It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Size and composition of the family.
Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.
Accounting procedures for determining credit status and methods of obtaining payment.
A person's view of himself.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
Action taken to reduce susceptibility or exposure to health problems and to detect and treat disease in early stages.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (1/42185)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/42185)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (3/42185)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (4/42185)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (5/42185)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. (6/42185)

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (7/42185)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (8/42185)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evaluation of appropriateness of prescription and polypharmacy in the geriatric population: A cross-sectional study at a comprehensive geriatric clinic in a tertiary care hospital. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vol 14: How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Objective: Sleep disturbance during pregnancy is one of the most common maternal complaints. Not only does it play a crucial role in a mothers life, but also it comes with a multitude number of complications. This study aimed at assessing the association between sleep disturbance in pregnancy and maternal and child outcomes. Materials and methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study, conducted on pregnant women across 11 provinces in Iran in 2018. Sleep disturbance as a composite variable was defined using the principal component analysis based on five questions. Abortion, anemia in the first and third trimester, gestational diabetes, gestational age, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood sugar (FBS), mode of delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth were defined as study outcomes ...
Illness Perception and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered an epidemic disease in the gulf countries. Its prevalence in Saudi Arabia is becoming the highest in the world affecting around 30% of adults (1), (3). Indeed, diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, management of diabetic dyslipidemia, a well-recognized and modifiable risk factor, is an essential factor in the multifactorial approach to prevent CVD in individuals with type 2 diabetes (4). Several meta-analyses studies have clearly shown the benefits of statin therapy (3). Aims: To assess the results of the prescription of simvastatin for patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 168 diabetic patients was conducted in Hera General Hospital. Data were retrieved from medical records from January 2018 until December 2018. Data analysis was performed using Ecxelsoftwares. Results: Most of the sample population (95%) was older than 40 years old. Nearly all patients (97%) were on ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The present study, based on a random sample of Danish schools, showed that adolescents exposure to teachers and other pupils smoking during the school day is common. Three fifths of the students in the study reported that they had seen or knew of teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises, and most of them reported that they had seen or knew of teachers smoking inside the school building. The vast majority of students reported seeing or knowing of other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. This suggests that there is a degree of tolerance towards smoking in Danish schools, which may influence student beliefs and attitudes towards smoking. As noted earlier, according to the theory of planned behaviour8 a high tolerance towards smoking at school is likely to influence students, making them more likely to perceive smoking as something positive and acceptable, developing favourable personal beliefs and subjective norms about smoking, leading to intentions to take up the ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
Introduction Does Deregulation Raise Electric Rates? A Cross Sectional Analysis by William B. Marcus Principal Economist, JBS Energy, Inc. December, 2011 The theory behind deregulation is that competition
In this population-based study of a general adolescent population, the strongest and most consistent finding is the significant association between acne and mental distress which is found among both boys and girls in the crude and the adjusted model. Another result from our study that supports a link between acne and mental distress is the increase in mental distress when the severity of acne increases. These two findings have to our knowledge never been seen before in the same study.. Previous studies have also shown an association between mental problems and acne. In a large study in New Zealand of 9567 adolescents of 12-18 years of age, a significant odds ratio of 2.04 was seen between self-reported acne and depressive symptoms measured using Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale [15]. In Australia, Kilkenny et al found an association (OR = 1.61) between self-reported severe acne and psychiatric symptoms measured using the Clinical Interview Schedule among 2491 students [17]. From the United ...
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and accounting for 443,000 deaths (nearly 1 in 5) each year [1]. Tobacco use and tobacco-related illnesses are common among emergency department (ED) patients. Studies performed in multiple ED settings have found that 30-40% of ED patients smoke--prevalence rates that are well above that of the general population [2, 3].. Although providing smoking counseling has not traditionally been a function of emergency-care services, the field is increasingly recognizing the necessity and practicality of assuming such functions. As the number of primary care physicians declines [4], ED volume is steadily increasing, and health-care reform is not projected to significantly reduce this high utilization over the next decade. In 2006, there were 40.5 ED visits per 100 people in the US, an 18% increase ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2011 May 1;89(5):352-9. doi: 10.2471/BLT.10.085738. Epub 2011 Mar 30. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Among smokers who have attempted to stop without professional support, those who use e-cigarettes are more likely to report continued abstinence than those who used a licensed NRT product bought over-the-counter or no aid to cessation. This difference persists after adjusting for a range of smoker c …
A relationship has not been found between apple intake and asthma in the present cross-sectional study in children. However, there is some evidence to suggest that children who have a higher consumption of apple juice from concentrate and bananas exhibit a lower prevalence of current wheeze than children with a lower intake.. In contrast to studies in adults 8, 9, the present authors have not been able to replicate a significant negative association between apple intake and asthma in children. However, the present negative findings are consistent with previous studies 13-15, which showed no clear relationship between wheezing in children and fresh fruit intake despite a beneficial effect on lung function. It is not clear why the link observed in adult asthma was not replicated in children. The variation in the choice of outcome measures between studies and in the validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaires in children might have been responsible for the differences observed. ...
Over three-quarters of 11-year-old children in this sample (78%) had at least one adverse health condition, and 43% experienced co-occurrence (two or more conditions). Co-occurrence differed by sex and was socially patterned, with boys and children living in lower income households being at higher risk of having multiple adverse health conditions. LCA identified five distinct classes of conditions, in addition to the group of children with no or one adverse health condition: atopic burdened, socioemotional burdened, unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury and eczema/unfavourable weight. Children identified by the index as having greater numbers of adverse health conditions were more likely to be in the atopic burdened and socioemotional burdened classes; these children were more likely to be boys, have mothers with lower educational attainment and live in lower income households. Children in unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury (6.0%) and eczema/unfavourable weight ...
Data will be collected in 12 countries (500 children per site) from five major regions of the world (Eurasia & Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Pacific). Cross-sectional evaluations will be undertaken in each country. The physical characteristics of the children will be directly measured in order to classify their body weight and adiposity status, and physical activity and dietary patterns will be measured with the most objective techniques currently available. A concise set of environmental measures that are feasible, valid and meaningful across the international settings included in this research will also be employed. The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of obesity and weight gain in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle interventions to address childhood obesity that can be culturally adapted for ...
Introduction. This essay will compare and contrast the Longitudinal and Cross-sectional methods of research, by firstly describing each method and listing the main types. It will also give examples of research which have used these methods in order to gather data. Then through discussing the advantages and disadvantages for using each method a conclusion will be formed. Conducting research is important in psychology as it gives the evidence needed to support theories and hypothesis. Developmental research methods aim to examine changes or differences in behaviour by looking at different ages or stages across a lifetime. This is usually carried out using two basic methods, the longitudinal and cross-sectional. Cross-sectional research is where individuals of different ages are studied at the same time; this is in contrast with longitudinal studies which involves testing one age group repeatedly over many years. A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study as well as a panel and retrospective ...
ATN 066b consists of a cross-sectional evaluation of three groups of recently diagnosed HIV-infected adolescents including: (1) care non-initiation; (2) care initiation, no maintenance; and (3) care initiation with maintenance. Social, psychological and behavioral factors associated with HIV-related care-seeking will be assessed using an ACASI. Three recruitment strategies using a randomized permuted block list of possible sequences for HIV-infected youth not in care will be also compared.. The ACASI instrument will be adapted from previously used instruments intended to retrospectively reconstruct the care-seeking process and to assess quality of life, concerns and expectations for care, satisfaction with care, and social-problem solving.. Ideally, the ACASI will be administered during a single session and may take up to 90 minutes to complete. Participants who are unable to complete the ACASI in one session will be allowed up to 7 days after initiation to complete it. Completion of all study ...
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses ...
Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for medi...
Objective To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery.. Design Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient diaries.. Setting Primary care.. Participants Adults with a new or worsening cough or clinical presentation suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection.. Main outcome measures Prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians and total symptom severity scores over time.. Results 3402 patients were recruited (clinicians completed a case report form for 99% (3368) of participants and 80% (2714) returned a symptom diary). Mean symptom severity scores at presentation ranged from 19 (scale range 0 to 100) in networks based in Spain and Italy to 38 in the network based in Sweden. Antibiotic prescribing by networks ranged from 20% to nearly 90% (53% ...
Objective. To examine black female students for the occurrence of risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle, namely obesity, hypertension, nicotine usage, dyslipidaemia and compromised mental health (depression). Design. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. All participants were examined within a period of 3 months during 1994. Weight, height, and hip and waist measurements were taken. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were calculated for each subject. Two systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to determine specific risk factors related to lifestyle. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure psychological well-being. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. Setting. The University of the North in the Northern Province of South Africa. Subjects. A complete data set of sociodemographic information, ...
Background: Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in India. Assessment of knowledge and practices of community about prevention of mosquito borne diseases is important for designing community-based interventions. Therefore, the study was carried out to assess such information. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 adults selected by systematic sampling method in a rural and urban area in Delhi. Data was collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square and Fishers Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P ,,/i, 0.05 was considered significant. Results: One hundred and forty-two (67.6%) subjects in rural and 89 (63.6%) in the urban area were able to name at least one mosquito borne disease. Only small number of participants (from rural 28.1% and urban 18.6% areas) was ...
Sir, The present study highlights the role of educational status on the cardiovascular health status of the study population. As identified by the authors, education as a proxy measure of socio-economic status has its own limitations and hence the title should have focused on educational level only. The study tool used for getting information on physical exercise also has some limitation. The question on physical exercise pertaining to exercise is nonspecific for the last response category inactive since exercising several times a year would also include those who are exercising four or more times a week. This overlap would cause confusion among the respondents while answering. The study nowhere mentions about the presence or absence of cardiovascular diseases viz. coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes etc. among the study population. The intake of medications, health interventions from the health care providers would also have relevance on the status of cardiovascular health as ...
In this cross-sectional cohort study, it was found that patients knowledge about BMI and weight-related risk factors has increased modestly. The possible causes are not fully known, although the participants recorded an increase in discussions about BMI with their primary care physician at their clinic visits. Some possible reasons for this increase in BMI knowledge include an increase in BMI measurement as a quality measure across different insurance plans and primary care medical home certification requirements for quality improvement.6 Previous literature suggests that physician discussion of healthy lifestyle increases the likelihood that a patient will make healthy lifestyle changes.5 However, despite the increase in patients knowledge and discussions about BMI with their primary care physician, there was not a decrease in BMI in the 2017 study population.. The current findings suggest that further study is needed to produce positive change in the treatment of patients with obesity and ...
The study showed a high prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in young, northern European men, which was significantly associated with decreased BMD. PTH and 25OHD were found to be inversely related to the markers of insulin resistance.
