfortunately he did not after approx 25min he was gone so they are not imune to there venom ...
History: (Amazing Spider-Man I#367 (fb) - BTS) - Death-Shield was one of Taskmasters students who had been trained to mimic Captain America.. (Amazing Spider-Man I#367) - Solo and Spider-Man stumbled upon an estate which was supposed to be the site of "some mysterious project". When they entered, Taskmaster greeted them and introduced his students. Solo said he had his own name for the group... "Dead men" and opened fire. Spider-Man basically saved their lives by pushing Solos guns away. Death-Shield charged Spider-Man and sandwiched him against a wall, but Spider-Man just wrapped him up with his webbing and turned his attention to Blood Spider. He was later seen tied up with Jagged Bow, courtesy of Solo.. (Venom II#37) - The crimelord Lord Ogre placed a bounty to kill Venom (Flash Thompson). Many mercenaries and assassins responded. Alongside Blood-Spider and Jagged Bow, Death-Shield cornered Venom in an old warehouse. Death-Shield threw his shield at Venom, stunning him. Soon after, Venom ...
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Examining whether venoms may assist in digestion from the prey GX15-070 eleven snake venoms had been compared for the current presence of proteases and endopeptidases that function in alkaline pH conditions. and proteins in the dialysates while and venom didnt display any significant proteins degradation under alkaline circumstances. Histological exam revealed varying examples of muscle tissue cell damage for every from the venom looked into as well as the immunohistochemical research on venom demonstrated how the venom penetrated the muscle mass to a substantial degree. assays and histological outcomes indicate that one venoms might contain the capability to enhance digestion of bovine muscle mass. exerted solely a proteolytic influence on casein and denatured haemoglobin. Blaylock (2002) also investigated the venom of and its local necrotic effect on live mouse hind legs. This study found that the venom caused much more significant necrosis of the local tissue when the hind leg was kept ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Buy together and save with this Money Saving LiPo Battery and Charger Combo from Venom: Venom Fly 30C 3S 3200mAh 11.1V LiPo Battery with UNI 2.0 Plug and Venom
Synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta. 3 synonyms for Crotalus viridis: prairie rattler, prairie rattlesnake, Western rattlesnake. What are synonyms for Caudisona confluenta var. confluenta?
Poison vs Venom The terms poison and venom are used interchangeably by most people. In general, people understand that these terms are deadly; whether poison or
Watch this video to learn how to maximise the chance of finding the right biological tool for a target. Steven Trim, Venomtech, introduces the concept of hit-to-tool screening mechanisms using a venom discovery array. Automation compatible, bar-coded, low protein binding 96-well arrays contain venoms from a taxonomically diverse set of species. ELRIG Interview 2011.
Venom Professional DRONE series LiPo batteries are engineered for the demanding requirements of todays multirotor, fixed wing and UAV applications. Produced usi
This is the Venom 8.4V 5000mAh 7-Cell NiMH Hump Battery Pack with the Venom plug system. This setup allows you to use the battery with Traxxas, Tamiya, Deans, and EC3 connectors. This pack will fit a wide variety of models, including the Traxxas 1/10 Sl
The "neglected operations" part of the VENOM name refers to the all-but-forgotten portion of the QEMU code where the flaw is found. It affects the hypervisors virtual floppy disk controller. And while surely almost nobody is still mounting virtual floppy images in 2015, the controller is initialized for guest VMs regardless of whether they use it, and it cannot be disabled.. Geffner said the flaw affects all versions of QEMU going back to 2004, when the virtual floppy controller was first introduced. Fortunately, he added, there is no known exploit that can successfully attack the flaw so far. Yet VENOM is risky enough to be considered a high-priority vulnerability.. In order to mount an exploit attempt, a user on the guest machine would need sufficient permissions to access the floppy disk controller I/O ports. On Linux guests, that means the user would need to have root access or otherwise elevated privilege. But on Windows guests, practically any user would have sufficient ...
Has that made it any clearer for you? I cant say it was much help to me. There has to be a more simple explanation. The truth is that these words are often used to mean the same thing, sometimes all three words can be interchanged, sometimes not. They do all tend to have a similarly negative effect on the body, by one means or another, they impact or disrupt the biological function of the affected organism.. Sometimes we need the right question, in order to get the right answer, or in this case, the right series of question. Hopefully, these questions will help define what each is, and the differences between them.. IS IT NATURAL OR MAN-MADE?. If it is man-made (synthetic) then it is a poison!. Toxins and venoms are always organic (biologically produced chemicals), but sometimes poisons are as well. Time for another question.. WAS IT TRANSFERRED BY TOUCHING OR BITTING?. If it was transferred by touch then it is a toxin (which could also be called a poison, in more general terms). Toxins are ...
