The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde to L-2-aminoadipate (alpha-aminoadipic acid). It is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of LYSINE.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase. (1/1272)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes.  (+info)

Removal of one nonhomologous DNA end during gene conversion by a RAD1- and MSH2-independent pathway. (2/1272)

Repair of a double-strand break (DSB) by homologous recombination depends on the invasion of a 3'-ended strand into an intact template sequence to initiate new DNA synthesis. When the end of the invading DNA is not homologous to the donor, the nonhomologous sequences must be removed before new synthesis can begin. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the removal of these ends depends on both the nucleotide excision repair endonuclease Rad1p/Rad10p and the mismatch repair proteins Msh2p/Msh3p. In rad1 or msh2 mutants, when both ends of the DSB have nonhomologous ends, repair is reduced approximately 90-fold compared to a plasmid with perfect ends; however, with only one nonhomologous end, repair is reduced on average only 5-fold. These results suggest that yeast has an alternative, but less efficient, way to remove a nonhomologous tail from the second end participating in gene conversion. When the removal of one nonhomologous end is impaired in rad1 and msh2 mutants, there is also a 1-hr delay in the appearance of crossover products of gene conversion, compared to noncrossovers. We interpret these results in terms of the formation and resolution of alternative intermediates of a synthesis-dependent strand annealing mechanism.  (+info)

Distribution of crossing over on mouse synaptonemal complexes using immunofluorescent localization of MLH1 protein. (3/1272)

We have used immunofluorescent localization to examine the distribution of MLH1 (MutL homolog) foci on synaptonemal complexes (SCs) from juvenile male mice. MLH1 is a mismatch repair protein necessary for meiotic recombination in mice, and MLH1 foci have been proposed to mark crossover sites. We present evidence that the number and distribution of MLH1 foci on SCs closely correspond to the number and distribution of chiasmata on diplotene-metaphase I chromosomes. MLH1 foci were typically excluded from SC in centromeric heterochromatin. For SCs with one MLH1 focus, most foci were located near the middle of long SCs, but near the distal end of short SCs. For SCs with two MLH1 foci, the distribution of foci was bimodal regardless of SC length, with most foci located near the proximal and distal ends. The distribution of MLH1 foci indicated interference between foci. We observed a consistent relative distance (percent of SC length in euchromatin) between two foci on SCs of different lengths, suggesting that positive interference between MLH1 foci is a function of relative SC length. The extended length of pachytene SCs, as compared to more condensed diplotene-metaphase I bivalents, makes mapping crossover events and interference distances using MLH1 foci more accurate than using chiasmata.  (+info)

The frequency and allelism of lethal chromosomes in isolated desert populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. (4/1272)

Second-chromosome lethals were extracted from four populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura in Southern California. Two of the populations were from desert oases and two from the classic habitat on Mt. San Jacinto, previously studied by Dobzhansky. Allelism tests were made on the lethals within and between all locations. The frequency of lethal second-chromosomes in each location was 0.18, and this was not different from the results of other workers for samples throughout the species range. Interpopulational allelism rates were about 0.005, and not different from earlier results of Dobzhansky. Intrapopulational rates in this study were, with one exception, the same as the interpopulational rates, and significantly lower than Dobzhansky found using the third chromosome. This may be due to lethals being linked with heterotic third-chromosome inversions. The allelism rate of the exceptional population (about 0.03 and equal to Dobzhansky's intrapopulational results) may be due to heterotic lethals, or a founder effect. Two lethals were found in three populations each, possibly due to migration among these populations, which are up to 334 km apart.  (+info)

Intermolecular V(D)J recombination is prohibited specifically at the joining step. (5/1272)

V(D)J recombination, normally an intramolecular process, assembles immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes from V, D, and J coding segments. Oncogenic chromosome translocations can result from aberrant rearrangements, such as occur in intermolecular V(D)J recombination. How this is normally prevented remains unclear; DNA cleavage, joining, or both could be impaired when the recombination signal sequences (RSS) are located in trans, on separate DNA molecules. Here, we show that both trans cleavage and joining of signal ends occur efficiently in vivo. Unexpectedly, trans joining of coding ends is severely impaired (100-to 1000-fold), indicating that protection against intermolecular V(D)J recombination is established at the joining step. These findings suggest a novel surveillance mechanism for eliminating cells containing aberrant V(D)J rearrangements.  (+info)

Genetic recombination of poliovirus in vitro and in vivo: temperature-dependent alteration of crossover sites. (6/1272)

Genetic recombination that occurs with high frequency during poliovirus genome replication is a process whose molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Studies of genetic recombination in a cell-free system in vitro and in infected tissue culture cells in vivo have led to the unexpected observation that temperature strongly influences the loci at which cross-over between the two recombining RNA strands occurs. Specifically, cross-over between two genetically marked RNA strands in vitro and in vivo at 34 degrees C occurred over a wide range of the genome. In contrast, recombination in vivo at 37 and 40 degrees C yielded cross-over patterns that had shifted dramatically to a region encoding nonstructural proteins. Preferential selection of recombinants at 37 and 40 degrees C was ruled out by analyses of the growth kinetics of the recombinants. During the studies of recombination in the cell-free system we found that there is a direct correlation between the ability of a poliovirus RNA molecule to replicate in the cell-free system and its capacity to complement de novo virus synthesis programmed by another viral RNA.  (+info)

Three-dimensional microscopy of the Rad51 recombination protein during meiotic prophase. (7/1272)

