Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The number of males per 100 females.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Diseases of plants.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain chicoric and chlorogenic acids and germacrane- and eudesmane-type SESQUITERPENES.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
Sexual activities of animals.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A plant genus of the family Turneraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (1/9064)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/9064)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (3/9064)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (4/9064)

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (5/9064)

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe.  (+info)

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/9064)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info)

Efficient homologous and illegitimate recombination in the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata. (7/9064)

The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata causes significant disease in humans. To develop genetic tools to investigate the pathogenicity of this organism, we have constructed ura3 and his3 auxotrophic strains by deleting the relevant coding regions in a C. glabrata clinical isolate. Linearized plasmids carrying a Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene efficiently transformed the ura3 auxotroph to prototrophy. Homologous recombination events were observed when the linearized plasmid carried short terminal regions homologous with the chromosome. In contrast, in the absence of any chromosomal homology, the plasmid integrated by illegitimate recombination into random sites in the genome. Sequence analysis of the target sites revealed that for the majority of illegitimate transformants there was no microhomology with the integration site. Approximately 0.25% of the insertions resulted in amino acid auxotrophy, suggesting that insertion was random at a gross level. Sequence analysis suggested that illegitimate recombination is nonrandom at the single-gene level and that the integrating plasmid has a preference for inserting into noncoding regions of the genome. Analysis of the relative numbers of homologous and illegitimate recombination events suggests that C. glabrata possesses efficient systems for both homologous and nonhomologous recombination.  (+info)

Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. (8/9064)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition.  (+info)

The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains.. 1. Collaborative Cross strains facilitate mapping of causative loci. In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the the pre-CC study, the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation ...
The first step for foreground selection is to associate a molecular marker with the target trait by some genetic mapping method. In the best case, the marker itself would be the functional polymorphism - that is, the DNA change that causes the phenotypic difference between alleles. These markers can be called functional markers (Andersen and Lübberstedt, 2003). Creating functional markers requires the gene of interest to be cloned (unless you are very, very lucky!). In the absence of a cloned gene, markers that are very tightly linked to the target gene are necessary to avoid recombination between the marker and the gene during backcrossing. A recombination, of course, would result in a situation where the breeder is selecting for a marker allele that is now linked to the undesirable trait allele. Assuming markers are available for the trait, then they can be applied at each backcross generation to select those plants carrying the desired allele (or gene, in the case of a novel transgene). ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
For instance they could do some screens for temperature-sensitive mutants (huge, massive saunas in action). Imagine the figures in the papers to go along with this sort of experiments. Some allele crossing experiments in search of synthetic lethality - that would be great as well. With photos of F0 and F1. Auxotrophic humans with plasmids complementing their deficiency as useful tools - complementation experiments will be particularly cruel - no complementation - well, tough luck ...
The BXD#/Rww set was generated using a strategy of advanced intercrosses (AI). The AI technique produces recombinant RI strains which incorporate approximately twice as many recombinations as the standard RI strains. The addition of the AI BXD RI lines to the existing BXD set creates the largest of the mouse RI mapping panels. This set is useful in QTL mapping and analysis of gene function. The BXD strains are derived from the C57BL/6J (Stock No. 000664) and DBA/2J (Stock No. 000671) progenitor strains.
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The Irish High Crosses were carved and erected during a specific period of Irish history. Francoise Henry in her book, Irish High Crosses (), outlines a possible Chronology of the crosses, which with changes in style, were carved between the 8 th and 12 th centuries; a period of about years. For more information on the process of dating.
There is no general technique, but there are some simple principles. One is to study the tail behavior of $f$ by comparing it to tractable functions.. By definition, the expectation is the double limit (as $y$ and $z$ vary independently). $$E_{y,z}[f] = \lim_{y\to-\infty,z\to\infty}\int_y^z x f(x) dx = \lim_{y\to-\infty}\int_y^0 x f(x) dx+ \lim_{z\to\infty}\int_0^z x f(x) dx.$$. The treatment of the two integrals at the right is the same, so lets focus on the positive one. One behavior of $f$ that assures a limiting value is to compare it to the power $x^{-p}$. Suppose $p$ is a number for which $$\liminf_{x\to\infty} x^p f(x)\gt 0.$$ This means there exists an $\epsilon\gt 0$ and an $N\gt 1$ for which $x^p f(x) \ge \epsilon$ whenever $x\in[N,\infty)$. We may exploit this inequality by breaking the integration into the regions where $x\lt N$ and $x \ge N$ and applying it in the second region:. $$\eqalign{ \int_0^z x f(x) dx &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx + \int_{N}^z x f(x) dx \\ &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx ...
Animals. Mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and were intercrossed to produce F1 and F2 hybrids. Pups were weaned at 21-30 d of age and reared in groups of the same gender (in most cases, four to six mice per cage, but never more than six in one cage). The mice were housed in a temperature-controlled vivarium at 23°C on a 12 hr light/dark cycle and had ad libitum access to water and Teklad Rodent Diet 8604. During the two-bottle tests, the mice were housed individually.. Two groups of F2 mice were bred and phenotyped in separate experiments. Group 1 consisted of 171 male mice obtained from two types of reciprocal crosses: (129♀ × B6♂)F1♀ × (129♀ × B6♂)F1♂ (80 males) and (B6♀ × 129♂) F1♀ × (B6♀ × 129♂) F1♂ (91 males). Group 2 consisted of 456 (228 females and 228 males) F2 mice obtained from three types of reciprocal crosses: (129♀ × B6♂) F1♀ × (129♀ × B6♂) F1♂ (92 ...
J:79580 Le Bras S, Cohen-Tannoudji M, Guyot V, Vandormael-Pournin S, Coumailleau F, Babinet C, Baldacci P, Transcript map of the Ovum mutant (Om) locus: isolation by exon trapping of new candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. Gene. 2002 Aug 21;296(1-2):75 ...
IRMNG (2021). Bulinidae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880. Accessed at: on 2021-09-24 ...
Im trying to teach my self Power of Marcus Miller. Im wondering what to do when there are crosses instead of notes. It sounds like he is muting...
This is a question from a practice exam for our exam tomorrow morning. Please help I have been staring at this for an hour and cant figure it out ...
Obviously Im fucked off. But accepting. Theres nothing else to be. Theres no point stressing too much, as even when I get out, its all got to be repeated, so its not like there was a brilliant light at the end of the tunnel ...
CHANUKAH: DONT GAMBLE AWAY YOUR ETERNAL LIFE ! I thought I would take a moment to write about Chanukah, so that you might pass this along to your Jewish friends and family members. God has called us throughout history to remember his mighty works among our Jewish people. The Jewish Roots of who we are…
n) the reappearance of a characteristic in an organism after several generations of absence; return of a trait after a period of absence ...
Ive both done TCA cross on myself (I would not recommend this. I was desperate!) and had it done with a doctor. I noticed that in certain areas there was more visible improvement than others. And it took AT LEAST two crosses before I started seeing improvement. So you would really need to commit to at least 3 before you noticed a difference. Of course, TCA cross supposedly only helps icepick scarring. You can always try it on boxcar if it makes a difference. If it were me and I wer ...