Objective data from the clinical laboratory are critical to the majority of medical decisions, including initial diagnosis and monitoring of treatment outcome. Laboratory errors, including inaccurate RIs, can lead to inappropriate diagnosis, unnecessary test repetition, and inappropriate follow-up investigations (7). Excessively wide RIs may mask subclinical disorders, and the use of incorrect RIs may confuse the clinical picture. Therefore, relevant RIs are essential for correct test result interpretation and reducing the risk of false negatives and false positives. Failure to provide proper RIs in the pediatric population carries obvious consequences for immunochemical analytes such as TSH (8) and ferritin (9).. The current investigation established RIs in a large, multiethnic pediatric cohort. However, the study was not without its limitations. As it was a cross-sectional investigation, the long-term health of the participating children was not verified. Additionally, the RIs provided are ...
The prevalence of depression and the association between depression and kidney function and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: a multicenter cross-sectional study
van den Brink, A. M. A., Gerritsen, D. L., de Valk, M. M. H., Mulder, A. T., Voshaar, R. C. O., & Koopmans, R. T. C. M. (2018). What do nursing home residents with mental-physical multimorbidity need and who actually knows this? A cross-sectional cohort study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 81, 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.02.008 ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
Sampling Methods. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. ...
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Combination of longitudinal and cross sectional design; starts with a cross sectional study of individuals with different ages then after some time, same individuals are tested again. ...
The current study found that baseline vitamin D status was an independent predictor of better β-cell function and AUCglucose after 3 years of follow-up in the PROMISE study cohort. This is the first study to examine the prospective association of serum 25(OH)D with β-cell function.. Previous studies assessing the association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function have used cross-sectional designs and have reported inconsistent findings (14,16-21,34). These inconsistencies may be attributed to the use of less-detailed, fasting-based surrogate measures of β-cell function (e.g., HOMA-β or C-peptide) in the majority of previous studies (16-18,20,34). Only two studies have used gold-standard methods, including the hyperglycemic clamp (14) and the IVGTT (21), but no significant association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function was found after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, the findings in the current study support our cross-sectional results in the PROMISE study cohort (19), in ...
Direction of study: Exposure and outcome at the same time. Strength of association: Strength of association in cross-sectional study is weak. Cross sectional study is popular study because:Easy to conduct: Readiness and easily it can conductedSimple: Simple in terms of design, calculation & conduct.Time: It can be done very quicklySuitable for problem identification and study cases…
Objective To assess whether randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were registered were less likely to report positive study findings compared with RCTs that were not registered and whether the association varied by funding source.Design Cross sectional study.Study sample All primary RCTs published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by November 2013. Trial registration was determined based on the report of a trial registration number in published RCTs or the identification of the trial in a search of trial registries. Trials were separated into prospectively and retrospectively registered studies.Main outcome measure Association between trial registration and positive study findings.Results 1122 eligible RCTs were identified, of which 593 (52.9%) were registered and 529 (47.1%) were not registered. Overall, registration was marginally associated with positive study findings (adjusted risk ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.98), even with stratification as prospectively and
White, I.R.; Blane, D.; Morris, J.N.; Mourouga, P., 1999: Educational attainment, deprivation-affluence and self reported health in Britain: a cross sectional study
meant by Statistics ❖ What is meant by Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics ❖ Difference between Parameter & Statistic ❖ Types of Statistical
Health,A new study has found out that babies breastfed for six months have re... In the words of Caroline Chantry a pediatrician with UC Davis Ch... This research can be read in the February 2006 issue of Pediatrics.... An analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey ... Pneumonia wheezing and recurrent (three or more) colds or ear infe...,Another,advantage,of,breastfeeding,kids:,lower,chances,of,respiratory,illnesses,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Cross-sectional study example cancer Higher risk they have a higher incidence total smokers that gives me a prevalence, classified either a smoker or nonsmoker have a bias study we could have, surprisingly the value for the odds weeks in the early parts of this course.
There were striking similarities in the anatomy of annual change and acceleration of annual change with age, and we now consider the most appropriate framework for age-related changes with reference to the results of both analyses.. Overall, as illustrated by slice-by-slice profiles, age-related changes appear to be principally governed by inferior-to-superior gradients. Cross-sectional DTI studies have previously indicated that superior fiber tracts may be more susceptible to the effects of age (Sullivan et al., 2010a, 2010b), but, to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of continuous inferior-to-superior gradients. Our conclusion, however, may well reflect the combination of methods used, rather than the anatomy itself, representing a major departure from published cross-sectional results. Indeed, our results can be considered with reference to several alternative anatomical frameworks.. For example, first, it has been proposed that the frontal lobe is particularly vulnerable to ...
Cross-sectional Studies E R I C N O T E B O O K S E R I E S Like cohort studies, cross-sectional studies conceptually begin with a population base. But unlike cohort studies, in cross-sectional studies we do not follow individuals over time. Instead, we only look at the prevalence of disease and/or exposure at one moment in time.. ...
The SeniorAdvisor.com Best of 2017 Awards represent the top 1 percent of senior living and home care providers nationwide, according to the online...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association between reduced GFR and hearing loss. T2 - a cross-sectional population-based study. AU - Vilayur, Eswari. AU - Gopinath, Bamini. AU - Harris, David C.. AU - Burlutsky, George. AU - McMahon, Catherine M.. AU - Mitchell, Paul. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been associated with hearing loss in certain syndromes. Reported evidence to date has come from only small observational studies. We present the first community-based study to show an association between nonsyndromal CKD and hearing loss. Study Design: Cross-sectional population-based study to examine the relationship between CKD and age-related hearing loss. Setting & Participants: The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a survey of age-related hearing loss conducted in 1997-2004; a total of 2,564 participants had audiometric testing and complete renal data. Predictor or Factor: Moderate CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ,60 mL/min/1.73 ...
This page contains the ABSTRACT- High Prevalence of Daily and Multi-site pain -- A Cross-sectional Population-based Study Among 3000 Danish Adolescents http://www.chiro.org/pediatrics/ABSTRACTS/High_Prevalence_of_Daily_and_Multi-site.shtml
Looking for online definition of Systematic sampling in the Medical Dictionary? Systematic sampling explanation free. What is Systematic sampling? Meaning of Systematic sampling medical term. What does Systematic sampling mean?
The present study described the research activity, self-reported success level, motivations and barriers of eight AHP teams in undertaking research and explored whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and audited research activity within each team. The study revealed variation in research activity between teams, however the majority of teams were undertaking some form of ethically approved research and had disseminated their research. All teams, apart from one, reported average success at undertaking various aspects of research. No significant correlations were found between self-reports of research success and team barriers to undertaking research with research activity. Motivating factors were found to have a stronger association with research activity, with enhancing team credibility having a significant correlation with funding received.. The most consistent form of research activity across teams was undertaking ethically approved research projects and conference ...
A cross sectional questionnaire based study on self medication practice of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to childrens physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding childrens ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of childrens ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour ...
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) provides a wealth of information on the Health Status of Americans. As one part of this cross-sectional survey study, researchers evaluated the relationship between serum levels of various antioxidant micronutrients and the prevalence of AMD. Data were presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Chicago (1). Methods: Cross-sectional relationships of serum levels of vitamins C, E and various carotenoids to the following: late AMD, presence of pigment abnormalities, and the presence of soft drusen (the latter 2 factors considered as early predictors of late AMD). Fundus photos and serum samples were obtained on 7935 participants age 40 and older. Age adjusted and multivariate logistic models were used. Factors adjusted for in the analyses included age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and eye color. Results: Prevalence of late AMD was 0.7%, while ...
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters. Methods and Material: A quantitative, observational cross-sectional study of 400 subjects was conducted in public venues in Sharjah. Probability sampling method was used for selection of subjects (parents who have daughters). A self-administered 32- question questionnaire was distributed. SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for entry and analysis of data. Frequency was calculated, Chi square test was used to conduct bivariate analysis and bar
Introduction: Change in lifestyle patterns associated with genetic factors is causing increasing prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in India. Obesity during childhood and adolescence puts these children at a high risk for adult cardio-metabolic disorders and other chronic diseases. It is important that this avalanche is prevented in time by comprehensive school health education programmes and other timely interventions. An observational cross-sectional study, as a part of the School Health Education and Enlightened Living (SHEEL) project, was conducted to assess the prevalence in childhood overweight and obesity during the academic years 2000-2001 and 2013-2014 at a private school. Materials and Methods: As a part of the SHEEL project, a total of 2421 children consists of 1346 boys and 1075 girls (age ranged, 4 -15 years) were evaluated for their height (stadiometer), weight (electronic weighing scale) and body mass index (BMI) during the academic year 2000-2001 (stage 1 study). We ...
To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner
This study is designed to characterize and define serum and cerebrospinal fluid valued for inflammatory cytokines and early idiopathic Parkinsons disease (IPD). Researchers are also looking for patterns in early IPD, hoping that they may lead to early diagnosis before symptoms occur.
BACKGROUND: Policymakers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor, and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association of health literacy with preventable ED visits. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of potentially preventable ED visits (outcome) among adults (≥18 years old) in an ED serving an urban community. We assessed health literacy (predictor) through structured interviews with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We recorded age, sex, race, employment, payer, marital and health status, and number of comorbidities through structured interviews or ...
Objective: Left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist play an important role in LV contraction and relaxation. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) deteriorates both diastolic and systolic functions. We evaluated the LV twist in patients with LBBB and preserved ejection fraction (EF) (>50%) to determine twist as a potential marker for subtle myocardial dysfunction. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 34 LBBB patients with preserved EF who were free from ischemic and valvular disease (Group 1) and 36 healthy controls (Group 2). All patients underwent 2-D Doppler and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography. LV apical, basal rotation, and twist were evaluated in both groups and compared accordingly. In addition, subjects were dichotomized considering the median twist value of the study population. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables associated with inframedian twist. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in LBBB ...
Lower extremity defects in healthy children raises interest of researchers as confirmed by numerous published original and review articles. The relationship between lower extremity postural defects and body mass are unclear as published data are inconclusive. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyse the prevalence of lower extremity defects in a large group of 8- to 12-year-old children; and further to assess the probability of defects associated with values of body mass variables. The study included prospective anthropometric measurements data of 6992 children (3476 boys and 3516 girls) from Gdansk (Northern Poland). Standard screening test used in Poland for assessment of lower limb defects were used (intermalleolar or intercondylar distance for knee alignment, linear vertical compass for valgus heel, computer podoscope or classical footprint and measuring the Sztriter-Godunow index for flatfeet). Body mass was assessed with local centile charts and IOTF cutoffs. Prevalence of
Women report more occupational ill-health and are more sick-listed than men. Exploration of womens working conditions would therefore seem to be valuable. In this study we investigated the prevalence of work-related stress and its association with self-perceived health and sick-leave in a population of employed, working Swedish women. This cross-sectional population study comprised 424 employed, working women who answered questionnaires on work-related stress, self-perceived health and sick-leave. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated in order to analyse the association between the exposure variables of work-related stress and outcome variables of ill-health symptoms, self-rated health and sick-leave. Ten percent of the group reported high perceived stress owing to indistinct organisation and conflicts, and 25% high perceived stress owing to individual demands and commitment. Twenty-two percent reported low influence at work and 33% reported work interference with leisure
Human aging is characterized by expanded and altered adaptive immune responses to human CMV (HCMV). It is unclear whether this expansion has its origins in age-related homeostatic disturbances or viral reactivation, whether anti-CMV immune surveillance may still be effective, and what are the consequences of this expanded immune response for health and longevity. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in groups of HCMV-seropositive subjects aged ≥65 y of variable health status to compare the intensity of Ab responses against HCMV with those against EBV and with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proinflammatory effector responses directed to HCMV-derived pp65 and immediate-early protein 1 synthetic peptides. Ab responses to HCMV, but not to EBV, and anti-HCMV CD4+, but not CD8+, T cell responses were more intense in elderly subjects aged ≥85 y in poor health and were inversely correlated with markers of functional activity and cognitive function. Therefore, humoral and CD4+ T cell anti-HCMV ...
