Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The status of health in rural populations.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Any of six membrane-covered openings between the CRANIAL SUTURES in the incompletely ossified skull of the fetus or newborn infant. The fontanelles normally close sometime after birth.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
The status of health in urban populations.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Size and composition of the family.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Childbirth taking place in the home.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Sexual activities of humans.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Female parents, human or animal.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
Educational institutions.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
Chronic absence from work or other duty.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (1/42185)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/42185)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (3/42185)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (4/42185)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (5/42185)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. (6/42185)

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (7/42185)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (8/42185)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - High Resolution Esophageal Manometry in Patients with Chagas Disease: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation. AU - Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián. AU - Moris, María. AU - Mego, Marianela. AU - Salvador, Fernando. AU - Accarino, Anna. AU - Ramírez, Kathleen. AU - Azpiroz, Fernando. AU - Ruiz-de-Leon, Antonio. AU - Molina, Israel. PY - 2016/2/5. Y1 - 2016/2/5. N2 - © 2016 Sánchez-Montalvá et al. Introduction: Gastrointestinal involvement affects 30-40% of the patients with chronic Chagas disease. Esophageal symptoms appear once the structural damage is established. Little is known about the usefulness of high resolution manometry to early identification of esophageal involvement. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study at the Vall dHebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) between May 2011 and April 2012. Consecutive patients diagnosed with Chagas disease in the chronic phase were offered to participate. All patients underwent a structured questionnaire about digestive symptoms, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evaluation of appropriateness of prescription and polypharmacy in the geriatric population: A cross-sectional study at a comprehensive geriatric clinic in a tertiary care hospital. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vol 14: How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cross-sectional relationship between Haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population. AU - Payne, Collin F.. AU - Davies, Justine I.. AU - Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier AU - Hands, Katherine J.. AU - Kahn, Kathleen. AU - Kobayashi, Lindsay C.. AU - Tipping, Brent. AU - Tollman, Stephen. AU - Wade, Alisha. AU - Witham, Miles. N1 - This work was supported by the National Institute of Aging at the National Institute of Health (1P01AG041710-01A1, HAALSI - Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities). The Agincourt HDSS was supported by the Wellcome Trust, UK (058893/Z/99/A, 069683/Z/02/Z, 085477/Z/08/Z and 085477/B/08/Z), the University of the Witwatersrand and South African Medical Research Council.. PY - 2018/8/9. Y1 - 2018/8/9. N2 - Background Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and ...
Objective: Sleep disturbance during pregnancy is one of the most common maternal complaints. Not only does it play a crucial role in a mothers life, but also it comes with a multitude number of complications. This study aimed at assessing the association between sleep disturbance in pregnancy and maternal and child outcomes. Materials and methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study, conducted on pregnant women across 11 provinces in Iran in 2018. Sleep disturbance as a composite variable was defined using the principal component analysis based on five questions. Abortion, anemia in the first and third trimester, gestational diabetes, gestational age, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood sugar (FBS), mode of delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth were defined as study outcomes ...
Illness Perception and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered an epidemic disease in the gulf countries. Its prevalence in Saudi Arabia is becoming the highest in the world affecting around 30% of adults (1), (3). Indeed, diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, management of diabetic dyslipidemia, a well-recognized and modifiable risk factor, is an essential factor in the multifactorial approach to prevent CVD in individuals with type 2 diabetes (4). Several meta-analyses studies have clearly shown the benefits of statin therapy (3). Aims: To assess the results of the prescription of simvastatin for patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 168 diabetic patients was conducted in Hera General Hospital. Data were retrieved from medical records from January 2018 until December 2018. Data analysis was performed using Ecxelsoftwares. Results: Most of the sample population (95%) was older than 40 years old. Nearly all patients (97%) were on ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The present study, based on a random sample of Danish schools, showed that adolescents exposure to teachers and other pupils smoking during the school day is common. Three fifths of the students in the study reported that they had seen or knew of teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises, and most of them reported that they had seen or knew of teachers smoking inside the school building. The vast majority of students reported seeing or knowing of other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. This suggests that there is a degree of tolerance towards smoking in Danish schools, which may influence student beliefs and attitudes towards smoking. As noted earlier, according to the theory of planned behaviour8 a high tolerance towards smoking at school is likely to influence students, making them more likely to perceive smoking as something positive and acceptable, developing favourable personal beliefs and subjective norms about smoking, leading to intentions to take up the ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Physical activities are important for children and adolescents, especially asthmatics. A significant proportion is considered less active than their non-asthmatic peers and mothers beliefs about asthma are thought to be a determinant factor. The research objectives were to investigate whether mothers try to impose limitations on the physical activity (PA) of their asthmatic children/adolescents; identify associated factors; and explore if this attitude has any impact on childrens PA levels. In this cross sectional investigation, we studied 115 asthmatics aged between 9 and 19 years and their mothers. Asthma severity, PA level and exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) were evaluated. Mothers were questioned on their beliefs about physical activity in non-asthmatic and asthmatic children, if they imposed restrictions on their childrens physical activity, on EIB perception and personal levels of anxiety and depression. Ninety six percent of the mothers answered that PA are important for children and
Calculates sample size and composition to estimate a total from a two-stage cluster sampling design. This function is deprecated, see details.
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
Introduction Does Deregulation Raise Electric Rates? A Cross Sectional Analysis by William B. Marcus Principal Economist, JBS Energy, Inc. December, 2011 The theory behind deregulation is that competition
Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and accounting for 443,000 deaths (nearly 1 in 5) each year [1]. Tobacco use and tobacco-related illnesses are common among emergency department (ED) patients. Studies performed in multiple ED settings have found that 30-40% of ED patients smoke--prevalence rates that are well above that of the general population [2, 3].. Although providing smoking counseling has not traditionally been a function of emergency-care services, the field is increasingly recognizing the necessity and practicality of assuming such functions. As the number of primary care physicians declines [4], ED volume is steadily increasing, and health-care reform is not projected to significantly reduce this high utilization over the next decade. In 2006, there were 40.5 ED visits per 100 people in the US, an 18% increase ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2011 May 1;89(5):352-9. doi: 10.2471/BLT.10.085738. Epub 2011 Mar 30. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Neonatal mortality has remained resistant to change in the wake of declining child mortality. Suboptimal newborn care practices are predisposing factors to neonatal mortality. Adherence to four ANC consultations is associated with improved newborn care practices. There is limited documentation of this evidence in sub-Saharan Africa where suboptimal newborn care practices has been widely reported. Structured interviews were held with 928 women having children under-five months old at their homes in Masindi, Uganda, from October-December 2011. Four/more ANC consultations (sufficient ANC) was considered the exposure variable. Three composite variables (complete cord care, complete thermal care and complete newborn vaccination status) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression models were used to assess for associations. One in five women 220(23.7%) were assessed to practice complete cord care. Less than ten percent 57(6.1%) were
Among smokers who have attempted to stop without professional support, those who use e-cigarettes are more likely to report continued abstinence than those who used a licensed NRT product bought over-the-counter or no aid to cessation. This difference persists after adjusting for a range of smoker c …
OBJECTIVE: Clinic based studies suggest that adverse events in childhood may predispose to chronic pain in adult life. These have been conducted on highly selected groups, and it is unknown whether these relationships hold in the general population and to what extent the increased rate of adverse childhood events in persons with pain is an artefact of differential reporting. We examined the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain was associated with reports of adverse experiences in childhood and whether any observed relationships could be explained by differential recall. METHODS: A cross sectional population based screening survey was conducted. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included assessments of pain and psychological state. In total, 296 subjects who had demonstrated psychological distress were randomly selected and had a detailed interview, which included an assessment of 14 adverse childhood experiences. Medical records relating to childhood were also examined for those ...
A relationship has not been found between apple intake and asthma in the present cross-sectional study in children. However, there is some evidence to suggest that children who have a higher consumption of apple juice from concentrate and bananas exhibit a lower prevalence of current wheeze than children with a lower intake.. In contrast to studies in adults 8, 9, the present authors have not been able to replicate a significant negative association between apple intake and asthma in children. However, the present negative findings are consistent with previous studies 13-15, which showed no clear relationship between wheezing in children and fresh fruit intake despite a beneficial effect on lung function. It is not clear why the link observed in adult asthma was not replicated in children. The variation in the choice of outcome measures between studies and in the validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaires in children might have been responsible for the differences observed. ...
Over three-quarters of 11-year-old children in this sample (78%) had at least one adverse health condition, and 43% experienced co-occurrence (two or more conditions). Co-occurrence differed by sex and was socially patterned, with boys and children living in lower income households being at higher risk of having multiple adverse health conditions. LCA identified five distinct classes of conditions, in addition to the group of children with no or one adverse health condition: atopic burdened, socioemotional burdened, unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury and eczema/unfavourable weight. Children identified by the index as having greater numbers of adverse health conditions were more likely to be in the atopic burdened and socioemotional burdened classes; these children were more likely to be boys, have mothers with lower educational attainment and live in lower income households. Children in unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury (6.0%) and eczema/unfavourable weight ...
Data will be collected in 12 countries (500 children per site) from five major regions of the world (Eurasia & Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Pacific). Cross-sectional evaluations will be undertaken in each country. The physical characteristics of the children will be directly measured in order to classify their body weight and adiposity status, and physical activity and dietary patterns will be measured with the most objective techniques currently available. A concise set of environmental measures that are feasible, valid and meaningful across the international settings included in this research will also be employed. The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of obesity and weight gain in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle interventions to address childhood obesity that can be culturally adapted for ...
The present cross-sectional study examined the actor-partner interdependence effect of fear of COVID-19 among Iranian pregnant women and their husbands and its association with their mental health and preventive behaviours during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. A total of 290 pregnant women and their husbands (N = 580) were randomly selected from a list of pregnant women in the Iranian Integrated Health System and were invited to respond to psychometric scales assessing fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. The findings demonstrated significant dyadic relationships between husbands and their pregnant wives fear of COVID-19, mental health, and preventive behaviours. Pregnant wives actor effect of fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours but not anxiety. Moreover, a husband actor effect of fear of ...
Raheny Shamrock’s Mick Clohisey and UCD’s Ciara Mageean will be two of the leading lights at the Irish Life Health National Cross ...
Introduction. This essay will compare and contrast the Longitudinal and Cross-sectional methods of research, by firstly describing each method and listing the main types. It will also give examples of research which have used these methods in order to gather data. Then through discussing the advantages and disadvantages for using each method a conclusion will be formed. Conducting research is important in psychology as it gives the evidence needed to support theories and hypothesis. Developmental research methods aim to examine changes or differences in behaviour by looking at different ages or stages across a lifetime. This is usually carried out using two basic methods, the longitudinal and cross-sectional. Cross-sectional research is where individuals of different ages are studied at the same time; this is in contrast with longitudinal studies which involves testing one age group repeatedly over many years. A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study as well as a panel and retrospective ...
ATN 066b consists of a cross-sectional evaluation of three groups of recently diagnosed HIV-infected adolescents including: (1) care non-initiation; (2) care initiation, no maintenance; and (3) care initiation with maintenance. Social, psychological and behavioral factors associated with HIV-related care-seeking will be assessed using an ACASI. Three recruitment strategies using a randomized permuted block list of possible sequences for HIV-infected youth not in care will be also compared.. The ACASI instrument will be adapted from previously used instruments intended to retrospectively reconstruct the care-seeking process and to assess quality of life, concerns and expectations for care, satisfaction with care, and social-problem solving.. Ideally, the ACASI will be administered during a single session and may take up to 90 minutes to complete. Participants who are unable to complete the ACASI in one session will be allowed up to 7 days after initiation to complete it. Completion of all study ...
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses ...
Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for medi...