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Does anyone know where I can farm these? and is it possible to change the Tiny Claws etc into the Small versions?? Ive been hunting Forest Grubs at the Plateau for awhile now but they only ever drop Tiny Venom Sacs :/
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In XSA-133, which is the Xen Security Advisory that provides details related to this vulnerability, it states that "Systems running only x86 PV guests are not vulnerable". This vulnerability applies to QEMU guests on KVM and XEN HVM Guests. Linode only uses XEN PV guests which are not affected by this vulnerability. Specifically, XEN PV guests do not require the use of QEMU.. ...
As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel) criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total ...
Nine of the 17 venoms here tested were found capable of coagulating citrated blood or plasma. As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus). The optimum pH for this coagulation was determined for 3 of these, and was found in each case to be approximately pH 6.5, the same as that for the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Unlike thrombin, however, the fibrinogen-coagulating activity of the venoms was unaffected by the antithrombin elaborated in the course of anaphylactic shock.. In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or ...
A crotoxin homolog was purified from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom using molecular exclusion and reverse-phase HPLC. This crotoxin contained one PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) and four crotapotin isoforms, whereas crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom had three PLA2 isoforms and two crotapotin isoforms. SDS-PAGE showed that the C. d. collilineatus PLA2 and crotapotin had relative molecular mass of 15 and 9 kDa, respectively. Neither the PLA2 (Cdcolli III F6) nor the crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) had any neurotoxicity in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations when tested alone. However, when PLA2 and crotapotin were coincubated before testing, the neurotoxicity was restored to a level similar to test in the venom in native crotoxin. The two crotapotins (Cdcolli III F3 and F4) differed in their ability to inhibit PLA2 activity, perhaps because of variations in their affinities for this enzyme. Cdcolli III F6 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior, with maximal activity at pH ...
Antivenin activity of melanin extracted from black tea (MEBT) was reported for the first time. The antagonistic effect of MEBT was evaluated for Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broadbanded copperhead), Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) snake venoms administered i.p. to ICR mice. MEBT was injected i.p. immediately after the venom administration in dose of 3 mg per mouse in the same place of venom injection. MEBT demonstrated neutralization effect against all venoms tested. The greatest antivenin effect of MEBT was found against Japanese mamushi snake venom. In this case, half the mice died within 2.5 +/- 0.7 h after injection of 0.9 mg/kg of venom. An immediate injection of MEBT substantially reduced the toxic effect of venom and extended time at the 50% level of survival up to 52.3 +/- 2.3 h. The antivenin activity of MEBT is due to chelating of Ca++ and non-specific binding of phospholipase A2. The inhibitory effe
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Marcelo L Santoro, Tais S Vaquero, Adriana F Paes Leme, Solange M T Serrano].
Looking for online definition of Cobra lachesis in the Medical Dictionary? Cobra lachesis explanation free. What is Cobra lachesis? Meaning of Cobra lachesis medical term. What does Cobra lachesis mean?
Die chromatographische Auftrennung von Klapperschlangen- (Crotalus durissus terrificus) Gift ermöglicht, den Unterschied zwischen Phospholipase A und
Cohorts. Am J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;40(11):2648-2652. PubMed. Gowd KH, Blais KD [student], Elmslie KS, Steiner AM, Olivera BM, Bulaj G. Dissecting a role of evolutionary-conserved but noncritical disulfide bridges in cysteine-rich peptides using ω-conotoxin GVIA and its selenocysteine analogs. Biopolymers. 2012;98(3):212-23. doi: 10.1002/bip.22047. PubMed. Fry BG, Casewell NR, Wüster W, Vidal N, Young B, Jackson TN. The structural and functional diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system. Toxicon. 2012 Sep 15;60(4):434-48. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 Mar 14. PubMed. Kohl T, Colayori SE, Westhoff G, Bakken GS, Young BA. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Biol. 2012 Aug 1;215(Pt 15):2630-6. doi:10.1242/jeb.065896. PubMed. Kondrashov PE, Agadjanian AK. A nearly complete skeleton of Ernanodon (Mammalia, Palaeanodonta) from Mongolia: morphofunctional analysis. J Vert Paleontol ...