Breeding chickens for heat tolerance is desirable. The F18 and F19 generations of a broiler by Fayoumi advanced intercross line (AIL) was used to facilitate fine mapping of QTL. Three major phenotype collection phases were: pre-heat, acute heat, and chronic heat, with birds being exposed to daily heat cycles from 22 to 28 days of age. Body temperature was measured at all three phases; body weight at pre-heat and chronic heat phases. Breast muscle yield (as percentage of body weight) was measured after necropsy at d 28. Feed digestibility was assayed from ileal content collected at d 28. Birds were genotyped using a 600K Affymetrix chicken SNP array. Using GenSel significant QTL were found for each of the measured traits, indicating the feasibility of improving performance under hot conditions by genomic selection. This is the first GWAS using this novel AIL of chickens under heat stress.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model selection approach for the identification of quantitative trait loci in experimental crosses, allowing epistasis. AU - Manichaikul, Ani. AU - Moon, Jee Young. AU - Sen, Śaunak. AU - Yandell, Brian S.. AU - Broman, Karl W.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their interactions is a crucial step toward the discovery of genes responsible for variation in experimental crosses. The problem is best viewed as one of model selection, and the most important aspect of the problem is the comparison of models of different sizes. We present a penalized likelihood approach, with penalties on QTL and pairwise interactions chosen to control false positive rates. This extends the work ofBroman and Speed to allow for pairwise interactions among QTL. A conservative version of our penalized LOD score provides strict control over the rate of extraneous QTL and interactions; a more liberal criterion is more lenient on interactions but seeks ...
Simple Sequence Length Polymorphisms (SSLPs) are used as genetic markers with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An SSLP is a type of polymorphism: a difference in DNA sequence amongst individuals. SSLPs are repeated sequences over varying base lengths in intergenic regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Variance in the length of SSLPs can be used to understand genetic variation between two individuals in a certain species. An example of the usage of SSLPs (microsatellites) is seen in a study by Rosenberg et al., where SSLPs were used to cluster different continental races. The study was critical to Nicholas Wades New York Times Bestseller, Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. Rosenberg studied 377 SSLPs in 1000 people in 52 different regions of the world. By using PCR and cluster analysis, Rosenberg was able to group individuals that had the same SSLPs . These SSLPs were extremely useful to the experiment because they do not affect the phenotypes of the individuals, ...
We used F34 and F39-43 generations of a LG/J x SM/J AIL to perform GWAS, SNP heritability estimates, genetic correlations, replication and mega-analysis. We had previously performed several GWAS using a sparse marker set in the F34 cohort. In this study we used a denser set of SNPs, obtained using GBS, to reanalyze the F34 cohort. We found 109 significant loci, 36 of which had not been identified in our prior studies using the sparse marker set. We used a new, previously unpublished F39-43 cohort for GWAS and showed that genetic correlations were high for the subset of traits that were measured in both cohorts. Despite this, we found that many loci were not replicated between cohorts, even when we used a relatively liberal definition of replication (p , 0.05). The failure to replicate some of our findings was not predicted by our power simulations. Therefore, we performed an analysis to determine whether Winners Curse and study-specific heterogeneity could account for the lower than expected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methods of increasing short term response to full-sib family recurrent selection in small populations. AU - Mackay, I. J.. AU - Caligari, P. D.S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Accelerated recurrent selection (ARS), in which selection is carried out on the predicted value of the progeny rather than on the observed performance of the parents, has been proposed as a method of increasing response to selection and of reducing cycle time. ARS schemes based on test cross evaluation of full-sib families have been compared by stochastic computer simulation. The difference in genetic and economic time scales is emphasised, with the economic long term (21 years) being only 21 or fewer cycles of selection. ARS schemes are shown frequently to offer improvements over standard recurrent selection methods under these circumstances, since they allow more cycles of selection in a given time frame. Schemes with very low effective population sizes often give the greatest response to selection over the ...
Wilson, B D.; Sternick, J L.; Yoshizawa, Y; Katzenstein, A; and Moore, V L., Experimental murine hypersensitivity pneumonitis: multigenic control and influence by genes within the i-b subregion of the h-2 complex. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3795 ...
Read Transmission Ratio Distortion, Sterility, and Control of the t-Complex Function in Sperm, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A maximum-likelihood approach is used in order to estimate recombination fractions between markers showing segregation distortion in backcross populations. It is assumed that the distortions are induced by viability differences between gametes or zygotes due to one or more selected genes. We show th …
Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one ...
WKY and LEW strains have been widely studied for their differential susceptibility to experimental glomerulonephritis. In particular these strains show strong variations in the macrophage activation. This dataset measures expression of macrophages in backcross population of WKY DC and LEW rats and includes a few control origninating from the WKY DC strain.
Fly culture and transgenic lines. Drosophila melanogaster Canton S-5 (CS-5), the parental wild-type strain from which acj6 mutants were derived (McKenna et al., 1989), were reared at 18 or 25°C on cornmeal, sucrose, yeast media.. The olfactory neuron-specific P [Gal4] driver line GH86 (Heimbeck et al., 1999) and the UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (Certel et al., 2000) responder lines were obtained from Dr. W. A. Johnson (University of Iowa). UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) (chromosome II) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (chromosome III) transgenic lines (Certel et al., 2000) were recombined with Cha-Gal4 lines (chromosome III or II) by standard genetic crosses using second or third chromosome balancers,CyO or TM3. The GH86 olfactory driver was recombined with either UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) or UAS-Acj6 (1,4) transgenic lines, and male progeny were used for ChAT assay (see below).. A fluorescent cholinergic reporter line marking essentially all known cholinergic neurons consisted of a 7.4 kb Cha-Gal4 driver line (19B) ...
Each mouse in the pre-CC experiment was genotyped using a highdensity SNP array. Most of the genotyping was completed using test arrays. These arrays were developed as an intermediate step in the process of developing the Mouse Diversity array (Yang et al. 2009). There are two versions of the test array: A-array and B-array. The A-array includes 294,878 SNP assays, and the B-array contains 287,687 additional SNP assays. We determined that 181,752 (A-array) and 180,976 (B-array) SNP assays performed well and targeted loci that are polymorphic among the eight founder strains. There is no overlap between the two arrays, but the genome coverage is complete and uniformly distributed in both. In some cases, animals from the same phenotyping arm were genotyped with different arrays. Integration was achieved by merging the two sets and using an HMM to impute haplotypes at loci with missing genotypes. Due to the high marker density, this procedure was very effective. The exercise behavior and ...
A case of hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum is due to an incompatibility of the Y chromosome of certain strains with the cytoplasm of other strains. The constitution of the cytoplasm responsible for the sterility is not, however, independent of the chromosomal genes. After seven backcrosses of the hybrid females to males of the same strain, fertile male progenies are finally obtained. ...
Hybrid Stain Crosses: Most cannabis seeds and medicine available today are from hybrids - crosses of Sativa and Indica varieties. This allows cultivators to enjoy and select for various desired characteristics of growth, appearance and effect. The genetics and hence the effects of one lineage will usually be dominant. For example: Indica-dominant crosses are for pain relief, with the sativa component helping with energy and activity levels. Sativa-dominant crosses are good for stimulating appetite, with the indica component helping to reduce body pain and increase relaxation. Cannabis has been proven helpful in relieving the symptoms of thousands of conditions, including: Pain from various ailments and ...
Abstract: This thesis studies a new method to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We show that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary if and only if its least concave majorant crosses said concave boundary. As such, we can equivalently simulate the least concave majorant of a Brownian bridge in order to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We apply these theoretical results to the problem of estimating joint confidence intervals for a true CDF at every point. We compare this method to a traditional method for estimating joint confidence intervals for the true CDF at every point which is based upon the limiting distribution of what is often called the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, the sup-norm distance between the empirical and true CDFs. We indicate the disadvantages of the traditional approach and demonstrate how our approach addresses these weaknesses. ...
