Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The number of males per 100 females.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Diseases of plants.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain chicoric and chlorogenic acids and germacrane- and eudesmane-type SESQUITERPENES.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
Sexual activities of animals.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A plant genus of the family Turneraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (1/9064)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/9064)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (3/9064)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (4/9064)

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (5/9064)

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe.  (+info)

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/9064)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info)

Efficient homologous and illegitimate recombination in the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata. (7/9064)

The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata causes significant disease in humans. To develop genetic tools to investigate the pathogenicity of this organism, we have constructed ura3 and his3 auxotrophic strains by deleting the relevant coding regions in a C. glabrata clinical isolate. Linearized plasmids carrying a Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene efficiently transformed the ura3 auxotroph to prototrophy. Homologous recombination events were observed when the linearized plasmid carried short terminal regions homologous with the chromosome. In contrast, in the absence of any chromosomal homology, the plasmid integrated by illegitimate recombination into random sites in the genome. Sequence analysis of the target sites revealed that for the majority of illegitimate transformants there was no microhomology with the integration site. Approximately 0.25% of the insertions resulted in amino acid auxotrophy, suggesting that insertion was random at a gross level. Sequence analysis suggested that illegitimate recombination is nonrandom at the single-gene level and that the integrating plasmid has a preference for inserting into noncoding regions of the genome. Analysis of the relative numbers of homologous and illegitimate recombination events suggests that C. glabrata possesses efficient systems for both homologous and nonhomologous recombination.  (+info)

Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. (8/9064)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition.  (+info)

The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains.. 1. Collaborative Cross strains facilitate mapping of causative loci. In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the the pre-CC study, the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation ...
The first step for foreground selection is to associate a molecular marker with the target trait by some genetic mapping method. In the best case, the marker itself would be the functional polymorphism - that is, the DNA change that causes the phenotypic difference between alleles. These markers can be called functional markers (Andersen and Lübberstedt, 2003). Creating functional markers requires the gene of interest to be cloned (unless you are very, very lucky!). In the absence of a cloned gene, markers that are very tightly linked to the target gene are necessary to avoid recombination between the marker and the gene during backcrossing. A recombination, of course, would result in a situation where the breeder is selecting for a marker allele that is now linked to the undesirable trait allele. Assuming markers are available for the trait, then they can be applied at each backcross generation to select those plants carrying the desired allele (or gene, in the case of a novel transgene). ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
For instance they could do some screens for temperature-sensitive mutants (huge, massive saunas in action). Imagine the figures in the papers to go along with this sort of experiments. Some allele crossing experiments in search of synthetic lethality - that would be great as well. With photos of F0 and F1. Auxotrophic humans with plasmids complementing their deficiency as useful tools - complementation experiments will be particularly cruel - no complementation - well, tough luck ...
The BXD#/Rww set was generated using a strategy of advanced intercrosses (AI). The AI technique produces recombinant RI strains which incorporate approximately twice as many recombinations as the standard RI strains. The addition of the AI BXD RI lines to the existing BXD set creates the largest of the mouse RI mapping panels. This set is useful in QTL mapping and analysis of gene function. The BXD strains are derived from the C57BL/6J (Stock No. 000664) and DBA/2J (Stock No. 000671) progenitor strains.
The Irish High Crosses were carved and erected during a specific period of Irish history. Francoise Henry in her book, Irish High Crosses (), outlines a possible Chronology of the crosses, which with changes in style, were carved between the 8 th and 12 th centuries; a period of about years. For more information on the process of dating.
There is no general technique, but there are some simple principles. One is to study the tail behavior of $f$ by comparing it to tractable functions.. By definition, the expectation is the double limit (as $y$ and $z$ vary independently). $$E_{y,z}[f] = \lim_{y\to-\infty,z\to\infty}\int_y^z x f(x) dx = \lim_{y\to-\infty}\int_y^0 x f(x) dx+ \lim_{z\to\infty}\int_0^z x f(x) dx.$$. The treatment of the two integrals at the right is the same, so lets focus on the positive one. One behavior of $f$ that assures a limiting value is to compare it to the power $x^{-p}$. Suppose $p$ is a number for which $$\liminf_{x\to\infty} x^p f(x)\gt 0.$$ This means there exists an $\epsilon\gt 0$ and an $N\gt 1$ for which $x^p f(x) \ge \epsilon$ whenever $x\in[N,\infty)$. We may exploit this inequality by breaking the integration into the regions where $x\lt N$ and $x \ge N$ and applying it in the second region:. $$\eqalign{ \int_0^z x f(x) dx &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx + \int_{N}^z x f(x) dx \\ &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx ...
Animals. Mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and were intercrossed to produce F1 and F2 hybrids. Pups were weaned at 21-30 d of age and reared in groups of the same gender (in most cases, four to six mice per cage, but never more than six in one cage). The mice were housed in a temperature-controlled vivarium at 23°C on a 12 hr light/dark cycle and had ad libitum access to water and Teklad Rodent Diet 8604. During the two-bottle tests, the mice were housed individually.. Two groups of F2 mice were bred and phenotyped in separate experiments. Group 1 consisted of 171 male mice obtained from two types of reciprocal crosses: (129♀ × B6♂)F1♀ × (129♀ × B6♂)F1♂ (80 males) and (B6♀ × 129♂) F1♀ × (B6♀ × 129♂) F1♂ (91 males). Group 2 consisted of 456 (228 females and 228 males) F2 mice obtained from three types of reciprocal crosses: (129♀ × B6♂) F1♀ × (129♀ × B6♂) F1♂ (92 ...
J:79580 Le Bras S, Cohen-Tannoudji M, Guyot V, Vandormael-Pournin S, Coumailleau F, Babinet C, Baldacci P, Transcript map of the Ovum mutant (Om) locus: isolation by exon trapping of new candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. Gene. 2002 Aug 21;296(1-2):75 ...
IRMNG (2021). Bulinidae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880. Accessed at: https://www.irmng.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103034 on 2021-09-24 ...
Im trying to teach my self Power of Marcus Miller. Im wondering what to do when there are crosses instead of notes. It sounds like he is muting...
This is a question from a practice exam for our exam tomorrow morning. Please help I have been staring at this for an hour and cant figure it out ...
Obviously Im fucked off. But accepting. Theres nothing else to be. Theres no point stressing too much, as even when I get out, its all got to be repeated, so its not like there was a brilliant light at the end of the tunnel ...
n) the reappearance of a characteristic in an organism after several generations of absence; return of a trait after a period of absence ...
Ive both done TCA cross on myself (I would not recommend this. I was desperate!) and had it done with a doctor. I noticed that in certain areas there was more visible improvement than others. And it took AT LEAST two crosses before I started seeing improvement. So you would really need to commit to at least 3 before you noticed a difference. Of course, TCA cross supposedly only helps icepick scarring. You can always try it on boxcar if it makes a difference. If it were me and I wer ...
Breeding chickens for heat tolerance is desirable. The F18 and F19 generations of a broiler by Fayoumi advanced intercross line (AIL) was used to facilitate fine mapping of QTL. Three major phenotype collection phases were: pre-heat, acute heat, and chronic heat, with birds being exposed to daily heat cycles from 22 to 28 days of age. Body temperature was measured at all three phases; body weight at pre-heat and chronic heat phases. Breast muscle yield (as percentage of body weight) was measured after necropsy at d 28. Feed digestibility was assayed from ileal content collected at d 28. Birds were genotyped using a 600K Affymetrix chicken SNP array. Using GenSel significant QTL were found for each of the measured traits, indicating the feasibility of improving performance under hot conditions by genomic selection. This is the first GWAS using this novel AIL of chickens under heat stress.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model selection approach for the identification of quantitative trait loci in experimental crosses, allowing epistasis. AU - Manichaikul, Ani. AU - Moon, Jee Young. AU - Sen, Śaunak. AU - Yandell, Brian S.. AU - Broman, Karl W.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their interactions is a crucial step toward the discovery of genes responsible for variation in experimental crosses. The problem is best viewed as one of model selection, and the most important aspect of the problem is the comparison of models of different sizes. We present a penalized likelihood approach, with penalties on QTL and pairwise interactions chosen to control false positive rates. This extends the work ofBroman and Speed to allow for pairwise interactions among QTL. A conservative version of our penalized LOD score provides strict control over the rate of extraneous QTL and interactions; a more liberal criterion is more lenient on interactions but seeks ...
Simple Sequence Length Polymorphisms (SSLPs) are used as genetic markers with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An SSLP is a type of polymorphism: a difference in DNA sequence amongst individuals. SSLPs are repeated sequences over varying base lengths in intergenic regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Variance in the length of SSLPs can be used to understand genetic variation between two individuals in a certain species. An example of the usage of SSLPs (microsatellites) is seen in a study by Rosenberg et al., where SSLPs were used to cluster different continental races. The study was critical to Nicholas Wades New York Times Bestseller, Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. Rosenberg studied 377 SSLPs in 1000 people in 52 different regions of the world. By using PCR and cluster analysis, Rosenberg was able to group individuals that had the same SSLPs . These SSLPs were extremely useful to the experiment because they do not affect the phenotypes of the individuals, ...
We used F34 and F39-43 generations of a LG/J x SM/J AIL to perform GWAS, SNP heritability estimates, genetic correlations, replication and mega-analysis. We had previously performed several GWAS using a sparse marker set in the F34 cohort. In this study we used a denser set of SNPs, obtained using GBS, to reanalyze the F34 cohort. We found 109 significant loci, 36 of which had not been identified in our prior studies using the sparse marker set. We used a new, previously unpublished F39-43 cohort for GWAS and showed that genetic correlations were high for the subset of traits that were measured in both cohorts. Despite this, we found that many loci were not replicated between cohorts, even when we used a relatively liberal definition of replication (p , 0.05). The failure to replicate some of our findings was not predicted by our power simulations. Therefore, we performed an analysis to determine whether Winners Curse and study-specific heterogeneity could account for the lower than expected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methods of increasing short term response to full-sib family recurrent selection in small populations. AU - Mackay, I. J.. AU - Caligari, P. D.S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Accelerated recurrent selection (ARS), in which selection is carried out on the predicted value of the progeny rather than on the observed performance of the parents, has been proposed as a method of increasing response to selection and of reducing cycle time. ARS schemes based on test cross evaluation of full-sib families have been compared by stochastic computer simulation. The difference in genetic and economic time scales is emphasised, with the economic long term (21 years) being only 21 or fewer cycles of selection. ARS schemes are shown frequently to offer improvements over standard recurrent selection methods under these circumstances, since they allow more cycles of selection in a given time frame. Schemes with very low effective population sizes often give the greatest response to selection over the ...
Wilson, B D.; Sternick, J L.; Yoshizawa, Y; Katzenstein, A; and Moore, V L., Experimental murine hypersensitivity pneumonitis: multigenic control and influence by genes within the i-b subregion of the h-2 complex. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3795 ...