The complex multiracial/multilingual situation of Malaysia poses challenges for local professionals, such as speech and language therapists, who work with children. The present cross-sectional study investigated ethnic Chinese childrens simultaneous phonological acquisition of English, Mandarin and Malay, which are the three major local languages for the Malaysian Chinese population. The aims were to provide preliminary normative data on phonological acquisition for this population, as well as to investigate processes underlying multilingual phonological acquisition. Sixty-four pre-school children aged between 2;06-4;05 were recruited. A single-word naming test, a word consistency production subtest and an intonation imitation sub-test were devised for each of the three languages. Particular attention was paid to the characteristics of the local adult speech varieties as the benchmark for assessing and analyzing the childrens responses on the tests. This sociolinguistic dimension has often ...
Free Online Library: Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.(Research Article, Report) by BioMed Research International; Biotechnology industry High technology industry Cardiology Optical tomography Methods Tissue engineering Technology application
Early detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant females starts by a request of the gynecologists, which is based on their knowledge and awareness of the guidelines on conducting these tests. This is an observational cross-sectional study that i
Purpose: To determine the distribution of corneal topographic patterns measured by Pentacam in a rural population based on age and gender. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, two different rural regions in Iran were randomly selected, by random cluster sampling. Detailed optometric examination including - refraction (objective and subjective), visual acuity assessment and slit lamp evaluation and Pentacam topography were conducted for all participants. Results: Corneal topographic maps of 794 rural cases were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 32.1+18.53 years. A total of 398 patients (51.1) were male and 396 patients (49.9) were female. The most prevalent topographic pattern was Symmetric Bowtie (21.6) and after that Superior Steepening (17.9) and the more rare patterns were Asymmetric Bowtie with Skewed Radial Axis (AB-SRAX) (3) and Round (5.6). The most prevalent topographic patterns in age range from 5-20yr were Oval and Symmetric bowtie (25.9), in 21-40yr was ...
|strong|Objective:|/strong| To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status) in a national adult population in Indonesia. |strong|Material and Methods|/strong|: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18-103 years) completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. |strong|Results|/strong|: Of total sample (n = 29509), 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women) (<18.5 kg/m|sup|2|/sup|), 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women) and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m|sup|2|/sup|) (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women); 24.6% of the
Most patients in our study do not describe dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD. However, more than one in seven patients is explicitly dissatisfied. The chance of dissatisfaction is increased with a lower level of education, the involvement of more than one additional healthcare provider, a second opinion on the patients initiative and delay caused by the healthcare provider. In addition, if only the GP and neurologist have been involved in the diagnostic pathway, women are more likely to be dissatisfied than men.. Although dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD appears to be playing a limited role in quantitative terms, dissatisfaction with the initial diagnostic process can have an impact on long-term care, stressing the importance of paying attention to it: cognitions formed at an early stage tend to determine care experiences during the further treatment episode [2, 5, 20].. Our study shows that it is not the duration of the diagnostic pathway of PD on its own that ...
In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) ± 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups with p < 0.01. highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of 23 years with a mean of 11.61 ± 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 ± 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. the anova analysis for haemoglobin content and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicoepidemiological Profile of Elderly PLHIV Attending a Tertiary Care Center in South India. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Ramakrishnan, Neha. AU - Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran. AU - Ramapuram, John. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Rathi, Priya. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Background: Physicians are coming across a considerable number of HIV-positive patients belonging to older age-group, in practice. They pose a challenge as they might present with advanced forms and comorbid conditions. We aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological profile of elderly people living with HIV. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. We analyzed the record of 120 patients from 2009 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients. Results: Of 786 HIV-positive patients, 120 were elderly. Mean age was 55.9 ± 6.1 years. Majority 68% were male. In all, 63.33% were male. Commonest route of ...
From Oracs link to Sullivans LB/RB blog about the first vaccinated-vs-unvaccinated study that Generation Rescue tried to get funding for ($ 800,000) and promoted in 2010:. http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/index.php?s=deth. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE NATIONAL HOME EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NHERI):. I. Projects Primary Purpose, and the Need it Addresses. The goal of this project is to test the association between vaccinations and both acute and chronic neuro-developmental disorders and the efficacy of preventive health strategies. This will be achieved by conducting a retrospective cross-sectional study comparing the incidence of chronic illnesses (i.e., asthma, obesity, and eczema), neuro-developmental disorders (i.e., autism, ADHD and learning disorders), and overall health and well-being among a random sample of vaccinated and unvaccinated children (5-18 years of age). The study will obtain information from a random sample of two populations: I) children being horne-schooled and belong to ...
Background: Traditionally, a fat child is considered as an attractive child and is often referred to as a healthy child, one who is likely to survive the rigors of undernourishment and infection. The obesity has been defined as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, to the extent that health may be impaired. Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non-communicable diseases called New World Syndrome creating an enormous socio-economic and public health burden in poorer countries. Objective: Augmenting body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children by using BMI, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the municipal corporation area among school going children during the period of 1 st September 2009-31 st August 2010. We prepared the list of children roll number wise from ...
Cross sectional data reporting the height, weight, and body mass index of UK patients with cystic fibrosis are presented. During the first decade of life height and weight in patients with cystic fibrosis are maintained at about 0.5 SD below those of the general population, which reflects an improvement over earlier published observations....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa. AU - Iftikhar, Mustafa. AU - Lemus, Marili. AU - Usmani, Bushra. AU - Campochiaro, Peter A.. AU - Sahel, José Alain. AU - Scholl, Hendrik. AU - Shah, Syed Mahmood. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Aim: To develop a simple and easily applicable classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Visual acuity (VA), visual field width (VF) and ellipsoid zone width (EZ) were obtained from medical records of patients with RP. A scoring criterion was developed wherein each variable was assigned a score from 0 to 5 depending on its distribution. The cumulative score (from 0 to 15) was used to classify disease severity from grade 0 to 5. The scores were correlated with each other and the final grade. The grades were then correlated with age and disease duration. Results: The median age (range) of patients (n=93) was 55 (12-87) years, 51% were female, 70% ...
Cervical cancer caused mainly by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 strains is the second most prevalent cancer among women in Kenya. It is often diagnosed late when treatment is difficult due to very low percentage of women attending screening thus, mortalities remain high. The most available tests in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) have relatively low specificity, low sensitivity, require a laboratory setting and huge technical and financial support not readily available. HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein has been identified as a potential biomarker in a more specific early diagnosis of cervical cancer. This retrospective cross-sectional study developed a paper-based nanokit with enhanced detection of HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein for cervical cancer screening. The HRP labelled antibodies HPV 16 E6/18 E6-HRP (CP15) passively conjugated to citrate stabilized 20 nm gold nanoparticles were evaluated for immune sensing mechanism using a recombinant viral HPV E6 protein. The diagnostic accuracy was
Background: Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youths PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youths participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA ...
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, reporting rates for tuberculosis (TB) are rising in an emerging HIV epidemic. To describe the HIV epidemic among TB patients and quantify its impact on rates of reported TB, we performed a repeated cross-sectional survey from 1997 through 2002 in a randomly selected sample of inner city TB patients. We assessed effect by adjusting TB case reporting rates by the fraction of TB cases attributable to HIV infection. HIV prevalence in TB patients rose exponentially from 1.5% to 9.0% during the study period. Young (&lt;35 years), single, male patients were mostly affected; injection drug use was a potent risk factor. After correction for HIV infection, the trend in TB reporting rates changed from a 1.9% increase to a 0.4% decrease per year. An emerging HIV epidemic, concentrated in young, male, injection drug users, is responsible for increased TB reporting rates in urban Vietnam.
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses helped ...
Purpose: : Focal cortical disturbances associated with multiple sclerosis, trauma or tumor can interfere with higher visual processing even in the presence of preserved visual acuity (VA). Diabetes affects both retinal vasculature and neurons, but its effects on the CNS are less well described. We hypothesized that DM patients exhibit central visual processing deficits compared with non-DM controls. Methods: : Subjects aged 20-69 with ,0.5 logMAR ETDRS VA and varying stages of diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative, severe untreated proliferative (PDR), severe PDR + pan-retinal photocoagulation, PRP), and non-DM controls underwent standard and psychophysical testing: monocular color vision (FM100Hue), binocular illusory contours (IC), motion-defined letter recognition (MDR), Titmus fly stereoacuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. After ensuring shape recognition, 5 IC and 1 control shape were presented at 2 support ratios (0.2 and 0.4, luminance-defined versus total contour length) at ...
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ...
Objective A clinical trial (REQUIRE) was started to investigate the use of an ultrasound renal denervation system in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RHT). We analyzed the prevalence of patients who were eligible for inclusion in this cross-sectional study at the time of screening. Methods Nine-hundred ninety-nine consecutive hypertension (HT) patients who were treated in our hospital as outpatients were classified into the following categories: patients treated with at least 3 types of antihypertensive drugs including diuretic agents who were eligible for enrolment in SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan (SH-J) with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥160 mmHg, who were ≤80 years of age, and an eGFR of ≥45 mL/min/1 ...
Objective-To evaluate the differences among each states Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (ICVI) form and the legibility of data on paper ICVIs used to support disease tracing in cattle. Design-Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. Sample-Examples of ICVIs from 50 states and 7,630 randomly sampled completed paper ICVIs for cattle from 48 states. Procedures-Differences among paper ICVI forms from all 50 states were determined. Sixteen data elements were selected for further evaluation of their value in tracing cattle. Completed paper ICVIs for interstate cattle exports in 2009 were collected from 48 states. Each of the 16 data elements was recorded as legible, absent, or illegible on forms completed by accredited veterinarians, and results were summarized by state. Mean values for legibility at the state level were used to estimate legibility of data at the national level. Results-ICVIs were inconsistent among states in regard to data elements requested and availability of
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
In the present analysis including 967 community-dwelling elderly men and women no significant association between hemoglobin levels or anemia and falls could be found. Thus, the suggestion that anemia is an independent risk factor of falls in elderly people from the general population could not be supported by these results. However, we found an additive effect of anemia and disability on the occurrence of falls.. On the contrary to our study prior studies were mostly conducted in selected groups [15-17] in women only [32] or they used self-reported data regarding anemia status or information from chart reviews [33]. Furthermore, most of the former analyses were based on smaller study samples [15, 17, 18].. The group of Duh et al. employed a retrospective open-cohort design and analyzed data of 47,350 individuals regarding anemia and risk of injurious falls in community-dwelling elderly people. Results showed that anemia increased the risk of injurious falls by 1.47 times in multivariate ...