An open question in meiosis is whether the Rad51 recombination protein functions solely in meiotic recombination or whether it is also involved in the chromosome homology search. To address this question, we have performed three-dimensional high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize native Rad51 structures in maize male meiocytes. Maize has two closely related RAD51 genes that are expressed at low levels in differentiated tissues and at higher levels in mitotic and meiotic tissues. Cells and nuclei were specially fixed and embedded in polyacrylamide to maintain both native chromosome structure and the three dimensionality of the specimens. Analysis of Rad51 in maize meiocytes revealed that when chromosomes condense during leptotene, Rad51 is diffuse within the nucleus. Rad51 foci form on the chromosomes at the beginning of zygotene and rise to approximately 500 per nucleus by mid-zygotene when chromosomes are pairing and synapsing. During chromosome pairing, we consistently found two contiguous Rad51 foci on paired chromosomes. These paired foci may identify the sites where DNA sequence homology is being compared. During pachytene, the number of Rad51 foci drops to seven to 22 per nucleus. This higher number corresponds approximately to the number of chiasmata in maize meiosis. These observations are consistent with a role for Rad51 in the homology search phase of chromosome pairing in addition to its known role in meiotic recombination.  (+info)

Use of a recombination reporter insert to define meiotic recombination domains on chromosome III of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/1272)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs usually occur in intergenic regions that display nuclease hypersensitivity in digests of chromatin. DSBs are distributed nonuniformly across chromosomes; on chromosome III, DSBs are concentrated in two "hot" regions, one in each chromosome arm. DSBs occur rarely in regions within about 40 kb of each telomere and in an 80-kb region in the center of the chromosome, just to the right of the centromere. We used recombination reporter inserts containing arg4 mutant alleles to show that the "cold" properties of the central DSB-deficient region are imposed on DNA inserted in the region. Cold region inserts display DSB and recombination frequencies that are substantially less than those seen with similar inserts in flanking hot regions. This occurs without apparent change in chromatin structure, as the same pattern and level of DNase I hypersensitivity is seen in chromatin of hot and cold region inserts. These data are consistent with the suggestion that features of higher-order chromosome structure or chromosome dynamics act in a target sequence-independent manner to control where recombination events initiate during meiosis.  (+info)

Inversions are classified based on their location along the chromosome:

* Interstitial inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed within a larger gene or group of genes.
* Pericentric inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed near the centromere, the region of the chromosome where the sister chromatids are most closely attached.

Chromosome inversions can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which allows visualization of the chromosomes and their structure. They can also be identified using molecular genetic techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).

Chromosome inversions are relatively rare in the general population, but they have been associated with various developmental disorders and an increased risk of certain diseases. For example, individuals with an inversion on chromosome 8p have an increased risk of developing cancer, while those with an inversion on chromosome 9q have a higher risk of developing neurological disorders.

Inversions can be inherited from one or both parents, and they can also occur spontaneously as a result of errors during DNA replication or repair. In some cases, inversions may be associated with other genetic abnormalities, such as translocations or deletions.

Overall, chromosome inversions are an important aspect of human genetics and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying developmental disorders and disease susceptibility.

There are several types of genetic nondisjunction, including:

1. Robertsonian translocation: This type of nondisjunction involves the exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of genetic information that can lead to developmental abnormalities.
2. Turner syndrome: This is a rare condition that occurs when one X chromosome is missing or partially present, leading to physical and developmental abnormalities in females.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: This condition occurs when an extra X chromosome is present, leading to physical and developmental abnormalities in males.
4. Trisomy 13: This condition occurs when there are three copies of chromosome 13, leading to severe developmental and physical abnormalities.
5. Trisomy 18: This condition occurs when there are three copies of chromosome 18, leading to severe developmental and physical abnormalities.

Genetic nondisjunction can be caused by various factors, including genetic mutations, errors during meiosis, or exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. It can be diagnosed through cytogenetic analysis, which involves studying the chromosomes of cells to identify any abnormalities.

Treatment for genetic nondisjunction depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment is necessary, while in others, medication or surgery may be recommended. Prenatal testing can also be done to detect genetic nondisjunction before birth.

In summary, genetic nondisjunction is a chromosomal abnormality that occurs during meiosis and can lead to developmental and physical abnormalities. It can be caused by various factors and diagnosed through cytogenetic analysis. Treatment depends on the specific type and severity of the condition, and prenatal testing is available to detect genetic nondisjunction before birth.

When a chromosome breaks, it can lead to genetic instability and potentially contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer. Chromosome breakage can also result in the loss or gain of genetic material, which can further disrupt normal cellular function and increase the risk of disease.

There are several types of chromosome breakage, including:

1. Chromosomal aberrations: These occur when there is a change in the number or structure of the chromosomes, such as an extra copy of a chromosome (aneuploidy) or a break in a chromosome.
2. Genomic instability: This refers to the presence of errors in the genetic material that can lead to changes in the function of cells and tissues.
3. Chromosomal fragile sites: These are specific regions of the chromosomes that are more prone to breakage than other regions.
4. Telomere shortening: Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of the chromosomes, and their shortening can lead to chromosome breakage and genetic instability.

Chromosome breakage can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which involves staining the cells with dyes to visualize the chromosomes and look for any abnormalities. The detection of chromosome breakage can help diagnose certain diseases, such as cancer, and can also provide information about the risk of disease progression.

In summary, chromosome breakage is a type of genetic alteration that can occur as a result of various factors, including exposure to radiation or chemicals, errors during cell division, or aging. It can lead to genetic instability and increase the risk of diseases such as cancer. Detection of chromosome breakage through cytogenetic analysis can help diagnose certain diseases and provide information about the risk of disease progression. › Medical Dictionary › G

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Definition & Facts | Britannica › science › Genetic-tr...

Genetic translocation, also called chromosomal translocation, a type of chromosomal aberration in which a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material. Genetic translocations are often found in cancer cells and may play a role in the development and progression of cancer.