Objective To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery.. Design Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient diaries.. Setting Primary care.. Participants Adults with a new or worsening cough or clinical presentation suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection.. Main outcome measures Prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians and total symptom severity scores over time.. Results 3402 patients were recruited (clinicians completed a case report form for 99% (3368) of participants and 80% (2714) returned a symptom diary). Mean symptom severity scores at presentation ranged from 19 (scale range 0 to 100) in networks based in Spain and Italy to 38 in the network based in Sweden. Antibiotic prescribing by networks ranged from 20% to nearly 90% (53% ...
Objective. To examine black female students for the occurrence of risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle, namely obesity, hypertension, nicotine usage, dyslipidaemia and compromised mental health (depression). Design. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. All participants were examined within a period of 3 months during 1994. Weight, height, and hip and waist measurements were taken. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were calculated for each subject. Two systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to determine specific risk factors related to lifestyle. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure psychological well-being. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. Setting. The University of the North in the Northern Province of South Africa. Subjects. A complete data set of sociodemographic information, ...
Background: Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in India. Assessment of knowledge and practices of community about prevention of mosquito borne diseases is important for designing community-based interventions. Therefore, the study was carried out to assess such information. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 adults selected by systematic sampling method in a rural and urban area in Delhi. Data was collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square and Fishers Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P ,,/i, 0.05 was considered significant. Results: One hundred and forty-two (67.6%) subjects in rural and 89 (63.6%) in the urban area were able to name at least one mosquito borne disease. Only small number of participants (from rural 28.1% and urban 18.6% areas) was ...
Sir, The present study highlights the role of educational status on the cardiovascular health status of the study population. As identified by the authors, education as a proxy measure of socio-economic status has its own limitations and hence the title should have focused on educational level only. The study tool used for getting information on physical exercise also has some limitation. The question on physical exercise pertaining to exercise is nonspecific for the last response category inactive since exercising several times a year would also include those who are exercising four or more times a week. This overlap would cause confusion among the respondents while answering. The study nowhere mentions about the presence or absence of cardiovascular diseases viz. coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes etc. among the study population. The intake of medications, health interventions from the health care providers would also have relevance on the status of cardiovascular health as ...
In this cross-sectional cohort study, it was found that patients knowledge about BMI and weight-related risk factors has increased modestly. The possible causes are not fully known, although the participants recorded an increase in discussions about BMI with their primary care physician at their clinic visits. Some possible reasons for this increase in BMI knowledge include an increase in BMI measurement as a quality measure across different insurance plans and primary care medical home certification requirements for quality improvement.6 Previous literature suggests that physician discussion of healthy lifestyle increases the likelihood that a patient will make healthy lifestyle changes.5 However, despite the increase in patients knowledge and discussions about BMI with their primary care physician, there was not a decrease in BMI in the 2017 study population.. The current findings suggest that further study is needed to produce positive change in the treatment of patients with obesity and ...
The study showed a high prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in young, northern European men, which was significantly associated with decreased BMD. PTH and 25OHD were found to be inversely related to the markers of insulin resistance.
Objective data from the clinical laboratory are critical to the majority of medical decisions, including initial diagnosis and monitoring of treatment outcome. Laboratory errors, including inaccurate RIs, can lead to inappropriate diagnosis, unnecessary test repetition, and inappropriate follow-up investigations (7). Excessively wide RIs may mask subclinical disorders, and the use of incorrect RIs may confuse the clinical picture. Therefore, relevant RIs are essential for correct test result interpretation and reducing the risk of false negatives and false positives. Failure to provide proper RIs in the pediatric population carries obvious consequences for immunochemical analytes such as TSH (8) and ferritin (9).. The current investigation established RIs in a large, multiethnic pediatric cohort. However, the study was not without its limitations. As it was a cross-sectional investigation, the long-term health of the participating children was not verified. Additionally, the RIs provided are ...
The prevalence of depression and the association between depression and kidney function and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: a multicenter cross-sectional study
van den Brink, A. M. A., Gerritsen, D. L., de Valk, M. M. H., Mulder, A. T., Voshaar, R. C. O., & Koopmans, R. T. C. M. (2018). What do nursing home residents with mental-physical multimorbidity need and who actually knows this? A cross-sectional cohort study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 81, 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.02.008 ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
Sampling Methods. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. ...
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Combination of longitudinal and cross sectional design; starts with a cross sectional study of individuals with different ages then after some time, same individuals are tested again. ...
The current study found that baseline vitamin D status was an independent predictor of better β-cell function and AUCglucose after 3 years of follow-up in the PROMISE study cohort. This is the first study to examine the prospective association of serum 25(OH)D with β-cell function.. Previous studies assessing the association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function have used cross-sectional designs and have reported inconsistent findings (14,16-21,34). These inconsistencies may be attributed to the use of less-detailed, fasting-based surrogate measures of β-cell function (e.g., HOMA-β or C-peptide) in the majority of previous studies (16-18,20,34). Only two studies have used gold-standard methods, including the hyperglycemic clamp (14) and the IVGTT (21), but no significant association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function was found after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, the findings in the current study support our cross-sectional results in the PROMISE study cohort (19), in ...
Direction of study: Exposure and outcome at the same time. Strength of association: Strength of association in cross-sectional study is weak. Cross sectional study is popular study because:Easy to conduct: Readiness and easily it can conductedSimple: Simple in terms of design, calculation & conduct.Time: It can be done very quicklySuitable for problem identification and study cases…
Objective To assess whether randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were registered were less likely to report positive study findings compared with RCTs that were not registered and whether the association varied by funding source.Design Cross sectional study.Study sample All primary RCTs published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by November 2013. Trial registration was determined based on the report of a trial registration number in published RCTs or the identification of the trial in a search of trial registries. Trials were separated into prospectively and retrospectively registered studies.Main outcome measure Association between trial registration and positive study findings.Results 1122 eligible RCTs were identified, of which 593 (52.9%) were registered and 529 (47.1%) were not registered. Overall, registration was marginally associated with positive study findings (adjusted risk ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.98), even with stratification as prospectively and
White, I.R.; Blane, D.; Morris, J.N.; Mourouga, P., 1999: Educational attainment, deprivation-affluence and self reported health in Britain: a cross sectional study
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association between reduced GFR and hearing loss. T2 - a cross-sectional population-based study. AU - Vilayur, Eswari. AU - Gopinath, Bamini. AU - Harris, David C.. AU - Burlutsky, George. AU - McMahon, Catherine M.. AU - Mitchell, Paul. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been associated with hearing loss in certain syndromes. Reported evidence to date has come from only small observational studies. We present the first community-based study to show an association between nonsyndromal CKD and hearing loss. Study Design: Cross-sectional population-based study to examine the relationship between CKD and age-related hearing loss. Setting & Participants: The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a survey of age-related hearing loss conducted in 1997-2004; a total of 2,564 participants had audiometric testing and complete renal data. Predictor or Factor: Moderate CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ,60 mL/min/1.73 ...
This page contains the ABSTRACT- High Prevalence of Daily and Multi-site pain -- A Cross-sectional Population-based Study Among 3000 Danish Adolescents http://www.chiro.org/pediatrics/ABSTRACTS/High_Prevalence_of_Daily_and_Multi-site.shtml
Cross-sectional comparisons of violence and injuries in an urban community, South Africa: Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study
Background Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancy, has been shown to present different cytogenetic abnormalities, risk factors, and clinico-hematological features in different populations and geographic areas. Herein, we determined the cytoge...
Looking for online definition of Systematic sampling in the Medical Dictionary? Systematic sampling explanation free. What is Systematic sampling? Meaning of Systematic sampling medical term. What does Systematic sampling mean?
The present study described the research activity, self-reported success level, motivations and barriers of eight AHP teams in undertaking research and explored whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and audited research activity within each team. The study revealed variation in research activity between teams, however the majority of teams were undertaking some form of ethically approved research and had disseminated their research. All teams, apart from one, reported average success at undertaking various aspects of research. No significant correlations were found between self-reports of research success and team barriers to undertaking research with research activity. Motivating factors were found to have a stronger association with research activity, with enhancing team credibility having a significant correlation with funding received.. The most consistent form of research activity across teams was undertaking ethically approved research projects and conference ...
A cross sectional questionnaire based study on self medication practice of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to childrens physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding childrens ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of childrens ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour ...
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) provides a wealth of information on the Health Status of Americans. As one part of this cross-sectional survey study, researchers evaluated the relationship between serum levels of various antioxidant micronutrients and the prevalence of AMD. Data were presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Chicago (1). Methods: Cross-sectional relationships of serum levels of vitamins C, E and various carotenoids to the following: late AMD, presence of pigment abnormalities, and the presence of soft drusen (the latter 2 factors considered as early predictors of late AMD). Fundus photos and serum samples were obtained on 7935 participants age 40 and older. Age adjusted and multivariate logistic models were used. Factors adjusted for in the analyses included age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and eye color. Results: Prevalence of late AMD was 0.7%, while ...
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters. Methods and Material: A quantitative, observational cross-sectional study of 400 subjects was conducted in public venues in Sharjah. Probability sampling method was used for selection of subjects (parents who have daughters). A self-administered 32- question questionnaire was distributed. SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for entry and analysis of data. Frequency was calculated, Chi square test was used to conduct bivariate analysis and bar
Introduction: Change in lifestyle patterns associated with genetic factors is causing increasing prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in India. Obesity during childhood and adolescence puts these children at a high risk for adult cardio-metabolic disorders and other chronic diseases. It is important that this avalanche is prevented in time by comprehensive school health education programmes and other timely interventions. An observational cross-sectional study, as a part of the School Health Education and Enlightened Living (SHEEL) project, was conducted to assess the prevalence in childhood overweight and obesity during the academic years 2000-2001 and 2013-2014 at a private school. Materials and Methods: As a part of the SHEEL project, a total of 2421 children consists of 1346 boys and 1075 girls (age ranged, 4 -15 years) were evaluated for their height (stadiometer), weight (electronic weighing scale) and body mass index (BMI) during the academic year 2000-2001 (stage 1 study). We ...
To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner
This study is designed to characterize and define serum and cerebrospinal fluid valued for inflammatory cytokines and early idiopathic Parkinsons disease (IPD). Researchers are also looking for patterns in early IPD, hoping that they may lead to early diagnosis before symptoms occur.
BACKGROUND: Policymakers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor, and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association of health literacy with preventable ED visits. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of potentially preventable ED visits (outcome) among adults (≥18 years old) in an ED serving an urban community. We assessed health literacy (predictor) through structured interviews with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We recorded age, sex, race, employment, payer, marital and health status, and number of comorbidities through structured interviews or ...
Objective: Left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist play an important role in LV contraction and relaxation. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) deteriorates both diastolic and systolic functions. We evaluated the LV twist in patients with LBBB and preserved ejection fraction (EF) (>50%) to determine twist as a potential marker for subtle myocardial dysfunction. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 34 LBBB patients with preserved EF who were free from ischemic and valvular disease (Group 1) and 36 healthy controls (Group 2). All patients underwent 2-D Doppler and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography. LV apical, basal rotation, and twist were evaluated in both groups and compared accordingly. In addition, subjects were dichotomized considering the median twist value of the study population. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables associated with inframedian twist. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in LBBB ...
Lower extremity defects in healthy children raises interest of researchers as confirmed by numerous published original and review articles. The relationship between lower extremity postural defects and body mass are unclear as published data are inconclusive. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyse the prevalence of lower extremity defects in a large group of 8- to 12-year-old children; and further to assess the probability of defects associated with values of body mass variables. The study included prospective anthropometric measurements data of 6992 children (3476 boys and 3516 girls) from Gdansk (Northern Poland). Standard screening test used in Poland for assessment of lower limb defects were used (intermalleolar or intercondylar distance for knee alignment, linear vertical compass for valgus heel, computer podoscope or classical footprint and measuring the Sztriter-Godunow index for flatfeet). Body mass was assessed with local centile charts and IOTF cutoffs. Prevalence of
Human aging is characterized by expanded and altered adaptive immune responses to human CMV (HCMV). It is unclear whether this expansion has its origins in age-related homeostatic disturbances or viral reactivation, whether anti-CMV immune surveillance may still be effective, and what are the consequences of this expanded immune response for health and longevity. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in groups of HCMV-seropositive subjects aged ≥65 y of variable health status to compare the intensity of Ab responses against HCMV with those against EBV and with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proinflammatory effector responses directed to HCMV-derived pp65 and immediate-early protein 1 synthetic peptides. Ab responses to HCMV, but not to EBV, and anti-HCMV CD4+, but not CD8+, T cell responses were more intense in elderly subjects aged ≥85 y in poor health and were inversely correlated with markers of functional activity and cognitive function. Therefore, humoral and CD4+ T cell anti-HCMV ...