They are commonly found in rock and debris piles, animal burrows and crevices. They will seek out roads, open sandy areas and rocks to sun themselves during cooler temperatures.. They are more active in spring and summer. But it is important to remember you can encounter rattlesnakes anytime and anywhere. Rattlesnakes prey on mice and other small rodents. They dont lay eggs, but rather give live birth to young snakes about 9 to 12 inches long.. Like other snakes, mammals and birds, rattlesnakes fill an important place in the ecosystem by preying on rodents and keeping their populations in balance. When the rattlesnake is found in a backyard, this ecological role may not seem so apparent or important.. Other snakes such as the gopher snake, red racer and king snake are common on Edwards. Many people kill gopher snakes confusing their tan coloration and indistinct black markings for a rattlesnake.. Gopher snakes, red racers and other snakes often hiss and shake their tails imitating the motion ...
Alcohol consumption - a risk factor for hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic stroke. Hemorrhagic disorder due to an Isoniazid-associated acquired factor XIII inhibitor in a patient with Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia
Background: Non-hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease (NH-CVD) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in the United States (US). We describe the trends in NH-CVD hospitalizations in the US over a twelve-year period.. Methods: We abstracted and analyzed data for NH-CVD hospitalizations, from 1999 to 2010, from the National Hospital Discharge Survey - a national probability sample of hospitalizations at US non-federal short-stay hospitals. NH-CVD hospitalizations were defined as hospitalizations whose principal diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 433-438. NH-CVD hospitalization rates were calculated for those 15 years and older, as well as among demographic sub-groups defined by age, race, gender, and geographical region. A multivariate logistic regression was modeled, with NH-CVD hospitalization as the outcome and time period as the main predictor, while controlling for age, gender, race, region, and ...
After being crammed in a community den all winter, the western diamondback rattlesnakes of Texoma are emerging sexually driven, hungry, active -- and HUGE!
Hemorrhage is the most potent manifestation of envenomation by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. a. ammodytes) venom in man. A detailed description of the venom components contributing to this effect is thus medically very important. We have characterized a novel component, termed here VaH3, as a potently hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP). Its proteolytic activity and overall stability depend on the presence of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions. The molecular mass of this slightly acidic molecule, determined by MALDI/TOF analysis, is 104 kDa. Chemical reduction and S-carbamoylmethylation result in a single monomer of 53.7 kDa. N-deglycosylation decreased this mass by 4.6 kDa. The complete amino acid sequence of VaH3 was determined by protein and cDNA sequencing, showing that each of the identical glycoprotein subunits comprise a metalloproteinase, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich domain, VaH3 belongs to the P-IIIc class of SVMPs. It shows strong sequence similarity to vascular endothelial
ABSTRACTSmall membranous vesicles are small closed fragments of membrane. They are released from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) or shed from the surface membrane (microvesicles). They contains various bioactive molecules and their molecular composition varies depending on their cellular origin. Sm
Shop Thrombin-like enzyme contortrixobin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Thrombin-like enzyme contortrixobin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
VenomousReptiles.org Article: Lachesis Bites in Brazil: 2 Cases - |i|If there is venom inoculation, the first 60 minutes of these accidents are always dramatic and similar to the evolution of the hypovolemic shock: severe hypotension may occur within 20 minutes...|/i| - VenomousReptiles.org - The SHHS is a group of venomous reptile keepers educating the public about venomous snakes and lizards. Here you will find everything you ever wanted to know about rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, copperheads, king cobras and even the notorious black mamba. Everyone is welcome!
Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A2 from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu which demonstrates both myotoxic and Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activities. The structural determinants of these activities are poorly defined, therefore site-directed mutagenesis has been used to substitute all cationic and aromatic residues between positions 115 and 129 in the C-terminal loop region of the protein. Substitution of lysine and arginine residues with alanine in the region 117-122 resulted in a significant reduction of myotoxic activity of the recombinant BthTx-I. With the exception of Lys122, these same substitutions did not significantly alter the Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity. In contrast, substitution of the positively-charged residues at positions 115, 116 and 122 resulted in reduced Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity but, with the exception of Lys122, had no effect on myotoxicity. These results indicate that the two activities are independent and are ...
TUCSON - As soon as a rattlesnake sinks its fangs into a victim, the venom starts traveling through the bloodstream. Within seconds, people can experience pain, swelling, bleeding and trouble breathing.. Its a race against time to get to a hospital, the only place that readily offers anti-venom. The longer it takes to get treatment, the higher the odds of long-term injury or death.. One University of Arizona doctor hopes to buy people more time before they get to the hospital.. Professor Vance Nielsen, the vice chair for research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the College of Medicine - Tucson, said his research could help stall the spread of rattlesnake venom through the body.. Nielsen is researching the potential of injecting a combination of carbon monoxide and iron in a rattlesnake bite area to slow the spread of venom. So far, he has made progress in rabbits, buying about an hour of time.. The idea is not to replace anti-venom, but extend the time patients have until they can get to ...
Looking for online definition of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain 18 in the Medical Dictionary? A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain 18 explanation free. What is A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain 18? Meaning of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain 18 medical term. What does A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain 18 mean?
Doharty et al. (40) described previously the presence of platelet GP Ibα in rafts, but did not characterize this further. Because of our interest in the signaling functions of the GP Ib-IX-V complex, and because of the conspicuous presence of palmitate on two of its subunits, we investigated the role of raft localization in GP Ib-IX-V complex function. On sucrose density fractions of 1% Triton X-100 platelet lysates, a significant portion of the GP Ib-IX-V complex could be found in the early fractions (fractions 3-5), as determined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting for GP Ibα (Fig. 1 A, top). Upon platelet activation with ristocetin/human VWF, the amount of GP Ib-IX-V complex in these fractions increased approximately threefold (Fig. 1 A, middle). We confirmed that the GP Ib-IX-V complex found in the early fractions was localized in lipid rafts by staining the fractions for the raft marker ganglioside GM1, which also appeared predominantly in fractions 3-5 (Fig. 1 B, third panel). ...
A hiker remained hospitalized Tuesday after receiving a rare rattlesnake bite while he was hiking in southeastern Minnesota, officials said. The 28-year-old Mounds View man was in fair condition Tuesday at Gundersen Lutheran Health System in La Crosse, Wis., where he was taken by ambulance Friday after being bitten by a timber rattlesnake in Beaver Creek Valley State Park near Caledonia, known habitat for the venomous snake. The man, who declined to be interviewed, was recovering from what appears to be an extremely rare event: a timber rattlesnake striking out at a human without provocation. "Nobody knows what provoked the strike," said Ed Quinn, a wildlife biologist and coordinator of natural resource management for parks and trails with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. "Its just really rare for this to happen." The last known time a timber rattler bit a person in Minnesota was 2000; the last time one bit without provocation was 1996. The last known fatality in Minnesota from a ...
snake venom medicinal uses & snake venom medicinal uses online Wholesalers - choose snake venom medicinal uses from 42 list of China snake venom medicinal uses Manufacturers.
Most venomous snakes in the United States belong to the family of snakes sometimes referred to as pit vipers. These snakes, which belong to the Family Crotalinae, include rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths (water moccasins). All pit vipers in Arizona are rattlesnakes. These snakes are most easily identified by the presence of a rattle on their tail and a triangular shaped head. However, some young snakes may not have developed a rattle yet but still possess venom. When in doubt, avoid contact!. Aside from pit vipers, all other venomous snakes native to the U.S. are coral snakes, which belong to the Elapid family of snakes. Coral snakes found in the Eastern U.S. can be very dangerous to humans, but the Sonoran coral snake, found in Arizona, is not.. Top of ...