Translocation, Genetic | health Encyclopedia - UPMC › health-library › gene...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Genetics Home Reference - NIH › condition › ge...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

In conclusion, Genetic Translocation is an abnormality in the number or arrangement of chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome, resulting in a gain or loss of genetic material that can have significant effects on the individual.

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

It is the frequency of crossing over between two linked gene loci (markers), and depends on the mutual distance of the genetic ... Genetic recombination (also known as genetic reshuffling) is the exchange of genetic material between different organisms which ... In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be further passed ... ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3. "Access Excellence". Crossing-over: Genetic Recombination. The National Health Museum Resource Center. ...
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Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W. Scott; Shlien, Adam; Walker, Erin; Huff, Chad D.; Witherspoon, David J.; Zhang, Yuhua; Simonson, ... the latter variables can be used as a proxy for genetic ancestry where genetic data is unavailable. However, genetic variation ... Modern applications of genetic clustering methods to global-scale genetic data were first marked by studies associated with the ... Human genetic clustering refers to patterns of relative genetic similarity among human individuals and populations, as well as ...
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A multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the ABO gene, identified individuals at ... I. A case associated with unequal chromosomal crossing over". American Journal of Human Genetics. 32 (3): 332-8. PMC 1686052. ... Yamamoto F, Clausen H, White T, Marken J, Hakomori S (May 1990). "Molecular genetic basis of the histo-blood group ABO system ... Yamamoto F, McNeill PD, Yamamoto M, Hakomori S, Harris T (1993). "Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system: 3. ...
... which is a genetic characteristic of the Austroasiatic-speaking peoples of Southeast Asia, suggests that the genetic signature ... Y-DNA Haplotree at FamilyTreeDNA Journals Chen, Chen; Hui, LI; Zhen-Dong, QIN; Wen-Hong, LIU; Wei-Xiong, LIN; Rui-Xing, YIN; Li ... Xie, XH; Li, H; Mao, XY; Wen, B; Gao, S; Jin, JZ; Lu, DR; Jin, L (2004). "Genetic structure of Tujia as revealed by Y ... "Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia". Science Magazine. Retrieved 11 December 2009. "Major East-West ...
Genetic analysis showed generations of crossing and complex ancestry. Morphology generally correlated with genetic profile, but ... occasionally plants that resembled one parent had some degree of genetic hybridization. Furthermore, there were a few plants ...
"Forensic Analysis and Genetic Structure Construction of Chinese Chongming Island Han Based on Y Chromosome STRs and SNPs." ... Jing, Chen; Hui, LI; Zhen-Dong, QIN; Wen-Hong, LIU; Wei-Xiong, LIN; Rui-Xing, YIN; Li, JIN; Shang-Ling, PAN (2006). "Y- ... 2004). "Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans". ... 2004). "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture". Nature. 431 (7006): 302-5. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..302W. doi: ...
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Genetic defects in self-pollinating plants cannot be eliminated by genetic recombination and offspring can only avoid ... Its out-crossing progenitor was identified as Capsella grandiflora. Arabidopsis thaliana is a predominantly self-pollinating ... This benefit can be realized at each generation (even when genetic variation is not produced). Self-incompatibility: genetic ... Meiosis followed by self-pollination produces little overall genetic variation. This raises the question of how meiosis in self ...
Sun, Yu-jiang; Min, Ling-jiang; Chen, Jian-xing; Mang, Lai (2009). "Analysis on Genetic Resource Characteristics of Southwest ... "Identification of Y Chromosome Genetic Variations in Chinese Indigenous Horse Breeds". Journal of Heredity. 101 (5): 639-643. ...
The first ever genetic analysis of people with extremely high intelligence reveals small but important genetic differences ... Fenglu Han; Catherine A. Forster; James M. Clark; Xing Xu (2015). "A New Taxon of Basal Ceratopsian from China and the Early ... "Study offers first genetic analysis of people with extremely high intelligence". Medical Xpress. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 11 ... "Genetic editing can delete deleterious mitochondria". 2015-04-23. Retrieved April 23, 2015. "Ancient Teeth Of Modern Human ...
The linked frequency of crossing over between two gene loci (markers) is the crossing-over value . For fixed set of genetic and ... 1999). "Modern Genetic Analysis: Mitotic Crossing-Over". Modern Genetic Analysis. New York: W. H. Freeman. Wang, Shunxin; ... Chromosomal crossover, or crossing over, is the exchange of genetic material during sexual reproduction between two homologous ... Unequal crossing over Coefficient of coincidence Genetic distance Independent assortment Mitotic crossover Recombinant ...
If no crossing over then there is a 4:4 pattern. 4 black spores, and 4 tan spores all lined up. If crossing over does occur ... The natural habitat of the three species of Sordaria that have been the principal subjects in genetic studies is dung of ... Genetic Recombination. New York: Wiley ISBN 978-0471102052 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sordaria fimicola. (Articles ... These species share a number of characteristics that are advantageous for genetic studies. They all have a short life cycle, ...
Zhang, Y.; Han, Q.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Fan, H.; Xing, Q.; Yan, B. (2014). "Genetic analysis of the TBX1 gene promoter in indirect ... Yamagishi H, Srivastava D (September 2003). "Unraveling the genetic and developmental mysteries of 22q11 deletion syndrome". ...
The genetic crossing of R. groenlandicum and R. neoglandulosum results in R. columbianum. Results from molecular and nuclear ... LEDUM) SUGGESTS A COMPLEX GENETIC HISTORY". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 11: 58-60. doi:10.17348/jbrit ...
However, genetic loss-of-function studies on retinoic acid-generating enzymes have shown that retinoic acid is not required for ... Sites of crossing over entangle together, effectively overlapping, making chiasmata clearly visible. Other than this ... Genetic loss-of-function studies on retinoic acid-generating enzymes have shown that retinoic acid is required postnatally to ... This genetic diversity resulting from sexual reproduction contributes to the variation in traits upon which natural selection ...