Noughts and crosses malorie blackman pdf - MALORIE. BLACKMAN. Noughts & Crosses. Special new edition including An Eye for An Eye Theres more to life than just us noughts and you Crosses.. Readers Notes for Malorie Blackmans Noughts and Crosses Series | Teachwire Teaching Resource
The beans from the mixed plot show a nice bell-shaped distribution (figure). Similarly, the beans harvested from pure lines grown in separate garden plots also show nice bell-shaped distributions, though the means differ for each pure line. The key difference is in the results of selective breeding for heavier (or lighter) beans, i.e., planting a new crop using only the heaviest (or lightest) beans: selection shifts the distribution of seed weights in the mixed plot, but has no significant effect on the distribution of seed weights produced by a pure line.. Within just a few decades, neo-Darwinians such as Ford (1938) dismissed Johannsens results as a logical necessity, as though the experiments proved nothing. Johannsens studies had changed our understanding so profoundly that Ford was unable to imagine how scientists (mis)understood the world before.. I wont ask you to do what Ford could not, which is to forget genetics.. Instead, I would like to ask you to join me in imagining a different ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
You and your partner should first scan all your plates to determine whether or not your crosses are scorable. If you have males or only phenotypicaly WT and Unc progeny, you should not try to analyze that plate for linkage. Why not? If you have no males and some dumpy progeny, you may score that plate in this linkage analysis. Look carefully at all the scorable plates and try to find double mutants. If you see no (or only very rare) double mutant (du/du) progeny on one of the plates, it indicates that your unknown dpy mutation is on the same chromosome or linkage group as that known unc mutation. Why? What might it mean if none of the plates of progeny lack double mutants? (Hint: there are 5 autosomes and we only tested 4 of them for linkage.) Since we know on which autosome each of the reference unc mutations are located, you should be able to figure out on which chromosome your unknown dpy mutation is found ...
Watson, J; Riblet, R; and Taylor, B A., The response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3712 ...
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Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses. Rivero, L., Scholl, R., Holomuzki, N., Crist, D., Grotewold, E., and Brkljacic, J. (2014) Methods Mol Biol 1062: 3-25.
The collaborative cross (CC) is a large panel of mouse-inbred lines derived from eight founder strains (NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HILtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ,
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What makes a dominant gene be labeled as such is when it is the characteristic of that gene is the one that presents itself in offspring. It is dominant because it outweighs the recessive trait. ...
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least ...
f(x)-f(a), is not less than ,f(x-a),. Its not like f is linear or something. ,f(x)-f(a),=,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a),*,x-a,. Now to get a d, you need a bound on ,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a), near x=a. Hint: doesnt that look like a difference quotient ...
Negatively stained purified virions of parental virus strains and hybrid progenies. CPXV-NOHI (A), MVA-HANP (B), Rec 1 (C), Rec 2 (D), Rec 3 (E), Rec 3a (F), Re
data diallel; label time = Flowering time in days; do p = 1 to 8; do m = 1 to 8; if (m ne p) then do; sym = trim(left(min(m,p))) ,, , ,, trim(left(max(m,p))); do block = 1 to 2; input time @@; output; end; end; end; end; datalines; 14.4 16.2 27.2 30.8 17.2 27.0 18.3 20.2 16.2 16.8 18.6 14.4 16.4 16.0 15.4 16.5 14.8 14.6 18.6 18.6 15.2 15.3 17.0 15.2 14.4 14.8 10.8 13.2 31.8 30.4 21.0 23.0 24.6 25.4 19.2 20.0 29.8 28.4 12.8 14.2 13.0 14.4 16.2 17.8 11.4 13.0 16.8 16.3 12.4 14.2 16.8 14.8 12.6 12.2 9.6 11.2 14.6 18.8 12.2 13.6 15.2 15.4 15.2 13.8 18.0 16.0 10.4 12.2 13.4 20.0 20.2 23.4 14.2 14.0 18.6 14.8 22.2 17.0 14.3 17.3 9.0 10.2 11.8 12.8 14.0 16.6 12.2 9.2 13.6 16.2 13.8 14.4 15.6 15.6 15.6 11.0 13.0 9.8 15.2 17.2 10.0 11.6 17.0 18.2 20.8 20.8 20.0 17.4 17.0 12.6 13.0 9.8 ...
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Use the West nomogram by drawing a straight line between the height and weight of a child. This line crosses the surface area column and gives an estimation of the body surface area for this child,...
The mouse is the daughter of two female parents, but experts are sceptical that the technique could help two women have a biological child
I recently found out the rule regarding the Taylor expansion of a translated function: ##f(x+h)=f(x)+f′(x)⋅h+\frac 1 2 h^ 2 \cdot f′′(x)+⋯+\frac 1 {n!}h^n \cdot f^n(x)+...## But why exactly is this the case? The normal Taylor expansion tells us that ##f(x)=f(a)+f(a)(x-a)+\frac 1 ...
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But now I put my red/black on top of my black RF. And I am pretty sure that the string spacing is slightly different too. The crosses extend a couple of mms more towards the bottom of the frame, so there is a slightly wider string spacing in the lower crosses. Others might want to chime in, but ...
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case 2: Block A tends to slide up: Block B is large (10 minutes). Conclusion: (b) Block B is large: m A gsinT F T F fr 0 m kg m m m m B B B A S A 9 .2 10sin37 0.40 10 cos37 sin cos q q T P T 2.8 kg m B 9 .2kg Now m B 10kg! 9 .2kg T B B x N A A T fr A x F m g m a F m g m g F F m a cos 0 sin T T. Get Price ...
Let T-n (R) be the upper triangular matrix ring over a unital ring R. Suppose that B : Tn (R) x Tn (R) is a biadditive map such that B(X, X) X = X B(X, X) for ...
Determine all binery cyclic codes of length 5. Note: To find all cyclic codes of length n, find all ideals in B[x]/x^2+1 Note: If 1 is an Ideal (I) then R = I. Example: n=2 R=B[x]/x^2+1, x^2=1 R={o,1,x,1+x} Ideals |0|.
Considering Ive lost a couple of readers over the last seven months this thing has been active (yes, they let me know about it, too!) Im surprised and pleased so many enjoy my meandering ramblings and scattered gaming thoughts ...
As more advanced techniques to determine genotype emerge, the test cross is becoming less prevalent in genetics. Genetic ... These test cross experiments became hallmarks in the discovery of sex-linked traits. Test crosses have a variety of ... Basic procedures for performing test crosses in these organisms are provided below: To perform a test cross with C. elegans, ... By performing a test cross, one can determine whether the individual is heterozygous or homozygous dominant. In a test cross, ...
"Genetic linkage & mapping". Khan Academy. AMGEN Foundation. Retrieved 2021-03-29. (Genetics). ... In genetics, a three-point cross is used to determine the loci of three genes in an organism's genome. An individual ... heterozygous for three mutations is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual, and the phenotypes of the progeny are ...
Eslava AP, Alvarez MI, Burke PV, Delbrück M (July 1975). "Genetic recombination in sexual crosses of phycomyces". Genetics. 80 ...
Researchers use genetic methods to better understand the Cross River gorilla population. More specifically, certain loci within ... Cross River gorillas eat more liana and tree bark throughout the year, and less fruit during dry periods of scarcity. The Cross ... This distribution is supported by genetic research, which has found evidence that many Cross River gorilla localities continue ... This distribution is corroborated by genetic research, which has found evidence that many Cross River gorilla localities ...
If many lines of different genetic background are used, a huge amount of genetic diversity will be present. Seeds from crosses ... CCPs can be a valuable resource of genetic material. They can be used to preserve valuable genetic diversity for future use, or ... and crossed them to obtain 190 new crosses. These seeds were not further selected and planted, grown, harvested and reseeded ... A CCP, including crosses of resistant cultivars, was grown with heavy common bunt infection for 5 years and it appeared to get ...
"Hybrid Crosses : Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center : Texas State University". Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. ... The Xiphophorus Genetic stock center, founded by Myron Gordon in 1939, is an important source of these fish for research. In ... xiphophorus genetic stock center ver.) (Articles with short description, Short ... Patton, E Elizabeth; Mitchell, David L; Nairn, Rodney S (2010). "Genetic and environmental melanoma models in fish". Pigment ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Tennessee. Retrieved 18 August 2016. Ludman, Mark (2009). The Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders and ... Third-degree relatives are generally defined by the expected amount of genetic overlap that exists between two people, with the ...