The complex multiracial/multilingual situation of Malaysia poses challenges for local professionals, such as speech and language therapists, who work with children. The present cross-sectional study investigated ethnic Chinese childrens simultaneous phonological acquisition of English, Mandarin and Malay, which are the three major local languages for the Malaysian Chinese population. The aims were to provide preliminary normative data on phonological acquisition for this population, as well as to investigate processes underlying multilingual phonological acquisition. Sixty-four pre-school children aged between 2;06-4;05 were recruited. A single-word naming test, a word consistency production subtest and an intonation imitation sub-test were devised for each of the three languages. Particular attention was paid to the characteristics of the local adult speech varieties as the benchmark for assessing and analyzing the childrens responses on the tests. This sociolinguistic dimension has often ...
Free Online Library: Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.(Research Article, Report) by BioMed Research International; Biotechnology industry High technology industry Cardiology Optical tomography Methods Tissue engineering Technology application
Early detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant females starts by a request of the gynecologists, which is based on their knowledge and awareness of the guidelines on conducting these tests. This is an observational cross-sectional study that i
Purpose: To determine the distribution of corneal topographic patterns measured by Pentacam in a rural population based on age and gender. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, two different rural regions in Iran were randomly selected, by random cluster sampling. Detailed optometric examination including - refraction (objective and subjective), visual acuity assessment and slit lamp evaluation and Pentacam topography were conducted for all participants. Results: Corneal topographic maps of 794 rural cases were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 32.1+18.53 years. A total of 398 patients (51.1) were male and 396 patients (49.9) were female. The most prevalent topographic pattern was Symmetric Bowtie (21.6) and after that Superior Steepening (17.9) and the more rare patterns were Asymmetric Bowtie with Skewed Radial Axis (AB-SRAX) (3) and Round (5.6). The most prevalent topographic patterns in age range from 5-20yr were Oval and Symmetric bowtie (25.9), in 21-40yr was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indices of adiposity as predictors of cardiometabolic risk and inflammation in young adults. AU - Pourshahidi, L. K.. AU - Wallace, J. M. W.. AU - Mulhern, M. S.. AU - Horigan, G.. AU - Strain, J. J.. AU - McSorley, E. M.. AU - Magee, P. J.. AU - Bonham, M. P.. AU - Livingstone, M. Barbara E.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - BackgroundStudies investigating obesity and cardiometabolic risk have focused on at-risk populations and methodological inconsistencies have produced equivocal findings. The present cross-sectional study investigated indices of body composition as predictors of cardiometabolic risk and their relationship with inflammation in apparently healthy young adults.MethodsA fasting blood sample was taken from consenting adults (160 males, 32 females, aged 18-40 years) for assessment of cardiometabolic risk markers (blood pressure, lipid profiles and insulin resistance) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, ...
Objectives To investigate associations between perceived autonomy support from health-care professionals, autonomy-driven motivation, diabetes self-perceived competence and self-esteem in adults (age 18-55 yrs) with suboptimally regulated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with at least one HbA1c≥8.0% (≥64 mmol/mol) during the past year, and whether these factors could predict decrease in self-esteem over time. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed, and 9 months follow-up data were collected. Data collection comprised clinical and socio-demographic variables, blood sampling (HbA1c) and self-report questionnaires; the Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ), Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ), the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale (PCDS), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). We fitted block-wise linear regression models to assess associations between RSES and variables of interest (HCCQ, TSRQ, PCDS, HbA1c, clinical and socio-demographic ...
|strong|Objective:|/strong| To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status) in a national adult population in Indonesia. |strong|Material and Methods|/strong|: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18-103 years) completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. |strong|Results|/strong|: Of total sample (n = 29509), 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women) (<18.5 kg/m|sup|2|/sup|), 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women) and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m|sup|2|/sup|) (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women); 24.6% of the
This study aimed to investigate the measures of retention in care (RIC) in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age group (younger vs. older adults). This was a longitudinal retrospective cross-sectional study that used secondary data from the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). We examined RIC in 798 adult PLWH + T2DM who visited a CNICS clinic at least once in 2015. Six measures of RIC were examined: missed visits [measured as a continuous variable (total number of missed visits) and dichotomous variable (0 = never missed, 1 = missed)], visit adherence, 6-month visit gap, 4-month visit constancy, and the Health and Resources Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureaus RIC measure. We calculated Spearman correlation coefficients and conducted logistic regression and multi-group path analysis. Most RIC measures were significantly correlated (p | 0.05) with one another; only 4-month visit constancy was not correlated with other measures.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate measures of dementia care environments by comparing a special care facility (SCF) with traditional institutional facilities (TIFs). DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative study of nursing home environments conducted as part of a longitudinal study on quality of life for residents with dementia. SETTING: Twenty-four traditional nursing homes and one special care facility. PARTICIPANTS: One SCF with six distinct environments, 24 TIFs with 45 distinct environments, and 88 family members. MEASUREMENTS: Therapeutic Environment Screening Scale-2+ (TESS-2+); Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (SCUEQS), a subset of the TESS-2+ items; Composite Above Average Quality Score (CAAQS), a composite score of all items on the TESS-2+; and Models of Care Instrument (MOCI). RESULTS: The SCUEQS did not detect a significant difference between the SCF and the TIFs (30.0 vs 27.2, P=.28). The CAAQS detected a significant difference between the SCF and the TIFs, whereby the SCF environments
Most patients in our study do not describe dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD. However, more than one in seven patients is explicitly dissatisfied. The chance of dissatisfaction is increased with a lower level of education, the involvement of more than one additional healthcare provider, a second opinion on the patients initiative and delay caused by the healthcare provider. In addition, if only the GP and neurologist have been involved in the diagnostic pathway, women are more likely to be dissatisfied than men.. Although dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD appears to be playing a limited role in quantitative terms, dissatisfaction with the initial diagnostic process can have an impact on long-term care, stressing the importance of paying attention to it: cognitions formed at an early stage tend to determine care experiences during the further treatment episode [2, 5, 20].. Our study shows that it is not the duration of the diagnostic pathway of PD on its own that ...
In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) ± 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups with p < 0.01. highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of 23 years with a mean of 11.61 ± 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 ± 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. the anova analysis for haemoglobin content and ...
A highly accelerating number of people around the world have been infected with novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mass screening programs were suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an effective precautionary measure to contain the spread of the virus. On 16 April 2020, a COVID-19 mass screening program was initiated in Saudi Arabia in multiple phases. This study aims to analyze the number of detected COVID-19 cases, their demographic data, and regions most affected in the initial two phases of these mass screening programs. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the high-risk population as part of the COVID-19 mass screening program across all regions in Saudi Arabia during April and May 2020. A Chi-square-test was used to determine the associations between positive cases and various demographic variables. Out of 71,854 screened individuals, 13.50% (n = 9701) were COVID-19 positive, of which 83.27% (n = 59,835) were males. Among positive cases, in the 30-39
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicoepidemiological Profile of Elderly PLHIV Attending a Tertiary Care Center in South India. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Ramakrishnan, Neha. AU - Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran. AU - Ramapuram, John. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Rathi, Priya. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Background: Physicians are coming across a considerable number of HIV-positive patients belonging to older age-group, in practice. They pose a challenge as they might present with advanced forms and comorbid conditions. We aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological profile of elderly people living with HIV. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. We analyzed the record of 120 patients from 2009 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients. Results: Of 786 HIV-positive patients, 120 were elderly. Mean age was 55.9 ± 6.1 years. Majority 68% were male. In all, 63.33% were male. Commonest route of ...
From Oracs link to Sullivans LB/RB blog about the first vaccinated-vs-unvaccinated study that Generation Rescue tried to get funding for ($ 800,000) and promoted in 2010:. http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/index.php?s=deth. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE NATIONAL HOME EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NHERI):. I. Projects Primary Purpose, and the Need it Addresses. The goal of this project is to test the association between vaccinations and both acute and chronic neuro-developmental disorders and the efficacy of preventive health strategies. This will be achieved by conducting a retrospective cross-sectional study comparing the incidence of chronic illnesses (i.e., asthma, obesity, and eczema), neuro-developmental disorders (i.e., autism, ADHD and learning disorders), and overall health and well-being among a random sample of vaccinated and unvaccinated children (5-18 years of age). The study will obtain information from a random sample of two populations: I) children being horne-schooled and belong to ...
Background: Traditionally, a fat child is considered as an attractive child and is often referred to as a healthy child, one who is likely to survive the rigors of undernourishment and infection. The obesity has been defined as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, to the extent that health may be impaired. Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non-communicable diseases called New World Syndrome creating an enormous socio-economic and public health burden in poorer countries. Objective: Augmenting body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children by using BMI, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the municipal corporation area among school going children during the period of 1 st September 2009-31 st August 2010. We prepared the list of children roll number wise from ...
Cross sectional data reporting the height, weight, and body mass index of UK patients with cystic fibrosis are presented. During the first decade of life height and weight in patients with cystic fibrosis are maintained at about 0.5 SD below those of the general population, which reflects an improvement over earlier published observations....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa. AU - Iftikhar, Mustafa. AU - Lemus, Marili. AU - Usmani, Bushra. AU - Campochiaro, Peter A.. AU - Sahel, José Alain. AU - Scholl, Hendrik. AU - Shah, Syed Mahmood. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Aim: To develop a simple and easily applicable classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Visual acuity (VA), visual field width (VF) and ellipsoid zone width (EZ) were obtained from medical records of patients with RP. A scoring criterion was developed wherein each variable was assigned a score from 0 to 5 depending on its distribution. The cumulative score (from 0 to 15) was used to classify disease severity from grade 0 to 5. The scores were correlated with each other and the final grade. The grades were then correlated with age and disease duration. Results: The median age (range) of patients (n=93) was 55 (12-87) years, 51% were female, 70% ...
Cervical cancer caused mainly by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 strains is the second most prevalent cancer among women in Kenya. It is often diagnosed late when treatment is difficult due to very low percentage of women attending screening thus, mortalities remain high. The most available tests in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) have relatively low specificity, low sensitivity, require a laboratory setting and huge technical and financial support not readily available. HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein has been identified as a potential biomarker in a more specific early diagnosis of cervical cancer. This retrospective cross-sectional study developed a paper-based nanokit with enhanced detection of HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein for cervical cancer screening. The HRP labelled antibodies HPV 16 E6/18 E6-HRP (CP15) passively conjugated to citrate stabilized 20 nm gold nanoparticles were evaluated for immune sensing mechanism using a recombinant viral HPV E6 protein. The diagnostic accuracy was
Background: Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youths PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youths participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA ...
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, reporting rates for tuberculosis (TB) are rising in an emerging HIV epidemic. To describe the HIV epidemic among TB patients and quantify its impact on rates of reported TB, we performed a repeated cross-sectional survey from 1997 through 2002 in a randomly selected sample of inner city TB patients. We assessed effect by adjusting TB case reporting rates by the fraction of TB cases attributable to HIV infection. HIV prevalence in TB patients rose exponentially from 1.5% to 9.0% during the study period. Young (&lt;35 years), single, male patients were mostly affected; injection drug use was a potent risk factor. After correction for HIV infection, the trend in TB reporting rates changed from a 1.9% increase to a 0.4% decrease per year. An emerging HIV epidemic, concentrated in young, male, injection drug users, is responsible for increased TB reporting rates in urban Vietnam.