Author: Sasikala.J, Gnanavel.P, Milind V.Bhutkar. Category: Physiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Background : The present study was undertaken because there is only limited information available regarding the effect of menopause over heart rate recovery and lipid profile.. Aim: Aim of the study was to calculate heart rate recovery and to estimate lipid profile and to compare the parameters between pre and post menopausal women.. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 healthy non athletic female volunteers consisted of 60 premenopausal women between the age group of 40-45 years and 60 post-menopausal women between the age group of 45-50 years. All the 120 subjects underwent a modified Bruce exercise protocol testing on a treadmill after taking blood sample for lipid profile. Heart rate was recorded during the exercise at each stage and also during the recovery period (1 minute, 2 minute and 5 minutes after the exercise). Result: The heart rate recovery was ...
In the present study, we provided a snapshot of the nutritional status of CD adolescents in Brazil using instruments and methods that are available at any health facility where such patients might be followed. We found that BMI-for-age and height-for-age were significantly lower in the patients with CD than in the controls, a finding that was consistent with those of Burnham et al. [18], who studied 104 children and young adults with CD evaluated an average of 4 years after the disease had been diagnosed (as was the case in the present study).. In a similar study, Thayu et al. [19] investigated a sample of 78 children and adolescents with CD and found significant changes in growth, pubertal development, and body composition (in particular, lean body mass loss) at diagnosis in comparison with the control group, although they found no differences between the genders. The deficit of lean body mass persisted throughout the follow-up period.. In the present study, caloric intake was found to be lower ...
Breastfeeding is seen as vital for mother and child and therefore is of great public health concern. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery is important as it reduces neonatal mortality. Increasing our understanding of barriers and reasons for not commencing early breastfeeding is important to improve strategies and conditions to overcome such barriers. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate factors influencing time of breastfeeding among women in India, focusing on health care utilisation related issues and partner behaviour. Data from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of Indias National Family Health Survey (NFHS) from 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) have been used in this study. Breastfeeding for the latest child was considered in the study. A total of 35,795 female respondents are included in this study. Chi square test and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used. Among all 35,795 women in the study, a total of 31.1% initiated breastfeeding within
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities, including adverse cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) profiles, are frequent comorbid findings with HTN and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Diuretics, which are used to treat HTN and heart failure, have been associated with worsening of fasting lipid concentrations. Genome-wide meta-analyses with 39,710 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 9925 African-ancestry (AA) individuals were performed to identify genetic variants that modify the effect of loop or thiazide diuretic use on blood lipid concentrations. Both longitudinal and cross sectional data were used to compute cohort-specific interaction results, which were then combined through meta-analysis in each ancestry. These ancestry-specific results were further combined through trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Analysis of EA data identified two genome-wide significant (p , 5 × 10−8) loci with single nucleotide variant ...
... a cross sectional study". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 64 (3): 375-378. doi:10.1136/jnnp.64.3.375. ... In their study, actors were instructed to vocalize an array of different emotions without words. The study showed that ... This has been determined in multiple studies, such as Hoekert et al.'s 2017 study on emotional prosody in schizophrenia, which ... In an fMRI study, men showed a stronger activation in more cortical areas than female subjects when processing the meaning or ...
A cross-sectional study". Trials. 12 (1): 58. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-58. PMC 3055831. PMID 21356072. Lachin JM (June 2000). " ... For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a ... ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis, because it does not require observation of compliance status ... which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. ITT analysis provides information about the potential ...
A cross-sectional study". F1000Research. 7 (7): 1030. doi:10.12688/f1000research.15479.2. ISSN 2046-1402. OCLC 7891654842. PMC ...
A cross-sectional study". Pan African Medical Journal. 24: 120. doi:10.11604/pamj.2016.24.120.8986. PMC 5012825. PMID 27642458 ... A study carried out in an isolated Inuit village showed that antibodies produced from subclinical wild virus infection ... Schnirring L (17 May 2019). "Four new polio cases in Pakistan as study tackles partial-dose vaccination". Center for Infectious ... 28". International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). 11 May 2005. Archived from the original on 12 August 2006. Retrieved 7 ...
2016) How Do Urban Indian Private Practitioners Diagnose and Treat Tuberculosis? A Cross-Sectional Study in Chennai. PLOS ONE ... Studies have shown that faulty anti-TB prescriptions in the private sector in India ranges from 50% to 100% and this is a ...
A cross-sectional observational study in Europe". European Psychiatry. 45 (Supplement C): 136-138. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.05 ...
Results from a large cross-sectional study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 67 (3): 189-197. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores. ... This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated high co-morbidity of somatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms (i.e ... "How to assess common somatic symptoms in large-scale studies: A systematic review of questionnaires". Journal of Psychosomatic ...
A Cross Sectional Study". Thunderbird International Business Review. 48 (5): 623-642. doi:10.1002/tie.20113. Ian Bremmer and ... 6-20; and Stephen J. Kobrin "Political Risk: A Review and Reconsideration", Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 10 ... 213-214) Jeffrey D. Simon, "A Theoretical Perspective on Political Risk", Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 15, ...
Mashal, Abdallah; Katz, Amos; Shvartzman, Pesach (2011). "Atrial fibrillation: A primary care cross-sectional study". Israel ... Jiangsu Furui Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd is currently recruiting participants in their study.[needs update] Myocytes Ion channels ...
Cross sectional study using data from the 2001 census". Retrieved 16 July 2006. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help)CS1 maint ...
CHEN, M; LANDER, T; MURPHY, C (May 2006). "Nasal health in Down syndrome: A cross-sectional study". Otolaryngology-Head and ... cross-species, and cross-species where the emitter is harmed and the sensor is benefited, respectively) signals. Due to ... "An Experimental Study of the Ventral Striatum of the Golden Hamster. II. Neuronal Connections of the Olfactory Tubercle." Wiley ... Further studies have concluded that the olfactory loss may be associated with intellectual disability, rather than any ...
... in a cross-sectional study.[citation needed] Baelum 1996 recalculated their previous data from Kenyan and Chinese populations ... As in other studies, a major portion of the total number of teeth lost was accounted for by a small group of persons. In this ... The study size was 560 persons and at the 48-month examination, 22% of persons and 1.8% of teeth had attachment loss incidence ... There was an apparent increase from 1% to 2% to 3% over the three study periods, which may have been due to an increase of ...
Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard (2016). "Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study" (PDF). ... But the 2010 study of five private hospitals that serve more than 60% of foreign medical tourists concluded that there were ... Studying Muay Thai is a main activity for Thai sports tourism, which the government promotes. In 2016, there were 11,219 ... All numbers reported by the government must be viewed with some skepticism according to the authors of a 2010 study. The Thai ...
Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard (2016). "Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study" (PDF). ... These measures have only been partially successful: in 2009, a study found that there was one physician per 565 persons in ... local governments and the Red Cross. Different provinces in Thailand are arranged into different health districts by region. ...
Cross sectional study of political affiliation and physical activity". Christmas 2014: Going to Extremes. The BMJ. 349: g7073. ... The study's stated conclusion was that literal "armchair socialists" as a class do not exist as holders of political views ... In December 2014, The BMJ published a study, possibly satirical in intent and described as "lighthearted" in NHS Choices, with ...
Still, all studies have been cross sectional in design. Furthermore, these results merely describe associations and do not make ... Studies have shown that meditation has both short-term and long-term effects on various perceptual faculties. In 1984 a study ... Of the 400 clinical studies, 10% were found to be good quality. A call was made for rigorous study of meditation. These authors ... Since the 1950s hundreds of studies on meditation have been conducted, but many of the early studies were flawed and thus ...
A cross-sectional study conducted amongst refugees in Sweden, found that 60% of those assessed had inadequate functioning ... a cross-sectional study". BMC Public Health. 14: 1030. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1030. PMC 4195944. PMID 25278109. Osborne RH, ... As such, studies have been conducted in various refugee camps to assess the degree of burden that menstruation has on women. ... Other studies have revealed that when desperate, women will resort to using leaves or old pads to absorb the discharged blood, ...
... a cross-sectional study". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87 (2): 362-369. doi:10.1093/ajcn/87.2.362. ISSN 0002- ... Of these five studies, three of the studies stated a non-significant positive association and two of the studies demonstrated ... a cross-sectional study". Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 134 (6): 473-479. doi:10.1590/1516-3180.2015.01382111. ISSN 1806-9460. ... More studies are needed to test for the causality of vitamin B12 and obesity using genetic markers. A few studies have also ...
Hogan; Rinard, K.; Young, C.; Roberts, A.; Armstrong, M.; Nelius, T. (2010). "A cross-sectional study of men with genital ... In a 2015 study that evaluated a qualitative dataset of 484 self-reports and characteristics of men and women with genital ... In an empirical study at the University of South Alabama, the authors reported a positive relationship between vertical ... Aubrey, Karen (April 1995). "Body Piercing: Gender Nihilism in the 90s". Studies in Popular Culture. 17 (2): 31-37. JSTOR ...
A cross-sectional study". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 85 (2): 235-238. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.85.2.235. PMID 1254784. ... Goleman studied in India using a pre-doctoral fellowship from Harvard and a post-doctoral grant from the Social Science ... Adler, Nancy E.; Goleman, Daniel (1975). "Goal Setting, T-Group Participation, and Self-Rated Change: An Experimental Study". ... Goleman co-founded the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning at Yale University's Child Studies Center, ...
Cross-sectional and longitudional evidence from the Berlin Aging Study". Psychology and Aging. 15 (3): 511-526. doi:10.1037/ ... This finding is generally stronger for men than women, though the pattern between genders is not universal across all studies ... The Women's Health and Aging Study". Journal of Gerontology. 56A (10): M609-17. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.10.m609. PMID 11584033. ... Journal of Aging Studies. 31: 104-109. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2014.09.003. PMID 25456627.. ...
A Cross-Sectional Study". Addictive Behaviors. 73: 178-184. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.008. PMID 28531823. B, Kristiansson; N ... In the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, which included 18,438 women from 10 states from 1999 to 2003, 1.3% of women ... Hoffman R, Al'Absi M (December 2010). "Khat use and neurobehavioral functions: suggestions for future studies". Journal of ... A small study of 642 participants in Yemen found that among pregnant women who chewed khat (containing D-norpseudoephedrine) ...