The serological and genetic basis of the cis-AB blood group in Korea. Vox Sang. 2004 Jul;87(1):41-3. Chun, Sejong; Choi, Sooin ... I. A case associated with unequal chromosomal crossing over. Do you know Bombay Blood Group? Archived 2017-07-06 at the Wayback ... Yamamoto F1, McNeill PD, Kominato Y, Yamamoto M, Hakomori S, Ishimoto S, Nishida S, Shima M, Fujimura Y. Molecular genetic ... A Yoshida, H Yamaguchi, and Y Okubo Genetic mechanism of cis-AB inheritance. ...
The centimorgan, which expresses the frequency of crossing over, is named in his honour. A linkage map (also known as a genetic ... Recombination frequency is a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map. Recombination ... Centimorgan Genetic association Genetic epidemiology Genome-wide association study Identity by descent Lander-Green algorithm ... Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the ...
Genetic inheritance was first discovered by Gregor Mendel in 1865 following experiments crossing peas. Although largely ignored ... Genetic engineering is the science of manipulating genetic material of an organism. The first artificial genetic modification ... Various genetic discoveries have been essential in the development of genetic engineering. ... In 1987 Plant Genetic Systems, founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer ...
Su and Yan, "A Fast Genetic Algorithm for Solving Architectural Design Optimization Problems," 464. Shi, Xing; Yang, Wenjie ( ... Genetic algorithms (GA) are the most popular form of metaheuristic, black box simulation utilised in the fulfilment of complex ... Renner and Ekárt, "Genetic Algorithms in Computer Aided Design," 710. Renner and Ekárt, 710. Renner and Ekárt, 711. Renner and ... Renner and Ekárt, "Genetic Algorithms in Computer Aided Design," 717. Renner and Ekárt, 717. Li, Shaoxiong; Liu, Le; Peng, ...
Along with crossing over, independent assortment increases genetic diversity by producing novel genetic combinations. There are ... Mendel did his crossing experiments with heterozygous plants after obtaining these hybrids by crossing two purebred plants, ... Genetic characteristics have alternate forms, each inherited from one of two parents. Today these are called alleles. One ... If two parents are mated with each other who differ in one genetic characteristic for which they are both homozygous (each pure ...
However, intermediate morphologies were also identified, indicating genetic interaction (crossing over) between these groups. ... Genetic studies have shown that eastern North American and Mexican cultivated forms have considerable genetic distance between ... While genetic introgression is often degenerative for both crops and wild plants, it may also promote greater biodiversity in ... Risi, J. C.; Galwey, N. W. (1989-04-01). "The pattern of genetic diversity in the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa ...
Evolution of genetic systems, 2nd ed, p120 et seq: The genetic promotion of crossing. Oliver & Boyd, London. Darwin, Charles. ... Genetic polymorphism of serum transferrins in reindeer is used in population and genetic studies. Gene concentrations of ... In: Population Genetic Group, 30th annual meeting, University of Edinburgh, 17-20 Dec. 1996, Paper Abstr., p.42 Ellegren Hans ( ... "Heterozygous Advantage". In Genetic Polymorphism. Boston/London.: MIT Pr./Faber & Faber Kettlewell H.B.D. 1973. The Evolution ...
conducted a genetic analysis on a British family in which four foetuses had miscarried with symptoms of a ciliopathy. They ... There may also be crossing of the eyes (esotropia), and less commonly there may be twisted retinal blood vessels or optic nerve ... Methods of genetic detection include whole exome sequencing and panel testing, which involves sequencing a selection of ... Strømme syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive genetic condition characterised by intestinal atresia (in which part of the ...
Lister also realises that the in-vitro tube with Kochanski and Lister's genetic information is Lister himself, creating a ... In "Ouroboros" (1997), Kochanski (now played by Chloë Annett) is seen crossing through a linkway originating from a parallel ...
Tang RQ, Zhao XZ, Shi YY, Tang W, Gu NF, Feng GY, Xing YL, Zhu SM, Sang H, Liang PJ, He L (April 2006). "Family-based ... Liou YJ, Lai IC, Wang YC, Bai YM, Lin CC, Lin CY, Chen TT, Chen JY (June 2006). "Genetic analysis of the human ENTH (Epsin 4) ... The CLINT1 gene has been shown to be involved in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia in four studies It is known that the ... Gurling H, Pimm J, McQuillin A (January 2007). "Replication of genetic association studies between markers at the Epsin 4 gene ...
see also Viral neuronal tracing) In order to trace projections from a specific region or cell, a genetic construct, virus or ... The crossing of the synaptic cleft is a vital difference between the anterograde tracers and the dye fillers used for ... Those can also be genetic or molecular tracers. Recently manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been used to ...
... opposes the planned use of golden rice, a variety of Oryza sativa rice produced through genetic engineering to ... Some 7,000 people blocked the Peace Arch Border Crossing between British Columbia and Washington, carrying signs reading "Don't ... Patents on Rice: the Genetic Engineering Hypocrisy Archived 3 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. 26 April 2005. "Prof. Dr. ... genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues. It uses direct action, lobbying, research, and ecotage to achieve its goals. The ...
From there, the creek follows Casa Grande Road, crossing under the road twice as it winds in and out of Adobe Creek Golf Club, ... Genetic analysis has proved that the steelhead trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) that spawn and rear in the Petaluma River watershed ...
The majority crossing the Juba but a small party from the Killia, Bana and Birkaya [Sections].. turned aside at the Juba to ... "Complex Genetic History of East African Human Populations" (PDF). University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 13 July 2017 ...
... is a genetic color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white mane and tail; the degree of whiteness can vary from ... In today's horse breeding the palomino color can be created by crossing a chestnut with a cremello. Palomino is a Spanish word ... The other genetic mechanism is derived from the silver dapple gene, which lightens a black coat to dark brown, and affects the ... Palomino is created by a genetic mechanism of incomplete dominance, hence it is not considered true-breeding. However, most ...