Read Transmission Ratio Distortion, Sterility, and Control of the t-Complex Function in Sperm, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A maximum-likelihood approach is used in order to estimate recombination fractions between markers showing segregation distortion in backcross populations. It is assumed that the distortions are induced by viability differences between gametes or zygotes due to one or more selected genes. We show th …
Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one ...
WKY and LEW strains have been widely studied for their differential susceptibility to experimental glomerulonephritis. In particular these strains show strong variations in the macrophage activation. This dataset measures expression of macrophages in backcross population of WKY DC and LEW rats and includes a few control origninating from the WKY DC strain.
Fly culture and transgenic lines. Drosophila melanogaster Canton S-5 (CS-5), the parental wild-type strain from which acj6 mutants were derived (McKenna et al., 1989), were reared at 18 or 25°C on cornmeal, sucrose, yeast media.. The olfactory neuron-specific P [Gal4] driver line GH86 (Heimbeck et al., 1999) and the UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (Certel et al., 2000) responder lines were obtained from Dr. W. A. Johnson (University of Iowa). UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) (chromosome II) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (chromosome III) transgenic lines (Certel et al., 2000) were recombined with Cha-Gal4 lines (chromosome III or II) by standard genetic crosses using second or third chromosome balancers,CyO or TM3. The GH86 olfactory driver was recombined with either UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) or UAS-Acj6 (1,4) transgenic lines, and male progeny were used for ChAT assay (see below).. A fluorescent cholinergic reporter line marking essentially all known cholinergic neurons consisted of a 7.4 kb Cha-Gal4 driver line (19B) ...
Each mouse in the pre-CC experiment was genotyped using a highdensity SNP array. Most of the genotyping was completed using test arrays. These arrays were developed as an intermediate step in the process of developing the Mouse Diversity array (Yang et al. 2009). There are two versions of the test array: A-array and B-array. The A-array includes 294,878 SNP assays, and the B-array contains 287,687 additional SNP assays. We determined that 181,752 (A-array) and 180,976 (B-array) SNP assays performed well and targeted loci that are polymorphic among the eight founder strains. There is no overlap between the two arrays, but the genome coverage is complete and uniformly distributed in both. In some cases, animals from the same phenotyping arm were genotyped with different arrays. Integration was achieved by merging the two sets and using an HMM to impute haplotypes at loci with missing genotypes. Due to the high marker density, this procedure was very effective. The exercise behavior and ...
A case of hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum is due to an incompatibility of the Y chromosome of certain strains with the cytoplasm of other strains. The constitution of the cytoplasm responsible for the sterility is not, however, independent of the chromosomal genes. After seven backcrosses of the hybrid females to males of the same strain, fertile male progenies are finally obtained. ...
Hybrid Stain Crosses: Most cannabis seeds and medicine available today are from hybrids - crosses of Sativa and Indica varieties. This allows cultivators to enjoy and select for various desired characteristics of growth, appearance and effect. The genetics and hence the effects of one lineage will usually be dominant. For example: Indica-dominant crosses are for pain relief, with the sativa component helping with energy and activity levels. Sativa-dominant crosses are good for stimulating appetite, with the indica component helping to reduce body pain and increase relaxation. Cannabis has been proven helpful in relieving the symptoms of thousands of conditions, including: Pain from various ailments and ...
Abstract: This thesis studies a new method to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We show that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary if and only if its least concave majorant crosses said concave boundary. As such, we can equivalently simulate the least concave majorant of a Brownian bridge in order to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We apply these theoretical results to the problem of estimating joint confidence intervals for a true CDF at every point. We compare this method to a traditional method for estimating joint confidence intervals for the true CDF at every point which is based upon the limiting distribution of what is often called the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, the sup-norm distance between the empirical and true CDFs. We indicate the disadvantages of the traditional approach and demonstrate how our approach addresses these weaknesses. ...
The beans from the mixed plot show a nice bell-shaped distribution (figure). Similarly, the beans harvested from pure lines grown in separate garden plots also show nice bell-shaped distributions, though the means differ for each pure line. The key difference is in the results of selective breeding for heavier (or lighter) beans, i.e., planting a new crop using only the heaviest (or lightest) beans: selection shifts the distribution of seed weights in the mixed plot, but has no significant effect on the distribution of seed weights produced by a pure line.. Within just a few decades, neo-Darwinians such as Ford (1938) dismissed Johannsens results as a logical necessity, as though the experiments proved nothing. Johannsens studies had changed our understanding so profoundly that Ford was unable to imagine how scientists (mis)understood the world before.. I wont ask you to do what Ford could not, which is to forget genetics.. Instead, I would like to ask you to join me in imagining a different ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
You and your partner should first scan all your plates to determine whether or not your crosses are scorable. If you have males or only phenotypicaly WT and Unc progeny, you should not try to analyze that plate for linkage. Why not? If you have no males and some dumpy progeny, you may score that plate in this linkage analysis. Look carefully at all the scorable plates and try to find double mutants. If you see no (or only very rare) double mutant (du/du) progeny on one of the plates, it indicates that your unknown dpy mutation is on the same chromosome or linkage group as that known unc mutation. Why? What might it mean if none of the plates of progeny lack double mutants? (Hint: there are 5 autosomes and we only tested 4 of them for linkage.) Since we know on which autosome each of the reference unc mutations are located, you should be able to figure out on which chromosome your unknown dpy mutation is found ...
Watson, J; Riblet, R; and Taylor, B A., The response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3712 ...
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Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses. Rivero, L., Scholl, R., Holomuzki, N., Crist, D., Grotewold, E., and Brkljacic, J. (2014) Methods Mol Biol 1062: 3-25.
The collaborative cross (CC) is a large panel of mouse-inbred lines derived from eight founder strains (NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HILtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ,
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What makes a dominant gene be labeled as such is when it is the characteristic of that gene is the one that presents itself in offspring. It is dominant because it outweighs the recessive trait. ...
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least ...
f(x)-f(a), is not less than ,f(x-a),. Its not like f is linear or something. ,f(x)-f(a),=,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a),*,x-a,. Now to get a d, you need a bound on ,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a), near x=a. Hint: doesnt that look like a difference quotient ...
Negatively stained purified virions of parental virus strains and hybrid progenies. CPXV-NOHI (A), MVA-HANP (B), Rec 1 (C), Rec 2 (D), Rec 3 (E), Rec 3a (F), Re
data diallel; label time = Flowering time in days; do p = 1 to 8; do m = 1 to 8; if (m ne p) then do; sym = trim(left(min(m,p))) ,, , ,, trim(left(max(m,p))); do block = 1 to 2; input time @@; output; end; end; end; end; datalines; 14.4 16.2 27.2 30.8 17.2 27.0 18.3 20.2 16.2 16.8 18.6 14.4 16.4 16.0 15.4 16.5 14.8 14.6 18.6 18.6 15.2 15.3 17.0 15.2 14.4 14.8 10.8 13.2 31.8 30.4 21.0 23.0 24.6 25.4 19.2 20.0 29.8 28.4 12.8 14.2 13.0 14.4 16.2 17.8 11.4 13.0 16.8 16.3 12.4 14.2 16.8 14.8 12.6 12.2 9.6 11.2 14.6 18.8 12.2 13.6 15.2 15.4 15.2 13.8 18.0 16.0 10.4 12.2 13.4 20.0 20.2 23.4 14.2 14.0 18.6 14.8 22.2 17.0 14.3 17.3 9.0 10.2 11.8 12.8 14.0 16.6 12.2 9.2 13.6 16.2 13.8 14.4 15.6 15.6 15.6 11.0 13.0 9.8 15.2 17.2 10.0 11.6 17.0 18.2 20.8 20.8 20.0 17.4 17.0 12.6 13.0 9.8 ...
Use the West nomogram by drawing a straight line between the height and weight of a child. This line crosses the surface area column and gives an estimation of the body surface area for this child,...
The mouse is the daughter of two female parents, but experts are sceptical that the technique could help two women have a biological child
I recently found out the rule regarding the Taylor expansion of a translated function: ##f(x+h)=f(x)+f′(x)⋅h+\frac 1 2 h^ 2 \cdot f′′(x)+⋯+\frac 1 {n!}h^n \cdot f^n(x)+...## But why exactly is this the case? The normal Taylor expansion tells us that ##f(x)=f(a)+f(a)(x-a)+\frac 1 ...
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The first COVID case in Nepal was confirmed by the Ministry of Health and Population on 23rd January 2020. After about a month and a half when the first
case 2: Block A tends to slide up: Block B is large (10 minutes). Conclusion: (b) Block B is large: m A gsinT F T F fr 0 m kg m m m m B B B A S A 9 .2 10sin37 0.40 10 cos37 sin cos q q T P T 2.8 kg m B 9 .2kg Now m B 10kg! 9 .2kg T B B x N A A T fr A x F m g m a F m g m g F F m a cos 0 sin T T. Get Price ...
Let T-n (R) be the upper triangular matrix ring over a unital ring R. Suppose that B : Tn (R) x Tn (R) is a biadditive map such that B(X, X) X = X B(X, X) for ...
Determine all binery cyclic codes of length 5. Note: To find all cyclic codes of length n, find all ideals in B[x]/x^2+1 Note: If 1 is an Ideal (I) then R = I. Example: n=2 R=B[x]/x^2+1, x^2=1 R={o,1,x,1+x} Ideals |0|.
Considering Ive lost a couple of readers over the last seven months this thing has been active (yes, they let me know about it, too!) Im surprised and pleased so many enjoy my meandering ramblings and scattered gaming thoughts ...
The cluster of technical support surrounding 12100 in EURAUD suggests that the level will be difficult to break. Other crosses of interest include the EURGBP, AUDNZD, and CADCHF.
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Eslava AP, Alvarez MI, Burke PV, Delbrück M (July 1975). "Genetic recombination in sexual crosses of phycomyces". Genetics. 80 ...
Cross-sensitization[edit]. Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... In animals, cross-sensitization has been established between the consumption of many different types of drugs of abuse - in ... Barnes KC, Grant AV, Hansel NN, Gao P, Dunston GM (2007). "African Americans with asthma: genetic insights". Proc Am Thorac Soc ...
Coyne, Jerry A. (25 de abril de 1985). «The genetic basis of Haldane's rule» (PDF). Nature. 314 (6013): 736-7388. doi:10.1038/ ... Coyne, Jerry A. (29 de setembro de 1988). «A couple of cross-pollinators» (PDF). Nature. 335 (6189): 467-467. doi:10.1038/ ... Coyne, J. A.; Kay, E. H.; Pruett-Jones, S. (2008). «The genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in birds». Evolution. 62: 214-219. ... Moehring, A. J.; Llopart, A.; Elwyn, S.; Coyne, J. A.; Mackay, T. F. C. (2006). «Genetic basis of prezygotic reproductive ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Tennessee. Retrieved 18 August 2016. Ludman, Mark (2009). The Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders and ... The term is most commonly used in reference to the amount of genetic overlap that exists between two sets of people, with third ...
When found, these hybrids often can show remarkable genetic relationships. Crosses between two philodendrons in different ... This may be because philodendrons have many geographic and time barriers to prevent any such cross pollination.[citation needed ... Because of these outside barriers, philodendrons may not have had to evolve physical mechanisms to prevent cross-pollination.[ ... some aspects of making crosses can make philodendron hybridization more difficult. Philodendrons often flower at different ...