"Cross-eyed tigers". Scientific American. 229:43. August 1973. Guillery, R.W.; Kaas, J.H. (22 June 1973). "Genetic abnormality ... To better preserve genetic diversity and avoid genetic defects, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums barred member zoos from ... Another genetic characteristic makes the stripes of the tiger very pale; white tigers of this type are called snow-white or " ... An additional genetic condition can result in near-complete absence of stripes, making the tiger almost pure white. One such ...
When found, these hybrids often can show remarkable genetic relationships. Crosses between two philodendrons in different ... This may be because philodendrons have many geographic and time barriers to prevent any such cross pollination.[citation needed ... Because of these outside barriers, philodendrons may not have had to evolve physical mechanisms to prevent cross-pollination.[ ... some aspects of making crosses can make philodendron hybridization more difficult. Philodendrons often flower at different ...
This has also led to a loss in genetic diversity and genetic material for further breeding. This type of loss is also called as ... However, maize is a cross-pollinator. In countries with small scale agriculture, as it is the case in Switzerland, fields are ... Switzerland has a broad genetic diversity of maize landraces, which are also distinguishable to the genetic pools of ... also indicating some genetic differences between the regions and thus partly a genetic separation within the Swiss landraces. ...
McKusick, V. A.; Cross, H. E. (1966-02-28). "Ataxia-telangiectasia and Swiss-type agammaglobulinemia. Two genetic disorders of ... "Short-limb skeletal dysplasia with severe combined immunodeficiency - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ... Genetic diseases and disorders, Autosomal recessive disorders). ...
"The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits." Nature genetics 36.11 (2004): 1133. ... In 2019 Karl Broman and a group of researchers published a study which found genetic variants in mice that impacted the bile ... "Comprehensive human genetic maps: individual and sex-specific variation in recombination." The American Journal of Human ... "R/qtl: QTL mapping in experimental crosses." Bioinformatics 19.7 (2003): 889-890. Churchill, Gary A., et al. " ...
There are certain genetic crosses that are lethal to the foal. There is no point to re-breeding in such cases, so the stallion ... This is to ensure that the mare is healthy, able to carry a foal, and to check for genetic incompatibilities. ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ... identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR-137 by cross-referencing the global gene expression analysis of HCT 116 ...
Nath, S. K.; Majumder, P. P.; Nordlund, J. J. (1994). "Genetic epidemiology of vitiligo: multilocus recessivity cross-validated ... The understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying human skin color variation is still incomplete; however, genetic studies ... The genetic mechanism behind human skin color is mainly regulated by the enzyme tyrosinase, which creates the color of the skin ... genetic evidence [demonstrate] that strong levels of natural selection acted about 1.2 mya to produce darkly pigmented skin in ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crossed arms. "Observable Human Characteristics". Learn.Genetics. Genetic Science ... Falk C. T., Ayala F. J. (1971): Genetic aspects of arm folding and hand clasping. Jpn. J. Hum. Genet., 15: 241-247. [PubMed: ... Supporters of the assumptions that genetic factors play an important role in forming these properties, are reinforced by the ... Quelce-Salgado, A; Freire-Maia, Ademar; Freire-Maia, Newton (1961). "Arm folding: A genetic trait?". Jinrui Idengaku Zasshi. ...
Penn, Dustin; Potts, Wayne (22 July 1998). "MHC-disassortative mating preferences reversed by cross-fostering". Proceedings of ... Genetic sexual attraction is a concept in which a strong sexual attraction may develop between close blood relatives who first ... "Debunking genetic sexual attraction: Incest by any other name is still incest". Salon. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 28 September ... She states that most of the publications which have chosen to run stories of couples speaking about "genetic sexual attraction ...
An intermediate genetic distance may thus be most conducive to hybrid speciation. Experimental lab crosses support this ... Interspecific hybridization can enrich the genetic diversity of introgressed taxon, lead to introgression of beneficial genetic ... These methods infer a user-specified number of genetic groups from the data and assign each individual to one or a mix of these ... Given time, genetic drift will eventually stochastically fix blocks derived from the two parent species in finite isolated ...
Genetic crosses of individuals found a general dominance hierarchy within the alleles. Allele combinations also determine not ... In other words, alleles did not enter into the genome from genetic transfer from other species. Different combinations of the ...
It was initially found, using genetic crosses, that poky is maternally inherited. Subsequently, the primary defect in the poky ...
In genetic crosses, the poky phenotype was found to be maternally inherited. The protoperithecial parent is regarded as the ... When poky females were crossed to wild-type males, all progeny had the poky phenotype. When wild-type females were crossed to ... Like all other genetic concepts, the discovery of uniparental inheritance stems from the days of an Augustinian priest known as ...
L. Ollivier (1982). Genetic Determination of Muscular Hypertrophy in the Pig. In: J.W. King, F. Ménissier (editors) (1982). ... it is used as a sire for cross-breeding. The breed was improved by researchers at the Université de Liège in 2004. Wikimedia ... Muscle Hypertrophy of Genetic Origin and its use to Improve Beef Production: A Seminar in the CEC Programme of Coordination of ... a genetic mutation causing muscular hypertrophy.: 431 From about 1960, the Piétrain was also reared in Germany, principally in ...
The exact genetic mutation responsible for SCARF syndrome is unknown at this time. However, the mode of inheritance is ... "Strabismus (crossed eyes)". Retrieved 2020-12-16. CDC (2019-12-04). "Facts about Craniosynostosis , CDC". Centers ... Due to the fact that the syndrome is a genetic condition, there is no specific cure for this syndrome. Treatment is not for the ... "SCARF syndrome , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". Retrieved ...
Strabismus ("crossed eyes") may be corrected by surgery. In addition, people with BOFS should be managed by an ophthalmologist ... Genetic counseling is recommended for the patients and their families for reproductive health. It was estimated that only 100 ... Genetic diseases and disorders, Transcription factor deficiencies, Rare syndromes, Syndromes with intellectual disability, ...
Genetic alterations in mouse models are similar to those found in human cancers. These models are generated by methods ... Comparative oncogenomics uses cross-species comparisons to identify oncogenes. This research involves studying cancer genomes, ... Cancer is a genetic disease caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell ... Before BRAF, the genetic mechanism of melanoma development was unknown and therefore prognosis for patients was poor. ...
... all the progeny derived from a particular cross possess the same cytoplasm (and genetic factors located in it) as the female ... A relationship exists between self-incompatibility and the phenomenon of cross-incompatibility. In general crosses between ... In some crosses there is no segmentation of the zygote (or it may be that the hybrid is extremely non-viable and changes occur ... A cross will produce offspring (mule or hinny) with 63 chromosomes, that will not form pairs, which means that they do not ...
Darwin, C. R. (1876). The effects of cross and selffertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. London: John Murray. Crnokrak, P.; ... Genetic purging is the reduction of the frequency of a deleterious allele, caused by an increased efficiency of natural ... As an example of genetic purging, consider a large population where there are recessive lethal alleles segregating at very low ... Nevertheless, in practical situations, the genetic change in fitness also depends on many other factors, besides inbreeding and ...
... can also solve dihybrid and multi-hybrid crosses. A problem is converted to a series of monohybrid crosses, and the results are ... Each genetic locus is always represented by two letters. So in the case of eye color, say "B = Brown eyes" and "b = green eyes ... The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It ... "Mono-" means "one"; this cross indicates that the examination of a single trait. This could mean (for example) eye color. ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (September 2013). "Genetic relationship between five psychiatric ... by quantifying the total contribution of common genetic variants. Furthermore, an increasing number of specific genetic loci ... In contrast to genetic studies, the investigation of environmental exposures of psychiatric problems face the question of ... These studies began in the 70's and studied the impact of perinatal problems, genetic variants, sexual abuse and other adverse ...