Antimicrobial activity of myotoxic phospholipases A2 from crotalid snake venoms and synthetic peptide variants derived from...Antimicrobial activity of myotoxic phospholipases A2 from crotalid snake venoms and synthetic peptide variants derived from...

In this study, a panel of eight PLA(2) myotoxins purified from crotalid snake venoms, including both Lys49 and Asp49-type ... Antimicrobial activity of myotoxic phospholipases A2 from crotalid snake venoms and synthetic peptide variants derived from ...
more infohttps://research.pasteur.fr/en/publication/antimicrobial-activity-of-myotoxic-phospholipases-a2-from-crotalid-snake-venoms-and-synthetic-peptide-variants-derived-from-their-c-terminal-region/

Snake BiteSnake Bite

Snake Venom, Snake Envenomation, Crotalid Venom, Pit Viper Venom, Elapid Venom. ... Crotalid Venoms, Pit Viper Venoms, Venoms, Crotalid, Venoms, Pit Viper, Crotalid Venom, Venom, Crotalid, Pit Viper Venom, Venom ... Snake Venoms, Venoms, Snake, Snake Venom, Venom, Snake, Snake Venoms [Chemical/Ingredient], snake venom, snake venoms, venom ... Elapid Venoms, Venoms, Elapid, Elapid Venom, Venom, Elapid, Elapid Venoms [Chemical/Ingredient], Elapid venom, Elapid venom ( ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/ER/Derm/SnkBt.htm

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Some Effects of Heat-Labile Venom Components on Indirect Hemolysis by...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Some Effects of Heat-Labile Venom Components on Indirect Hemolysis by...

The effects with whole venoms plus lecithin were compared with effects caused by boiled venom supernatant fluids containing ... Heparin altered the lytic behavior of C. scutulatus whole venom but did not influence the other venoms. ... Phospholipase A in the supernatant fluids of all venoms with lecithin caused stabilization of red-blood-cell membranes. A. c. ... mokeson, A. p. leucostoma, and C. scutulatus whole venoms demonstrated a specific lytic behavior, whereas C. atrox whole venom ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1970.19.724

Pressure immobilization delays mortality and increases intracompartmental pressure after artificial intramuscular rattlesnake...Pressure immobilization delays mortality and increases intracompartmental pressure after artificial intramuscular rattlesnake...

Crotalid Venoms. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. *Ovid Technologies, Inc. ... The dose of venom resulted in 100% mortality. The median survival was longer in the pressure immobilization group (191 minutes ... After anesthesia, C atrox venom (20 mg/kg) was injected with a 22-gauge needle 10 mm deep into the tibialis anterior muscle of ... We measured time to death, intracompartmental pressure before venom injection and at 2 hours after injection, and leg ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15573035

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Reptilian Proteins); EC 3.1.1.4 (Group II Phospholipases A2); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2); EC 3.1. ... Immunoblotting showed that venom components of ~25-100kDa interacted with CAv. SE-HPLC profiles for venom incubated with CAv or ... 0 (Antibodies, Neutralizing); 0 (Antidotes); 0 (Antivenins); 0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Reptilian Proteins); EC 3.1.- (Esterases ... Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom.. ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D08.811.277.352.100.680.750.937.750.550

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Crotalid Venoms Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Crotalid+Venoms&parentid=27068&catid=7326

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Crotalid Venoms Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Crotalid+Venoms&parentid=27069&catid=7327

The use and tolerability of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune FAB (Ovine) in pediatric envenomations. | CureHunterThe use and tolerability of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune FAB (Ovine) in pediatric envenomations. | CureHunter

Crotalid Venoms (antagonists & inhibitors) *Female. *Humans. *Hypersensitivity (epidemiology, etiology) *Immunoglobulin Fab ... There are limited data on the use of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune FAB-Ovine (CroFab) in the management of crotalid ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed22511193.do