Genetic studies shows that much of the Sherpa population has allele frequencies which are often found in other Tibeto-Burman ... Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalaya. By the 1400s, Khumbu Sherpa people attained ... It has been speculated that part of the Sherpas' climbing ability is the result of a genetic adaptation to living in high ... 2015). "Genetic evidence of a recent Tibetan ancestry to Sherpas in the Himalayan region". Scientific Reports. 5: 16249. ...
Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely-wooded areas and ... which may have prevented early Paleo-Indians such as the Clovis culture from directly crossing Beringia to reach the Americas. ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ...
The risk factors for YEL-AVD are not known, although it has been suggested that it may be genetic. The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate ... Travellers who wish to enter certain countries or territories must be vaccinated against yellow fever 10 days before crossing ...
Some mice were more susceptible to diseases than others, and Lynch wanted to see how genetic factors influenced susceptibility ... a crossing from Cherbourg in France to New York lasting 13 days, Sept 1st - 13th, 1926). The mice were not proceeded through ...
... (Zhu-Tokita-Takenouchi-Kim syndrome) is a rare disease caused in humans by a genetic mutation of the SON gene. ... Strabismus; misalignment or crossing of the eyes when viewing an object, direct hypermetropia; farsightedness, and nystagmus; ... "Periventricular heterotopia , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". ... Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M.; Gilissen, Christian; Veltman, Joris A. (2015-10-27). "Genetic studies in intellectual disability and ...
Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its ... refers how the Han people crossing the Taiwan Strait were mostly male, whereas their offspring would be through marriage with ... found that the Taiwanese Han shared a common genetic background with Han Chinese populations worldwide but were quite distant ... However, this study was criticised by other researchers and refuted by subsequent genetic studies. Not long after Lin's 2007 ...
That is, the severity of clinical signs and symptoms does not correlate with the type of genetic variant. Mutations in the ... which may lead to a partial failure of axonal fiber crossing and encourage development of an abnormal ipsilateral connection. ... Experiments in mice also support the claim that CMM disorder is associated with genetic mutations in DCC. Kanga mice, lacking ... Congenital mirror movement disorder (CMM disorder) is a rare genetic neurological disorder which is characterized by mirrored ...
... crossing the Continental Divide at either Togwotee Pass or Union Pass and left the region after crossing Teton Pass, following ... Various researchers have not been able to identify any genetic differences between the Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout ... The expedition had been charged with exploring the Yellowstone region, but encountered difficulties crossing mountain passes ...
Genetic data suggest that in 1991, a lone immigrant wolf from Russia migrated to the area and single-handedly restored genetic ... and have naturally dispersed from Canada by crossing the frozen St. Lawrence River. In Sweden and Norway, a long and ongoing ... Genetic analysis seems to support the idea that the wolves were immigrants that had traveled over 1000 km from Russia to ... Much genetic research has been performed on this population, however, and this particular theory is not supported by the ...
"Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex" Genes Genet. Syst. Vol. 81 ... that many observations recorded in laboratories neglect existing polymorphism factors in hybrid sterility due to crossing ... Another highly regarded figure in Drosophila research was Theodosius Dobzhansky, who invented the use of genetic markers and ... It has been shown that interbreeding organisms that have more genetic compatibilities have less disruption of spermatogenesis ...
The project aims at applying evolutionary computing, through the use of genetic programming, for a procedural generation of ... while crossing the pit lane border produces a stop-and-go penalty. Penalties have to be cleared within five laps since the ...
This insured genetic purity for the white color, because in swine, the white color is dominant to black. From 1954 to 1957, ... The goal was to produce a pig that would be appropriate for crossing with the Yorkshire, the dominant breed in Canada at the ...
The dome over the crossing of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City was built by the son in 1909. A part- ... Dimčić, Miloš (2011). "Structural Optimization of Grid Shells Based on Genetic Algorithms". Forschungsbericht 32 (PDF). ... In 1828, the eastern crossing tower of Mainz Cathedral was rebuilt by Georg Moller with a wrought iron dome. The dome was made ... Bridging the Gap and Crossing Borders: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Structures and Architecture (ICSA ...
This version is a former scientist who was involved in valuable genetic research. As her funding was running out and she found ... At the last moment, when Barremargux is about to enter Earth-One, Barbara closes the gateway before the crossing could be ...
Hjelmeland, Anita Borton; Stephen H. Schilling; Xing Guo; Darryl Quarles; Xiao-Fan Wang (25 Nov 2005). "Loss of Smad3-Mediated ... before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. Osteoprogenitor cells can ...
The presence of genetic mutations increases genetic variance across species group. Mutations which are found to be beneficial ... Xing J, Vilà C, Marques-Bonet T, Godinho R, Yue B, Wayne RK (February 2016). "Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and ... It mainly helps with conservation but may also be used for genetic improvements, though this practice is mainly done on plants ... Dorji N, Duangjinda M, Phasuk Y (July 2012). "Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red ...
Genetic studies by EBMUD in 1999 suggest that the trout are native Central California stock and not introduced. Perennial flows ... However, the I-80 crossing may be a significant obstacle to upstream trout migration. Pinole Creek supports a mostly native ...
One finding of her lab is that crossing over between the X and Y chromosomes occurs in some regions of the chromosomes more ... Wilson Sayres, Melissa A (2018-02-21). "Genetic Diversity on the Sex Chromosomes". Genome Biology and Evolution. 10 (4): 1064- ...
A recent genetic and linguistic analysis in 2015 showed great genetic homogeneity between Kra-Dai speaking people, suggesting a ... The second groups might have passed through the Red River Delta, crossing the Vietnamese cordillera into the Mekong Valley. The ... Y-DNA haplogroups O-M95, O-M119, and O-M122 all are subclades of O-M175, a genetic mutation that has been estimated to have ... 2015). "Genetic and Linguistic Correlation of the Kra-Dai-Speaking Groups in Thailand". Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (7): 371- ...