Cross-breed animals Genetic hybrids of wild and domestic parents. They may be forms intermediate between both parents, forms ... There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. There is also a genetic difference between the ... The Single Genetic Regulatory Network Hypothesis claims that genetic changes in upstream regulators affect downstream systems. ... The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks - including ...
Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... evolution of a neutralizing human antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to enhance affinity and broaden strain cross- ... The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence within the phage. This phage-display library is added to the dish and ... Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ...
Recent studies have stressed the importance of framing "reproductive health matters cross-culturally", particularly when ... the ISUOG recommends that pregnant patients who desire genetic testing have obstetric ultrasounds between 11 weeks' and 13 ...
It also bars health benefit plans from certain types of discrimination on the basis of health status, genetic information, or ... A cross-reference between the sections of the ERISA law and the corresponding sections in the U.S.Code can be found at http:// ...
Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... The type A GABA receptors are pentameric chloride channels assembled from among many genetic variants of GABA(A) subunits. This ... Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... "First genetic evidence of GABA(A) receptor dysfunction in epilepsy: a mutation in the gamma2-subunit gene". Nature Genetics. 28 ...
Genetic analysis indicates that there has been an unbroken genetic continuity[clarification needed] of the inhabitants over the ... In early 1945, in the Vistula-Oder Offensive, the Red Army crossed the Vistula and drove the German Wehrmacht back past the ...
The goal of cross-cultural training is to improve one's ability to adapt and judge people from other cultures. This training is ... The most recent law to be passed is Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. In essence, this law ... There are a few ways that cross-cultural differences can mess up the results of our attempts to predict job performance. The ... Response bias is another cross-cultural difference that has been shown to affect how we measure constructs and interpret the ...
While searching for the power cells in Manhattan and São Paulo, Desmond is hunted by the Templar Daniel Cross, dispatched by ... Because Abstergo can now collect anyone's genetic memories without having to use blood-related analysts, Desmond's body gives ... kills Cross and Vidic, and rescues his father. After finding the Key and all the power cells, Desmond and his allies enter the ... where a crew of analysts is tasked with reliving his copied genetic memories and learning about his ancestors. One of them, the ...
Lister also realises that the in-vitro tube with Kochanski and Lister's genetic information is Lister himself, creating a ... informs Rimmer that everyone had crossed back into the mirror universe. The machine opening the way to the mirror universe is ...
The explanation was that the simo-leap with Al had left Sam with enough of Al's genetic coding that he could leap back past his ... "Star-Crossed." This theory is later revealed to have been relayed to by the leaped Sam Beckett to an actor and would-be time ... In the fifth-season episode "Trilogy (Part 2)," Sam fathers a child who proves to be his true genetic child, not the child of ... "Star-Crossed", Sam reunited the 19-year-old version of his future fiancée, Donna, with her estranged father (while unknowingly ...
D. melanogaster females crossed to D. simulans males produce sterile F1 females and no F1 males. The reciprocal cross produces ... Such progeny often have reduced fitness due to increased genetic homozygosity leading to expression of deleterious recessive ...
September 2009). "Genetic variants of the alpha-synuclein gene SNCA are associated with multiple system atrophy". PLOS ONE. 4 ( ... In MSA-C, a "hot cross bun" sign is sometimes found; it reflects atrophy of the pontocerebellar tracts that give T2 hyper ... Rissardo JP, Caprara AL (2019). "Differential diagnosis of hot cross bun sign". Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences. 7 (1 ... The study concluded that these repeats were absent in pathologically confirmed MSA, suggesting an alternative genetic cause. ...
The first imprinted genetic disorders to be described in humans were the reciprocally inherited Prader-Willi syndrome and ... Several computational methods to detect imprinting genes in plants from reciprocal crosses have been proposed. Bookmarking ... A hypothesis for the origin of this genetic variation states that the host-defense system responsible for silencing foreign DNA ... It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone methylation without altering the genetic sequence. These ...
Here, DNA fragmentation is a molecular genetic technique that permits researchers to use recombinant DNA technology to prepare ... and/or the vascular lumen is crossed by strands of fibrin. Schistocytes are commonly seen in patients that have hemolytic ...
2018). "Genetic Relatedness of Indigenous Ethnic Groups in Northern Borneo to Neighboring Populations from Southeast Asia, as ... The present Tambunan-Penampang road was largely constructed based on the trading route used by the Bundu-Liwan Dusun to cross ...
He was killed upon kissing his cross that was poisoned by Funnel of the Council of Spiders. Ubu - A master assassin who is Ra's ... Respawn - A clone created with the genetic material of Deathstroke and Talia al Ghul. After escaping torture and captivity at ...
June 1998). "Genetic relationship of Prunus yedoensis, native and cultivar, based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of ... markers suggested that king cherry might originate from a cross between maternal P. pendula f. ascendens and paternal P. ... 2017). "Chloroplast Noncoding DNA Sequences Reveal Genetic Distinction and Diversity between Wild and Cultivated Prunus ... of king cherry using long-read sequencing and sequence phasing and found king cherry is an F1 hybrid originating from a cross ...
In addition to registration the FDSB maintains the results of DNA testing of dogs to promote genetic health. The Field Dog Stud ... Irish Setters used to be cross-registered with the American Kennel Club, but reciprocal registration was ended in 1975 when ...
Viral tracers can cross the synapse, and can be used to trace connectivity between brain regions across many synapses. Examples ... see also Viral neuronal tracing) In order to trace projections from a specific region or cell, a genetic construct, virus or ... Those can also be genetic or molecular tracers. Recently manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been used to ... Alternatively strategies are transsynaptic anterograde tracers, which can cross the synaptic cleft, labeling multiple neurons ...
She returned to Poland for the first time in 1989 and was honored with the knight's cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. ... the same genetic disease which had afflicted her mother. While she was in hospice care, she wrote her final memoir Szpitale ( ... In 1989, she was honored with the knight's cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. Diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996, she ... "Krzyż Kawalerski" [Knight's Cross] (PDF). Dziennik Ustaw Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (in Polish). London, England: Prime Minister ...
A number of genetic components of aging have been identified using model organisms, ranging from the simple budding yeast ... These adducts can further rearrange to form reactive species, which can then cross-link the structural proteins or DNA to ... Therefore, a genetic load of late-acting deleterious mutations could be substantial at mutation-selection balance. This concept ... If a genetic disaster... happens late enough in individual life, its consequences may be completely unimportant". Age- ...
Genetic engineering of the paddle region from a species of volcano-dwelling archaebacteria into rat brain potassium channels ... which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α ...
Genetic analysis suggests that T. incisum is closely related to T. polyphyllum as well as T. leptophyllum. T. myriophyllum ... might originate from a cross between T. leptophyllum and T. incisum. Tropaeolum incisum is concentrated in the Argentinean lake ...
Casa Grande Avenue crosses the creek twice: first (0.25 miles (0.4 km) south of Adobe Road) on a 30-foot (9 m) concrete culvert ... Genetic analysis has proved that the steelhead trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) that spawn and rear in the Petaluma River watershed ... Ely Boulevard crosses 0.1 miles (0.2 km) southeast of Casa Grande Avenue on a 54-foot (16 m) concrete continuous slab built in ... Sartori Drive crosses 0.2 miles (0.3 km) southeast of Casa Grande Avenue on a 54-foot (16 m) concrete continuous slab built in ...
Yeast expression platforms offer a desirable alternative to mammalian cell cultures for the genetic manipulation of cells for ... making Biocon the second Indian company to cross the $1-billion mark on the first day of listing. Mazumdar-Shaw's belief in " ...
Genetic data has also supported this stratification. In three genetic studies representing the whole of South Asian Muslims, it ... An increase in ghetto living has also shown a strengthening of stereotyping due to a lack of cross-cultural interaction, and ... In two of the three genetic studies referenced here, in which is described that samples were taken from several regions of ... In this study 124 Sunnis and 154 Shias of Uttar Pradesh were randomly selected for their genetic evaluation. Other than Muslims ...