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses helped ...
Purpose: : Focal cortical disturbances associated with multiple sclerosis, trauma or tumor can interfere with higher visual processing even in the presence of preserved visual acuity (VA). Diabetes affects both retinal vasculature and neurons, but its effects on the CNS are less well described. We hypothesized that DM patients exhibit central visual processing deficits compared with non-DM controls. Methods: : Subjects aged 20-69 with ,0.5 logMAR ETDRS VA and varying stages of diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative, severe untreated proliferative (PDR), severe PDR + pan-retinal photocoagulation, PRP), and non-DM controls underwent standard and psychophysical testing: monocular color vision (FM100Hue), binocular illusory contours (IC), motion-defined letter recognition (MDR), Titmus fly stereoacuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. After ensuring shape recognition, 5 IC and 1 control shape were presented at 2 support ratios (0.2 and 0.4, luminance-defined versus total contour length) at ...
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ...
Objective A clinical trial (REQUIRE) was started to investigate the use of an ultrasound renal denervation system in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RHT). We analyzed the prevalence of patients who were eligible for inclusion in this cross-sectional study at the time of screening. Methods Nine-hundred ninety-nine consecutive hypertension (HT) patients who were treated in our hospital as outpatients were classified into the following categories: patients treated with at least 3 types of antihypertensive drugs including diuretic agents who were eligible for enrolment in SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan (SH-J) with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥160 mmHg, who were ≤80 years of age, and an eGFR of ≥45 mL/min/1 ...
Objective-To evaluate the differences among each states Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (ICVI) form and the legibility of data on paper ICVIs used to support disease tracing in cattle. Design-Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. Sample-Examples of ICVIs from 50 states and 7,630 randomly sampled completed paper ICVIs for cattle from 48 states. Procedures-Differences among paper ICVI forms from all 50 states were determined. Sixteen data elements were selected for further evaluation of their value in tracing cattle. Completed paper ICVIs for interstate cattle exports in 2009 were collected from 48 states. Each of the 16 data elements was recorded as legible, absent, or illegible on forms completed by accredited veterinarians, and results were summarized by state. Mean values for legibility at the state level were used to estimate legibility of data at the national level. Results-ICVIs were inconsistent among states in regard to data elements requested and availability of
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NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
In cross-sectional studies, a sample (or samples) is drawn from the relevant population and studied once.[2] A cross-sectional ... The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies.[2] ... Longitudinal studiesEdit. Longitudinal studies take measure of the same random sample at multiple time points.[2] Unlike with a ... However, longitudinal studies are both expensive and difficult to do. It's harder to find a sample that will commit to a months ...
Bobak M, Skodova Z, Marmot M (2003). "Beer and obesity: a cross-sectional study". Eur J Clin Nutr. 57 (10): 1250-3. doi:10.1038 ... the INTERHEART study): case-control study". Lancet. 364 (9438): 937-52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9. PMID 15364185.. ... the INTERHEART study): Case-control study". Lancet. 364 (9438): 937-52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9. PMID 15364185.. ... A study has stated that 75% of patients treated for asthma in the emergency room were either overweight or obese.[35] ...
... a cross sectional study". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 64 (3): 375-378. doi:10.1136/jnnp.64.3.375. ... In their study, actors were instructed to vocalize an array of different emotions without words. The study showed that ... This has been determined in multiple studies, such as Hoekert et al.'s 2017 study on emotional prosody in schizophrenia, which ... In an fMRI study, men showed a stronger activation in more cortical areas than female subjects when processing the meaning or ...
A cross-sectional study". Trials. 12 (1): 58. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-58. PMC 3055831. PMID 21356072. Lachin JM (June 2000). " ... For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a ... ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis, because it does not require observation of compliance status ... which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. ITT analysis provides information about the potential ...
A cross-sectional study". F1000Research. 7 (7): 1030. doi:10.12688/f1000research.15479.2. ISSN 2046-1402. OCLC 7891654842. PMC ...
A cross-sectional study". Pan African Medical Journal. 24: 120. doi:10.11604/pamj.2016.24.120.8986. PMC 5012825. PMID 27642458 ... A study carried out in an isolated Inuit village showed that antibodies produced from subclinical wild virus infection ... Schnirring L (17 May 2019). "Four new polio cases in Pakistan as study tackles partial-dose vaccination". Center for Infectious ... 28". International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). 11 May 2005. Archived from the original on 12 August 2006. Retrieved 7 ...
Cross sectional study using data from the 2001 census". Retrieved 2006-07-16.. ...
CHEN, M; LANDER, T; MURPHY, C (May 2006). "Nasal health in Down syndrome: A cross-sectional study". Otolaryngology-Head and ... The amygdala (in olfaction) processes pheromone, allomone, and kairomone (same-species, cross-species, and cross-species where ... "An Experimental Study of the Ventral Striatum of the Golden Hamster. II. Neuronal Connections of the Olfactory Tubercle." Wiley ... Mori 2014, p. 182, "The Study of Humans Uncovers Novel Aspects in Brain Organization of Olfaction (Chapter 9.2)" ...
2016) How Do Urban Indian Private Practitioners Diagnose and Treat Tuberculosis? A Cross-Sectional Study in Chennai. PLOS ONE ... Studies have shown that faulty anti-TB prescriptions in the private sector in India ranges from 50% to 100% and this is a ...
Cross-sectional study using claims data]". Nervenarzt (in German). 79 (1): 67-72. doi:10.1007/s00115-007-2280-6. PMID 17457554 ... A randomized, cross-over, double-blind study versus placebo". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 59 (3): 179-188. doi: ... One study found some slight selectivity for zopiclone on α1 and α5 subunits, although it is regarded as being unselective in ... One low-quality study found that zopiclone is ineffective in improving sleep quality or increasing sleep time in shift workers ...
... a cross-sectional study". Medical Education. 39 (6): 594-604. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02176.x. ISSN 1365-2923.. ... This was tested in a recent study of college women who had identified studying as their primary stressor.[66] The women were ... Findings from a cross-sectional survey in England". European Journal of Cancer. 103: 308-316. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2018.03.029. ... Studies consistently show that social support can protect against physical and mental consequences of stress.[58][59] This can ...
Cross-sectional and longitudional evidence from the Berlin Aging Study". Psychology and Aging. 15 (3): 511-526. doi:10.1037/ ... Wejbrandt A (2014). "Defining aging in cyborgs: A bio-techno-social definition of aging". Journal of Aging Studies. 31: 104-109 ... The Women's Health and Aging Study". Journal of Gerontology. 56A (10): 609. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.10.m609.. ... though the pattern between genders is not universal across all studies and some results suggest sex-based differences only ...
Chara PJ, Kuennen LM (February 1994). "Diverging gender attitudes regarding casual sex: a cross-sectional study". Psychol Rep. ... Gwen J. Broude, 'Male-Female Relationships in Cross-Cultural Perspective: A Study of Sex and Intimacy' Cross-Cultural Research ... A study published by the Archives of Sexual Behavior reported that sixty percent of college students have participated in a ... Hughes's study suggests that there were five main motivations to why college students wanted to be in a casual relationship.[13 ...
Cross-sectional and longitudional evidence from the Berlin Aging Study". Psychology and Aging. 15 (3): 511-26. doi:10.1037/0882 ... In 2016, in a study, the removal of those cells in mice has extended their lifespans by 20% to 30%.[77] Another study shows ... Cross-linkage: The idea that ageing results from accumulation of cross-linked compounds that interfere with normal cell ... while one study, by the University of Wisconsin, showed that caloric restriction does extend lifespan,[126] the second study, ...
Garrett, M; McElroy, A M; Staines, A (2002-06-22). "Locomotor milestones and babywalkers: cross sectional study". BMJ : British ... overview of systematic reviews and a systematic review of primary studies". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 60: 158-171. doi: ...
A cross-sectional observational study in Europe". European Psychiatry. 45 (Supplement C): 136-138. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.05 ...
Results from a large cross-sectional study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 67 (3): 189-197. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores. ... This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated high co-morbidity of somatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms (i.e ... "How to assess common somatic symptoms in large-scale studies: A systematic review of questionnaires". Journal of Psychosomatic ...
A Cross Sectional Study". Thunderbird International Business Review. 48 (5): 623-642. doi:10.1002/tie.20113. Ian Bremmer and ... 6-20; and Stephen J. Kobrin "Political Risk: A Review and Reconsideration", Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 10 ... 213-214) Jeffrey D. Simon, "A Theoretical Perspective on Political Risk", Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 15, ...
A cross-sectional study". Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. 11 (1): 40. doi:10.1186/s13011-016-0084-z. PMC ... A later study sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy also took a close look at how movies and songs affect ... The study found that about three-fourths of the tracks lacked a direct reference to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. Of the ... The study detected "few references that could be considered either explicitly pro-use or anti-use". Of the small minority of ...
Mashal, Abdallah; Katz, Amos; Shvartzman, Pesach (2011). "Atrial fibrillation: A primary care cross-sectional study". Israel ... Jiangsu Furui Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd is currently recruiting participants in their study.[needs update] Myocytes Ion channels ...
"Cross sectional, community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal". BMJ. 324: 1063. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7372.1063. " ... A descriptive study with cross-sectional and qualitative components. Dhakal, S.; Chapman, G. N.; Simkhada, P. P.; van ... However, other studies have shown coverage in rural communities to be as little as 29% and upwards of 79% in more urban areas. ... According to one study, the zonal hospital was equipped with 75% of the essential equipment and drugs based on a 22 item ...
A cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between several sleep assessment criteria and different shift work ... A Cross-Sectional Study". Safety and Health at Work. 10 (3): 254-259. doi:10.1016/j.shaw.2019.05.003. ISSN 2093-7911. PMC ... One study suggests that, for those working a night shift (such as 23:00 to 07:00), it may be advantageous to sleep in the ... Early menopause can lead to a host of other problems later in life.[14][15] A recent study, found that women who worked ...
... a population-based cross-sectional study". BJU Int. 86 (4): 443-8. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2000.00836.x. PMID 10971269. CS1 ... UCPPS is now studied as a systemic disorder. In support of this approach, a 2005 study showed that stress is correlated to Cat ... A 2010 study found that nerve growth factor could also be used as a biomarker of the condition. For CP/CPPS patients, analysis ... Studies are lacking in this area. There are no definitive diagnostic tests for CP/CPPS. This is a poorly understood disorder, ...
... in a cross-sectional study.[citation needed] Baelum 1996 recalculated their previous data from Kenyan and Chinese populations ... As in other studies, a major portion of the total number of teeth lost was accounted for by a small group of persons. In this ... The study size was 560 persons and at the 48-month examination, 22% of persons and 1.8% of teeth had attachment loss incidence ... There was an apparent increase from 1% to 2% to 3% over the three study periods, which may have been due to an increase of ...
"Is there a north-south divide in social class inequalities in health in Great Britain? Cross sectional study using data from ... A Study of the Post-Reformation Catholic Survival and the Operation of the Recusancy Laws. London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne. ... a saltaire cross. Counties in the north of the area, such as Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, ...
A Cross-sectional Study in Iranian Population, n.d. "Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior" (PDF). csun.edu. ... Mills, Daniel S. (2003-05-02). "Medical paradigms for the study of problem behaviour: a critical review". Applied Animal ...
Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard (2016). "Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study" (PDF). ... But the 2010 study of five private hospitals that serve more than 60% of foreign medical tourists concluded that there were ... Studying Muay Thai is a main activity for Thai sports tourism, which the government promotes. In 2016, there were 11,219 ... All numbers reported by the government must be viewed with some skepticism according to the authors of a 2010 study. The Thai ...