In 1936, his brother Rik de Man was killed at the age of 21 when his bicycle was struck by a train at a railroad crossing. The ... In de Man's discussion of Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy, for instance, he claims that "genetic"[clarification needed] ...
River Crossings (and Alcuin Numbers) - Numberphile (Harv and Sfn no-target errors, All articles with incomplete citations, ... "Automated design of thousands of nonrepetitive parts for engineering stable genetic systems". Nature Biotechnology. 38 (12): ...
Realization that she had been conceived and raised, in a sense, as a genetic experiment, robbed the pianist of many of the ... "Crossing the Lines Dividing the Races". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Southall, Geneva Handy (2002). Blind Tom, the Black ...
Crossing borders: A systematic review with quantitative analysis of genetic mutations of carcinomas of the biliary tract E Roos ... Crossing borders: A systematic review with quantitative analysis of genetic mutations of carcinomas of the biliary tract E Roos ... Gallbladder Cancer: Current Insights in Genetic Alterations and Their Possible Therapeutic Implications. Kuipers H, de Bitter ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Crossing Over, Genetic ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Crossing Over, Genetic Publication ...
Explain the dating anywhere between crossing over and you will genetic variation ... Explain the relationship anywhere between crossing over and you can genetic type. viii. He was capable establish compatible ... Explain the dating anywhere between crossing over and you will genetic variation. ...
... genetic algorithms, genetic programming, cartesian genetic programming reference ... Genetic Programming conference papers by Zhen-xing Guo. * Zhen-xing Guo and Li-zhi Xu and Xue-jun Song and Chong-cun Li and ... Genetic Programming Bibliography entries for Zhen-xing Guo up to index Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision: ... Chong-cun Li and Li-zhi Xu and Xue-jun Song and Zhen-xing Guo and Xiong Liu. Hardware Evolution Platform Reasearch Based on ...
... May 14, 2023. May 14, 2023. ... Home » Give an explanation for dating anywhere between crossing-over and you will genetic adaptation ...
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard). Host: invertebrates. Lineage( full ). Viruses; Riboviria; Orthornavirae; ... Fitzroy Crossing qinvirus 1. Taxonomy ID: 2755158 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid2755158). current name. ...
RT-PCR, reverse transcription--PCR; ZIKV, Zika virus; Ct, crossing threshold; +, positive.. †Ct values with primer set 835/911c ... Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007 Robert S. Lanciotti*. ... Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. ...
Which would most likely decrease the genetic variation in the human population? A) Humans having more chromosome pairs. B) ... Crossing over occurring less often during meiosis.C) DNA moving between materna May 27, 2023. /in Uncategorized /by Paul. . ... Which would most likely decrease the genetic variation in the human population?A) Humans having more chromosome pairs.B) ... Which would most likely decrease the genetic variation in the human population? ...
Outcomes of Genetic Testing-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction after ... Xing Yu , Yuxuan Fan , ... , Zhiqing Fan. *17 Aug 2022. *PDFDownload PDF ... Lifestyle and remission of atherosclerosis (including but not limited to diet, combined use of multiple drugs) and genetic ...
Diagram showing crossing-over and exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes, from the... [+] 1916 book A Critique ... He suggested that new gene combinations arise by crossing-over and exchange of genetic material between a pair of chromosomes. ... Another student was Alfred Sturtevant, who devised the method for creating genetic maps to show the location of genes on a ... Sturtevants insight was this: if two genes are close together, theyre less likely to be separated by crossing-over between a ...
Li Q; Xing S; Zhang H; Mao X; Xiao M; Wang Y. Front Oncol; 2022; 12():858523. PubMed ID: 35720006. [TBL] ... 8. Genetic features of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.. Stilgenbauer S; Lichter P; Döhner H. Rev Clin Exp Hematol; 2000 ... Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity and number of cytogenetic aberrations provide additional prognostic significance in chronic ... 5. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with IGH translocations are characterized by a distinct genetic landscape with ...
MeSH Terms: Crossing Over, Genetic*; DNA Helicases/deficiency; DNA Helicases/genetics; DNA Helicases/metabolism*; DNA ...
Somatic embryogenesis plays a pivotal role in potato genetic transformation and generating artificial seeds. Potato protoplast ... fusion facilitates intra and interspecific crossing for potato improvement. Micropropagation of shoot segments together with in ... in vitro culturing methods are the most practical tools for crop improvement and safeguarding the Solanum genetic resources for ...
Now crossing boundaries is everywhere: think of hip-hop. The name of the band referenced a William Burroughs short story. ... "But it turns out we had a genetic predisposition to anti-establishment practices. Bill was a polymath at a time when that was a ...
They were obtained by crossing heterozygous VGLUT3A224V/+ (C57BL/6N genetic background) or VGLUT3+/− (VGLUT3−/−; Sakae et al., ... reveals some rare genetic variants that may increase the genetic burden in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 121:179-186. doi: ... Consequently, functions of mutant VGLUT3 were investigated in cell cultures, as well as in a genetic mouse model. ...
Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems. Australian Journal of Biological ... In the leave-one-out process to impute the genetic composition of animals with known genetic composition, based on body weight ... when an animals genetic composition is unknown. To make inferences about the genetic composition of the sampled animals, we ... the genetic composition reported by the farmers was significantly correlated with the genetic composition imputed to head ...
In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, ... In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, ... This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in ... This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in ...
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 2005.. *Detection of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 from children with hand, foot and ... Genetic characteristics of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus a16 circulating from 1999 to 2004 in Shenzhen, Peoples ...