According to the legend, The first Garre ancestor, Aw Mohamed, crossed the Gulf of Aden into present day Somalia in 652AD. He ... "Complex Genetic History of East African Human Populations" (PDF). University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 13 July 2017 ... Garre is divided into four linguistic clusters, which cross-cut other criteria of differentiation like clanship. Some of them ...
According to recent genetic analysis, both mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) and Y chromosome polymorphisms showed a noticeable genetic ... "cross", and the Russian maritime flag is today also a blue cross on white background). The emigration to the Netherlands was so ... "Genetic study shows deep Norwegian lineage in people of northern Scotland". Retrieved 21 June 2022. " ... "Scotland's genetic landscape reflects Dark Age populations". BBC News. 3 September 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2022. How DNA ...
A Processional Cross (15th century). This cross, whose arms are garnished with bells, was used in witchcraft trials in the year ... Genetic Structure and Distribution of HL-A Antigens in a Basque village, in "Histocompatibility Testing", Copenhague, J. Ruffie ... The carvings on the Cross represent the faces of Christ, the Virgin, Saint John, a pelican, and two women's heads. On the back ... Palissy PM64000022 Processional Cross (in French) Philippe Veyrin, The Basques, Arthaud, 1975, ISBN 2 7003 0038 6, page 303. ( ...
Teenagers Stella Grant and Will Newman have cystic fibrosis (CF), a progressive genetic disorder that damages organs and makes ... to lower the risk of cross-infection. In 2020, about a year after the movie's release, a similar guideline for social ...
  • A promising new model organism has been provided by the recently developed Collaborative Cross (CC) strains, a large, genetically diverse mouse reference population. (
  • In order to help for developing an effective improvement program for egg quality traits, performances of F 3 and backcrosses generations, derived from crossing Gimmizah with Bandarah developed strains, were used to estimate the components of genetic variability of egg quality traits in this experiment. (
  • This may be due to the parental strains were closely related, what caused presence of many deleterious recessive genes, were expressed largely and resulted a very little genetic variations in egg quality traits. (
  • Asian B3-4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. (
  • Most EV-71 strains circulating in Europe belong to genotypes C1 and C2, and presence of herd immunity conferred by cross-protective antibodies induced by these types could explain the limited spread of new genotypes. (
  • To gain more insight into the potential threat of Asian EV-71 outbreak strains for the European population and the potential treatment efficacy of IVIg, we determined the cross-neutralizing capacity of IVIg batches composed of plasma from the general population of the Netherlands during 2005-2014 against EV-71 subtypes circulating in Europe or Asia and compared results to IVIg batches from Japanese and Vietnamese donors. (
  • The MMRRC Centers have developed a genetic QC pipeline using MiniMUGA array genotyping to provide additional information on strain backgrounds for MMRRC congenic and inbred strains. (
  • The present study was based on a conventional cross between two inbred strains, CBxB6.F(1) backcrossed to B6 with segregation for the putative +/Ahl:Ahl/Ahl. (
  • In genetics, we use Probability (the likelihood of the occurrence of a particular event) to predict the outcome of a genetic cross. (
  • Several studies have shown that, despite having positive attitudes /receptivity towards integrating genetics / genomics into nursing practice, nursing students and professionals report a low level of genetic/genomic literacy . (
  • We assessed and compared the genetic/genomic literacy and attitudes /receptivity towards integrating genetics / genomics into nursing practice among nursing students and practising nurses in Hong Kong . (
  • We also explored the relationships between the students ' background characteristics, attitudes /receptivity towards integrating genetics / genomics into nursing practice and genetic/genomic literacy . (
  • The survey collected the participants' background information, attitudes /receptivity towards integrating genetics / genomics into nursing practice and levels of genetic/genomic literacy . (
  • Many individual genetic risk loci have been associated with multiple common human diseases. (
  • Genetic maps of the homoeologous group-2 chromosomes were constructed, comprising 114 loci in wheat and 34 loci in rye. (
  • Furthermore, loci for which homoeoloci can be detected in rye and barley tend to lie in the centromeric regions of the maps, while non-homoeologous and wheat-specific loci tend to be more evenly distributed over the genetic maps. (
  • Quantitative trait loci analyses (log of the odds=15) indicated association of the genetic factor within a few centiMorgan of the best evidence for Ahl [Johnson et al. (
  • Cross-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis of 61,047 cases and 947,237 controls identifies new susceptibility loci contributing to lung cancer. (
  • Abstract: In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F 1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. (
  • The latest edition of this human gene map ( 15 ) lists more than 150 genes or genetic regions associated with athletic performance and physical fitness traits. (
  • A central challenge in pharmaceutical research is to investigate genetic variation in response to drugs. (
  • The Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse reference population is a promising model for pharmacogenomic studies because of its large amount of genetic variation, genetic reproducibility, and dense recombination sites. (
  • The analysis revealed a substantial impact of genetic variation acting on drug biotransformation, allowed mapping of potential joint genetic effects in the context of individual drugs, and demonstrated crosstalk between drug metabolism and lipid metabolism. (
  • If these molecular phenotypes are affected by genetic variation due to a major QTL they will show a clear multimodal distribution. (
  • We review the evidence that this genetic variant is strongly associated with elite athlete status and with normal variation in human muscle strength and sprinting speed. (
  • Genetic factors determine 20%-80% of the variation in a wide variety of traits relevant to athletic performance, such as oxygen uptake ( 2 ), cardiac output ( 1 ), and the relative proportion of fast and slow fibers in skeletal muscle ( 14 ). (
  • Several years ago, our team identified a common genetic variation in the ACTN3 gene that results in the replacement of an arginine (R) with a stop codon (X) at amino acid 577 (R577X). (
  • New research offers a better understanding of how natural genetic variation impacts brain development, gives rise to the spectrum of behaviors associated with autism and may contribute to more individualized approaches for supporting people with autism. (
  • Studies like those presented today confirm that autism is driven by sources of genetic variation that naturally exist in the human population," says Nicola Grissom, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota who studies individual and sex differences in motivated behavior and executive function in mouse models. (
  • There's also genetic variation within dengue virus types, with some variants showing higher levels of virulence. (
  • A cross-sectional online survey conducted between March 2020 and January 2022. (
  • With my expertise in using forward genetic screening and proteomic approaches, I decided to join one of the leading groups in HBV research, lead by Prof. Thomas Baumert (TB) and based at Inserm Unit U1110 of Université de Strasbourg (UdS), to exploit novel technologies in the investigation of host-virus interaction. (
  • In his piece on Page 12, Anthony J. Montagnolo outlines three emerging technologies that may create new approaches to care: digital therapeutics, genetic testing and acuity-adaptable rooms. (
  • With a focus on driving accelerated programmatic action and intensified cross-cutting approaches, the framework and guiding principles constitute an agenda for enhancing investment efficiency gains, equity and impact. (
  • Genetic basis for susceptibility to noise -induced hearing loss in mice. (
  • These genetic effects implicate the Ahl gene as contributing to NIHL susceptibility. (
  • Distinct germline genetic susceptibility profiles identified for common non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes. (
  • While the CC lines are phenotypically diverse, their genetic diversity in drug disposition processes, such as detoxification reactions, is still largely uncharacterized. (
  • Multiple studies have reported cross-neutralization, but antigenic diversity among different EV-71 genotypes has also been observed ( 11 - 17 ). (
  • Todd Cross explains research on genetic diversity within Montana sage grouse populations. (
  • Research in human and animal models points to potential biological and genetic mechanisms contributing to the diversity of behaviors seen in autism. (
  • Assessing population structure and genetic diversity in U.S. Suffolk sheep to define a framework for genomic selection. (
  • The current results revealed that the differences between genetic groups were highly significant for all traits studied. (
  • Analyses focused on behavioral and genomic differences between sibling pairs reveal genetic locations that could prove relevant to autism-related social difficulties. (