... crosssectional, cohort study". European Journal of Neurology. 28 (5): 1590-1600. doi:10.1111/ene.14749. PMID 33476475. S2CID ... but these studies did not specifically look at delirium. In the only population-based prospective study of delirium, older ... meta-analysis of 12 studies). In the only prospective study conducted in the general population, older persons reporting ... A Neuropathologic Study of 3 Population-Based Cohort Studies". JAMA Psychiatry. 74 (3): 244-251. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry. ...
... a cross-sectional study". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (7): 552-58. doi:10.2471/blt.07.043786. PMC 2647481. ... a cross-sectional study". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (7): 552-58. doi:10.2471/blt.07.043786. PMC 2647481. ... A UN-sponsored study coauthored by Jewkes on male violence against women in Asia and the Pacific reported that a high number of ... Shea, Rachel (14 September 2013). "UN Study Looks at High Rate of Rape". Retrieved 12 November 2014. "Almost a quarter of men ' ...
In cross-sectional studies, a sample (or samples) is drawn from the relevant population and studied once.[2] A cross-sectional ... The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies.[2] ... Longitudinal studiesEdit. Longitudinal studies take measure of the same random sample at multiple time points.[2] Unlike with a ... However, longitudinal studies are both expensive and difficult to do. It's harder to find a sample that will commit to a months ...
Initial cross-sectional results from the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia. Optometry and Vision Science : official ... Study; and Chair of the first-ever NEI-funded multicenter study based in optometry, the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation ... CLEERE Study Group. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error. Nature. 2000;404:143-4. "Getting ... 1997;74:603-8. Kymes SM, Walline JJ, Zadnik K, Gordon MO, Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus study g. Quality ...
The research design of most studies is cross-sectional and correlational. Field settings are predominant (97%). Only 2% use ... 2008). Work-family conflict and psychosocial work environment stressors as predictors of job stress in a cross-cultural study. ... Work and family studies historically focus on studying the conflict between different roles that individuals have in their ... Nevertheless, more cross-cultural research is needed to understand the cultural dimensions of the WFC construct. The research ...
A cross-sectional study". BMJ Open. 4 (8): e005508. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005508. PMC 4156803. PMID 25168039. "German hang ... In an unprecedented flight between Tofino, BC and Bay Saint Lawrence, NS, the cross-Canada campaign involved 108 flights with ...
... cross sectional study". BMJ. 321 (7271): 1255-1259. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7271.1255. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 27528. PMID 11082085. ... In one study inter-pregnancy intervals shorter than 6 months were associated with 2-3 times increased risk of uterine rupture, ...
A population based cross-sectional study". World Journal of Cardiology. 5 (8): 295-304. doi:10.4330/wjc.v5.i8.295. PMC 3761183 ... A population based cross-sectional study". World Journal of Cardiology. 5 (8): 295-304. doi:10.4330/wjc.v5.i8.295. PMC 3761183 ... a population-based cross-sectional study: Implications for healthcare resource allocation decision making". BMJ Open. 2 (4): ... After he returned, he was granted a scholarship to study medicine at the University of Karnataka in Bangalore state in India. ...
Observational Studies. *Cross-sectional study. *Cohort study. *Natural experiment. *Quasi-experiment. Statistical inference ...
C21 - Modelos de corte transversal (Cross-sectional); Modelos espaciais; Treatment effect models; Regressões quantílicas ... JEL: L8 - Industry Studies: Services JEL: L80 - Geral. JEL: L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing; e-Commerce. JEL: L82 ... C31 - Modelos de corte transversal (Cross-sectional); Modelos espaciais; Treatment effect models; Regressões quantílicas ... JEL: L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing JEL: L60 - Geral. JEL: L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics. JEL ...
After studying law at the University of Virginia, Robinson returned to Arkansas, winning election to the Arkansas General ... Sectional. *College Democrats of America. *Democrats Abroad. *National Federation of Democratic Women ... Wedded to his job, he arrived early each day, stayed late, and studied legislation at home.[1] ... He attended the University of Arkansas and studied law at the University of Virginia. ...
Johnson, J.V., & Hall, E.M. (1988). Job strain, workplace social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study ... Self-report survey methodology is the most used approach in OHP research.[37] Cross-sectional designs are commonly used; case- ... At least five studies of men have linked effort-reward imbalance with CVD.[79] Another large study links ERI to the incidence ... In a massive (n , 197,000) longitudinal study that combined data from 13 independent studies, Kivimäki et al. (2012)[77] found ...
... a cross-sectional study from Northern India". Pediatric Research. 81 (1): 18-26. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.177. PMID 27632780.. ... Many of the traits that affect profitability in crosses of modern dairy breeds have not been studied in designed experiments. ... The preliminary studies show results inconsistent with the outcrossing paradigm based on individual environments of the studied ... Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are an exception.[48] ...
Cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) *Plain films are generally sufficient in making a joint dislocation diagnosis. However, ... Although it may not be as accurate in detecting any associated fractures, in one observational study ultrasonography identified ... cross-sectional imaging can subsequently be used to better define and evaluate abnormalities that may be missed or not clearly ... ultrasound is the imaging study of choice as the proximal femoral epiphysis has not significantly ossified at this age.[13] ...
So, Damon W. K., Jesus' Revelation of His Father: A Narrative-Conceptual Study of the Trinity with Special Reference to Karl ... "Arianism" in Cross, F.L. & Livingstone, E.A. (eds) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1974) ... A Sectional Confession of Faith, 13:2 online. *^ Kittel, 3:108.. *^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, ... Coppens, Charles, S.J. (1903). A Systematic Study of the Catholic Religion. St. Louis: B. HERDER. Archived from the original on ...
... recording protocols for entheseal changes in regards to expressing activity patterns using archival data and cross-sectional ... Studies of dental enamel hypoplasia are used to study child health. Unlike bone, teeth are not remodeled, so they can provide a ... δ13C studies have been used in North America to document the transition from a C3 to a C4 (native North American plants to corn ... A study of iron-deficiency among early Mongolian nomads showed that although overall rates of cribra orbitalia declined from ...
Conversely, Best and Chakravarti (1990) studied the problem as an active set identification problem, and proposed a primal ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ...
... comparing flight attendant health to the general population in a cross-sectional study". BMC Public Health. 18 (1): 346. doi: ... The emotional labour performed by flight attendants and cross-cultural aspects of it have since been actively studied and are a ... a cross-sectional survey". Environmental Health. 6: 28. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-6-28. ISSN 1476-069X. PMC 2064907. PMID 17897468. ... Other studies have found increased rates of breast and skin cancer,[47] reduced respiratory health,[48] adverse reproductive ...
Probabilistic load flow in power-flow study explains the uncertainties of input variables as probability distribution and ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ...
The size of the windcatcher allows it to work in any wind direction;[19] the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the wind ... Shady Attia (2-24 June 2009). Designing the Malqaf for summer cooling in low-rise housing, an experimental study (PDF). 26th ... Windcatchers vary dramatically in shape, including height, cross-sectional area, and internal sub-divisions and filters.[2] ... It has a strong cross-breeze from the courtyard, at least partly driven by convection;[4]:Ch. 6[5] it thus uses the courtyard ...
The length and cross-sectional mouth area required to create a bass or sub-bass horn require a horn many feet long. 'Folded' ... "Study Hall. ProSoundWeb. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2010.. ... Voice-coil wire cross sections can be circular, rectangular, or hexagonal, giving varying amounts of wire volume coverage in ... Acousticians, in studying the radiation of sound sources have developed some concepts important to understanding how ...
Cross-sectional EBIC of a p-n junction. By using the signal from the picoammeter as the imaging signal, an EBIC image is formed ... EBIC has also been extended to the study of local defects in insulators. For example, W.S. Lau (Lau Wai Shing) developed "true ... When a semiconductor device is imaged in cross-section, the depletion region will show bright EBIC contrast. The shape of the ...
Among pregnant women in Israel a small scale cross sectional study found the prevalence of HSV-2 infection was 13.3% and that ... According to a study in Ontario, of people between the ages of 15 to 16, 26.9% of men, 32% of non-pregnant women, and 55% of ... Many studies have been performed around the world to estimate the numbers of individuals infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2 by ... In Australia, a study using data from 1999 revealed the seroprevalence of HSV-1 was at 76.5%, with significant differences ...
LPAAT activity doubles the number of acyl chains, greatly increasing the cross-sectional area of the lipid that lies 'within' ... Studies have suggested that this process may be lipid-driven, and have postulated a central role for DAG due to its, likewise, ... This means that it is difficult to measure PA production and therefore to study the role of PA in the cell. However, PLD ... Studies have suggested that DAG signaling is mediated by polyunsaturated DAG, whereas PLD-derived PA is monounsaturated or ...
... which causes a nonuniform distribution of current over the cross-sectional area of the conductor. Transmission line conductors ... A number of studies have highlighted the potential benefits of very wide area super grids based on HVDC since they can mitigate ... The line crosses a total length of 1907 km (1192 mi). Since the Xiangjiaba-Shanghai line was completed in 2010, at least twelve ... Cross-Skagerrak consisted since 1993 of 3 poles, from which 2 were switched in parallel and the third used an opposite polarity ...
A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Retraction Notices at BioMed Central". BMJ Open. 6 (11): e012047. doi:10.1136/bmjopen- ... "Blacklists" and 'Whitelists" to Tackle Predatory Publishing : A Cross-Sectional Comparison and Thematic Analysis". doi:10.7287/ ... Various studies have investigated the extent of open access. A study published in 2010 showed that roughly 20% of the total ... A Cross-Sectional Comparison". BMC Medicine. 15 (1): 28. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0785-9. PMC 5353955. PMID 28298236.. ...
A cross-sectional and longitudinal study". Environment International. 120: 199-206. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.002. hdl:10044 ... A longitudinal Study". This study investigated the effects of suicide-related internet use on user's suicidal thoughts, ... Sueki, (2013) carried out a study titled "The effect of suicide-related internet use on users' mental health: ... Paul Broca studied trepanation and came up with his own theory on it. He noticed that the fractures on the skulls dug up ...
... a cross-sectional evaluation using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 48 (9 ... Although such cross-over benefit might happen, not enough high-quality studies have been done to demonstrate it.[93] ... which a few studies suggest are present 5-22% of the time). Furthermore, an abnormal neuroimaging study indicates a high ... A study in young adults (18-34) on transitioning to adulthood found that their concerns were physical health care and ...
Studies done with pseudo- or quasirandomization are usually given nearly the same weight as those with true randomization but ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ...
A = cross sectional area of valve. L = axial length of valve. Λ(t) = single degree of freedom; when. Λ. 2. (. t. ). =. A. (. L ... Usually, the aortic and mitral valves are incorporated in valve studies within a single degree of freedom. These relationships ...
Cross-sectional area of a nuclear pore complex in vertebrates[9] 10−12 1 square micrometre (μm2) 6 μm2 Surface area of an E. ... "The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study". PLoS ONE. 5 (1): e8933. ... Cross-sectional area of a straight human hair that is 100 μm[14] in diameter[15] ... Cross-sectional area of a mechanical pencil lead (0.5-0.7 mm in diameter)[16] ...