The males and females are separate genetic lines or breeds. The chicks they produce will therefore be hybrids or 'crosses'. ... The white feathered Arbor Acres birds were preferred to the higher performing dark feathered Red Cornish crosses. In 1964, ...
A recent study found considerable genetic diversity within L. nobilis, and that L. azorica is not genetically or ... Cruceiro (Cross). Iter Europe:Ilas Atlấntoas: Pontevedra. http://www.parquenacionalillasatlanticas.com/spa/informacion_saber_ ... "AFLP evaluation of genetic similarity among laurel populations (Laurus L.)". Euphytica. 122: 155-164. doi:10.1023/A: ...
"The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits." Nature genetics 36.11 (2004): 1133. ... In 2019 Karl Broman and a group of researchers published a study which found genetic variants in mice that impacted the bile ... "Comprehensive human genetic maps: individual and sex-specific variation in recombination." The American Journal of Human ... "R/qtl: QTL mapping in experimental crosses." Bioinformatics 19.7 (2003): 889-890. Churchill, Gary A., et al. " ...
There are certain genetic crosses that are lethal to the foal.) There is no point to re-breeding in such cases, so the stallion ... This is to ensure that the mare is healthy & able to carry a foal, and to check for genetic incompatibilities. ( ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ... identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR-137 by cross-referencing the global gene expression analysis of HCT 116 ...
Nath, S. K.; Majumder, P. P.; Nordlund, J. J. (1994). "Genetic epidemiology of vitiligo: multilocus recessivity cross-validated ... The understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying human skin color variation is still incomplete, however genetic studies ... The genetic mechanism behind human skin color is mainly regulated by the enzyme tyrosinase, which creates the color of the skin ... genetic evidence [demonstrate] that strong levels of natural selection acted about 1.2 mya to produce darkly pigmented skin in ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ...
Comprehensive genetic education and premarital genetic counseling programs can help to lessen the burden of genetic diseases in ... Cross-cousin marriage divides members of the same generation into two approximately equal groups, those of cross-cousins and " ... Finally, the Baggara Arabs favor MBD marriage first, followed by cross-cousin marriage if the cross cousin is a member of the ... This makes cross-cousin marriage exceptionally important. Cross-cousin marriage also establishes a division between prescribed ...
Protection from major genetic mutation[edit]. In contrast to the view that sex promotes genetic variation, Heng,[13] and ... Darwin CR (1876). The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. London: John Murray. [3] see page 462 ... Advantages due to genetic variation[edit]. See also: Hill-Robertson effect. For the advantage due to genetic variation, there ... Genetic heritability cost of sex[edit]. A sexually reproducing organism only passes on ~50% of its own genetic material to each ...
An intermediate genetic distance may thus be most conducive to hybrid speciation. Experimental lab crosses support this ... Interspecific hybridization can enrich the genetic diversity of introgressed taxon, lead to introgression of beneficial genetic ... These methods infer a user-specified number of genetic groups from the data and assign each individual to one or a mix of these ... Given time, genetic drift will eventually stochastically fix blocks derived from the two parent species in finite isolated ...
Genetic crosses of individuals found a general dominance hierarchy within the alleles. Allele combinations also determine not ... In other words, alleles did not enter into the genome from genetic transfer from other species. Different combinations of the ...
It was initially found, using genetic crosses, that poky is maternally inherited. Subsequently, the primary defect in the poky ...
L. Ollivier (1982). Genetic Determination of Muscular Hypertrophy in the Pig. In: J.W. King, F. Ménissier (editors) (1982). ... it is used as a sire for cross-breeding. The breed was improved by researchers at the Université de Liège in 2004. ... Muscle Hypertrophy of Genetic Origin and its use to Improve Beef Production: A Seminar in the CEC Programme of Coordination of ... a genetic mutation causing muscular hypertrophy.:431 From about 1960, the Piétrain was also reared in Germany, principally in ...
Self-pollination limits the capability for genetic variation, whereas for cross-pollination the opposite is true. ... Two legumes used for pasture with cross-pollination are: Desmodium intortum and Desmodium uncinatum. When the flower is opened ... Legumes can either be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Pollination serves the purpose for the continuation of the species ... and its genetic materials to its offspring. ...
The white rarely crosses the back. While some currently-identified overo patterns appear to be dominant or incomplete dominant ... It denotes patterns produced by at least three different genetic mechanisms: frame, splashed white or sabino, described below. ... Breeders who select for color are often careful not to cross the two patterns, and registries that include spotting color ...
Genetic alterations in mouse models are similar to those found in human cancers. These models are generated by methods ... Comparative oncogenomics uses cross-species comparisons to identify oncogenes. This research involves studying cancer genomes, ... Cancer is a genetic disease caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell ... Before BRAF, the genetic mechanism of melanoma development was unknown and therefore prognosis for patients was poor. ...
"Cross-eyed tigers". Scientific American. 229:43. August 1973. Guillery, R.W.; Kaas, J.H. (22 June 1973). "Genetic abnormality ... To better preserve genetic diversity and avoid genetic defects, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums barred member zoos from ... Another genetic characteristic makes the stripes of the tiger very pale; white tigers of this type are called snow-white or " ... An additional genetic condition can result in near-complete absence of stripes, making the tiger almost pure white. One such ...
This has also led to a loss in genetic diversity and genetic material for further breeding. This type of loss is also called as ... However, maize is a cross-pollinator. In countries with small scale agriculture, as it is the case in Switzerland, fields are ... Switzerland has a broad genetic diversity of maize landraces, which are also distinguishable to the genetic pools of ... also indicating some genetic differences between the regions and thus partly a genetic separation within the Swiss landraces. ...
... can also solve dihybrid and multi-hybrid crosses. A problem is converted to a series of monohybrid crosses, and the results are ... Each genetic locus is always represented by two letters. So in the case of eye color, say "B = Brown eyes" and "b = green eyes ... The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It ... "Mono-" means "one"; this cross indicates that the examination of a single trait. This could mean (for example) eye color. ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (September 2013). "Genetic relationship between five psychiatric ... by quantifying the total contribution of common genetic variants. Furthermore an increasing number of specific genetic loci are ... These studies began in the 70's and studied the impact of perinatal problems, genetic variants, sexual abuse and other adverse ... Twin studies estimate the influences of all genetic variants and effects, but, due to relying purely on relatedness information ...
Cross-breed animals Genetic hybrids of wild and domestic parents. They may be forms intermediate between both parents, forms ... There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. There is also a genetic difference between the ... The Single Genetic Regulatory Network Hypothesis claims that genetic changes in upstream regulators affect downstream systems. ... The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks - including ...
August 2011). "Genetic analysis of complex traits in the emerging Collaborative Cross". Genome Research. 21 (8): 1213-22. doi: ... A 2011 cross-sectional study that investigated the number of chemicals pregnant women are exposed to in the U.S. found BPA in ... For instance, there is a population that is named Multi-parent and can be a Collaborative Cross (CC) or Diversity Outbred (DO ... Making DO mice an extremely useful tool for determining genetic relationships. 2) The catch is that DO individuals cannot be ...
They were the product of 30 years of cross-breeding; genetic modification was not employed. Guinea hen weed and honey garlic ... The seeds are glossy black and triangular in cross section. The average pH of an onion is around 5.5. Because the wild onion is ... In 2008, the New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research created "no tears" onions by genetic modification to prevent the ... There are very small genetic differences between 'Pran' and the Croatian clone 'Ljutika', implying a monophyletic origin for ...
It is also a cross-pollinator and is self-sterile. This means that P. juncea cannot self-fertilize; it must find another plant ... Self-sterilization increases the genetic diversity of a species. Psathyrostachys juncea is a perennial bunch grass that grows ... The current obstacle to wheat improvement is that cross-pollinating wheat and P. juncea is extremely difficult because their ...
Ryegrass is cross-pollinated by wind, so genes shuffle frequently. Farmers sprayed inexpensive Hoegrass year after year, ... Ryegrass populations were large, and had substantial genetic diversity, because farmers had planted many varieties. ... Ryegrass evolved a kind of "cross-resistance" that allowed it to rapidly break down a variety of herbicides. Australian farmers ... test for resistance and study the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of resistance. A collaboration with DuPont led to a ...
基因組圖譜主要可以分成兩種,一種是遺傳圖譜(genetic map),另一種則是物理圖譜(physical map)。遺傳圖譜是利用基因的重組率來做分析,單位是分莫甘(centimorgan)。這種圖譜表現出來的是基因或特定DNA片段之間的相對位置,而
NAPE-PLD orchestrates a direct cross-talk between lipid amide signals and bile acid physiology.[13] ... Genetic variation in the key bile acid synthesis enzyme, CYP7A1, influenced the effectiveness of UDCA in colorectal adenoma ...
Genetic analysis indicates that there has been an unbroken genetic continuity[clarification needed] of the inhabitants over the ... In early 1945, in the Vistula-Oder Offensive, the Red Army crossed the Vistula and drove the German Wehrmacht back past the ...
... and genetic frequencies can be predicted by way of a polyhybrid Mendelian cross. Phenotypic frequencies are a different matter ... While schizophrenia is widely believed to be multifactorially genetic by biopsychiatrists, no characteristic genetic markers ... then there is a strong chance that the disease is genetic[citation needed] and that the patient will also be a genetic carrier ... If a genetic cause is suspected and little else is known about the illness, then it remains to be seen exactly how many genes ...
Cross-sensitizationEdit. Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... In animals, cross-sensitization has been established between the consumption of many different types of drugs of abuse - in ... Barnes KC, Grant AV, Hansel NN, Gao P, Dunston GM (2007). "African Americans with asthma: genetic insights". Proc Am Thorac Soc ...
Many genetic principles were discovered or confirmed in this species. It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic ... Gregor Mendel is today recognized as the "Father of Modern Genetics" for his work with the cross breeding of pea plants (Pisum ... Seeds of the sweet pea contain beta-aminopropionitrile that prevents the cross-linking of collagen by inhibiting lysyl oxidase ... It is highly suitable as a genetic subject because of its ability to self-pollinate and its easily observed Mendelian traits ...
Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Ebolavirus and ... no Ebola virus was detected apart from some genetic traces found in six rodents (belonging to the species Mus setulosus and ...
The mallard duck can cross breed with 63 other species, posing a severe threat to indigenous waterfowl's genetic integrity.[116 ... Genetic analysis has shown that certain mallards appear to be closer to their Indo-Pacific relatives while others are related ... Owing to their highly 'malleable' genetic code, mallards can display a large amount of variation,[36] as seen here with this ... Mallards are causing severe "genetic pollution" to South Africa's biodiversity by breeding with endemic ducks[113] even though ...
Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and ... a group of humans crossed Beringia and quickly expanded throughout the Americas.[9] ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ...
"Mobile Genetic Elements. 3 (4): e25845. doi:10.4161/mge.25845. PMC 3812789. PMID 24195014.. ... you have to cross the cell membrane, just like if you were headed for the extracellular space. In those cases, chloroplast- ... It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ...