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are genetic diseases, individually rare, but ... Grant Abstract: Aptamer-directed crossing of the blood barrier for enzyme therapy of LSDs. ... Project Title: Aptamer-directed crossing of the blood barrier for enzyme therapy of LSDs. ...
Author: Ya Xing Wang Author: Srujana Sahebjada Author: Johanna Mazur Author: Alireza Mirshahi ... Genome-wide association meta-analysis of corneal curvature identifies novel loci and shared genetic influences across axial ... Genome-wide association meta-analysis of corneal curvature identifies novel loci and shared genetic influences across axial ... Genome-wide association meta-analysis of corneal curvature identifies novel loci and shared genetic influences across axial ...
I am not fully understanding this... isnt genetic recombination the same thing as crossing over? I agree genes further apart ... I am not fully understanding this... isnt genetic recombination the same thing as crossing over? I agree genes further apart ... Crossing over and recombination are essentially the same thing. Recombination is what you get from crossing over.. If you think ... Crossing over and recombination are essentially the same thing. Recombination is what you get from crossing over.. If you think ...
Xing, Y., et al. (2006) Genetic Analysis in Patients with Left Ventricular Noncompaction and Evidence for Genetic Heterogeneity ... LVNC is a myocardial disease with genetic basis that may result in heart failure, arrhythmia, thromboembolism, sudden cardiac ... In the most recent American heart association classification, LVNC was listed as a primary cardiomyopathy with genetic origin. ... and included in the 2006 classification of cardiomyopathy as a genetic cardiomyopathy. The most frequently involved sites are ...
Yet, the genetic basis for the antihypertensive effects of exercise remains elusive. Methods: To assemble a prioritized gene ... Hong, X.; Xing, H.; Yu, Y.; Wen, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Tang, G.; Xu, X. Genetic Polymorphisms of the Urea Transporter Gene ... "Genetic Loci"[Mesh] OR "Genetic Association Studies"[Mesh] OR "Genetic Variation"[Mesh]) NOT ("DASH"[tiab] OR "cancer" OR " ... "Genetic Loci"[Mesh] OR "Genetic Association Studies"[Mesh] OR "Genetic Variation"[Mesh] OR "Blood Pressure/genetics"[Mesh]) NOT ...
Now crossing boundaries is everywhere: think of hip-hop. The name of the band referenced a William Burroughs short story. ... "But it turns out we had a genetic predisposition to anti-establishment practices. Bill was a polymath at a time when that was a ...
  • He suggested that new gene combinations arise by crossing-over and exchange of genetic material between a pair of chromosomes. (
  • Sturtevant's insight was this: if two genes are close together, they're less likely to be separated by crossing-over between a pair of chromosomes, which occurs before a parent's genetic material is passed on to offspring. (
  • If you think about a random event (crossing over) occurring somewhere along the paired chromosomes, it should make sense that it is more likely for that random even to happen between two genes that have a large distance between them than two genes with very little distance between them. (
  • Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes. (
  • A greater distance between two genes means a greater chance of crossing over between those genes (a higher frequency of recombination). (
  • Crossing over and recombination are essentially the same thing. (
  • Recombination is what you get from crossing over. (
  • Recombination analysis was performed in 109 father-daughter-grandson trios in which two crossing over events were observed located in the 65.8 kb region between DXS10146 and DXS10134. (
  • By using this STR complex for haplotyping in kinship testing further genetic analyses are required to establish an exact recombination rate. (
  • There are two classes of genetic recombination: general, or homologous, and site-specific. (
  • Inhomologous recombination an exchange of genetic material takes place between two pairs of homologous DNA sequences located on two copies of the same chromosome. (
  • Another student was Alfred Sturtevant, who devised the method for creating 'genetic maps' to show the location of genes on a chromosome. (
  • Selected genes located in genetic risk loci associated with higher susceptibility for diseases with fibrotic complications. (
  • Individuals with functional GST genes might convert chlorinated solvents crossing the blood-brain barrier into cytotoxic metabolites. (
  • Genetic studies of human diseases have identified multiple genetic risk loci for various fibrotic diseases. (
  • One key finding is the substantial overlap of genetic loci associated with disease risk across a variety of complex immune diseases ( Cotsapas and Hafler, 2013 ). (
  • Genetic studies have successfully identified numerous genetic risk loci associated with higher susceptibility for diseases associated with fibrosis. (
  • Left panel displays diseases associated with a strong immune component and the genetic risk loci implicated in at least three of these diseases. (
  • Emerging results on genetic disease-modifiers show limited overlap with genetic loci involved in disease risk, highlighting the point that disease initiation and disease progression are not necessarily driven by the same mechanisms. (
  • The ROBO3 protein plays a critical role in ensuring that this crossing over occurs during brain development. (
  • If crossing over occurs, the products are recombinant gametes. (
  • A genetics study by scientists with the Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University has examined the reproduction success of bears using wildlife crossings in Banff and determined that system of crossings has helped to maintain genetically healthy populations of black bears and grizzlies in the park.Credit: (
  • The genetics paper is the third to come out of a three-year study of the crossings in the context of Banff's black bear and grizzly populations. (
  • Effects of failure of development of crossing brainstem pathways on ocular motor control. (
  • Large pooled studies are needed to explore the interaction of genetic pathways and environmental and occupational exposures in glioma aetiology. (
  • The analysis of genetic correlations between fiber length (Len), strength (Str), micronaire, and 12 other traits was conducted using the additive (A)-dominance (D) genetic model, which considers genotype × environment interaction effects, in intraspecific upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hybrids to effectively improve the quality of cotton cultivars in high planting density cases. (
  • Mitochondrial genetic variation is enriched in G-quadruplex regions that stall DNA synthesis in vitro . (
  • Crossing over results in a shuffling of genetic material and is an important cause of the genetic variation seen among offspring. (