Metalloproteinase inhibitors block snake venom enzymes : Virginia Opossum - AskNatureMetalloproteinase inhibitors block snake venom enzymes : Virginia Opossum - AskNature

These animals are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. They have metalloproteinase inhibitors in ... Opossum serum contains metalloproteinase inhibitors which neutralize toxins from Crotalid venoms." (Pornmanee et al. 2008:187) ... Pit viper venom is a complex mixture of various enzymes called metalloproteinases. These enzymes wreak havoc inside the bodies ... The sera of Virginia opossum avoid toxic reactions to snake venom by containing compounds that block the key enzymes in the ...
more infohttps://asknature.org/strategy/metalloproteinase-inhibitors-block-snake-venom-enzymes/

Snakebite: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologySnakebite: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Crotalid venom is produced and stored in paired glands below the eye. It is discharged from hollow fangs located in the upper ... 1] Venom is mostly water. Enzymatic proteins in venom impart its destructive properties. Proteases, collagenase, and arginine ... Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution. Proc Biol Sci. ... Venom dosage per bite depends on the elapsed time since the last bite, the degree of threat perceived by the snake, and size of ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/168828-overview

Rattlesnake Envenomation: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologyRattlesnake Envenomation: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Affinity-purified, mixed monospecific crotalid antivenom ovine Fab for the treatment of crotalid venom poisoning. Ann Emerg Med ... Snake venom coagulopathy: use and abuse of blood products in the treatment of pit viper envenomation. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Jul. ... Severe toxicity from crotalid envenomation after early resolution of symptoms. Ann Emerg Med. 1995 Sep. 26(3):387-9. [Medline] ... Rattlesnake venom is generally composed of several digestive enzymes and spreading factors, which result in local and systemic ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/771455-overview

Flavoridin | definition of flavoridin by Medical dictionaryFlavoridin | definition of flavoridin by Medical dictionary

A monomeric disintegrin (q.v.) isolated from crotalid venom.. [fr. Trimeresurus flavoviridis, species of source viper, + -in] ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/flavoridin

Toxins | Free Full-Text | Polyamines as Snake Toxins and Their Probable Pharmacological Functions in EnvenomationToxins | Free Full-Text | Polyamines as Snake Toxins and Their Probable Pharmacological Functions in Envenomation

Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g); however, ... Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid) for spermine, spermidine, ... it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed. All elapid venoms contained larger molar quantities of putrescine ... As with venom purines, polyamines impact numerous physiological targets in ways that are consistent with the objectives of prey ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/10/279

Hiromichi Naito - Fingerprint
     - Okayama UniversityHiromichi Naito - Fingerprint - Okayama University

Crotalid Venoms Intracranial Hypertension Midazolam Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Duodenitis Invasive Pulmonary ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/hiromichi-naito/fingerprints/

OPUS at UTS: Pharmacological characterization of α-elapitoxin-Al2a from the venom of the Australian pygmy copperhead ...OPUS at UTS: Pharmacological characterization of α-elapitoxin-Al2a from the venom of the Australian pygmy copperhead ...

Crotalid Venoms. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. In Vitro Techniques. en_US. ... Despite the in vivo lethality of venom, neurotoxicity has not previously been considered a significant complication of ... Given that A. labialis venom contains both irreversible presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins, clinicians need to be aware ... Despite the in vivo lethality of venom, neurotoxicity has not previously been considered a significant complication of ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/22453

Complete amino acid sequence of kaouthiagin, a novel cobra venom metalloproteinase with two disintegrin-like sequences<...Complete amino acid sequence of kaouthiagin, a novel cobra venom metalloproteinase with two disintegrin-like sequences<...