Observational Studies. *Cross-sectional study. *Cohort study. *Natural experiment. *Quasi-experiment. Statistical inference ...
C21 - Modelos de corte transversal (Cross-sectional); Modelos espaciais; Treatment effect models; Regressões quantílicas ... JEL: L8 - Industry Studies: Services JEL: L80 - Geral. JEL: L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing; e-Commerce. JEL: L82 ... C31 - Modelos de corte transversal (Cross-sectional); Modelos espaciais; Treatment effect models; Regressões quantílicas ... JEL: L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing JEL: L60 - Geral. JEL: L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics. JEL ...
... national cross sectional survey". BMJ. 335 (7619): 549. doi:10.1136/bmj.39315.670208.47. PMC 1976488. PMID 17827485.. ... studies arguing that all studies merited "scrutiny and a degree of skepticism", irrespective of their funding. He wished for ... Case Studies" (PDF). Department of Business Innovation and Skills. October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March ... "studies with smaller population in the United States usually reported larger reductions, while larger studies reported ...
After studying law at the University of Virginia, Robinson returned to Arkansas, winning election to the Arkansas General ... Sectional. *College Democrats of America. *Democrats Abroad. *National Federation of Democratic Women ... Wedded to his job, he arrived early each day, stayed late, and studied legislation at home.[1] ... He attended the University of Arkansas and studied law at the University of Virginia. ...
Johnson, J.V., & Hall, E.M. (1988). Job strain, workplace social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study ... Self-report survey methodology is the most used approach in OHP research.[37] Cross-sectional designs are commonly used; case- ... At least five studies of men have linked effort-reward imbalance with CVD.[79] Another large study links ERI to the incidence ... In a massive (n , 197,000) longitudinal study that combined data from 13 independent studies, Kivimäki et al. (2012)[77] found ...
... a cross-sectional study from Northern India". Pediatric Research. 81 (1): 18-26. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.177. PMID 27632780.. ... Many of the traits that affect profitability in crosses of modern dairy breeds have not been studied in designed experiments. ... The preliminary studies show results inconsistent with the outcrossing paradigm based on individual environments of the studied ... Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are an exception.[48] ...
... a cross-sectional study from Erbil city". BMC Public Health. 13: 809. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-809. PMC 3844478. PMID 24010850. ... Deconstructing Kurdish Studies". European Journal of Turkish Studies. Social Sciences on Contemporary Turkey (5). doi:10.4000/ ... Chelkowski, Peter J.; Pranger, Robert J. (1988). Ideology and Power in the Middle East: Studies in Honor of George Lenczowski. ... Asatrian, G. (2009). Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus. 13. pp. 1-58. Generally, the etymons and ...
Cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) *Plain films are generally sufficient in making a joint dislocation diagnosis. However, ... Although it may not be as accurate in detecting any associated fractures, in one observational study ultrasonography identified ... cross-sectional imaging can subsequently be used to better define and evaluate abnormalities that may be missed or not clearly ... ultrasound is the imaging study of choice as the proximal femoral epiphysis has not significantly ossified at this age.[13] ...
So, Damon W. K., Jesus' Revelation of His Father: A Narrative-Conceptual Study of the Trinity with Special Reference to Karl ... "Arianism" in Cross, F.L. & Livingstone, E.A. (eds) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1974) ... A Sectional Confession of Faith, 13:2 online. *^ Kittel, 3:108.. *^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, ... Coppens, Charles, S.J. (1903). A Systematic Study of the Catholic Religion. St. Louis: B. HERDER. Archived from the original on ...
... recording protocols for entheseal changes in regards to expressing activity patterns using archival data and cross-sectional ... Studies of dental enamel hypoplasia are used to study child health. Unlike bone, teeth are not remodeled, so they can provide a ... δ13C studies have been used in North America to document the transition from a C3 to a C4 (native North American plants to corn ... A study of iron-deficiency among early Mongolian nomads showed that although overall rates of cribra orbitalia declined from ...
Conversely, Best and Chakravarti (1990) studied the problem as an active set identification problem, and proposed a primal ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ...
... comparing flight attendant health to the general population in a cross-sectional study". BMC Public Health. 18 (1): 346. doi: ... The emotional labour performed by flight attendants and cross-cultural aspects of it have since been actively studied and are a ... a cross-sectional survey". Environmental Health. 6: 28. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-6-28. ISSN 1476-069X. PMC 2064907. PMID 17897468. ... Other studies have found increased rates of breast and skin cancer,[47] reduced respiratory health,[48] adverse reproductive ...
... international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries,DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki105, 128-132, 8. märts ... Uurimuse meetodiks oli vaatlusuuring (cross-sectional survey) ning uuritavateks olid Euroopa ja Põhja-Ameerika koolide 123 227 ...
Probabilistic load flow in power-flow study explains the uncertainties of input variables as probability distribution and ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ...
The size of the windcatcher allows it to work in any wind direction;[19] the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the wind ... Shady Attia (2-24 June 2009). Designing the Malqaf for summer cooling in low-rise housing, an experimental study (PDF). 26th ... Windcatchers vary dramatically in shape, including height, cross-sectional area, and internal sub-divisions and filters.[2] ... It has a strong cross-breeze from the courtyard, at least partly driven by convection;[4]:Ch. 6[5] it thus uses the courtyard ...
The length and cross-sectional mouth area required to create a bass or sub-bass horn require a horn many feet long. 'Folded' ... "Study Hall. ProSoundWeb. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2010.. ... Voice-coil wire cross sections can be circular, rectangular, or hexagonal, giving varying amounts of wire volume coverage in ... Acousticians, in studying the radiation of sound sources have developed some concepts important to understanding how ...
... only small cross-sectional areas of the material are used. Small areas of very high strength but moderate stiffness material ... Studied in an academic context as to its potential benefits in construction, it has also proved itself cost-effective in a ... This flowing, continuous cross section optimises aerodynamic efficiency.[citation needed] Moreover, the trailing edge, along ... it is the first to have a smoothly contoured wing cross-section instead of the wings being partitioned span-wise into sections ...
Cross-sectional EBIC of a p-n junction. By using the signal from the picoammeter as the imaging signal, an EBIC image is formed ... EBIC has also been extended to the study of local defects in insulators. For example, W.S. Lau (Lau Wai Shing) developed "true ... When a semiconductor device is imaged in cross-section, the depletion region will show bright EBIC contrast. The shape of the ...
Among pregnant women in Israel a small scale cross sectional study found the prevalence of HSV-2 infection was 13.3% and that ... According to a study in Ontario, of people between the ages of 15 to 16, 26.9% of men, 32% of non-pregnant women, and 55% of ... Many studies have been performed around the world to estimate the numbers of individuals infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2 by ... In Australia, a study using data from 1999 revealed the seroprevalence of HSV-1 was at 76.5%, with significant differences ...
LPAAT activity doubles the number of acyl chains, greatly increasing the cross-sectional area of the lipid that lies 'within' ... Studies have suggested that this process may be lipid-driven, and have postulated a central role for DAG due to its, likewise, ... This means that it is difficult to measure PA production and therefore to study the role of PA in the cell. However, PLD ... Studies have suggested that DAG signaling is mediated by polyunsaturated DAG, whereas PLD-derived PA is monounsaturated or ...
... which causes a nonuniform distribution of current over the cross-sectional area of the conductor. Transmission line conductors ... A number of studies have highlighted the potential benefits of very wide area super grids based on HVDC since they can mitigate ... The line crosses a total length of 1907 km (1192 mi). Since the Xiangjiaba-Shanghai line was completed in 2010, at least twelve ... Cross-Skagerrak consisted since 1993 of 3 poles, from which 2 were switched in parallel and the third used an opposite polarity ...
A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Retraction Notices at BioMed Central". BMJ Open. 6 (11): e012047. doi:10.1136/bmjopen- ... "Blacklists" and 'Whitelists" to Tackle Predatory Publishing : A Cross-Sectional Comparison and Thematic Analysis". doi:10.7287/ ... Various studies have investigated the extent of open access. A study published in 2010 showed that roughly 20% of the total ... A Cross-Sectional Comparison". BMC Medicine. 15 (1): 28. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0785-9. PMC 5353955. PMID 28298236.. ...
A cross-sectional and longitudinal study". Environment International. 120: 199-206. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.002. hdl:10044 ... A longitudinal Study". This study investigated the effects of suicide-related internet use on user's suicidal thoughts, ... Sueki, (2013) carried out a study titled "The effect of suicide-related internet use on users' mental health: ... Paul Broca studied trepanation and came up with his own theory on it. He noticed that the fractures on the skulls dug up ...
... a cross-sectional evaluation using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 48 (9 ... Although such cross-over benefit might happen, not enough high-quality studies have been done to demonstrate it.[93] ... which a few studies suggest are present 5-22% of the time). Furthermore, an abnormal neuroimaging study indicates a high ... A study in young adults (18-34) on transitioning to adulthood found that their concerns were physical health care and ...
Studies done with pseudo- or quasirandomization are usually given nearly the same weight as those with true randomization but ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ...
A = cross sectional area of valve. L = axial length of valve. Λ(t) = single degree of freedom; when. Λ. 2. (. t. ). =. A. (. L ... Usually, the aortic and mitral valves are incorporated in valve studies within a single degree of freedom. These relationships ...
Cross-sectional area of a nuclear pore complex in vertebrates[9] 10−12 1 square micrometre (μm2) 6 μm2 Surface area of an E. ... "The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study". PLoS ONE. 5 (1): e8933. ... Cross-sectional area of a straight human hair that is 100 μm[14] in diameter[15] ... Cross-sectional area of a mechanical pencil lead (0.5-0.7 mm in diameter)[16] ...
Guinness had a policy of allowing technical staff leave for study (so-called "study leave"), which Gosset used during the first ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ... For example, suppose we are evaluating the effect of a medical treatment, and we enroll 100 subjects into our study, then ... This approach is sometimes used in observational studies to reduce or eliminate the effects of confounding factors. ...
The study uses cross-sectional data from the baseline wave (October 2009 to July 2011). Analyses are based on those aged 50-79 ... This is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50-79 years (n = 5287). ... cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). ... The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing prospective cohort study representative of community living adults ...
This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three ... This study showed that experiencing moral doubt is related to some ones normative attitude towards coercion. Future research ... This study. In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional survey study among multidisciplinary employees of seven ... Study design. This paper describes a cross-sectional survey study in which we executed an explorative statistical analysis. ...
Cross sectional studies. A cross sectional study measures the prevalence of health outcomes or determinants of health, or both ... Bias may arise because of selection into or out of the study population. A cross sectional survey of asthma in an occupational ... cross sectional studies of aetiology are best suited to diseases that produce little disability and to the presymptomatic ... A cross sectional design may also make it difficult to establish what is cause and what is effect. If milk drinking is ...
Social Science Approaches to the Study of Chinese Society Part 1. In Week 5, we will focus on Study Designs. By the end of ... cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research.. Many pioneering studies from the early 20th century ... 5.4 Cross-sectional studies. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... And finally, another big issue with cross sectional studies. is that its very hard to rule out what we refer to as spurious ...
... whereas longitudinal studies make comparisons over time. The research question will determine which approach is best. ... Cross-sectional studies make comparisons at a single point in time, ... Cross-sectional study. Both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal studies are observational studies. This means that ... Cross-sectional studies can be done more quickly than longitudinal studies. Thats why researchers might start with a cross- ...
Data from a cross sectional study in Bavaria suggest that the risk of obesity in children at the time of school entry can be ... whereas a protective effect has been reported in a Canadian cross sectional study of 1320 adolescents born in the late 1960s.10 ... Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ 1999; 319 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7203.147 (Published 17 ... However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts.7-9 These small studies ...
... a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of ... cross-sectional data. In economics, cross-sectional studies typically involve the use of cross-sectional regression, in order ... Cross-sectional studies are descriptive studies (neither longitudinal nor experimental). Unlike case-control studies, they can ... cross-sectional studies differ from case-control studies in that they aim to provide data on the entire population under study ...