Guinness had a policy of allowing technical staff leave for study (so-called "study leave"), which Gosset used during the first ... Cross-correlation (XCF). *ARMA model. *ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins). *Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) ... For example, suppose we are evaluating the effect of a medical treatment, and we enroll 100 subjects into our study, then ... This approach is sometimes used in observational studies to reduce or eliminate the effects of confounding factors. ...
A Cross-Sectional Occupational Health Study". Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 41 (4): 248-60. doi:10.1097/ ... Centre for Disease Control (2002). The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2012. no associations between ... In a small study on human subjects who, for each of their 90-day trial, ingested four 20 milligram tetraglycine hydroperiodide ... In another related study where subjects drank just 1 litre of perchlorate-containing water per day at a concentration of 10 ppm ...
Observational study. (EBM II-2 to II-3; B to C). *Cross-sectional study vs. Longitudinal study, Ecological study ... In 2012, a study by Begley and Ellis was published in Nature that reviewed a decade of research. That study found that 47 out ... In recent decades Phase II success has fallen from 28% to 18%. A 2011 study found that 65% of medical studies were inconsistent ... Controlled study. (EBM I to II-1; A to B). *Randomized controlled trial *Scientific experiment ...
Hariqbal S (2011). Cross-sectional imaging made easy. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. ISBN 9789350251959. . OCLC ... The first case study on Phineas Gage's head injury is one of the most astonishing brain injuries in history. In 1848, Phineas ... Studies show there is a correlation between brain lesion and language, speech, and category-specific disorders. Wernicke's ... Rules like these are usually studied in depth by multiple research groups with large patient cohorts to ensure accuracy given ...
... and from cross-sectional studies, consistently shows associations between early attachment classifications and peer ... a b c d e f g Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of ... In particular, two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. One study was ... Research based on data from longitudinal studies, such as the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of ...
Robert P. Sharkey, Money, Class, and Party: An Economic Study of Civil War and Reconstruction (Johns Hopkins Press, 1967). ... Although historians such as W. E. B. Du Bois celebrated a cross-racial coalition of poor whites and blacks, such coalitions ... and sectional rivalries confined, of the permanent banishment of the fear of vaunting appeals to state sovereignty, backed by ... J. H. Hollander,Studies in State Taxation with Particular Reference to the Southern States (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, ...
The study uses cross-sectional data from the baseline wave (October 2009 to July 2011). Analyses are based on those aged 50-79 ... This is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50-79 years (n = 5287). ... cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). ... The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing prospective cohort study representative of community living adults ...
This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three ... This study showed that experiencing moral doubt is related to some ones normative attitude towards coercion. Future research ... This study. In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional survey study among multidisciplinary employees of seven ... Study design. This paper describes a cross-sectional survey study in which we executed an explorative statistical analysis. ...
Cross sectional studies. A cross sectional study measures the prevalence of health outcomes or determinants of health, or both ... Bias may arise because of selection into or out of the study population. A cross sectional survey of asthma in an occupational ... cross sectional studies of aetiology are best suited to diseases that produce little disability and to the presymptomatic ... A cross sectional design may also make it difficult to establish what is cause and what is effect. If milk drinking is ...
Social Science Approaches to the Study of Chinese Society Part 1. In Week 5, we will focus on Study Designs. By the end of ... cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research.. Many pioneering studies from the early 20th century ... 5.4 Cross-sectional studies. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... And finally, another big issue with cross sectional studies. is that its very hard to rule out what we refer to as spurious ...
... whereas longitudinal studies make comparisons over time. The research question will determine which approach is best. ... Cross-sectional studies make comparisons at a single point in time, ... Cross-sectional study. Both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal studies are observational studies. This means that ... Cross-sectional studies can be done more quickly than longitudinal studies. Thats why researchers might start with a cross- ...
Data from a cross sectional study in Bavaria suggest that the risk of obesity in children at the time of school entry can be ... whereas a protective effect has been reported in a Canadian cross sectional study of 1320 adolescents born in the late 1960s.10 ... Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ 1999; 319 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7203.147 (Published 17 ... However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts.7-9 These small studies ...
This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ... "Credit cards and money demand: a cross-sectional study," Working Papers 9112, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. ... This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ...
A cross-sectional study of obesogenic behaviours and family rules according to family structure in European children.. Artikel ... the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and ... from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. ...
The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... RESULTS: Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. Age was similar between ...
This cross-sectional approach provides an insight into AAB across a key developmental period. It highlights that influential ... to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. ... This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking ... Melaugh McAteer A, Curran D, Hanna D (2015) Alcohol attention bias in adolescent social drinkers: an eye tracking study. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Cross-Sectional Study easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Cross-Sectional Study at Encyclopedia.com. ... CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. A cross-sectional study is the simplest ... The U.S. National Health Surveys are a form of cross-sectional study. Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can ... The distinction between a cohort study and a repeated cross-sectional study is that a cohort study is conducted with the same ...
Sleep disturbances, work stress and work hours: a cross-sectional study.. Akerstedt T1, Knutsson A, Westerholm P, Theorell T, ... The study examined the multivariate relationship between disturbed sleep and different work-related and background/life style ...
... nuclear families number of living number of rooms nutritional status path analysis poor positive relationship present study ... Religions religious and caste respondents belonging rural areas sanitation index significant social socio-economic status study ...
The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal ... Stillbirths in Rural Hospitals in The Gambia: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study. Abdou Jammeh,1,2 Siri Vangen,3 and Johanne ... A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study," Obstetrics and Gynecology International, vol. 2010, Article ID 186867, 8 pages, 2010. ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of endocrinology. ... As our study is a retrospective cross-sectional study, the ... Thyroid Diseases in Omani Type 2 Diabetics: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. Sanaa Al-Sumry,1 Thuraya Al-Ghelani,1 Huda ... A retrospective cross-sectional randomized primary and secondary care based study of 285 Omani type 2 diabetics, ≥ 30 years of ... This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) which is a tertiary ...
Breastfeeding and early white matter development: A cross-sectional study.. Deoni SC1, Dean DC 3rd, Piryatinsky I, ... In this study, we used quiet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to compare measures of white matter microstructure ( ... Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter ... Does breastfeeding alter early brain development? The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early ...
A cross-sectional study Int J Nurs Stud. 2014 May;51(5):717-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Oct 4. ... Methods: A one-day prevalence study was conducted using the methodology specified by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel ... Objectives: The present study investigated the associations between variables on different levels in the healthcare setting ( ...
OP65 A cross-sectional study of the relationship between wealth, social participation and loneliness among older people across ... a population-based cross-sectional study Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Paul Kurdyak, John Cairney, Nathaniel Jembere, Simone Vigod ... OP29 Are socioeconomic conditions associated with asthma prevalence, severity, and treatment access? A cross-sectional study of ...
Hispanic physicians tobacco intervention practices: a cross-sectional survey study BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov 14;5:120. doi: ... Methods: Data was collected through a validated survey instrument among a cross-sectional sample of self-reported Hispanic ... The purpose of this study was to assess the tobacco intervention practices and training needs of Hispanic physicians. ...
A cross-sectional study of the 1-year prevalence of low back pain was conducted in workers employed in manual lifting jobs. To ... A cross-sectional study of the 1-year prevalence of low back pain was conducted in workers employed in manual lifting jobs. To ... Evaluation of the revised NIOSH lifting equation: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study.. ... To date, however, there have been few studies in which the effectiveness of the equation to identify jobs with elevated rates ...
A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of Ethnically Targeted and General Audience Outdoor Obesity-Related Advertising. * *March 1 ... A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of Ethnically Targeted and General Audience Outdoor Obesity-Related Advertising (Web) ...
In this cross-sectional study we took advantage of the natural experimental conditions resulting from the variable fasting ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study. Michael J. Steiner, ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study ...
Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and ... The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were ... The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = ... Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of ...
The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents ... This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision ... "Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 856-866 ... Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. Mirjam E. J. van Beelen 1. ...
Florence Bourgeois and colleagues investigate the frequency of and reasons for discontinuation of clinical trials studying rare ... We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials studying rare diseases as defined by the Genetic and Rare ... disease studied, intervention, study dates, and features of the study design. The search protocol was repeated in both EMBASE ... We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials focusing on rare diseases registered in ClinicalTrials. ...
Cross-sectional study, survey based Study population: spanish people, caregivers of infants under 2 years old... ... More From BioPortfolio on "Preparation of Complementary Feeding in Spain: a Cross-sectional Study". *Related Companies*Related ... Preparation of Complementary Feeding in Spain: a Cross-sectional Study. 2018-09-24 06:23:25 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Citations » Preparation of Complementary Feeding in Spain: a Cross-sectional Study ...
FERREIRA-PEGO, Cíntia et al. Fluid intake from beverages in Spanish adults: cross-sectional study. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2014, ... Results: 50.4% of the study population had a fluid intake , 80% of the EFSA recommendations for total water intake. The odds of ... The evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of a population has been the main objective of only a very few studies. ... Conclusion: Half of the adults studied do not meet the EFSA fluid intake recommendations. Water is the main fluid consumed. ...
Defining the Metabolic Syndrome Construct: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cross-sectional Analysis ... Defining the Metabolic Syndrome Construct: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cross-sectional Analysis ... Defining the Metabolic Syndrome Construct: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cross-sectional Analysis ... Defining the Metabolic Syndrome Construct: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cross-sectional Analysis ...
It is a cross-sectional descriptive study, recruiting 110 children (220 feet) aged between 3 and 6 years old. Each child was ... The aim of this study is to find a correlation between the essential flat foot in children and lower limb disorders torsional. ... "Children Flat Foot and Lower Limb Rotational Profile: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study" written by Jemni Sonia, Lazreg Nadia ...
... Högberg, Hjördis Uppsala University, ... Method: The study was conducted at 30 antenatal care centers across Sweden in 2009-2010. All partners who accompanied a ... The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption among partners of pregnant women, their motives for changing ...