  • By re-analysing existing data on neutral genetic markers, we show that the cross-distance of the area utilized was smaller than the distance over which pair-wise genetic differences appear. (
  • Differences in length of hospital stay for Medicaid and Blue Cross patients and the effect of intensity of services. (
  • Had they stayed separated longer, they would have naturally accumulated too many genetic differences to mate successfully. (
  • And sequencing entire genomes allows us to detect very small genetic differences between the sampled viruses--very few mutations. (
  • A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the mean levels of blood pressure and prevalence rates of hypertension and to identify differences in the prevalence of other risk factors in hypertensive and nonhypertensive people. (
  • Using genetic analyses, human recall-by-genotype and in vitro experimentation, we demonstrate that PROCR-219Gly increases plasma levels of (activated) protein C through endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) ectodomain shedding in endothelial cells, attenuating leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and vascular inflammation. (
  • This study was conducted to determine the quantitative characteristics of 53 hybrid melon genotypes which were obtained by single, triple, double hybridization and to compare the genetic relationship between single, triple and double hybrids and their parental pure lines by SSR markers. (
  • Background: Genetic markers and maps are instrumental in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in segregating populations. (
  • Using this information, phenotypes can be converted into genetic markers. (
  • Results: The Pheno2Geno tool uses mixture modeling to select phenotypes and transform them into genetic markers suitable for construction and/or saturation of a genetic map. (
  • Pheno2Geno excludes candidate genetic markers that show evidence for multiple possibly epistatically interacting QTL and/or interaction with the environment, in order to provide a set of robust markers for follow-up QTL mapping. (
  • Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F 1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. (
  • Microsatellites were evaluated as genetic markers for the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of Phytophthora cinnamomi for population studies. (
  • They are evenly distributed in the genome, so they are widely used in genetic cross breeding and mapping markers of chromosome genetic map. (
  • The organism's genetic makeup might play a part in the activity of any of these processes and might underlie chemical toxicity and adverse drug reactions ( Meyer, 2000 ). (
  • Athletic performance is a complex human trait influenced by environmental parameters such as diet, training, opportunity, and heritable factors, that is, genetic makeup. (
  • There is now a broad scientific consensus that the current use of the Indica and Sativa labeling is misleading: these labels do not provide reliable information about the genetic or chemical makeup of the plant. (
  • They differ in their genetic makeup, and buyers can get the right percentages for them. (
  • Closely related species with young sex chromosomes, which differ in the degree of SD, are ideal systems to explore the underlining genetic architecture of SD. (
  • Mapping of the group-2 chromosomes in the intervarietal 'Timgalen' x 'RL4137' cross revealed that the T. timopheevi chromosome segment introgressed into chromosome 2B in 'Timgalen' is preferentially transmitted. (
  • But before this complete speciation could occur, the three human lineages crossed paths and chromosomes: There were numerous episodes of interbreeding between the groups. (
  • While the overwhelming majority of STS cases are sporadic, rare cases involve a genetic predisposition. (
  • The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Soft Tissue Sarcoma Panel specifically identifies Li-Fraumeni syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) as genetic cancer syndromes with a predisposition for the development of STS, along with Carney-Stratakis syndrome, which is associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and paragangliomas. (
  • Conclusion: The Pheno2Geno package makes use of genome-wide molecular profiling and provides a tool for high-throughput map construction and saturation of existing genetic maps. (
  • Mutation in a subsegment of chromosome 15 is also known to cause two rare genetic disorders, Angelman and Prader-Willi Syndromes. (
  • Dr Qureshi is one of the leading experts on Primary Care Genetic and Genomics in the United Kingdom. (
  • The ACTN3 genetic test can be performed as early as birth. (
  • Family & Medical History: Our genetic counselor and nurse practitioner will review and expand on these histories. (
  • Natural genetic variability in the human population may lead to the spectrum of behaviors associated with autism diagnosis and contribute to differential rates of diagnosis and symptomology in males and females. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Genetic polymorphism of serum transferrins in zebu & cross-bred cattle. (
  • CDC conducted a preliminary analysis to evaluate the age-specific presence of serum cross-reactive antibody in U.S. populations vaccinated or not vaccinated with the 2010-11 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). (
  • Genetic/genomic literacy, attitudes and receptivity of nursing students and practising nurses: A cross-sectional online survey. (
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. (
  • Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using LVM data measured by cardiac MRI between 2000 and 2002 on 1137 participants in MESA. (
  • The majority of grants proposed cross-sectional study designs, with clinical settings in primarily white, non-Hispanic study populations. (
  • This was a cross-sectional study [PCOS (n = 83) and control (n = 39) subjects]. (
  • Cross sectional research: Experimental research, survey are the examples of cross sectional research. (
  • Oral Oncol, Retinoblastoma-independent antiproliferative activity socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study. (
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2014 and March 2015 in public secondary schools. (
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted with 62 patients. (
  • This being a cross-sectional study, the outcome will be measured once at baseline. (
  • This blood is used for clinical and genetic testing. (
  • Predicting outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy in child anxiety disorders: the influence of genetic, demographic and clinical information. (
  • We describe a 'risk-index' approach combining genetic, demographic and clinical data and test its ability to predict diagnostic outcome following CBT in anxious children. (
  • CONCLUSION: Significant genetic, demographic and clinical predictors of outcome following CBT for anxiety-disordered children were identified. (
  • A customized genetic algorithm for solving multi-period cross-dock tru" by Kaveh Khalili-Damghani, Madjid Tavana et al. (
  • The problem is formulated as mixed-integer programming and an evolutionary computation approach based on a genetic algorithm (GA) is designed to solve it. (
  • M., Santos-Arteaga, F.J. and Ghanbarzad-Dashti, M. (2017) 'A Customized Genetic Algorithm for Solving Multi-Period Cross-Dock Truck Scheduling Problems,' Measurement, Vol. 108, pp. 101-118. (
  • Next generation sequencing platform will be used to establish Pfkelch13 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genetic background mutations (fd, arps10, mdr2 and crt) in P. falciparum parasites. (
  • Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. (
  • The sativa and indica labeling might have little correlation with the cultivars' genetic background and origin. (
  • The researchers went further to the root cause of the confusion: "We hypothesize that Cannabis growers and breeders have been assigning labels to cultivars primarily on the basis of aroma profiles and purported effects, rather than genetic ancestry or overall chemical similarity. (
  • I wanted to select a diverse group of initial cultivars, to evaluate and build a genetic library for breeding and product development. (
  • Dorman A, Baer D, Tomlinson I, Mott R, Iraqi F. Genetic analysis of intestinal polyp development in Collaborative Cross mice carrying the Apc Min/+ mutation. (
  • A predicted ratio simply indicates the probability of a particular outcome (genotype or phenotype) we should expect in a genetic cross. (
  • 1. To find out the unknown genotype of violet flowered pea plant, a researcher done the following cross. (
  • Our study, which links PROCR-219Gly to CAD through anti-inflammatory mechanisms and to VTE through pro-thrombotic mechanisms, provides a framework to reveal the mechanisms underlying similar cross-phenotype associations. (
  • Microsatellites are widely used for DNA profiling, also known as "genetic fingerprinting", of crime stains (in forensics) and of tissues (in transplant patients). (
  • Scientists have demonstrated that glyphosate, a generally used herbicide, can cross the blood-brain barrier. (
  • For the first time, the study shows that glyphosate can successfully cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. (
  • Study members receive the results of their genetic testing when they are available. (
  • The purpose of this study is to find out whether the study drug, LY3537982, is safe and effective in cancer patients who have a specific genetic mutation (KRAS G12C). (
  • Multiple regression analysis suggested that the level of study (postgraduate/undergraduate programme) and perceptions of the disadvantages of 'needing to re-tool professionally' were significant independent factors associated with the level of genetic/genomic literacy . (