They never made such extensive migrations as the blue wildebeest, but at one time, they crossed the Drakensberg Range, moving ... Corbet, S. W.; Robinson, T. J. (November-December 1991). "Genetic divergence in South African Wildebeest: comparative ...
Dhallan left his position at Holy Cross in 2000 in order to start his own company, Ravgen, with the pursuit of developing a ... Ravgen has published its genetic research in internationally recognized, peer reviewed articles including JAMA (the Journal of ... PA before becoming an attending physician in the Department of Emergency Medicine at Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, MD. ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... ticks will tend not to cross it; acaricides may also be sprayed on it to kill ticks.[146] A sun-exposed tick-safe zone at least ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ... and show a great deal of genetic diversity. ...
Wild Lens species are a significant source of genetic variation for improving the relatively narrow genetic base of this crop. ... Even if crosses are successful, many undesired genes may be introduced as well in addition to the desired ones. This can be ... Crosses generally fail between members of different gene pools. However, plant growth regulators and/or embryo rescue allows ... Serious genetic improvement for yield has been made, however, the full potential of production and productivity could not yet ...
The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. London: Murray. ... Each pollen grain is haploid: it has half of the DNA (genetic information) that is needed to make a new plant. During ...
Genetic considerationsEdit. The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because ... The first generation crosses (one wolf parent, one dog parent) generally are backcrossed to domestic dogs to maintain a ... Documenting Domestication:New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms. University of California Press. pp. 279-295. ISBN ... However, recent genetic and morphological evidence suggests that the red wolf is a unique taxon. Wilson et al. (2000) report ...
This compares with 25% of Cw7-B7 that extend to A3::DQ6 [4] Of 25 potential genetic recombinants of A1::DQ2, none exceed 10% of ... One possibility is that peoples from central Asia or the Middle East migrated into Iberia as peoples from Africa crossed into ... June 2004). "Genetic polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta in a population-based study of systemic ... February 1999). "The genetic basis for the association of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (A1, B8, DR3) with multiple ...
... that could differentiate the latter from other genetic types of loosed sediments in sections. The presence of cross-bedded ... The genetic diagnostics of the giant ripples in the Kuray Basin had a general character and was essentially limited to the ... The fragmentary material is diagonally cross-bedded agreed with the dip of the distal slope. Irrespective of the age of the ... Thus, it is this scientist's name that we should associate with the discovery and correct genetic interpretation of the relief ...
... and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India". Pediatric Research. 81 (1): 18-26. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.177. ... "Genetic Evaluation Results". Archived from the original on August 27, 2001.. *^ S1008: Genetic Selection and Crossbreeding to ... "Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)" (PDF). Department of ... There are genetic assays being scheduled for lions to determine their genetic diversity. The preliminary studies show results ...
... the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the South ... then published more details including the virus's genetic makeup and closest relatives.[18][19] The Erasmus Medical Center " ...
Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccination: a history from Lady Montagu to genetic engineering. Montrouge: J. Libbey Eurotext. p. 407. ... Since these tests can cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, these indirect methods cannot conclusively ... It is probably due to the genetic morphology of the immune system. Another possible side effect is an infection of the nervous ... "Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group ...
An ecological cascade effect is a series of secondary extinctions that is triggered by the primary extinction of a key species in an ecosystem. Secondary extinctions are likely to occur when the threatened species are: dependent on a few specific food sources, mutualistic (dependent on the key species in some way), or forced to coexist with an invasive species that is introduced to the ecosystem. Species introductions to a foreign ecosystem can often devastate entire communities, and even entire ecosystems. These exotic species monopolize the ecosystem's resources, and since they have no natural predators to decrease their growth, they are able to increase indefinitely. Olsen et al.[1] showed that exotic species have caused lake and estuary ecosystems to go through cascade effects due to loss of algae, crayfish, mollusks, fish, amphibians, and birds. However, the principal cause of cascade effects is the loss of top predators as the key species. As a result of this loss, a dramatic increase ...
On the identity of the plant(s) in question, en: says "Most alfalfa cultivars contain genetic material from Sickle Medick (M. ... because there is no way of cross-checking them till they turn blue); and they may contradict the existing structure to no good ...
... cross-dressers, and people who need sex reassignment" from driving.[43] ...
Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, (GECCO), pp.37-44, (2012).. *^ al-Rifaie, Mohammad Majid, John Mark Bishop, and Tim ...
Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review. Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences (11): 101. Retrieved 26 August ... "Extensive ethnolinguistic diversity in Vietnam reflects multiple sources of genetic diversity". Molecular Biology and ... claiming it was impossible for a Shu prince to cross thousands of miles, through forests and many states to invade Văn Lang.[23 ... "Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village" (PDF) ...
Researchers cross-fostered eggs between nests of blue tits and great tits and observed the resulting behavior through audio- ... delineating the difference between cultural and genetic acquisition.[43] Strong evidence already exists for mate choice, bird ... Gaskins, Suzanne (Nov 1, 2000). "Children's Daily Activities in a Mayan Village: A Culturally Grounded Description". Cross- ...
Composition of Brazil, genetic studies[edit]. Genetic studies have shown the Brazilian population as a whole to have Caucasoid ... who formed expeditions that crossed the interior of Brazil and greatly increased the Portuguese colonial territory. The main ... Genetic studies conducted by the geneticist Sergio D.J. Pena of the Federal University of Minas Gerais have shown that the ... A 2015 autosomal genetic study, which also analysed data of 25 studies of 38 different Brazilian populations concluded that: ...
The three "hits" - chronological and synergistic - are as follows: genetic predisposition (which predispose higher/lower HPA ... more research is needed to determine if the results seen in cross-generational animal models can be extended to humans. ... The latter scenario may represent maladaptation due to early programming, genetic predisposition, and mismatch. This mismatch ... depending on an individual's genetic predispositions, programming effects of early-life environment, and match or mismatch with ...
Genetic defectsEdit. People with albinism often have vision loss to the extent that many are legally blind, though few of them ... The parable of the blind men and an elephant has crossed between many religious traditions and is part of Jain, Buddhist, Sufi ... Recent advances in mapping of the human genome have identified other genetic causes of low vision or blindness. One such ... Tactile paving and audible traffic signals can make it easier and safer for visually impaired pedestrians to cross streets. In ...
The Predicted Cross Value for Genetic Introgression of Multiple Alleles. *Ye Han*, ... 2015 Selection on optimal haploid value increases genetic gain and preserves more genetic diversity relative to genomic ... is crossed with another individual (or itself) in the next generation, it will produce a gamete, which we denote as Here and ... the predicted cross value (PCV) for selecting specific crosses. We apply the PCV to the process of introgressing multiple ...
Genetic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Crosses, Genetic" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Crosses, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance links to pvcrt transcription in a genetic cross. Nat Commun. 2019 09 20; 10(1):4300. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Crosses, Genetic" by people in Profiles. ...
The Genome Architecture of the Collaborative Cross Mouse Genetic Reference Population. Collaborative Cross Consortium ... The Genome Architecture of the Collaborative Cross Mouse Genetic Reference Population. Collaborative Cross Consortium ... The Genome Architecture of the Collaborative Cross Mouse Genetic Reference Population. Collaborative Cross Consortium ... 2011 Genetic analysis of complex traits in the emerging Collaborative Cross. Genome Res. 21: 1213-1222. ...
... went into effect July 1 among Anthem Blue Cross fully-insured and self-insured members. ... Anthem Blue Cross Launches Program to Ensure Appropriate Use of Genetic Tests. Jul 31, 2017 ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Anthem Blue Cross announced on Frdiay a program to promote "appropriate use" of genetic tests and ... Home » Anthem Blue Cross Launches Program to Ensure Appropriate Use of Genetic Tests ...
Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(4):458-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Genetic influence on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Korean men: a cross-sectional study. ... Several previous studies have investigated the effect of genetic factors on vitamin D status [8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. ... Evidence for genetic regulation of vitamin D status in twins with multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):441-7.CrossRef ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association.. ® Registered ... About Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Terms of Use, Privacy & Security Accessibility Nondiscrimination and Translation ... Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. Our ... Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc.. 101 Huntington Avenue, Suite 1300, Boston, MA 02199-7611 , 1-800-262-BLUE ( ...
Genetic Crosses, PLEASE HELP!. Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects. ... The question is: A cross between two pure breeding (Homozygous) corn plants was set up to produce an F1 generation. Complete:. ...
Considering this shortcoming, this paper proposed a hybrid of cross entropy with genetic algorithm (GA), called CEGA, on m- ... Cross entropy (CE), as a new metaheuristic, can be an alternative method to solve NWJSS problem. This method has been used in ... The results are compared with other metaheuritics: Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GASA) and hybrid tabu search. The ... B. Santosa, M. Budiman and S. Wiratno, "A Cross Entropy-Genetic Algorithm for m-Machines No-Wait Job-ShopScheduling Problem," ...
Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background ... The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits Nat Genet. 2004 Nov;36(11):1133-7. doi ... The Collaborative Cross will provide a common reference panel specifically designed for the integrative analysis of complex ... Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background ...
... genetic testing can be helpful. It can be used to look for the gene changes linked to these syndromes. ... Because of these issues, you should seek genetic counseling before, during, and after any genetic testing. Remember, genetic ... Breast Cancer: Genetic Testing. Cancer is a disease of the genes. Most cancers develop as a result of genetic damage or a ... How is genetic testing done?. In most cases, a blood sample is needed to do genetic testing, but sometimes saliva, skin cells, ...
... falciparum genetic cross (7G8 × GB4). We detected 638 recombination events and constructed a high-resolution genetic map. ... High recombination rates and hotspots in a Plasmodium falciparum genetic cross Genome Biol. 2011;12(4):R33. doi: 10.1186/gb- ... Comparing genetic and physical maps, we obtained an overall recombination rate of 9.6 kb per centimorgan and identified 54 ... Genetic recombination and nucleotide substitution are the two major mechanisms that the parasite employs to generate genome ...
In this study, a new in vivo experimental model was used that recapitulates many of the genetic characteristics of an outbred ... By controlling viral dose, environment and demographic variables, we were able to focus on the role that host genetic variation ... environment and host genetic polymorphisms contribute to variable host responses and infectious outcomes. ... Genetic polymorphism Is the Subject Area "Genetic polymorphism" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Previous research and analysis on the reconstruction of cross-cut shredded text document (RCCSTD) are mainly based on the ... Intrarow splicing regarded as the travelling salesman problem is solved by the improved genetic algorithm. Finally, the ... and that the algorithm may be useful for the different size of cross-cut shredded text document. ... The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is The new genetic algorithm with multiple point crossover operators and multiple ...
In this article, as a case study, we conducted both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of the ADNI data with several ... analysis of the phenotypic data from the baseline to month 48 identified more SNP-phenotype associations than cross-sectional ... Most existing genome-wide association analyses are cross-sectional, utilizing only phenotypic data at a single time point, e.g ... brain imaging (not clinical diagnosis) phenotypes, demonstrating the power gains of longitudinal analysis over cross-sectional ...