  • The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence) was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus) as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus). (
  • These discoveries suggest that alterations in immune responses, barrier function, metabolism and telomerase activity may be implicated in the genetic risks for fibrotic diseases. (
  • This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in human fibrotic diseases. (
  • In the last decade, the scientific community has successfully collaborated through consortia to unravel the genetic basis of susceptibility for many diseases. (
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic polymorphisms that confer higher risk for diseases and have provided insights into the biological processes that contribute to disease susceptibility. (
  • Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are genetic diseases, individually rare, but in the aggregate presenting a serious medical and human burden. (
  • The NIH Common Fund's Somatic Cell Genome Editing (SCGE) program aims to reduce the burden of diseases caused by genetic changes. (
  • SCGE made significant discoveries of new or optimized editors that edit target genomes with improved efficacy and novel functionality, including a prime editor that could correct up to 89% of known genetic variants associated with human diseases. (
  • For example, 'Hong Kong flu' emerged in 1968 by probable genetic reassortment between the previously circulating human strains of 'Asian flu' and an animal virus that donated the gene for the new virus hemagglutinin (2). (
  • In all, parentage tests showed that 47 percent of black bears that used crossings had successfully bred, while 27 percent of grizzly bears had done so. (
  • 8. The genetic duet of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations predicts the poor curative effect of radioiodine therapy in papillary thyroid cancer. (
  • Mutations in a human ROBO gene disrupt hindbrain axon pathway crossing and morphogenesis. (
  • Somatic embryogenesis plays a pivotal role in potato genetic transformation and generating artificial seeds. (
  • In the genetic engineering revolution, these seeds are now patented property of one corporation, called Monsanto. (
  • The planting operation can also be very unpredictable as your seeds do not carry any genetic engineering to help through the different growth stages. (
  • First bred in the early 1900s, this type of canary is the only color-bred variety with a "red factor" as part of its genetic makeup. (
  • The WTI group extracted DNA from hair samples collected at wire snares located at the crossings and compared those data with the DNA from samples collected far and wide within the surrounding habitat on both sides of the highway. (
  • however, the genetic composition of most animal influenza viruses appears to biologically restrict the range of hosts and prevent the viruses from crossing the species barrier. (
  • Recent efforts have sought to identify genetic factors influencing clinical outcomes with emerging "case-case" studies, looking at patient subgroups that follow different disease courses. (
  • The main idea of this lesson is to show the application of genetic crossing for the benefit of agriculture by producing apples with a variety of traits. (
  • EVs can affect other cells by transferring proteins and genetic material into them. (
  • Sawaya said the study also reinforced a common assumption among ecologists that grizzly bears are much more shy of human infrastructure than black bears, though project data suggest that once an individual grizzly is accustomed to using the crossings, that bear will cross the highway readily and, in the case of females, may pass the habit on to offspring. (
  • The term 'biobank' indicates a specific field of genetic study that has quietly developed without any significant critical reflection across European societies. (
  • -A first-of-its-kind study of Banff National Park bears by scientists with the Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University has shown that a system of wildlife crossing structures there is helping to maintain genetically healthy populations of bears spanning the Trans-Canada Highway. (
  • If scientists could better understand how cancer cells accomplish this crossing, they might be able to develop methods to prevent it. (
  • In addition to reducing collisions, the crossings project was designed to prevent fragmentation of wildlife populations living along Canada's busiest highway. (
  • Earlier genetic studies focused on signals that distinguish between disease and healthy status using "case-control" studies. (
  • While there have been a lot of studies showing that wildlife are using these crossings, this is the first time anyone has shown that animals using the crossings are breeding often enough to ensure that the populations on either side of the highway are not being genetically isolated. (
  • These wildlife crossing structures cost millions of dollars and this is one of the first studies that has shown that they are doing what they are intended to do," Kalinowski said. (
  • In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, severity or prognosis provides crucial insights into the biological processes implicated in disease progression. (
  • Showing that the black bears and grizzlies using the crossings to traverse the highway are also breeding is a major finding," said former MSU graduate student and WTI scientist Michael Sawaya, who wrote the paper as the final piece for his doctorate in ecology. (
  • They began by crossing a Chocolate Siamese with a black cat that carried the chocolate gene. (
  • MSU professor of ecology Steven Kalinowski, who was Sawaya's doctoral adviser and co-authored the paper, agreed that the genetic evidence offers the best indication to date of the success of Banff's system of wildlife crossing structures. (
  • I think we should accept that there is no way to tell if it was the Evangelist Luke," he told The New York Times , "but the genetic evidence does not contradict the idea. (
  • Many risk factors for breast cancer have been identified, including genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. (
  • Once the level of risk has been established, physician and patient can discuss the best screening and management, which may involve measures such as addressing modifiable risk factors or genetic counseling. (
  • Technologies may engage diverse types of signaling beyond neuronal electrical activity for large-scale analysis, and may utilize any modality such as optical, electrical, magnetic, acoustic or genetic recording/manipulation. (
  • As a vegetatively propagated and grown crop, in vitro culturing methods are the most practical tools for crop improvement and safeguarding the Solanum genetic resources for food security, research and cultivar development. (