  • As Feder and his team, including graduate student Gilbert St. Jean and AD&T research assistant professor Scott Egan, discuss in a new study in the Journal of Economic Entomology , the WSDA sent larvae samples to Wee Yee, research entomologist at the USDA's Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory in Wapato, Wash. One larva was sent to Notre Dame for genetic analysis . (
  • The study sought to compare Notre Dame's genetic analysis to Yee's visual identification after the larvae had developed into adults. (
  • Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. (
  • Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Marcia Cross de la … R U In 2007, this site became the largest Christian When Christ, the mighty Maker died, W Thus might I hide my blushing face Great Woman's Study! (
  • Longitudinal research: Historical research, case study, genetic comes under longitudinal approach of research. (
  • A toddler is thriving after doctors in the U.S. and Canada used a novel technique to treat her before she was born for a rare genetic disease that caused the deaths of two of her sisters. (
  • In January 2018 Weatherbys Scientific extended its portfolio to include genetic tests for companion animals offering genetic disease, trait analysis and parental verification of Cats and Dogs. (
  • Genetic studies on HRAC Group 9 resistant Rigid Ryegrass have not been reported to the site. (
  • The historical approach to setting OELs has in- genetic information extensively, but to date such factors have not volved investigators observing workers as well transmitted between been used to protect workers by incorpora- as conducting laboratory and animal studies. (
  • Haemoglobinopathies are the most prevalent genetic defect worldwide, with an estimated 269 million carriers [1]. (
  • The underlying causes of these conditions might be anything from dietary influences and lifestyle decisions to genetic factors and general cardiovascular health. (
  • Genetic tests can reveal whether you are at risk for developing certain diseases, and now they can also determine what sports your child might be best suited for. (
  • The aim of HIPShot (Hbv genetIc and Proteomic Screen) is to use cutting-edge screening techniques in human cells to identify host factors that are essential for HBV infection and at the same time targets for antiviral cure. (
  • Although pollutants have been associated with changes in vWF, thrombosis, and cardiac repolarization, these genetic factors have not previously been shown to interact with air pollution. (
  • Epilepsy itself, number of medications, genetic factors, or a combination of these probably influence the teratogenicity of anticonvulsant therapy. (
  • Researchers are trying to learn how genetic correlates may subtly interact with environmental and other factors to decrease or enhance the likelihood of developing the affliction. (
  • Introduction: Several factors are cited as capable to influence the development of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD), among them, the psychological, systemic, genetic, and occlusal factors. (
  • Among the main factors are: the psychological 24 and systemic factors 24 , individual pain symptomatology 24 , genetic aspects 24 and parafunctional habits, as bruxism 24,26 . (
  • In this review, we focus primarily on inherited genetic factors and their role in occupational health standard setting. (
  • The nutrition transition is adolescents in the city of Fez, Morocco, and to investigate generally associated with increased consumption of en- the possible associations with sociodemographic and ergy-dense foods that are low in fibre and high in sugar lifestyle factors. (
  • Their prevalence is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. (
  • Moreover, the results revealed that most of egg quality characteristics had negative estimates of additive ²A and dominance σ²d genetic variations. (
  • During the second pregnancy they visited a genetic counsellor and he prepared a pedigree chart of their family. (
  • I also present the cross-country evidence for environments that produce high or low trust. (
  • Here I will take the opposing view, for it seems that what the science shows is that Venema's claim, that the genetic evidence confirms evolutionary predictions, is inaccurate. (
  • A diallel cross among inbred lines of maize ( Zea mays L.) with medium maturity and an evaluation to estimate heterosis and genetic parameters for ear length (cm), ear diameter (cm), No. of rows ear -1 , No. of kernels row -1 , weight of 100-kernels and grain yield (ardab feddan -1 ) were carried out. (
  • The BMD is defined as the maximum period that would not could be defined by certain genetic polymor- likelihood estimate of exposure that provides result in adverse health effects phisms as hypersusceptible. (
  • Anti-GBM autoantibodies that are present in the circulation of patients with anti-GBM disease cross the fenestrated endothelium in the glomerulus and bind with the underlying GBM, inducing renal injury. (
  • Why am I participating in the CDF 2020 Virtual Turkey Trot Cross-Country Challenge? (
  • Graham King has developed and characterised a range of Brassica genetic and genomic resources underpinning crop improvement traits. (
  • Advances in understanding the genetic basis of crop traits requires detailed knowledge of the complex genome structure of Brassica species. (
  • Evolution of the sheep industry and genetic research in the United States: Opportunities for convergence in the 21st century. (
  • Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides. (
  • Researchers benefit in that students are introduced early on to the power of research with genetic model organisms as a key driver for scientific discovery, and will then hopefully be more open to such research strategies when entering university. (
  • Recent genetic research indicates that the degree of genetic heterogeneity within groups and homogeneity across groups make race per se a less compelling predictor. (
  • Among a sample of participants of all ages collected during the year 2010, the antibody testing of stored sera specimens from NHANES 2009-2010 was conducted to determine population levels of pre-pandemic cross reactive antibody to the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus and related influenza viruses prior to the spread of the novel 2009 H1N1 virus. (
  • Cross-reactive antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • The highest positive significant heterosis over mid-parents for 100-kernel weight were recorded by 14 crosses. (
  • Cross P 1 xP 2 showed maximum positive and significant heterosis over better-parent and mid-parents and only one cross P 1 xP 4 gave positive and significant over check varieties for 100-kernel weight. (
  • Insights into the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism from an interspecific cross between two diverging Silene (Caryophyllaceae) species. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders are a diverse group of disorders characterized by different genetic variations influencing brain development. (
  • The Arctic apple, so-called because its white flesh resists browning when sliced, is the latest product of genetic modification of food. (
  • Jeffrey M. Smith gave an update on his anti-GMO work, reporting on the current state of genetic modification and the dangers he believes it poses. (
  • This new gene constellation for A (H3N2)v viruses and its temporal association with an increase in human cases of A (H3N2)v highlight the need to better understand the risk for human infection with these viruses and the extent to which current seasonal vaccines might elicit cross-reactive antibodies to them. (
  • There may be a risk that genetic information could be misused for discriminatory purposes. (
  • Most grants were in cancer genetic testing for risk assessment. (
  • We tested our risk model in five cross-validation training sets. (
  • All breeds of dogs came out of crosses. (
  • The genetic disease tests are packaged into easy to navigate CombiBreed® packages for common breeds and the 10 FCI breed groups. (
  • Is There a Link between Economic Outcomes and Genetic Evolution? (
  • Also, researchers on our project take measures to maintain the confidentiality of your genetic testing results. (
  • On 14 October 2009 an Indian governmental agency the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), part of the Environment Ministry gave its approval for the environmental release of Bt brinjal. (
  • Smith is the founding director of the Institute for Responsible Technology and a member of the Sierra Club Genetic Engineering Committee. (
  • Participants get the results of all their testing (except the genetic tests) about one month after their visit. (
  • To learn the best ways to share the results of genetic tests with people. (
  • Return of Results from Initial Visit: You will receive a letter going over the results of all of your tests (including the echocardiogram, EKG, CT and blood work with the exception of the genetic testing). (
  • Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. (
  • Finally, blood samples are taken for routine tests that look for health problems such as diabetes and high cholesterol, as well as for genetic testing. (
  • To explain how genetic changes relate to health. (
  • Explore the signs and symptoms, genetic cause, and inheritance pattern of various health conditions. (
  • Two other articles in the magazine discuss boundaries that can exist in health care - and how to cross them. (
  • The Blue Cheese strain is a cross between parent plants UK Cheese (hybrid) and Blueberry (indica). (

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