  • A one-day prevalence study was conducted using the methodology specified by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, together with the established methods used by the Collaborative Alliance for Nursing Outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 sampled 252 anesthetists. (rug.nl)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of diabetes status and lung function decline using baseline and 3-year follow-up data on 1,100 diabetic and 10,162 nondiabetic middle-aged adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods This study was conducted using data collected in a survey in 2014 on a random sample of individuals aged 18 and above in the city of Tehran. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: A cross-sectional study in the form of a face-to-face interview was used to determine Melbourne MICA Paramedic understanding of VM instruction between January and February, 2008. (7thspace.com)
  • Neither of the two methods of dietary assessment used in this study revealed any effect of calcium intake on BMD at fracture-relevant sites among these healthy, mostly middle-aged women. (diva-portal.org)
  • METHODS--A cross sectional study was made of 39 patients with systemic sclerosis (11 diffuse and 28 limited), nine patients with primary Raynaud's disease and 60 healthy controls. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Patients were selected from a retrospective cross-sectional snapshot study. (rug.nl)
  • 7 - 9 These small studies failed to find a protective effect possibly due to a lack of statistical power, whereas a protective effect has been reported in a Canadian cross sectional study of 1320 adolescents born in the late 1960s. (bmj.com)
  • Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter volume, and parietal lobe cortical thickness, associated with IQ, in adolescents who were breastfed as infants compared to those who were exclusively formula-fed. (nih.gov)
  • The HELENA-CSS is a multi-centre collaborative study conducted in European adolescents located in urban settings. (nature.com)
  • The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) is a randomized multi-centre investigation of the nutritional and lifestyle status of adolescents in 10 European cities. (nature.com)
  • Up to now, there has been no study at the European level that has investigated the nutritional status and lifestyle of adolescents using a central standard methodology across a consortium of several participating countries. (nature.com)
  • An earlier cross-sectional multi-centre Spanish study-called AVENA-was designed in 1999 to evaluate the nutritional status of a representative sample of Spanish adolescents. (nature.com)
  • The basic objective of the HELENA cross-sectional multi-centre study was to obtain reliable and comparable data from a selected cohort of European adolescents (boys and girls aged 13-16 years) on a broad battery of relevant nutrition and health-related parameters: dietary intake, food choices and preferences, anthropometry, serum indicators of lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism, vitamin and mineral status, immunological markers, physical activity, fitness and genetic markers. (nature.com)
  • However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated with respondent characteristics. (chiro.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported daily and multi-site pain among adolescents aged 12-19 years and associations of almost daily pain and multi-site pain with respondent characteristics (sex, age, body mass index, HRQoL and sports participation). (chiro.org)
  • A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 4,007 adolescents aged 12-19 years in Denmark. (chiro.org)
  • An association between exposure to film smoking and smoking in adolescents (9-15 years) was first documented in the USA, in cross-sectional 11 12 and prospective studies. (bmj.com)
  • A cross-sectional study is the simplest variety of descriptive or observational epidemiology that can be conducted on representative samples of a population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The current study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from blood of septicemic patients for improved antibiotic therapy. (scirp.org)
  • Furthermore, as per the guidelines of Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology for cross-sectional studies , authors should report the numbers of individuals at each stage of study (such as numbers potentially eligible, examined for eligibility, confirmed eligible, included in the study, and analyzed). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a case-control study patients who have developed a disease are identified and their past exposure to suspected aetiological factors is compared with that of controls or referents who do not have the disease. (bmj.com)
  • Some case-control studies to test this have taken referents from the general population, whereas others have used patients with other types of cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Results of studies in adult patients are raising questions of whether fasting is needed before lipid screening. (aappublications.org)
  • In this study, over half of clinical trials initiated for rare diseases were either discontinued or not published 4 years after completion, resulting in large numbers of patients with rare diseases exposed to interventions that did not lead to informative findings. (plos.org)
  • Data used in this study were obtained from the Korean Cluster Headache Registry (KCHR), a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter headache registry that collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with CH. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the findings of this study do not suggest an impaired fatigability of the quadriceps muscle during sustained isometric contractions in active patients in the long term. (mdpi.com)
  • 6 Although studies in Canada and the United States have reported elevated mortality rates among patients with schizophrenia, 7 , 8 time trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality have not been explored. (cmaj.ca)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics: quality of life, neck pain and function, kinesiophobia, depression, and pain bothersomeness. (chiro.org)
  • This study showed significant differences between chronic neck pain patients when differentiated into groups based on their onset of pain. (chiro.org)
  • This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of dyslipidaemia in diabetic patients. (academicjournals.org)
  • Cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of two hundred ninety five diabetic patients attending diabetic follow-up clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital from March to November, 2014. (academicjournals.org)
  • Worries and concerns experienced by nurse specialists during inter-hospital transports of critically ill patients: a critical incident study. (ahrq.gov)
  • A cross-sectional analysis of medical records of adult patients ( ≥ 18 years) with BD receiving psychotropic drug treatment was performed in a Dutch psychiatric outpatient setting. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The study found a high prevalence rate of MetS and substantial undertreatment of the components of MetS in patients with BD in a Dutch outpatient clinic. (psychiatrist.com)
  • No studies have previously looked at white matter hyperintense lesions in MR images of PD patients and their impact on dementia in PD. (uib.no)
  • In our study, DLB patients had more atrophy in parietal and occipital areas compared with PDD patients. (uib.no)
  • Most studies on influenza vaccination coverage investigate specific groups such as the elderly ( 4 - 13 ), patients from general practices ( 14 , 15 ), or hospitalized patients ( 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Prevalence and clinical correlates of coronary artery disease among new dialysis patients in the United States: a cross-sectional study. (ul.ie)
  • The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing prospective cohort study representative of community living adults in Ireland aged 50 years and older. (springer.com)
  • Unlike in a cohort study, however, matching does not on its own eliminate confounding. (bmj.com)
  • Further study using the same participants of the current study would allow us to explore the causality between IPV during pregnancy and PPD. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cross-sectional sample of 824 participants was recruited from the registry of residents in Bremen, comprising about two-third males and one-third females with an average age of 61.1 years. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the level of oxidative DNA base modifications in lymphocytes of 201 participants of a cross-sectional study in Bremen, Germany. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This cross-sectional study included 200 participants with chronic neck pain: 120 with traumatic onset and 80 with non-traumatic onset. (chiro.org)
  • Participants were included in the study if they were over 18 years of age, were not a professional cook or enrolled in a course leading to a qualification as a professional cook, and were able to attend a research session during a 14-week study period. (mja.com.au)
  • All participants provided written consent before participating in the study. (mja.com.au)
  • ITT analysis is intended to avoid various misleading artifacts that can arise in intervention research such as non-random attrition of participants from the study or crossover. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aims to describe the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults in Ireland and to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia according to CVD risk status. (springer.com)
  • This is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50-79 years ( n = 5287). (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study is to document the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults aged 50-79 years in Ireland and apply clinical guideline targets [ 9 ] to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia in a subgroup aged 50-64 years according to their absolute risk of CVD. (springer.com)
  • Results of studies in adults have suggested that lipid testing might be reliably performed without fasting. (aappublications.org)
  • Half of the adults studied do not meet the EFSA fluid intake recommendations. (isciii.es)
  • Cross-sectional studies have consistently shown that adults with diabetes have lower vital capacity than their nondiabetic counterparts ( 1 - 5 , 7 ), but such studies cannot establish the temporal sequence of events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore analyzed longitudinal data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a biracial, community-based cohort of adults aged 45-64, to test the hypothesis that diabetes is associated with reduced lung function independently of known risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The observed association between higher current concentrations of BPA in both male and female 9-year-olds with higher body fat and obesity levels is consistent with findings from other cross-sectional studies of adults and older children. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We cross-sectionally investigated the association between diabetes and the presence of paranasal sinus disease, which was confirmed by a head MRI scan in 1350 adults who underwent a health screening program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. (go.jp)
  • However, the only study to date in the UK to test for an association showed no relation between film-smoking exposure and smoking among young adults. (bmj.com)
  • The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early exclusive breastfeeding is associated with improved measures of IQ and cognitive functioning in later childhood and adolescence. (nih.gov)
  • We did a large-scale, cross-sectional genomic epidemiological study of shigellosis cases collected from 29 countries between December, 1995, and June 8, 2014. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Special emphasis is given to explaining the challenges that social scientists face in drawing conclusions about cause and effect from their studies, and offers an overview of the approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. (coursera.org)
  • Conclusions: In this study, the majority of women in Europe, North America, South America and Australia used at least one medication during pregnancy. (uio.no)
  • However this type of study is limited in its ability to draw valid conclusions as to the association between a risk factor and health outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • A three-year descriptive study was done at Microbiology Laboratory, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, from April 2012 to April 2015. (scirp.org)
  • Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This was a cross-sectional and descriptive observation that took place from 1 January 2014 to 1 October 2014 in the Internal Medicine/Endocrinology Departments of Pikine National Hospital and Cardiology National Hospital of Grand-Yoff. (scirp.org)
  • This was a cross-sectional and descriptive observation survey. (scirp.org)
  • A cross-sectional survey may be purely descriptive and used to assess the burden of a particular disease in a defined population. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Our objective was to determine the frequency of noncompletion and nonpublication of trials studying rare diseases. (plos.org)
  • The evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of a population has been the main objective of only a very few studies. (isciii.es)
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes is independently associated with reduced lung function, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to assess socioeconomic inequality in various health domains and self-rated health (SRH). (bmj.com)
  • A study with a similar objective -- to evaluate the self concept chiropractic students have of themselves as science students -- was done by Robert Shields. (chiro.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine Melbourne Mobile Intensive Care Ambulance (MICA) Paramedic knowledge of the VM, and to compare this understanding with an evidence-based model of VM performance. (7thspace.com)
  • The main objective of this study was to quantify the level of oxidative DNA damage in a human study population and to investigate possible associations between the incorporated concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead and the rate of oxidative DNA lesions in lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the finger test. (mja.com.au)
  • Study design depends greatly on the nature of the research question. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The benefit of a cross-sectional study design is that it allows researchers to compare many different variables at the same time. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The longitudinal study design would account for cholesterol levels at the onset of a walking regime and as the walking behaviour continued over time. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The design and conduct of the ARIC Study have been described previously ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To provide an overview of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) design, with particular attention to its quality control procedures. (nature.com)
  • 7 This study can be considered as the precursor and reference of the HELENA Study, as the experience acquired in the project has been of great assistance in establishing the HELENA Study design and protocol. (nature.com)
  • Investigators from each participating centre were involved in the planning and development of the protocol, which included the study design. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to compare two research designs, namely the cross-sectional design and the longitudi-nal design, in the context of upper extremity performance and age-related changes. (psu.edu)
  • However, in some tests, the decline with age using a cross-sectional design was underestimated. (psu.edu)
  • The upper extremity performance decline observed with the longitudinal design was larger than the decline predicted with the cross-sectional design. (psu.edu)
  • The withdrawal and survivor biases related to the longitudinal design and the cohort bias associated with the cross-sectional design may, in part, explain these results. (psu.edu)
  • IN the study of age-related changes, two major researchdesigns may be used: the cross-sectional design and the longitudinal design. (psu.edu)
  • Even though the cross-sectional design is less expensive and frequently used in the devel-opment of normative data, this design may have an impor-tant limitation in the study of aging. (psu.edu)
  • The study design is cross-sectional, hence can only describe associations between socioeconomic indicators and health domains. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives: Intercountry comparability between studies on medication use in pregnancy is difficult due to dissimilarities in study design and methodology. (uio.no)