This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ... "Credit cards and money demand: a cross-sectional study," Working Papers 9112, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. ... This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ...
A cross-sectional study of obesogenic behaviours and family rules according to family structure in European children.. Artikel ... the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and ... from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. ...
The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... RESULTS: Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. Age was similar between ...
This cross-sectional approach provides an insight into AAB across a key developmental period. It highlights that influential ... to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. ... This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking ... Melaugh McAteer A, Curran D, Hanna D (2015) Alcohol attention bias in adolescent social drinkers: an eye tracking study. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Cross-Sectional Study easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Cross-Sectional Study at Encyclopedia.com. ... CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. A cross-sectional study is the simplest ... The U.S. National Health Surveys are a form of cross-sectional study. Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can ... The distinction between a cohort study and a repeated cross-sectional study is that a cohort study is conducted with the same ...
Sleep disturbances, work stress and work hours: a cross-sectional study.. Akerstedt T1, Knutsson A, Westerholm P, Theorell T, ... The study examined the multivariate relationship between disturbed sleep and different work-related and background/life style ...
Although there have been previous studies on the... ... An up-dated cross-sectional study. *Yu Lan, ... To update this prevalence, we performed a cross-sectional survey among adults over 18 years old across China from May 2013 to ... Although there have been previous studies on the prevalence of MS in China, the prevalence may have changed with lifestyle ... Compared to the previous study 10 years ago, some preventive strategies have worked; however, further work on the prevention ...
... nuclear families number of living number of rooms nutritional status path analysis poor positive relationship present study ... Religions religious and caste respondents belonging rural areas sanitation index significant social socio-economic status study ...
The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal ... Stillbirths in Rural Hospitals in The Gambia: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study. Abdou Jammeh,1,2 Siri Vangen,3 and Johanne ... A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study," Obstetrics and Gynecology International, vol. 2010, Article ID 186867, 8 pages, 2010. ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of endocrinology. ... As our study is a retrospective cross-sectional study, the ... Thyroid Diseases in Omani Type 2 Diabetics: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. Sanaa Al-Sumry,1 Thuraya Al-Ghelani,1 Huda ... A retrospective cross-sectional randomized primary and secondary care based study of 285 Omani type 2 diabetics, ≥ 30 years of ... This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) which is a tertiary ...
Breastfeeding and early white matter development: A cross-sectional study.. Deoni SC1, Dean DC 3rd, Piryatinsky I, ... In this study, we used quiet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to compare measures of white matter microstructure ( ... Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter ... Does breastfeeding alter early brain development? The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early ...
A cross-sectional study Int J Nurs Stud. 2014 May;51(5):717-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Oct 4. ... Methods: A one-day prevalence study was conducted using the methodology specified by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel ... Objectives: The present study investigated the associations between variables on different levels in the healthcare setting ( ...
OP65 A cross-sectional study of the relationship between wealth, social participation and loneliness among older people across ... a population-based cross-sectional study Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Paul Kurdyak, John Cairney, Nathaniel Jembere, Simone Vigod ... OP29 Are socioeconomic conditions associated with asthma prevalence, severity, and treatment access? A cross-sectional study of ...
Hispanic physicians tobacco intervention practices: a cross-sectional survey study BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov 14;5:120. doi: ... Methods: Data was collected through a validated survey instrument among a cross-sectional sample of self-reported Hispanic ... The purpose of this study was to assess the tobacco intervention practices and training needs of Hispanic physicians. ...
A cross-sectional study of the 1-year prevalence of low back pain was conducted in workers employed in manual lifting jobs. To ... A cross-sectional study of the 1-year prevalence of low back pain was conducted in workers employed in manual lifting jobs. To ... Evaluation of the revised NIOSH lifting equation: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study.. ... To date, however, there have been few studies in which the effectiveness of the equation to identify jobs with elevated rates ...
A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of Ethnically Targeted and General Audience Outdoor Obesity-Related Advertising. * *March 1 ... A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of Ethnically Targeted and General Audience Outdoor Obesity-Related Advertising (Web) ...
In this cross-sectional study we took advantage of the natural experimental conditions resulting from the variable fasting ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study. Michael J. Steiner, ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study ...
Study design and participants. We performed a cross-sectional study using data collected from 2 cycles of the annual Behavioral ... a cross-sectional study. Karim S. Ladha, Nikhil Mistry, Duminda N. Wijeysundera, Hance Clarke, Subodh Verma, Gregory M.T. Hare ... a cross-sectional study. Karim S. Ladha, Nikhil Mistry, Duminda N. Wijeysundera, Hance Clarke, Subodh Verma, Gregory M.T. Hare ... Recent cannabis use and myocardial infarction in young adults: a cross-sectional study. Karim S. Ladha, Nikhil Mistry, Duminda ...
Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and ... The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were ... The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = ... Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of ...
The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents ... This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision ... "Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 856-866 ... Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. Mirjam E. J. van Beelen 1. ...
Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in ... 20/09/2017 STROCSS 2019 Guideline: Strengthening the reporting of cohort studies in surgery. 23/08/2016 Reporting Guidelines ...
Florence Bourgeois and colleagues investigate the frequency of and reasons for discontinuation of clinical trials studying rare ... We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials studying rare diseases as defined by the Genetic and Rare ... disease studied, intervention, study dates, and features of the study design. The search protocol was repeated in both EMBASE ... We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials focusing on rare diseases registered in ClinicalTrials. ...
Cross-sectional study, survey based Study population: spanish people, caregivers of infants under 2 years old... ... More From BioPortfolio on "Preparation of Complementary Feeding in Spain: a Cross-sectional Study". *Related Companies*Related ... Preparation of Complementary Feeding in Spain: a Cross-sectional Study. 2018-09-24 06:23:25 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Citations » Preparation of Complementary Feeding in Spain: a Cross-sectional Study ...
  • A one-day prevalence study was conducted using the methodology specified by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, together with the established methods used by the Collaborative Alliance for Nursing Outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 sampled 252 anesthetists. (rug.nl)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of diabetes status and lung function decline using baseline and 3-year follow-up data on 1,100 diabetic and 10,162 nondiabetic middle-aged adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • METHODS: NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods This study was conducted using data collected in a survey in 2014 on a random sample of individuals aged 18 and above in the city of Tehran. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: A cross-sectional study in the form of a face-to-face interview was used to determine Melbourne MICA Paramedic understanding of VM instruction between January and February, 2008. (7thspace.com)
  • Neither of the two methods of dietary assessment used in this study revealed any effect of calcium intake on BMD at fracture-relevant sites among these healthy, mostly middle-aged women. (diva-portal.org)
  • Methods A cross-sectional sample of 96 adolescent inpatients from 10 Norwegian acute and combined (acute and sub-acute) psychiatric wards reported their experienced coercion on Coercion Ladder and the Experienced Coercion Scale in questionnaires. (uio.no)
  • METHODS--A cross sectional study was made of 39 patients with systemic sclerosis (11 diffuse and 28 limited), nine patients with primary Raynaud's disease and 60 healthy controls. (bmj.com)
  • 7 - 9 These small studies failed to find a protective effect possibly due to a lack of statistical power, whereas a protective effect has been reported in a Canadian cross sectional study of 1320 adolescents born in the late 1960s. (bmj.com)
  • Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter volume, and parietal lobe cortical thickness, associated with IQ, in adolescents who were breastfed as infants compared to those who were exclusively formula-fed. (nih.gov)
  • Cross-sectional study of 71/180 (39%) adolescents tested for EILO at Haukeland University Hospital during 2014-2016, age range 14-18 years. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent adolescents perceive or experience coercion during inpatient mental health care, and to examine predictors of experienced coercion. (uio.no)
  • These results are in accordance with previous studies of trait-anxiety in children and adolescents with high IQ, which all showed normal or decreased levels. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A cross-sectional study is the simplest variety of descriptive or observational epidemiology that can be conducted on representative samples of a population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, in modern epidemiology it may be impossible to survey the entire population of interest, so cross-sectional studies often involve secondary analysis of data collected for another purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. (equator-network.org)
  • The current study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from blood of septicemic patients for improved antibiotic therapy. (scirp.org)
  • Although it is true that RCTs help to avoid most of the problems inherent in observational epidemiology studies, they are not without their own issues , and not all nutrition and health research questions, and certainly not questions of adverse health effects from chemical exposures, can be ethically addressed by randomly allocating humans into exposed and unexposed groups. (science20.com)
  • Thus, even with their many limitations, it will continue to be argued that observational epidemiology studies often provide some of the most relevant scientific evidence available and so they will undoubtedly continue to play a role for the foreseeable future. (science20.com)
  • Moreover, all too often those who conduct and publish systematic reviews of the available epidemiology literature linking a chemical and health effects are guilty of attributing too much weight to cross-sectional studies . (science20.com)
  • As you will learn, cross-sectional studies are among the weakest of observational epidemiology study designs and the results they yield should be accorded far less weight than the results generated from studies employing cohort 2 or even case-control 3 designs (see the attached Figure for a hierarchy of evidence from epidemiology study design types). (science20.com)
  • Furthermore, as per the guidelines of Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology for cross-sectional studies , authors should report the numbers of individuals at each stage of study (such as numbers potentially eligible, examined for eligibility, confirmed eligible, included in the study, and analyzed). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) provides the opportunity to bridge this information gap. (springer.com)
  • The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing prospective cohort study representative of community living adults in Ireland aged 50 years and older. (springer.com)
  • The second requires a longitudinal study. (iwh.on.ca)
  • A longitudinal study, like a cross-sectional one, is observational. (iwh.on.ca)
  • However, in a longitudinal study, researchers conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time, sometimes lasting many years. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The benefit of a longitudinal study is that researchers are able to detect developments or changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The longitudinal study design would account for cholesterol levels at the onset of a walking regime and as the walking behaviour continued over time. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Therefore, a longitudinal study is more likely to suggest cause-and-effect relationships than a cross-sectional study by virtue of its scope. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Lung function in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a cross sectional and longitudinal study. (bmj.com)
  • One group was recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study, the Parkinson-study of Rogaland, during their annual follow up (n= 17). (uib.no)
  • This study aims to describe the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults in Ireland and to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia according to CVD risk status. (springer.com)
  • This is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50-79 years ( n = 5287). (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study is to document the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults aged 50-79 years in Ireland and apply clinical guideline targets [ 9 ] to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia in a subgroup aged 50-64 years according to their absolute risk of CVD. (springer.com)
  • To update this prevalence, we performed a cross-sectional survey among adults over 18 years old across China from May 2013 to July 2014. (doaj.org)
  • Results of studies in adults have suggested that lipid testing might be reliably performed without fasting. (aappublications.org)
  • We performed a cross-sectional study using pooled data from the 2017 and 2018 cohorts of the American Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey of US adults. (cmaj.ca)
  • Our study provides evidence supporting an association between recent cannabis use and history of MI in young adults. (cmaj.ca)
  • Half of the adults studied do not meet the EFSA fluid intake recommendations. (isciii.es)
  • Cross-sectional studies have consistently shown that adults with diabetes have lower vital capacity than their nondiabetic counterparts ( 1 - 5 , 7 ), but such studies cannot establish the temporal sequence of events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore analyzed longitudinal data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a biracial, community-based cohort of adults aged 45-64, to test the hypothesis that diabetes is associated with reduced lung function independently of known risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults. (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • The observed association between higher current concentrations of BPA in both male and female 9-year-olds with higher body fat and obesity levels is consistent with findings from other cross-sectional studies of adults and older children. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We cross-sectionally investigated the association between diabetes and the presence of paranasal sinus disease, which was confirmed by a head MRI scan in 1350 adults who underwent a health screening program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. (go.jp)
  • In medical research, social science, and biology, a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time-that is, cross-sectional data. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a case-control study patients who have developed a disease are identified and their past exposure to suspected aetiological factors is compared with that of controls or referents who do not have the disease. (bmj.com)
  • Some case-control studies to test this have taken referents from the general population, whereas others have used patients with other types of cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Results of studies in adult patients are raising questions of whether fasting is needed before lipid screening. (aappublications.org)
  • 9 - 14 It is also limited in its definition of exposure, as these studies assess patients with heavy cannabis use (cannabis abuse or cannabis use disorder). (cmaj.ca)