In this cross-sectional study of 109,308 UK Biobank participants, we examined how schizophrenia polygenic risk modulates the ... unclear whether cannabis disproportionately increases the risk of specific types of psychotic experiences and whether genetic ... Wainberg, M., Jacobs, G.R., di Forti, M. et al. Cannabis, schizophrenia genetic risk, and psychotic experiences: a cross- ... Cannabis, schizophrenia genetic risk, and psychotic experiences: a cross-sectional study of 109,308 participants from the UK ...
... whereby identifying genetic determinants of this trait has the potential to improve our understanding across different ... Genome-wide analysis of self-reported risk-taking behaviour and cross-disorder genetic correlations in the UK Biobank cohort. * ... Genome-wide analysis of self-reported risk-taking behaviour and cross-disorder genetic correlations in the UK Biobank cohort ... Genome-wide analysis of self-reported risk-taking behaviour and cross-disorder genetic correlations in the UK Biobank cohort. ...
Six selected SSRs from M. truncatula were used to fingerprint and estimate the genetic similarity of a set of 23 accessions of ... The selected SSRs will allow fingerprinting and genetic studies in Onobrychis species, solving the lack of available SSR ... Kaghzi Kalan) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD markers ...
Genetic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Crosses, Genetic" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Crosses, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Crosses, Genetic" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Crosses, Genetic". ...
Genetic control of collagen-induced arthritis in a cross with NOD and C57BL/10 mice is dependent on gene regions encoding ... Genetic mapping of 353 F2 mice revealed two loci associated with arthritis. One locus was found on chromosome 2 (LOD score 9.8 ... The genetic control of arthritis is unique in comparison to diabetes, since none of these loci have been identified in analysis ... a genetic analysis was performed. (NOD.Q x B10.Q)F1 mice were resistant, whereas 27% of the (NOD.Q x B10.Q)F2 mice developed ...
A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA Repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, ... A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, ... A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, ... This cross-cancer site, pooled analysis was performed to increase the power to detect common variants of DNA repair genes ...
Cross-species comparisons of host genetic associations with the microbiome. By Julia K. Goodrich, Emily R. Davenport, Jillian L ... Cross-species comparisons of host genetic associations with the microbiome. By Julia K. Goodrich, Emily R. Davenport, Jillian L ... Cross-species comparisons of host genetic associations with the microbiome Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Cross-kingdom comparisons with similar studies in other genetic models are also possible. The advantage of model systems is ...
Its definitely not a Genetic Optimizer issue: we made an effort to fix all cross-thread operation errors that existed in it. ... Its definitely not a Genetic Optimizer issue: we made an effort to fix all cross-thread operation errors that existed in it. ... I decided to experiment with the Genetic Optimizer Extension and I have run into a problem. In the middle of an optimization ... Hi! I decided to experiment with the Genetic Optimizer Extension and I have run into a problem. In the middle of an ...
... for F1 Cross ¡V Expected Genetic Outcomes F1 Parent, ... Exercise 2: Dihybrid Genetic Crosses PROCEDURES: 1. Based on what you can conclude about its genetic makeup when told that the ... 4. Using the Punnett Square for F1 Dihybrid Cross, Figure 3, indicate the possible genetic outcomes for the F2 progeny here: ... Dihybrid Genetic Crosses for Corn. A. What are the two hypotheses that you made about the allelic frequencies of progeny ...
... menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h ... Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing ... Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing ... "Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing ...
Dissection of genetic variance into additive (D), dominance (H), environment (E) and interaction (F) components revealed ... Dissection of genetic variance into additive (D), dominance (H), environment (E) and interaction (F) components revealed ... From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, ... From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, ...
... and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected ... A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. ... and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. ... Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross. ...
Genetic diversity of durian generates from cross breeding between D. kutejensis and D. zibethinus was identified in molecular ... RAPD analysis resulted in genetic diversity of hybrid Durian with family relationship of 0.59%-0.1%. Hybrids UB1, UB5, UB13, ... Genetic diversity of durian generates from cross breeding between D. kutejensis and D. zibethinus was identified in molecular ... Genetic diversity of hybrid durian resulted from cross breeding between Durio kutejensis and Durio zibethinus based on random ...
... Asian ... Genetic Variation of Different Crosses of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Genotypes for Some Agro-morphological Traits. ... Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Some Yield and Yield Related Traits in Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ... Genetic Variability of Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Brun) Accessions Based on Some Morphological Characters. ...
Croisements génétiques des parasites du paludisme chez les rongeurs sont effectuées en alimentant deux des parasites génétiquement...
... plans within the scope of our medical policy Genetic Testing for Warfarin Dose . Access our Medical Policy Manual to review ... Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey is an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ... Medical Policy Update: Genetic Testing for Warfarin Dose Effective August 29, 2019 , Horizon BCBSNJ will change the way we ... You are leaving the Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey website. Please click Continue to leave this website. Or, if ...
  • DISCOVERIES of genetic variants associated with crop phenotypic variants have been accelerating through use of forward and reverse genetics approaches. (genetics.org)
  • Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. (nih.gov)
  • Cross-study comparisons show some of the same taxa to be influenced by host genetics. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data represent a basic resource for clinical genetics laboratories as well as for sequencing-based association studies by providing information on genetic variant frequencies in a cohort that is well matched to national patient cohorts. (diva-portal.org)
  • 2. Genetics To exchange genetic material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • As more advanced techniques to determine genotype emerge, the test cross is becoming less prevalent in genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics, a three-point cross is used to determine the loci of three genes in an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Collaborative Cross Consortium reports here on the development of a unique genetic resource population. (genetics.org)
  • The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a multiparental recombinant inbred panel derived from eight laboratory mouse inbred strains. (genetics.org)
  • The Collaborative Cross will provide a common reference panel specifically designed for the integrative analysis of complex systems and will change the way we approach human health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • Multi-parental recombinant inbred populations, such as the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse genetic reference population, are increasingly being used for analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL). (g3journal.org)
  • We used a newly developed mouse resource population, the Collaborative Cross (CC), to identify genetic determinants of hematological parameters. (jax.org)
  • In our previous studies, we have shown that Collaborative Cross mice are a powerful tool for mapping loci responsible for phenotypic variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a first step towards identification of novel modifiers of Min , we assessed the phenotypic variation between 27 F1 crosses between different Collaborative cross mice and C57BL/6- Min lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, C57BL/6- Min male mice were mated with females from 27 Collaborative cross lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, in eight selected F1 Collaborative cross-C57BL/6 -Min lines, body weight was monitored and compared to control mice carry wildtype Adenomatous polyposis coli gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Variation in polyp development is controlled, an appreciable extent, by genetic factors segregating in the Collaborative cross population and suggests that it is suited for identifying modifier genes associated with Apc Min/+ mutation, after assessing sufficient number of lines for quantitative trait loci analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic mapping using collaborative cross mice (CC), a genetically diverse recombinant inbred mouse reference panel, offers a powerful tool to identify causal loci at a resolution under one mega base-pairs, with a relatively small cohort size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic analysis of complex traits in the emerging collaborative cross. (redorbit.com)
  • The development of the Collaborative Cross presents a unique opportunity to investigate how the breeding of inbred strains affects genetic structure and the diversity of phenotypes. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic analysis in the Collaborative Cross breeding population. (redorbit.com)
  • In this study, Durrant and colleagues utilized inbred mouse strains from the Collaborative Cross, taking advantage of the genetic contribution of wild-derived strains, to identify novel loci that confer susceptibility to infection with the fungus Aspergillus. (redorbit.com)
  • Collaborative Cross mice and their power to map host susceptibility to Aspergillus fumigatus infection. (redorbit.com)
  • As a phenotype, risk-taking behaviour therefore fits within a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach, whereby identifying genetic determinants of this trait has the potential to improve our understanding across different psychiatric disorders. (nature.com)
  • Heritability is the proportion of variance in a host trait, such as height or body mass index (BMI), measured across a population, that is explained by genetic rather than environmental effects. (sciencemag.org)
  • High heritability along with high genetic advance was observed for number of seeds/plant which indicates selection of this trait at early generation would be effective. (scialert.net)
  • Genetic markers and maps are instrumental in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in segregating populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of this trait was performed by test crosses according to a novel pedigree program with the use of interlinear hybrids and a set of fourth-generation hybrid recombinant inbred lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, I also did a genome-wide cross trait analysis of 112,000 individuals from UK Biobank to investigate shared genetic architecture of asthma with allergic diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • We used a logistic regression, linkage disequilibrium score regression, cross trait meta-analysis and GETx tissue enrichment analysis in this study. (harvard.edu)
  • Cross trait analysis and identified 90 loci. (harvard.edu)
  • Next, we investigated genome-wide sharing of common variants between schizophrenia and immune diseases using cross-trait LD score regression. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The microstructure of trabecular bone is a composite trait governed by a complex interaction of multiple genetic determinants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If scientists want to know the genotype of a phenotypically wild-type fly, they can cross it with a fly that shows the recessive phenotype of the trait of interest. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Second, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide cross-trait meta-analysis using cross-phenotype association to identify shared loci between trait pairs that showed significant genetic correlations in the first part. (bmj.com)
  • utilized ancestry information of the CC strains to map genetic loci for a Mendelian trait (white head-spotting), a complex trait (body weight), and a molecular trait (gene expression in the liver), demonstrating the ancestry-based approach to be superior to established marker-based methods for trait loci discovery. (redorbit.com)
  • Despite the influence of breeding selection in the CC lines, detection of major genetic loci regulating trait variation remained possible. (redorbit.com)
  • Using simulations, we found that the accuracy to predict r G was generally moderate and influenced by trait heritability, population size, and genetic correlation architecture (i.e., pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium). (umn.edu)
  • Within a simulated plant breeding program employing indirect selection, choosing crosses based on predicted r G increased multi-trait genetic gain by 11-27% compared to selection on the predicted cross mean. (umn.edu)
  • Importantly, when the starting genetic correlation was negative, such cross selection mitigated or prevented an unfavorable response in the trait under indirect selection. (umn.edu)
  • In a test cross, the individual in question is bred with another individual that is homozygous for the recessive trait and the offspring of the test cross are examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • To perform a test cross with D. melanogaster, select a trait with a known dominant and recessive phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of developing cancer is higher in people who are born with certain genetic changes (mutations) that are passed on from their parents and found in every cell in their body. (ahealthyme.com)
  • To perform these functions during the lifetime of organs or tissues, stem cells need to maintain their populations in a faithful distribution of their epigenetic states, which are susceptible to stochastic fluctuations during each cell division, unexpected injury, and potential genetic mutations that occur during many cell divisions. (escholarship.org)
  • A genetic test is the analysis of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), chromosomes, and proteins to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes (standard pictures of the chromosomes in a cell) for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical decision making. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Genetic tests may detect mutations at the chromosomal level, such as additional, absent, or rearranged chromosomal material, or even subtler abnormalities such as a substitution in one of the bases that make up the DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists used SNP genotyping in populations of freshwater stickleback fish to determine the genetic mutations responsible for the impaired development of pelvises and spines. (hhmi.org)