The sequence is highly similar to those of high-molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases from viperid and crotalid venoms ... The sequence is highly similar to those of high-molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases from viperid and crotalid venoms ... The sequence is highly similar to those of high-molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases from viperid and crotalid venoms ... The sequence is highly similar to those of high-molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases from viperid and crotalid venoms ...
more infohttps://pure.fujita-hu.ac.jp/en/publications/complete-amino-acid-sequence-of-kaouthiagin-a-novel-cobra-venom-m

Viper Institute - Research Output
     - University of ArizonaViper Institute - Research Output - University of Arizona

Crotalid Venoms Role of the lymphatic system on snake venom absorption: review of mechanism and clinical implications. Paniagua ... Editorial: Scorpion venom and antivenom. Boyer, L. V., Dec 15 2013, In : Toxicon. 76, p. 327 1 p.. Research output: ... Venom yield and its relationship with body size and fang separation of pit vipers from Argentina. de Roodt, A. R., Boyer, L. V. ... Iron and carbon monoxide attenuate degradation of plasmatic coagulation by Crotalus atrox venom. Nielsen, V. G. & Boyer, L. V. ...
more infohttps://arizona.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/viper-institute/publications/

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Crotalid Venoms ガラガラヘビ毒 CA-125 Antigen CA-125抗原 Actin Depolymerizing Factors アクチン脱重合タンパク質 ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=3611&taxonomy=human

Purification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of novel Lys-49 phospholipases A<sub>2</sub> from the venoms of...Purification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of novel Lys-49 phospholipases A<sub>2</sub> from the venoms of...

However, they have not been found in rattlesnake venoms before. We have now screened for this protein in the venom of ... However, they have not been found in rattlesnake venoms before. We have now screened for this protein in the venom of ... However, they have not been found in rattlesnake venoms before. We have now screened for this protein in the venom of ... However, they have not been found in rattlesnake venoms before. We have now screened for this protein in the venom of ...
more infohttps://scholar.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/en/publications/purification-sequencing-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-novel-lys-49

Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic  Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake VenomBiochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

Viperid and crotalid venoms contain PLA2s with the ability to cause rapid necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers, thus being ... 28 nmoles/min/mg) when compared with the whole venom (8.. .24 nmoles/min/mg). PLA2 enzyme from snake venom shows classic ... Venom and Reagents. Bothriopsis bilineata venom was donated by Dr. Corina Vera Gonzáles. All chemicals and reagents used in ... for the PLA2 of Bothrops jararacussu venom and Damico et al. [19] for the PLA2 isoform purified from Lachesis muta muta venom. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/612649/

Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus VenomAbarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

B. Lomonte, Y. Angulo, and L. Calderón, "An overview of lysine-49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins from crotalid snake venoms and ... "Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) extracts and ... G. Rosenfeld, "Symptomatology, pathology and treatment of snake bites in South America," in Venomous Animals and their Venoms, ... P. A. Melo and G. Suarez-Kurtz, "Release of sarcoplasmic enzymes from skeletal muscle by Bothrops jararacussu venom: antagonism ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/820761/ref/