  • In this study, over half of clinical trials initiated for rare diseases were either discontinued or not published 4 years after completion, resulting in large numbers of patients with rare diseases exposed to interventions that did not lead to informative findings. (plos.org)
  • The cross-sectional, observational study had 19 patients with COVID-19 myocarditis and reports clinical course, presenting symptoms, lab findings, and echocardiographic results stratified by fulminant and non-fulminant myocarditis. (news-medical.net)
  • Data used in this study were obtained from the Korean Cluster Headache Registry (KCHR), a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter headache registry that collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with CH. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the findings of this study do not suggest an impaired fatigability of the quadriceps muscle during sustained isometric contractions in active patients in the long term. (mdpi.com)
  • 6 Although studies in Canada and the United States have reported elevated mortality rates among patients with schizophrenia, 7 , 8 time trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality have not been explored. (cmaj.ca)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics: quality of life, neck pain and function, kinesiophobia, depression, and pain bothersomeness. (chiro.org)
  • This study showed significant differences between chronic neck pain patients when differentiated into groups based on their onset of pain. (chiro.org)
  • In this study, MR images from 4 new patients and additional published case reports were reviewed by a pediatric neuroradiologist. (medworm.com)
  • This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of dyslipidaemia in diabetic patients. (academicjournals.org)
  • Cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of two hundred ninety five diabetic patients attending diabetic follow-up clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital from March to November, 2014. (academicjournals.org)
  • Worries and concerns experienced by nurse specialists during inter-hospital transports of critically ill patients: a critical incident study. (ahrq.gov)
  • A cross-sectional analysis of medical records of adult patients ( ≥ 18 years) with BD receiving psychotropic drug treatment was performed in a Dutch psychiatric outpatient setting. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The study found a high prevalence rate of MetS and substantial undertreatment of the components of MetS in patients with BD in a Dutch outpatient clinic. (psychiatrist.com)
  • No studies have previously looked at white matter hyperintense lesions in MR images of PD patients and their impact on dementia in PD. (uib.no)
  • In our study, DLB patients had more atrophy in parietal and occipital areas compared with PDD patients. (uib.no)
  • Most studies on influenza vaccination coverage investigate specific groups such as the elderly ( 4 - 13 ), patients from general practices ( 14 , 15 ), or hospitalized patients ( 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Prevalence and clinical correlates of coronary artery disease among new dialysis patients in the United States: a cross-sectional study. (ul.ie)
  • To give an extreme example, a case-control study of bladder cancer and smoking could give quite erroneous findings if controls were taken from the chest clinic. (bmj.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies must be done on representative samples of the population if generalizations from the findings are to have any validity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • it would be necessary to repeat a large cross-sectional study only if the findings from a current sub-sample are seriously discrepant from earlier results. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the influence of gender, behavioral factors, and dyslipidemia in developing rectal NETs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The majority of the studies I found on the particular topic were conducted using a cross-sectional design , and the inherent limitations were often either downplayed or even ignored by the authors who went ahead and over-hyped their findings anyway. (science20.com)
  • Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings. (chiro.org)
  • 8 Most of the cross-sectional studies showed findings consistent to our study where no significant association was found between serum 25(OH) D levels and percent breast density. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our grey matter findings are in line with other studies, supporting the hypothesis that morphological changes in the cortex contribute to dementia in PD. (uib.no)
  • This lack of nationwide, population-based studies, along with the findings of the pilot study showing markedly different vaccination rates in several German cities, prompted the nationwide, population-based survey reported here. (cdc.gov)
  • Special emphasis is given to explaining the challenges that social scientists face in drawing conclusions about cause and effect from their studies, and offers an overview of the approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. (coursera.org)
  • Conclusions Our study results confirmed the existence of interdependent links between mothers' psychiatric symptomatology, parenting behaviour and offspring outcomes, specifically in an Italian context. (doaj.org)
  • However this type of study is limited in its ability to draw valid conclusions as to the association between a risk factor and health outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Most case-control studies collect specifically designed data on all participants, including data fields designed to allow the hypothesis of interest to be tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this cross-sectional study of 109,308 UK Biobank participants, we examined how schizophrenia polygenic risk modulates the association between self-reported cannabis use and four types of self-reported psychotic experiences (auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, and delusions of reference). (nature.com)
  • The cross-sectional sample of 824 participants was recruited from the registry of residents in Bremen, comprising about two-third males and one-third females with an average age of 61.1 years. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the level of oxidative DNA base modifications in lymphocytes of 201 participants of a cross-sectional study in Bremen, Germany. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This cross-sectional study included 200 participants with chronic neck pain: 120 with traumatic onset and 80 with non-traumatic onset. (chiro.org)
  • Participants were included in the study if they were over 18 years of age, were not a professional cook or enrolled in a course leading to a qualification as a professional cook, and were able to attend a research session during a 14-week study period. (mja.com.au)
  • All participants provided written consent before participating in the study. (mja.com.au)
  • This study indicates that parental characteristics, such as age, educational attainment and employment substantially determine child health in India, suggesting that an intervention by targeting the households where children are vulnerable is important to improve child health in the country. (nature.com)
  • To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. (cambridge.org)
  • This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. (cambridge.org)
  • This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. (cambridge.org)
  • This review compared six cohort, before-and-after, and serial cross-sectional studies , from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Nigeria (1,831 women with eclampsia) and two population-based UK studies with results from randomised controlled trials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study aimed to understand the gap between safe abortion availability and use of services in Bihar and Jharkhand, India by examining accessibility from the perspective of rural, Indian women.The authors conclude that behavior change communication interventions, which address negative perceptions by improving community knowledge about abortion and support local availability of safe abortion services, are needed. (eldis.org)
  • Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (aappublications.org)
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Volunteers for this study will be admitted to the clinical research ward where they will undergo several tests to determine body composition, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance and in vivo insulin action. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials studying rare diseases as defined by the Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center database that were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, and completed or discontinued by December 31, 2014. (plos.org)
  • Researchers from the US recently conducted a study to examine the clinical course and echocardiographic and lab testing across clinically defined fulminant and non-fulminant COVID-19 myocarditis. (news-medical.net)
  • As the absolute values of troponin elevation are remarkable in this cross-sectional study, further research may investigate the clinical significance of different levels of troponin elevation. (news-medical.net)
  • This study characterizes clinical COVID-19-related myocarditis using descriptive analysis. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to the positive results in cross-sectional studies linking rice consumption with healthier diets, a human clinical trial found that having white or brown rice at a meal increased satiety and feelings of fullness more than a calorically equivalent glucose solution control. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In prior clinical studies, impairment of pulse amplitude hyperemic response was associated with the presence of coronary artery endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous studies investigating the relations of digital pulse amplitude to clinical risk factors have been limited to small, selected samples. (ahajournals.org)
  • The studied group was a clinical one, which could limit the generalisation of the results. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The study will be conducted in standard clinical practice conditions at public and private gynecology clinics and during a single study visit. (centerwatch.com)
  • This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three Norwegian mental health care institutions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Data was collected through a validated survey instrument among a cross-sectional sample of self-reported Hispanic physicians. (nih.gov)
  • In a cross-sectional survey, a specific group is looked at to see if an activity, say alcohol consumption, is related to the health effect being investigated, say cirrhosis of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed a cross-sectional study using data collected from 2 cycles of the annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a health-related telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (cmaj.ca)
  • Cross-sectional data from the Miyagi Prefectural Health Survey 2014 were analyzed. (go.jp)
  • The secondary aim was to study variables associated with moderate/poor work ability at survey. (uio.no)
  • This was a cross-sectional and descriptive observation survey. (scirp.org)
  • A cross-sectional survey may be purely descriptive and used to assess the burden of a particular disease in a defined population. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In a cross-sectional survey the risk factors and outcome are measured simultaneously, and therefore it may be difficult to determine whether the exposure proceeded or followed the disease. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and anthropometric status of 945 school children of ages 12-16 years was performed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The study used the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture . (ahrq.gov)
  • The study was designed as a cross-sectional retrospective survey. (ovid.com)
  • This is a major advantage over other forms of epidemiological study. (wikipedia.org)
  • We did a large-scale, cross-sectional genomic epidemiological study of shigellosis cases collected from 29 countries between December, 1995, and June 8, 2014. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Evaluation of the revised NIOSH lifting equation: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study. (cdc.gov)
  • 5.0%) in only one epidemiologic study. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • By the end of this week, you should understand the differences between the most common types of study, and have some sense of the settings in which each is most relevant. (coursera.org)
  • This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking groups (heavy drinkers, light drinkers, and non-drinkers) to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. (springer.com)
  • Study design depends greatly on the nature of the research question. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The benefit of a cross-sectional study design is that it allows researchers to compare many different variables at the same time. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The design and conduct of the ARIC Study have been described previously ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of the study was to compare two research designs, namely the cross-sectional design and the longitudi-nal design, in the context of upper extremity performance and age-related changes. (psu.edu)
  • However, in some tests, the decline with age using a cross-sectional design was underestimated. (psu.edu)
  • The upper extremity performance decline observed with the longitudinal design was larger than the decline predicted with the cross-sectional design. (psu.edu)
  • The withdrawal and survivor biases related to the longitudinal design and the cohort bias associated with the cross-sectional design may, in part, explain these results. (psu.edu)
  • IN the study of age-related changes, two major researchdesigns may be used: the cross-sectional design and the longitudinal design. (psu.edu)
  • Even though the cross-sectional design is less expensive and frequently used in the devel-opment of normative data, this design may have an impor-tant limitation in the study of aging. (psu.edu)
  • The study design is cross-sectional, hence can only describe associations between socioeconomic indicators and health domains. (bmj.com)
  • 4) Cross-sectional studies by design prevent the inference of causality of the association between sedentary behaviour and childhood obesity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In practice, cross-sectional studies will include an element of both types of design. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Within the constraints of any matching criteria, their exposure to risk factors and confounders should be representative of that in the population "at risk" of becoming cases - that is, people who do not have the disease under investigation, but who would be included in the study as cases if they had. (bmj.com)
  • Among the cross-sectional studies examined--that is, studies that gather information from a representative subset of the population at a certain point in time--researchers found a significant association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive impairment and dementia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, a pilot study undertaken in Berlin, Stuttgart, and Chemnitz during the influenza season 1998-1999 showed much higher influenza vaccination rates in East Berlin and Chemnitz in the former East Germany (called former East in this paper) than in West Berlin and Stuttgart in the former West Germany (called former West in this paper) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In general, population-based studies of influenza vaccination coverage for a country do not exist. (cdc.gov)
  • A Canadian study found 13.8% influenza vaccination coverage in fall and winter 1990-1991 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A study of benign prostatic hypertrophy might be misleading if cases were identified from hospital admissions and admission to hospital was influenced not only by the presence and severity of disease but also by other variables, such as social class. (bmj.com)
  • However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • Beer and obesity: a cross-sectional study. (harvard.edu)
  • In that way, if one of the control diseases happens to be related to a risk factor under study, the resultant bias is not too large. (bmj.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies are very susceptible to recall bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although heavy cannabis use has been reported to trigger acute myocardial infarction (MI), the current evidence is limited to case-control studies that are prone to bias and studies relying solely on administrative data. (cmaj.ca)
  • The study involved general practice trainers, which could entail a selection bias. (bmj.com)
  • Non-response is a particular problem affecting cross-sectional studies and can result in bias of the measures of outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Despite a substantial reduction in population mean TC from a high of 6.0 mmol/L in the 1980s to 5.1 mmol/L, this study reports a failure to control hypercholesterolaemia to recommended risk-stratified targets in the Irish adult population. (springer.com)
  • In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. (medworm.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the tobacco intervention practices and training needs of Hispanic physicians. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to assess socioeconomic inequality in various health domains and self-rated health (SRH). (bmj.com)