  • An individual heterozygous for three mutations is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual, and the phenotypes of the progeny are scored. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Based on the phenotype and genotype information for the P cross from 1 above, record the genotypes and Expected Frequencies for P and F1 in Table 9.2. (jiskha.com)
  • From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, being evaluated on mean day/night temperatures of 36.1°C/22.8°C (NS) and 42.3°C/25.9°C (HS) in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study was carried out in 2012/13 cropping season to determine the genetic variability of 25 linseed genotypes derived from various crosses including checks. (scialert.net)
  • Since the CC population has a fixed genetic architecture, associated genotypes and haplotype probabilities for each CC line are stored and loaded into memory in the backend when gQTL is launched. (g3journal.org)
  • To use Punnett squares to predict the results of genetic crosses and determine the genotypes of the parent flies in a particular cross. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Fill in what is known about the genotypes of the flies in the cross. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Most EV-71 strains circulating in Europe belong to genotypes C1 and C2, and presence of herd immunity conferred by cross-protective antibodies induced by these types could explain the limited spread of new genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple studies have reported cross-neutralization, but antigenic diversity among different EV-71 genotypes has also been observed ( 11 - 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The genetic control of arthritis is unique in comparison to diabetes, since none of these loci have been identified in analysis of diabetes susceptibility. (nih.gov)
  • This cross-cancer site, pooled analysis was performed to increase the power to detect common variants of DNA repair genes associated with cancer susceptibility. (nih.gov)
  • A) with genetic susceptibility of knee OA in a Pakistani population. (springer.com)
  • Our data suggest an association between investigated resistin genetic variants and knee OA susceptibility in our population. (springer.com)
  • This suggests, that the genetic influence on cancer susceptibility might not be entirely due the combined additive effects of individual alleles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Experimental mouse models of cancer are ideal for examining the effects of genetic modifiers that act epistatically with known susceptibility loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic testing has enabled researchers and clinicians to detect inherited traits, diagnose heritable conditions, determine and quantify the likelihood that a heritable disease will develop, and identify genetic susceptibility to familial disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Identification of a large number of novel genetic variants increasing susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and related traits opened up opportunity, not existing thus far, to translate this genetic information to the clinical practice and possibly improve risk prediction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • further refined the genetic loci associated with Aspergillus susceptibility to suggest specific candidate genes. (redorbit.com)
  • Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are less effective for studying intact polygenic networks and interactions among genes, environments, pathogens and other factors. (nih.gov)
  • A number of genetic modifier loci of Min have been mapped, but so far most of the underlying genes have not been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated for the first time genome-wide significant association between several genetic loci and trabecular microstructural parameters for genes with previously reported experimental observations, as well as proposing a role for new candidate genes with no previously characterized skeletal function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Punnett square provides a way to visualize the genetic makeup of two parents and how the genes recombine to form offspring. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The emergence and rapid spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in southeast Asia highlights the importance of identifying genetic determinants of drug response and discovering novel potent antimalarials. (bl.uk)
  • Longitudinal decline in lung function also includes a heritable component but the genetic determinants have yet to be defined. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The BeSeCu project employs two research strategies: A) A cross-cultural survey of individual experiences will be conducted to identify determinants of inter-individual differences in people who have experienced evacuation situations, fire disaster survivors and survivors of similar crisis situations, but also workers and first responders as well as those affected in the community. (europa.eu)
  • Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. (redorbit.com)
  • However, rather than applying the metric to RILs derived from a single cross, we apply it to any arbitrary set of progeny derived from crosses in multiple generations which is required for introgressing multiple alleles from a donor. (genetics.org)
  • Here, we used a high-density tiling array to estimate the genetic recombination rate among 32 progeny of a P. falciparum genetic cross (7G8 × GB4). (nih.gov)
  • D. Will a monohybrid F1 cross in corn yield the same ratio of expected phenotype in progeny as for the tobacco seedlings? (jiskha.com)
  • 1. Based on what you can conclude about its genetic makeup when told that the corn plant parent cross (P) pictured in Figure 2 is between a completely dominant plant and a completely recessive plant, A. Construct and record a hypothesis about what the genetic makeup and the frequencies of the alleles for the F1 progeny plants in the dihybrid cross of corn will be. (jiskha.com)
  • 3. Construct a Punnett Square for the P cross producing the F1 progeny. (jiskha.com)
  • What is the only possible genetic outcome for the F1 progeny? (jiskha.com)
  • C. Dihybrid F1 crosses result in a predictable F2 progeny phenotypic frequency that holds true universally. (jiskha.com)
  • In support of these efforts, the parental lines and progeny of the 803xGB4 genetic cross were characterized by pharmaceutical compound screening and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). (bl.uk)
  • The MalariaGEN P. falciparum Genetic Crosses project was set up in 2012 with the goal of deep sequencing the parents and progeny of these three crosses. (malariagen.net)
  • Each cross comprises two parents and up to 35 progeny clones. (malariagen.net)
  • The phenotypes of the progeny of this cross will tell us the genotype of the wild-type parent. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Physical and genetic maps of the 14 P. falciparum chromosomes in the 7G8 × GB4 cross . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alistair Miles introduces the latest data the P. falciparum Genetic Crosses project. (malariagen.net)
  • Read on to learn more and take a tour of the P. falciparum Genetic Crosses web application. (malariagen.net)
  • Watch a video about the P. falciparum genetic crosses web application below. (malariagen.net)
  • Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. (blogspot.com)
  • Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. (blogspot.com)
  • With the exception of ulcerative colitis, the degree and direction of these genetic correlations were consistent with the expected phenotypic correlation based on epidemiological data. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Results We found positive genetic correlations between leptin levels and T2D (R g =0.3165, p=0.0227), fasting insulin (FI) (R g =0.517, p=0.0076), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (R g =0.4785, p=0.0196), as well as surrogate estimates of β-cell function (HOMA-β) (R g =0.4456, p=0.0214). (bmj.com)
  • Improving multiple traits may be enhanced by identifying parent combinations - an important breeding step - that will deliver more favorable genetic correlations (r G ). Modeling the segregation of genomewide markers with estimated effects may be one method of predicting r G in a cross, but this approach remains untested. (umn.edu)
  • and (ii) empirically measure the ability to predict genetic correlations using data from a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding program. (umn.edu)
  • Improving multiple traits may be enhanced by identifying parent combinations - an important breeding step - that will deliver more favorable genetic correlations (rG). (umn.edu)
  • In addition to various environmental factors that influence serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, genetic influence also plays a significant role based on studies estimating the heritability of 25(OH)D in non-Asian populations. (springer.com)
  • Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and heritability were calculated by mixed linear regression analysis and quantitative genetic analysis after adjusting for environmental and lifestyle factors. (springer.com)
  • Because of the high heritability of breast density, and the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway in cellular proliferation and breast development, we examined the association between common genetic variation in this pathway and mammographic density. (harvard.edu)
  • Heritability has been estimated at high level for asthma and allergic diseases, which suggests that the genetic contribution to them can be significant. (harvard.edu)
  • Heritability calculation showed that these phenotypes are mainly controlled by genetic factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GENETIC reference populations (GRPs) are defined as sets of individuals with fixed and known genomes that can be replicated indefinitely. (genetics.org)
  • In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. (blogspot.com)
  • Finally, our results show that the genetic diversity within Sweden is substantial compared with the diversity among continental European populations, underscoring the relevance of establishing a local reference data set. (diva-portal.org)
  • The utility of model organisms for genetic analysis of biological systems has dramatically increased with the establishment of genetic reference populations. (g3journal.org)
  • Because ethnic background adds to phenotypic diversities in PCOS, it seems plausible that genetic variants associated with PCOS act differently in various ethnic populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, we observed for 12 of 17 genetic variants mapping to the Chinese PCOS loci similar effect size and identical direction in PCOS patients from Northern European ancestry, indicating a common genetic risk profile for PCOS across populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Although strongly correlated, effects of admixture and ethnic identity should be distinguished when assessing genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk in mixed ancestry populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Natural selection in populations of cross-pollinated species 9. (routledge.com)
  • Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) provides a rich source of brain imaging, neuropsychological and genetic data, including genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [1] , [2] . (plos.org)
  • We conducted a cross-cancer analysis of 60,297 single nucleotide polymorphisms, at 229 DNA repair gene regions, using data from the NCI Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) Network. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have indicated that different genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) are associated with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genetic control of collagen-induced arthritis in a cross with NOD and C57BL/10 mice is dependent on gene regions encoding complement factor 5 and F. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic mapping of 353 F2 mice revealed two loci associated with arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Exploiting recent advancements in web framework technologies in R programming, we developed gQTL, which is web application to simplify genetic analyses using data collected from CC mice that will greatly extend the utility of the CC model for a much broader user base. (g3journal.org)
  • By crossing the mutant onto a population of mice with different genetic backgrounds of naturally occurring variation, it is theoretically possible to map modifier loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mouse has been an important model for studying Aspergillus infection, but classical laboratory strains of mice used in these studies arose from a small set of founders and lack most of the genetic variation present in wild mice, limiting researchers' ability to identify additional genetic loci relevant to disease. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic loci associated with risk-taking behaviour were identified on chromosomes 3 (rs13084531) and 6 (rs9379971). (nature.com)
  • Integration of rich phenotypic and genomic data over time and across a wide variety of fields will be vital to delivering on one of the key attributes of the CC, a common genetic reference platform for identifying causative variants and genetic networks determining traits in mammals. (genetics.org)
  • We genotyped 29 haplotype-tagging SNPs demonstrated to capture common genetic variation in IGF1, IGF binding protein ( IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-3. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusion: Common genetic variation in IGF1 is strongly associated with percentage mammographic density. (harvard.edu)
  • One hypothesis to account for the relationship is that these diseases share a common genetic etiology. (harvard.edu)
  • Our MR analysis found a causal relationship between homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and leptin levels, suggesting that the association between leptin levels and T2D or glycemic traits may be due to both the common genetic architecture and causal effect. (bmj.com)
  • The first uses of test crosses were in Gregor Mendel's experiments in plant hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rediscovery of Mendel's work in the early 1900s led to an explosion of experiments employing the principles of test crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1908-1911, Thomas Hunt Morgan conducted test crosses while determining the inheritance pattern of a white eye-colour mutation in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Test crosses have a variety of applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common animal organisms, called model organisms, where test crosses are often used include Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic procedures for performing test crosses in these organisms are provided below: To perform a test cross with C. elegans, place worms with a known recessive genotype with worms of an unknown genotype on an agar plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many limitations to test crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test crosses are only useful if dominance is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test crosses, however, are still used to this day and have created an excellent foundation for the development of more sophisticated techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linkage analysis revealed 25 genetic loci significantly associated with parasite response to 61 compounds. (bl.uk)