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Agkistrodon, Animals, Crotalid Venoms, Iodine, Mice, Radioisotopes, Venoms, metabolism MEDLINE®/PubMed® Selected option. 29 ... Distribution in the mouse of lethal and sub-lethal doses of cottonmouth moccasin venom labelled with iodine-131.. 1959 J F Jr ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Nature+184%28Suppl+16%29%EA%B6%8C
  • however, it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed. (mdpi.com)
  • All elapid venoms contained larger molar quantities of putrescine and cadaverine than spermine, but still at levels that are likely to be biologically insignificant. (mdpi.com)
  • Venom yields and toxicity levels for Costa Rican snakes are reported. (ajtmh.org)
  • Venom from 25 adult snakes of both sexes was collected, desiccated, separated into aliquots and stored at -20°C until used. (scielo.br)
  • Rattlesnake venom is generally composed of several digestive enzymes and spreading factors, which result in local and systemic injury. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, a panel of eight PLA(2) myotoxins purified from crotalid snake venoms, including both Lys49 and Asp49-type isoforms, were all found to express bactericidal activity, indicating that this may be a common action of the group IIA PLA(2) protein family. (pasteur.fr)
  • P. A. Melo, M. C. D. Nascimento, W. B. Mors, and G. Suarez-Kurtz, "Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata ( Asteraceae ) extracts and constituents," Toxicon , vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 595-603, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Nostril pits respond to the heat emission of the prey, which may enable the snake to vary the amount of venom delivered. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms and degree of envenoming depend not only on the amount of venom injected and numerous other variables, but also on the time that has elapsed since the bite. (vapaguide.info)
  • G. Rosenfeld, "Symptomatology, pathology and treatment of snake bites in South America," in Venomous Animals and their Venoms , W. Bucherl and E. E. Buckley, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of the local actions of snake venoms are mediated by a direct action on skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, and platelets (17). (scielo.br)
  • Pit viper venom is a complex mixture of various enzymes called metalloproteinases. (asknature.org)
  • The sera from the North American Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) were able to neutralize the venom of the Malayan pit viper. (asknature.org)
  • Opossum sera were capable of neutralizing metalloproteinases from Malayan pit viper venom including hemorrhagins, fibrinogenases, and gelatinases. (asknature.org)
  • Neutralization of lethality and proteolytic activities of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom with North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. (asknature.org)
  • Proteases, collagenase, and arginine ester hydrolase have been identified in pit viper venom. (medscape.com)
  • The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • The data show that in toxicity or neutralization experiments in which mice are used it is desirable to prolong the observation period up to 48 hours when employing crotalid venoms and up to 72 hours when using elapide venoms. (ajtmh.org)
  • Although the bleeding time or induce an immune hypersensitivity and the diagnosis and management patients should receive venom immunotherapy. (bac.edu)
  • Venom is usually injected into subcutaneous tissue via hollow movable fangs located in the anterior mouth. (medscape.com)
  • Following North American crotalid bites, strong local pain, swelling, discolouration of the skin and occasionally hyposensitivity in the region of the bite are early signs of a relevant injection of venom. (vapaguide.info)
  • Venom dosage per bite depends on the elapsed time since the last bite, the degree of threat perceived by the snake, and size of the prey. (medscape.com)
  • The fact that a patient has been bitten by a known venomous snake and the presence of bite marks do not automatically allow the conclusion that a clinically relevant injection of venom has taken place. (vapaguide.info)
  • If these do not occur within 15-30 min after the bite, it is highly likely that no venom was injected. (vapaguide.info)
  • Within an hour after an effective crotalid bite the regional lymph nodes are generally swollen and painful. (vapaguide.info)
  • Basic phospholipase A 2 homologs with Lys49 substitution at the essential Ca 2+ -binding site are present in the venom of pit vipers under many genera. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • The sera of Virginia opossum avoid toxic reactions to snake venom by containing compounds that block the key enzymes in the venom. (asknature.org)
  • However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. (scielo.br)
  • PLA 2 s are abundant in snake venoms and have been widely employed as pharmacological tools to investigate their role in diverse pathophysiological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper describes the isolation and biochemical and pharmacological characterization of new PLA 2 s from Bothriopsis bilineata venom, Bbil-TX, and also the study of its various toxic activities, including myotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • These animals are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. (asknature.org)
  • If these requirements cannot be met within a suitable period of time, it is necessary to weigh the risk of the systemic effects of the venom that could occur after removing the tourniquet against the risk of progressive local tissue damage that may arise if the bandage is left in place. (vapaguide.info)
  • Distribution in the mouse of lethal and sub-lethal doses of cottonmouth moccasin venom labelled with iodine-131. (naver.com)
  • The systematic fractionation of C. d. terrificus venom has revealed the presence of various toxins (convulxin, crotamine, crotoxin and gyroxin) and enzymes (5, 11), some of which may exert a potentially damaging effect on cells. (scielo.br)
  • Furthermore, our results imply that the corresponding part of the Cys-rich domain in other snake venom metalloproteinases also has a synergistic disturbing effect on platelet aggregation, serving as a second disintegrin-like domain. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The aim of the present work was, therefore, to determine the effect of crotalid venom on CHO-K1 cells, particularly its action on actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. (scielo.br)
  • According to a previous report, there was no evidence to support that opossums produce antibodies against venom molecules when immunized. (asknature.org)
  • The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml) for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. (scielo.br)
  • Mechanisms involved in the proinflammatory action of sPLA 2 are being actively investigated, and most of this knowledge is based on studies using purified venom PLA 2 s. (hindawi.com)