  • Primary endpoint of the study is to assess the prevalence of multiple symptoms and related symptom clusters (e.g. pain, fatigue and sleep disorder). (knowcancer.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies are used to assess the burden of disease or health needs of a population and are particularly useful in informing the planning and allocation of health resources. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In analytical cross-sectional studies, the odds ratio can be used to assess the strength of an association between a risk factor and health outcome of interest, provided that the current exposure accurately reflects the past exposure. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can identify health problems and provide data from which many useful inferences can be made and hypotheses generated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A natural progression has been suggested from cheap cross-sectional studies of routinely collected data which suggest hypotheses, to case-control studies testing them more specifically, then to cohort studies and trials which cost much more and take much longer, but may give stronger evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is a relatively small cross-sectional study in a convenience sample and is limited to generating hypotheses. (news-medical.net)
  • Therefore, statistical inference cannot be made to a generalized population based on the observations of this study. (news-medical.net)
  • The baseline cross section of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited a population-based cohort of 6781 persons, aged 45-84 years, from 6 communities in the United States. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. (cmaj.ca)
  • To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our main outcome measures were the frequency of trial noncompletion and, among completed studies, frequency of trial nonpublication at 2 and 4 years following trial completion. (plos.org)
  • The evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of a population has been the main objective of only a very few studies. (isciii.es)
  • The aim of this study was to describe off-label prescription in general practice in France, in terms of frequency and nature, and to identify its main determining factors. (bmj.com)
  • The main objective of this study was to quantify the level of oxidative DNA damage in a human study population and to investigate possible associations between the incorporated concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead and the rate of oxidative DNA lesions in lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rees CA, Pica N, Monuteaux MC, Bourgeois FT (2019) Noncompletion and nonpublication of trials studying rare diseases: A cross-sectional analysis. (plos.org)
  • Cross-sectional analysis of the national, longitudinal Growing Up in Ireland study. (cambridge.org)
  • Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. (chiro.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies are descriptive studies (neither longitudinal nor experimental). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As discussed in the previous chapter, one of the drawbacks of using a longitudinal approach to investigate the causes of disease with low incidence is that large and lengthy studies may be required to give adequate statistical power. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption among partners of pregnant women, their motives for changing drinking patterns when becoming a parent and their perceptions of the midwifes counseling about alcohol. (diva-portal.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Iran to investigate socioeconomic inequality in various health domains. (bmj.com)
  • In order to investigate the utility and sufficiency of psychiatric beds in general hospitals (GHP beds), a cross-sectional study was performed in general hospitals all over Tokyo. (wiley.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) as a descriptor of myoelectric fatigue, at different stages after rehabilitation, post-ACL reconstruction. (mdpi.com)
  • This method contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which investigate groups over a time period, in order to observe the developmental process, the influence of changing circumstances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analytical cross-sectional surveys may also be used to investigate the association between a putative risk factor and a health outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1993 to 1994 in an urban population in Germany to investigate the association between metal exposure and oxidative DNA damage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, further studies are necessary to investigate psychological functioning in gifted children and their risk for psychopathology. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To identify the genetic and environmental determinants of diabetes we plan to study Pima Indian families to determine: (1) if there are genes that segregate with metabolic risk factors for diabetes which might therefore be genetic markers for type 2 diabetes and (2) the mechanisms mediating genetic and environmental determinants of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As cross-sectional studies measure prevalent rather than incident cases, the data will always reflect determinants of survival as well as aetiology 1 . (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Method: The study was conducted at 30 antenatal care centers across Sweden in 2009-2010. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study examines whether the demographic components fertility and migration are related among 27 European countries. (uppsatser.se)
  • This study examines the associations between different types of infant feeding and BMI and overweight in childhood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a single point in time or over a short period of time (e.g. calendar year). (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • This is a questionnaire-based study of men who had robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy at Oslo University Hospital, Radiumhospitalet between January 2005 and August 2010. (uio.no)
  • In economics, cross-sectional studies typically involve the use of cross-sectional regression, in order to sort out the existence and magnitude of causal effects of one independent variable upon a dependent variable of interest at a given point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study uses the Pooled OLS regression and found that poverty has a significant relationship with inflation and unemployment. (igi-global.com)
  • Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other factors of interest as they exist in a specified population at a particular time, without regard for what may have preceded or precipitated the health status found at the time of the study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This study exemplifies the utility of population-scale biobanks for elucidating gene-by-environment interactions relating substance use to neuropsychiatric outcomes and points to the translational potential of using polygenic risk scores to inform personalized harm reduction interventions. (nature.com)
  • Multiple outcomes and exposures can be studied. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • For decades, cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research. (coursera.org)
  • In medical research, cross-sectional studies differ from case-control studies in that they aim to provide data on the entire population under study, whereas case-control studies typically include only individuals who have developed a specific condition and compare them with a matched sample, often a tiny minority, of the rest of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our study, over half of randomized controlled trials studying rare diseases were not completed or were left unpublished 4 years after trial completion, highlighting considerable inefficiencies in research activities for these conditions. (plos.org)
  • To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. (chiro.org)
  • This study specifically investigates whether the students attracted to the chiropractic program at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, are oriented toward research and what 5 years in the program does to their orientation. (chiro.org)
  • The advantage of cross-sectional study is that it is quicker, not dependent on changing resources or research teams, and reduces extraneous variables resulting from the passage of time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. (mdpi.com)
  • Christian Dussart (1989) ,"Pre-Christmas Toy Guides: a Cross Sectional Research Study", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, eds. (acrwebsite.org)
  • This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional research study related to this unusual subject in child consumers research. (acrwebsite.org)
  • The research study was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, which is an excellent location for experimental research because of the bilingual and cosmopolitan profile of the population. (acrwebsite.org)
  • Eldis is hosted by the Knowledge, Impact and Policy team at the Institute of Development Studies in the UK but our services profile work by a growing global network of research organisations and knowledge brokers. (eldis.org)
  • Our reporting of this research conforms with the STROBE statement on cross-sectional studies. (mja.com.au)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Statistical extremes in the observations show that the results call for further investigation and the authors hope this can motivate variable selection in future studies. (news-medical.net)
  • The results of this study also demonstrate that an opportunity exists to promote the evidence-based VM criteria across the primary emergency care field. (7thspace.com)
  • In no previous studies of diet and bone mass have dietary habits been ascertained so carefully and the results adjusted for possible confounding factors. (diva-portal.org)
  • The studies that have been published since, have in part confirmed these results, but also conflicting results have been found. (uib.no)
  • For instance, a single cross-sectional study may include questions about smoking behavior, occupational exposure to dusts and fumes, respiratory symptoms (cough, breathlessness), and physical examinations of physical fitness - including simple tests of lung function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies can be thought of as providing a snapshot of the frequency of a disease or other health related characteristics (e.g. exposure variables) in a population at a given point in time. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In a cross-sectional study all factors (exposure, outcome, and confounders) are measured simultaneously. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Beryllium exposure and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study of beryllium workers. (bmj.com)
  • The first study to compare whole brain atrophy in PD versus other types of dementia was published in 2004, showing that the pattern of grey matter loss in PD and PDD was different from the changes found in AD. (uib.no)
  • 2 In human studies, risk factors for vascular disease have been associated with impaired vasomotor function, and individuals with abnormal vasodilator function have increased cardiovascular event rates. (ahajournals.org)
  • In our study, we would simply measure the cholesterol levels of daily walkers and non-walkers along with any other characteristics that might be of interest to us. (iwh.on.ca)
  • This study examined association between selected child health indicators- anaemia, stunting and no/incomplete immunization by inter-linking maternal characteristics at district level and parental characteristics at individual level. (nature.com)
  • This study showed that experiencing moral doubt is related to some one's normative attitude towards coercion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within this study we wanted to find out whether experiencing moral doubt is related to the normative attitudes of health care professionals towards coercion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our objective was to determine the frequency of noncompletion and nonpublication of trials studying rare diseases. (plos.org)
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes is independently associated with reduced lung function, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A study with a similar objective -- to evaluate the self concept chiropractic students have of themselves as science students -- was done by Robert Shields. (chiro.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine Melbourne Mobile Intensive Care Ambulance (MICA) Paramedic knowledge of the VM, and to compare this understanding with an evidence-based model of VM performance. (7thspace.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the finger test. (mja.com.au)
  • The study involved 3189 randomly selected schoolchildren from Den. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The study involved 3,189 randomly selected schoolchildren from Denmark (one of the richest countries in Europe), and two poorer countries, Estonia and Portugal. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We sought to evaluate the correlates of digital pulse amplitude responses as a measure of peripheral vascular function in the large, community-based Framingham Heart Study. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prospective studies that include never-smokers and non-occupationally exposed individuals are needed to clarify these issues. (cdc.gov)
  • This study aims to explore the impact of financial development, technological development on poverty for Asian and Non-Asian countries. (igi-global.com)
  • This non-interventional study aims at assessing stable GOLD C and D COPD patient's perception of daily and weekly symptoms variability and their impact on daily activities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study aims to evaluate changes of maxillary sinuses in growing subjects. (mdpi.com)
  • They are moderately expensive, and are not suitable for the study of rare diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A potential limitation of our study is that certain interventional trials for rare diseases may not have been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, in particular Phase 0 and Phase I trials, which are not required to be registered. (plos.org)
  • Not suitable for studying rare diseases or diseases with a short duration. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in China: An up-dated cross-sectional study. (doaj.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies involve data collected at a defined time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional data cannot be used to infer causality because temporality is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies may involve special data collection, including questions about the past, but they often rely on data originally collected for other purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of routinely collected data allows large cross-sectional studies to be made at little or no expense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies using data originally collected for other purposes are often unable to include data on confounding factors, other variables that affect the relationship between the putative cause and effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies can contain individual-level data (one record per individual, for example, in national health surveys). (wikipedia.org)
  • n=13), technically inadequate study (n=207), and missing covariate data (n=17). (ahajournals.org)
  • Technically inadequate studies included those with inadequate flow occlusion (n=73), poor PAT signal quality (n=64), incomplete PAT data acquisition (n=64), and computer error (n=6). (ahajournals.org)
  • General and dimensional trait-anxiety levels in the studied group were comparable to normative data. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Studies of unselected childhood and adolescent populations report prevalence rates of 5 and 7%, respectively ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies of adolescent abortion and reproductive health must account for sexual activity and marital status. (guttmacher.org)
  • Raat, H. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. (mdpi.com)
  • van Beelen MEJ, van Beeck EF, den Hertog P, Beirens TMJ, Raat H. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. (mdpi.com)
  • The Mazira Project is a study of the effect of egg consumption on growth, development and gut health of infants in Malawi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The study randomly assigns infants to receive one egg per day ove. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is a cross-sectional study in which all infants aged 3 months or under attending four bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization clinics accounting for over 75% of the BCG coverage in the study location were screened by community health workers between July 2005 and April 2006. (who.int)
  • Supporting my contention, just recently, the European Food Safety Authority opined that they considered the evidence from cross-sectional studies as too unreliable to give them much weight in their safety assessments. (science20.com)
  • Some European and Australian studies have recorded a widening mortality disparity between those with and without severe mental illness, 9 - 11 whereas evidence from other, mainly Nordic, countries suggests a trend of declining mortality 12 and a persistent relative mortality gap. (cmaj.ca)
  • Some studies however show evidence that prosody perception is not exclusively lateralized to the right hemisphere and may be more bilateral. (wikipedia.org)

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