  • A genetic linkage map was produced using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) and twelve linkage groups were identified. (up.ac.za)
  • Distorted markers were found distributed throughout the genetic linkage map, leading to the hypothesis that distortion was caused by the high level of genomic divergence between the parental isolates. (up.ac.za)
  • First, we calculated the genetic correlation of leptin levels and T2D or glycemic traits by using linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Genetic diversity of durian generates from cross breeding between D . kutejensis and D . zibethinus was iden tified in molecular level using RAPD technique. (scirp.org)
  • Baig, M.N.R., Sapna, G. and Santhosh, D. (2009) Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis of citrus cultivars by RAPD markers. (scirp.org)
  • Rocha, E.A., Luciano V.P., de Carvalho, H.H. and Claudia, T.G. ( 2009) Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of potato cultivars using SSR and RAPD markers. (scirp.org)
  • More broadly though, this structure presents a picture of the intimate interactions between the subunits in the actinin dimer, providing a framework to better understand the molecular details of actin cross-linking and its regulation in all actinins and perhaps in spectrins too. (springer.com)
  • If these molecular phenotypes are affected by genetic variation due to a major QTL they will show a clear multimodal distribution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Pheno2Geno package makes use of genome-wide molecular profiling and provides a tool for high-throughput de novo map construction and saturation of existing genetic maps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to construct or improve genetic maps using high-throughput molecular markers, we scale up the mixture model approach for non-dichotomous phenotypes such as gene expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, without considering molecular details, we propose a genetic optimal control model for adult stem cell regeneration that includes the three fundamental processes, along with cell division and adaptation based on differential fitnesses of phenotypes. (escholarship.org)
  • This study hypothesized indirectly, from molecular genetic mechanisms that OSAS causes dysglycemia phenotype, that OSAS might be associated with GLUT4 gene polymorphism through GLUT4 gene mutation locus from sequencing screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These novel SSR markers are appropriate for studies involving fingerprinting, gene flow, genetic diversity, population structure, and molecular-assisted breeding, and could contribute to the conservation of L. leuciscus baicalensis. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Conclusions Our results have shown the shared genetic architecture between leptin levels and T2D and found causality of HOMA-IR on leptin levels, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between leptin levels and T2D. (bmj.com)
  • This interactive uses the central dogma as a model for exploring how modern molecular biology technologies can be used to treat genetic diseases. (hhmi.org)
  • We have found a strong genetic correlation between asthma and allergic diseases (Rg=0.75, P=6.84×10-62). (harvard.edu)
  • GTEx tissue enrichment analysis showed shared genetic loci between asthma and allergic diseases were enriched in skin and esophageal tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • Our GWAS study has highlighted shared genetic pathway in immune and inflammatory systems and skin/esophageal tissue by asthma and allergic diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • We used data from large genome-wide association studies to compare the genetic architecture of schizophrenia to 19 immune diseases. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Our findings suggest shared genetic risk factors contribute to the epidemiological association of certain immune diseases and schizophrenia. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • 23andMe customers can now receive information about genetic risk for diseases including Parkinson's and celiac. (the-scientist.com)
  • Scientists have bred new strains of lab animals with the goal of making it easier to tease out genetic components of complex diseases. (sciencenews.org)
  • Many people will go one step further and send the raw data from their kit results to a third party lab that offers to reveal even more about genetic risks for certain diseases. (nbcdfw.com)
  • Then, he said, he bought one for his father and the two decided to send their raw results to a third party company that crosschecked for genetic varations linked to diseases. (nbcdfw.com)
  • Abstract: We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. (psu.edu)
  • Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance links to pvcrt transcription in a genetic cross. (harvard.edu)
  • We consider the plant genetic improvement challenge of introgressing multiple alleles from a homozygous donor to a recipient. (genetics.org)
  • The question is: A cross between two pure breeding (Homozygous) corn plants was set up to produce an F1 generation. (biology-online.org)
  • By performing a test cross, one can determine whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous dominant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. (frontiersin.org)
  • The selected SSRs will allow fingerprinting and genetic studies in Onobrychis species, solving the lack of available SSR markers in this species. (bionity.com)
  • The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. (blogspot.com)
  • Using this information, phenotypes can be converted into genetic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Pheno2Geno tool uses mixture modeling to select phenotypes and transform them into genetic markers suitable for construction and/or saturation of a genetic map. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pheno2Geno excludes candidate genetic markers that show evidence for multiple possibly epistatically interacting QTL and/or interaction with the environment, in order to provide a set of robust markers for follow-up QTL mapping. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It requires polymorphic genetic markers positioned on a genetic map. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thin grey lines connect the genetic position of each marker (3,184 mSFP and 254 microsatellite markers) with their mapped physical positions on the chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of genetic diversity of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis using novel microsatellite markers with cross-species transferability. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Genetic diversity analysis in Malaysian giant prawns using expressed sequence tag microsatellite markers for stock improvement program. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Genetic diversity and relatedness between Canindé and British Alpine goat breeds in Northeastern Brazil accessed by microsatellite markers. (geneticsmr.com)
  • The challenge has been to find genetic markers that explain the excess risk associated with family history of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Modeling the segregation of genomewide markers with estimated effects may be one method of predicting rG in a cross, but this approach remains untested. (umn.edu)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the genetic influence on serum 25(OH)D concentration in Korean men using the twin and family data. (springer.com)
  • A total of 1126 Korean male adult twins and family members from the Healthy Twin Study with serum 25(OH)D measurement were included in this cross-sectional study. (springer.com)
  • In this article, as a case study, we conducted both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of the ADNI data with several brain imaging (not clinical diagnosis) phenotypes, demonstrating the power gains of longitudinal analysis over cross-sectional analysis. (plos.org)
  • In this cross-sectional study of 109,308 UK Biobank participants, we examined how schizophrenia polygenic risk modulates the association between self-reported cannabis use and four types of self-reported psychotic experiences (auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, and delusions of reference). (nature.com)
  • To date, an association between a locus on chromosome 3 and risk-taking behaviour has been published 10 , 11 , but no genome-wide genetic study with a primary focus on risk-taking behaviour has been conducted. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women ( n = 142). (mdpi.com)
  • This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance , a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data. (blogspot.com)
  • Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among controls (n = 1,121) who were between the ages of 42 and 78 years at mammography, from a breast cancer case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. (harvard.edu)
  • To select samples for this study, we first examined the genetic structure of the Swedish population using high-density SNP-array data from a nation-wide cohort of over 10 000 Swedish-born individuals included in the Swedish Twin Registry. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study aimed to determine how family history affected the willingness to undergo genetic testing for salt-sensitive hypertension in patients with and without hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • Design Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. (bmj.com)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional study with 51 topside COWs, 79 other COWs, and 67 controls, to assess the effects of dietary patterns on oxidative stress and genetic damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed a cross-sectional study with COWs from a large coking plant in Southern China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first study aims to identify cross-reactive targets of anti-Ro52/p200 antibodies by screening a library of peptides covering the whole human proteome and using monoclonal antibodies specific for the Ro52/p200 region and to confirm the reactivity at peptide level and on the whole antigen level. (unipd.it)
  • This study was a genetic association study conducted at an University Medical Center. (cdc.gov)
  • Study-specific logistic regression estimates adjusted for age, body mass index and the most significant principal components of genetic ancestry were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis to evaluate the association between each SNP and endometrial cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 2928 residents aged 65 and over, with a nested case-control study of individual admixture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Cross-over Study of OligoG in Subjects With Cystic Fibrosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will determine the efficacy of collagen cross linking for progressive keratoconus and ectasia after lasik. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Principles of genetic sampling and conservation in perennial species - A case study in arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus L.) 13. (routledge.com)
  • In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the "the pre-CC study," the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation revealed that the genomes of CC strains are genetically diverse and contain balanced contributions from each founding strain. (redorbit.com)
  • This study suggests the BMSI holds promise as a brief measure of separation-individuation that can be used in cross-cultural research. (springer.com)
  • By capitalizing on reciprocal crosses, the model is renovated to estimate and test imprinting effects of QTLs, providing a better gateway to characterize the genetic architecture of complex traits. (eurekamag.com)
  • The overall results highlight the importance of cross-talk between genetic and epigenetic regulation and the performance objectives during homeostasis in shaping a desirable heterogeneous distribution of stem cells in epigenetic states. (escholarship.org)
  • review and put forward some of these integrated approaches that have led to a productive collaboration and new insights into the genetic and epigenetic regulation of neurobehavioural traits related to psychiatric disorders. (uu.nl)
  • While colocalization analyses were inconclusive, functional characterization of these variants provided the strongest evidence for a model in which genetic variation at rs1734907 modulates risk of schizophrenia and Crohn's disease via altered methylation and expression of EPHB4-a gene whose protein product guides the migration of neuronal axons in the brain and the migration of lymphocytes towards infected cells in the immune system. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Wellems et al (1991) performed a second cross between clones HB3 and Dd2, which they used to discover the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. (malariagen.net)
  • Hayton et al (2008) performed a third cross between clones 7G8 and GB4, discovering a gene involved in parasite invasion of human red blood cells, now a promising vaccine candidate. (malariagen.net)
  • In this hands-on activity students review the steps of eukaryotic gene expression and learn how this knowledge can be used to treat genetic disease. (hhmi.org)
  • It tells the story of the successes and challenges that led to the development of the first FDA-approved gene therapy for a genetic disease. (hhmi.org)
  • Considering this shortcoming, this paper proposed a hybrid of cross entropy with genetic algorithm (GA), called CEGA, on m-machines NWJSS. (scirp.org)
  • The results are compared with other metaheuritics: Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GASA) and hybrid tabu search. (scirp.org)
  • B. Santosa, M. Budiman and S. Wiratno, "A Cross Entropy-Genetic Algorithm for m-Machines No-Wait Job-ShopScheduling Problem," Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications , Vol. 3 No. 3, 2011, pp. 171-180. (scirp.org)
  • P. J. Chao-Hsien and H. Han-Chiang, "A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for No-Wait Job Shop Scheduling Problems," Expert Systems with Application, Vol. 36, No. 2, Part 2, 2009, pp. 5800-5806. (scirp.org)
  • Previous research and analysis on the reconstruction of cross-cut shredded text document (RCCSTD) are mainly based on the likelihood and the traditional heuristic algorithm. (hindawi.com)
  • Intrarow splicing regarded as the travelling salesman problem is solved by the improved genetic algorithm. (hindawi.com)
  • Computational experiments suggest that the presented algorithm is of high precision and efficiency, and that the algorithm may be useful for the different size of cross-cut shredded text document. (hindawi.com)
  • I pushed the data through a genetic algorithm to determine which rows to keep. (stackexchange.com)
  • Let's say you're running a genetic algorithm to improve the way people are interacting with an online service. (stackexchange.com)
  • 3) Are there any standard ways of analysing the performance of a genetic algorithm in this kind of environment, or other useful ways of looking at the results and evaluating the impact of the algorithm? (stackexchange.com)
  • Crosses, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • GRPs are also attractive because over time the phenotypic, genetic, and genomic data associated with each line becomes richer, making possible the integration of data from distinct biological fields that support a more holistic view of biological processes. (genetics.org)
  • In this cross-platform, genome-wide meta-analysis of 174 metabolite levels across six cohorts including up to 86,507 participants (70% unpublished data), we identify 499 (362 novel) genome-wide significant associations (p 4.9×10−10) at 144 (94 novel) genomic regions. (audioportal.su)
  • These results show that integration of human genomic variation with circulating small molecule data obtained across different measurement platforms enables efficient discovery of genetic regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights. (audioportal.su)
  • Importantly, the utility of a genetic map together with genomic sequence data was demonstrated, and the genetic basis of a growth QTL determined. (up.ac.za)
  • C. Would it make a difference in the outcome of this cross if the genotype of one parent is PPss and the other is ppSS? (jiskha.com)
  • In an admixed population of older Cubans we explored the effects of ethnic identity and genetic admixture on APOE genotype, its association with dementia, and dementia prevalence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • APOE genotype was determined in 2520 participants, and genetic admixture in 235 dementia cases and 349 controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic testing and genome mapping are modern advances which allow for more efficient and detailed information about one's genotype to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • This supports the finding that genetic factors have significant influence on vitamin D status. (springer.com)
  • Factors associated with a willingness to undergo genetic testing were evaluated in patients with and without hypertension using a logistic regression model. (bmj.com)
  • Unidentified confounding factors may have affected the association between the willingness to undergo genetic testing and family medical history. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we evaluated whether this phenomenon might be explained by shared genetic risk factors. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • CHB occurs in 1-2% of anti-Ro/SSA antibody-positive pregnancies and has a recurrence rate of 12-20% in a subsequent pregnancy, suggesting that additional factors, such as genetic and environmental components may determine the outcome in terms of CHB development in autoantibody exposed fetuses. (unipd.it)
  • Identifying these genetic factors should significantly improve our ability to predict of osteoporosis and its associated risks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, people who are found to be especially susceptible to genetic conditions with specific environmental triggers are advised to avoid the environmental factors linked to developing the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the role of genetic variants to predict type 2 diabetes above and beyond nongenetic factors and discuss the limitations and future potential of genetic studies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genetic recombination and nucleotide substitution are the two major mechanisms that the parasite employs to generate genome diversity. (nih.gov)
  • Like all diagnostic and screening tests, the quality and utility of genetic tests depend on their reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Finally, we discuss access to the CC population and to the associated raw data describing the genetic structure of individual lines. (genetics.org)
  • Most existing genome-wide association analyses are cross-sectional, utilizing only phenotypic data at a single time point, e.g. baseline. (plos.org)
  • longitudinal analysis of the phenotypic data from the baseline to month 48 identified more SNP-phenotype associations than cross-sectional analysis of only the baseline data. (plos.org)
  • The new tool we have developed, Pheno2Geno, allows the use of comparable amounts of expression data either to saturate genetic maps, or to derive them de novo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe the SweGen data set, a comprehensive map of genetic variation in the Swedish population. (diva-portal.org)
  • Local and cross-border importation remain major challenges to malaria elimination and are difficult to measure using traditional surveillance data. (elifesciences.org)
  • To address this challenge, we systematically collected parasite genetic data and travel history from thousands of malaria cases across northeastern Namibia and estimated human mobility from mobile phone data. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, genetic data identified more detailed and extensive evidence of parasite connectivity over hundreds of kilometers than the other data, within Namibia and across the Angolan and Zambian borders. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results provide a framework for incorporating genetic data into malaria surveillance and provide evidence that both strengthening of local interventions and regional coordination are likely necessary to eliminate malaria in this region of Southern Africa. (elifesciences.org)
  • Combining genetic data with travel history and phone records, Tessema, Wesolowski et al. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the genetic analyses also revealed that certain infections came from places across the Angolan and Zambian borders, information that was much more difficult to obtain using self-report or mobile phone data. (elifesciences.org)
  • also supports these results, showing that, in Bangladesh, combining genetic data with travel history and mobile phone records helps to track how malaria spreads. (elifesciences.org)
  • While genetic data can help to monitor how new malaria cases are imported, this knowledge will be most valuable if it is routinely collected across countries. (elifesciences.org)
  • New tools will also be required to translate genetic data into information that can easily be used for control and elimination programs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization. (stackexchange.com)
  • To assess the cross-ethnic effect, we performed a meta-analysis of the Dutch data combined with results of previously published studies in PCOS patients from China (n = 2254) and the United States (n = 2618). (cdc.gov)
  • However, available data to date do not yet provide convincing evidence to support use of genetic screening for the prediction of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • NEW YORK - Researchers in the UK conducted an analysis of human proteome data derived from brain tissue to evaluate whether targeted proteins putatively mediated the effects of genetic variants on neurological phenotypes such as Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, depression, insomnia, intelligence, neuroticism, and schizophrenia. (genomeweb.com)
  • By integrating genetic variation data from the genomes of the founding strains of the CC, Durrant et al. (redorbit.com)
  • Effective August 29, 2019 , Horizon BCBSNJ will change the way we consider certain professional claims based on the inclusion of Horizon BCBSNJ Medicare Advantage (MA) plans within the scope of our medical policy Genetic Testing for Warfarin Dose . (horizonblue.com)
  • E. Given the 2n equation predict how many different genetic outcomes will be possible from an F1 cross resulting in the F2 generation in a dihybrid corn cross. (jiskha.com)
  • Circulating levels of small molecules or metabolites are highly heritable, but the impact of genetic differences in metabolism on human health is not well understood. (audioportal.su)
  • Although no genetic variants have yet been associated with lung function decline at stringent genome-wide significance, longitudinal change in lung function is heritable suggesting that there is scope for future discoveries. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It's important to understand the limitations of genetic testing and how the test results might be used before getting tested. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Results In the hypertension and non-hypertension groups, 323 (55.9%) and 509 patients (45.2%), respectively, were willing to undergo genetic testing. (bmj.com)
  • Results: The 26 regions previously associated with cross-sectional lung function jointly showed a strong effect on baseline lung function (p=4.44×10−16 for FEV1/FVC) but no effect on longitudinal decline (p=0.160 for FEV1/FVC). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Many of the strides made in genetic diagnostics are direct results of the Human Genome Project, an international thirteen-year effort begun in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, which mapped and sequenced the human genome in its entirety. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A hands-on activity in which students analyze the results of genetic crosses between stickleback fish with different traits. (hhmi.org)
  • To gain more insight into the potential threat of Asian EV-71 outbreak strains for the European population and the potential treatment efficacy of IVIg, we determined the cross-neutralizing capacity of IVIg batches composed of plasma from the general population of the Netherlands during 2005-2014 against EV-71 subtypes circulating in Europe or Asia and compared results to IVIg batches from Japanese and Vietnamese donors. (cdc.gov)
  • Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between family history and willingness to undergo genetic testing in patients with and without hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • Factor analyses were performed to explore the associations between different dietary patterns and parameters of oxidative stress and genetic damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Theoretical limit of resolution depends on the size of the genome, size of the population and type of the cross. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 1000 individuals, reflecting a cross-section of the population and capturing the main genetic structure, were selected for whole-genome sequencing. (diva-portal.org)
  • Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic regions that influence cross-sectional lung function. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • There are two main methods to reduce oxidative stress and genetic damage in COWs: reduce toxin exposure and inhibit the toxic action of genotoxic chemicals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining texture analysis methods to describe the appearance of breast images simultaneously with features derived from the genetic profiles of individuals, we will develop new methods for characterizing outcomes such as response to treatment and predicting future malignancy. (wisc.edu)
  • The crosses are a great proving ground for variant calling methods. (malariagen.net)
  • It discusses the methods to increase seed stocks of cross-pollinated species. (routledge.com)
  • Risk-taking behaviour shared significant genetic risk with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as with smoking and total obesity. (nature.com)
  • Staywell®´´, an independent company, offers health and wellness engagement tools and information on behalf of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. (ahealthyme.com)
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  • C polymorphisms with the risk of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review and genetic metaanalysis. (springer.com)
  • V Genetic Designations possible for this Phenotype e.g. (jiskha.com)
  • We detected 638 recombination events and constructed a high-resolution genetic map. (nih.gov)
  • Comparing genetic and physical maps, we obtained an overall recombination rate of 9.6 kb per centimorgan and identified 54 candidate recombination hotspots. (nih.gov)
  • In cross-sectional studies including 3,000-9,000 individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, the discriminatory ability of the combined SNP information has been assessed by grouping individuals based on the number of risk alleles and determining relative odds of type 2 diabetes, as well as by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because malaria parasites have sex, they can be crossed. (malariagen.net)
  • If you are believed to be at risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome, genetic testing can be helpful. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Or a woman may have a genetic risk of developing breast cancer. (ahealthyme.com)
  • A number of genetic problems or defects can result in an increased risk for breast cancer. (ahealthyme.com)
  • However, it is unclear whether cannabis disproportionately increases the risk of specific types of psychotic experiences and whether genetic predisposition influences the relationship between cannabis use and psychotic experiences. (nature.com)
  • Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome variable was the willingness to undergo genetic testing to determine the risk of salt-sensitive hypertension, and the secondary variables were age, sex, education level, family history and concerns about hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions The influence of family history on the willingness to undergo genetic testing for risk of salt-sensitivity hypertension differed between participants with and without hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • Among the targets, cross-reactivity was studied in detail for TG and GAK, for which reactivity was showed both at the peptide and whole protein level with anti-p200 monoclonal antibodies and with sera from mothers whose children have CHB, suggesting that reactivity to these protein could represent a risk factor for development of CHB in the fetuses in anti-Ro/SSA-positive pregnancies. (unipd.it)
  • Ross suggested that if you're truly curious abour your genetic risk for disease, you should see a genetic counselor. (nbcdfw.com)
  • 65 genetic variants that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by 10-30% ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genetic risk models for type 2 diabetes, based on both cross-sectional ( 9 - 17 ) and longitudinal ( 1 , 17 - 24 ) studies, are summarized in Table 1 . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genetic risks and outcomes can come from either parent. (ahealthyme.com)
  • There is also ample evidence that type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: Previously identified genetic variants jointly have a strong effect on cross-sectional lung function in adults but little or no effect on the rate of decline of lung function. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We now have until Friday 21 April to confirm the full membership of the Cross Party Group and submit the formal paperwork to the Scottish Parliament's Standards, Procedures and Public Appointments Committee. (geneticalliance.org.uk)
  • The aim of the proposed project is to investigate cross-cultural and ethnic differences of human behaviour in crisis situations in order to better tailor security related communication, instructions and procedures with a view to improving evacuation and protection. (europa.eu)
  • Six selected SSRs from M. truncatula were used to fingerprint and estimate the genetic similarity of a set of 23 accessions of O. viciifolia. (bionity.com)
  • Objective We aimed to estimate genetic correlation, identify shared loci and test causality between leptin levels and type 2 diabetes (T2D). (bmj.com)
  • To determine the major resistance factor/s, a genetic analysis was performed. (nih.gov)
  • It will try and determine which is a more effective treatment: collagen cross linking alone or collagen cross linking combined with Intacs, a treatment which has already been proven to be effective in decreasing corneal curvature in patients with keratoconus. (clinicaltrials.gov)