  • Design: Cross-sectional, web-based study performed within the period from 1 October 2011 to 29 February 2012. (uio.no)
  • 4) Cross-sectional studies by design prevent the inference of causality of the association between sedentary behaviour and childhood obesity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In practice, cross-sectional studies will include an element of both types of design. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis, because it does not require observation of compliance status for units assigned to different treatments or incorporation of compliance into the analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study indicates that parental characteristics, such as age, educational attainment and employment substantially determine child health in India, suggesting that an intervention by targeting the households where children are vulnerable is important to improve child health in the country. (nature.com)
  • To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. (cambridge.org)
  • This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. (cambridge.org)
  • This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. (cambridge.org)
  • This review compared six cohort, before-and-after, and serial cross-sectional studies , from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Nigeria (1,831 women with eclampsia) and two population-based UK studies with results from randomised controlled trials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study aimed to understand the gap between safe abortion availability and use of services in Bihar and Jharkhand, India by examining accessibility from the perspective of rural, Indian women.The authors conclude that behavior change communication interventions, which address negative perceptions by improving community knowledge about abortion and support local availability of safe abortion services, are needed. (eldis.org)
  • Evaluation of the revised NIOSH lifting equation: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study. (cdc.gov)
  • 5.0%) in only one epidemiologic study. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To give an extreme example, a case-control study of bladder cancer and smoking could give quite erroneous findings if controls were taken from the chest clinic. (bmj.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies must be done on representative samples of the population if generalizations from the findings are to have any validity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • it would be necessary to repeat a large cross-sectional study only if the findings from a current sub-sample are seriously discrepant from earlier results. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the influence of gender, behavioral factors, and dyslipidemia in developing rectal NETs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings. (chiro.org)
  • 8 Most of the cross-sectional studies showed findings consistent to our study where no significant association was found between serum 25(OH) D levels and percent breast density. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our grey matter findings are in line with other studies, supporting the hypothesis that morphological changes in the cortex contribute to dementia in PD. (uib.no)
  • This lack of nationwide, population-based studies, along with the findings of the pilot study showing markedly different vaccination rates in several German cities, prompted the nationwide, population-based survey reported here. (cdc.gov)
  • The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) provides the opportunity to bridge this information gap. (springer.com)
  • The second requires a longitudinal study. (iwh.on.ca)
  • A longitudinal study, like a cross-sectional one, is observational. (iwh.on.ca)
  • However, in a longitudinal study, researchers conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time, sometimes lasting many years. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The benefit of a longitudinal study is that researchers are able to detect developments or changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Therefore, a longitudinal study is more likely to suggest cause-and-effect relationships than a cross-sectional study by virtue of its scope. (iwh.on.ca)
  • One group was recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study, the Parkinson-study of Rogaland, during their annual follow up (n= 17). (uib.no)
  • Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a questionnaire-based study of men who had robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy at Oslo University Hospital, Radiumhospitalet between January 2005 and August 2010. (uio.no)
  • A letter summarizing the purpose of the study, an informed consent form, and a questionnaire were given to selected student to deliver to their parents. (jmir.org)
  • This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three Norwegian mental health care institutions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data was collected through a validated survey instrument among a cross-sectional sample of self-reported Hispanic physicians. (nih.gov)
  • Cross-sectional data from the Miyagi Prefectural Health Survey 2014 were analyzed. (go.jp)
  • The secondary aim was to study variables associated with moderate/poor work ability at survey. (uio.no)
  • In a cross-sectional survey the risk factors and outcome are measured simultaneously, and therefore it may be difficult to determine whether the exposure proceeded or followed the disease. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and anthropometric status of 945 school children of ages 12-16 years was performed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The study used the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture . (ahrq.gov)
  • The study was designed as a cross-sectional retrospective survey. (ovid.com)
  • Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (aappublications.org)
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Volunteers for this study will be admitted to the clinical research ward where they will undergo several tests to determine body composition, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance and in vivo insulin action. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials studying rare diseases as defined by the Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center database that were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, and completed or discontinued by December 31, 2014. (plos.org)
  • In addition to the positive results in cross-sectional studies linking rice consumption with healthier diets, a human clinical trial found that having white or brown rice at a meal increased satiety and feelings of fullness more than a calorically equivalent glucose solution control. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In prior clinical studies, impairment of pulse amplitude hyperemic response was associated with the presence of coronary artery endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous studies investigating the relations of digital pulse amplitude to clinical risk factors have been limited to small, selected samples. (ahajournals.org)
  • The study will be conducted in standard clinical practice conditions at public and private gynecology clinics and during a single study visit. (centerwatch.com)
  • For example, a pilot study undertaken in Berlin, Stuttgart, and Chemnitz during the influenza season 1998-1999 showed much higher influenza vaccination rates in East Berlin and Chemnitz in the former East Germany (called former East in this paper) than in West Berlin and Stuttgart in the former West Germany (called former West in this paper) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In general, population-based studies of influenza vaccination coverage for a country do not exist. (cdc.gov)
  • A Canadian study found 13.8% influenza vaccination coverage in fall and winter 1990-1991 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Despite a substantial reduction in population mean TC from a high of 6.0 mmol/L in the 1980s to 5.1 mmol/L, this study reports a failure to control hypercholesterolaemia to recommended risk-stratified targets in the Irish adult population. (springer.com)
  • This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking groups (heavy drinkers, light drinkers, and non-drinkers) to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. (springer.com)
  • In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. (medworm.com)
  • In that way, if one of the control diseases happens to be related to a risk factor under study, the resultant bias is not too large. (bmj.com)
  • The great advantage of the HELENA-CSS is the strict standardization of the fieldwork and the blood analyses, which precludes to a great extent the kind of immeasurable confounding bias that often interferes when comparing results from isolated studies. (nature.com)
  • The study involved general practice trainers, which could entail a selection bias. (bmj.com)
  • Non-response is a particular problem affecting cross-sectional studies and can result in bias of the measures of outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • By the end of this week, you should understand the differences between the most common types of study, and have some sense of the settings in which each is most relevant. (coursera.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the tobacco intervention practices and training needs of Hispanic physicians. (nih.gov)
  • Primary endpoint of the study is to assess the prevalence of multiple symptoms and related symptom clusters (e.g. pain, fatigue and sleep disorder). (knowcancer.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies are used to assess the burden of disease or health needs of a population and are particularly useful in informing the planning and allocation of health resources. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In analytical cross-sectional studies, the odds ratio can be used to assess the strength of an association between a risk factor and health outcome of interest, provided that the current exposure accurately reflects the past exposure. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of COPD among individuals aged 35 - 59 years based results of spirometry before and after bronchodilator, presence of structural changes in lungs (emphysema, inflammatory changes and thickening of the walls of the large and small airways)detected by computer tomography as well as the symptoms of COPD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our main outcome measures were the frequency of trial noncompletion and, among completed studies, frequency of trial nonpublication at 2 and 4 years following trial completion. (plos.org)
  • The aim of this study was to describe off-label prescription in general practice in France, in terms of frequency and nature, and to identify its main determining factors. (bmj.com)
  • Method: The study was conducted at 30 antenatal care centers across Sweden in 2009-2010. (diva-portal.org)
  • Within the constraints of any matching criteria, their exposure to risk factors and confounders should be representative of that in the population "at risk" of becoming cases - that is, people who do not have the disease under investigation, but who would be included in the study as cases if they had. (bmj.com)
  • For instance, a single cross-sectional study may include questions about smoking behavior, occupational exposure to dusts and fumes, respiratory symptoms (cough, breathlessness), and physical examinations of physical fitness - including simple tests of lung function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cross-sectional studies can be thought of as providing a snapshot of the frequency of a disease or other health related characteristics (e.g. exposure variables) in a population at a given point in time. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • In a cross-sectional study all factors (exposure, outcome, and confounders) are measured simultaneously. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1993 to 1994 in an urban population in Germany to investigate the association between metal exposure and oxidative DNA damage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Beryllium exposure and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study of beryllium workers. (bmj.com)
  • The present study examines whether the demographic components fertility and migration are related among 27 European countries. (uppsatser.se)
  • This study examines the associations between different types of infant feeding and BMI and overweight in childhood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a single point in time or over a short period of time (e.g. calendar year). (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Among the cross-sectional studies examined--that is, studies that gather information from a representative subset of the population at a certain point in time--researchers found a significant association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive impairment and dementia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • the subjects of the study any fixed point in time, like a snapshot. (coursera.org)
  • Rees CA, Pica N, Monuteaux MC, Bourgeois FT (2019) Noncompletion and nonpublication of trials studying rare diseases: A cross-sectional analysis. (plos.org)
  • Cross-sectional analysis of the national, longitudinal Growing Up in Ireland study. (cambridge.org)
  • Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. (chiro.org)
  • In our study, we would simply measure the cholesterol levels of daily walkers and non-walkers along with any other characteristics that might be of interest to us. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The study also aims to measure variation in lifestyle habits and nutritional status by region, cultural background, socioeconomic status, age and gender. (nature.com)
  • Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As cross-sectional studies measure prevalent rather than incident cases, the data will always reflect determinants of survival as well as aetiology 1 . (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • We sought to evaluate the correlates of digital pulse amplitude responses as a measure of peripheral vascular function in the large, community-based Framingham Heart Study. (ahajournals.org)
  • As discussed in the previous chapter, one of the drawbacks of using a longitudinal approach to investigate the causes of disease with low incidence is that large and lengthy studies may be required to give adequate statistical power. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption among partners of pregnant women, their motives for changing drinking patterns when becoming a parent and their perceptions of the midwifes counseling about alcohol. (diva-portal.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Iran to investigate socioeconomic inequality in various health domains. (bmj.com)
  • In order to investigate the utility and sufficiency of psychiatric beds in general hospitals (GHP beds), a cross-sectional study was performed in general hospitals all over Tokyo. (wiley.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) as a descriptor of myoelectric fatigue, at different stages after rehabilitation, post-ACL reconstruction. (mdpi.com)
  • This method contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which investigate groups over a time period, in order to observe the developmental process, the influence of changing circumstances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analytical cross-sectional surveys may also be used to investigate the association between a putative risk factor and a health outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • The first study to compare whole brain atrophy in PD versus other types of dementia was published in 2004, showing that the pattern of grey matter loss in PD and PDD was different from the changes found in AD. (uib.no)
  • To identify the genetic and environmental determinants of diabetes we plan to study Pima Indian families to determine: (1) if there are genes that segregate with metabolic risk factors for diabetes which might therefore be genetic markers for type 2 diabetes and (2) the mechanisms mediating genetic and environmental determinants of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2 In human studies, risk factors for vascular disease have been associated with impaired vasomotor function, and individuals with abnormal vasodilator function have increased cardiovascular event rates. (ahajournals.org)
  • Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other factors of interest as they exist in a specified population at a particular time, without regard for what may have preceded or precipitated the health status found at the time of the study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • The study involved 3189 randomly selected schoolchildren from Den. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The study involved 3,189 randomly selected schoolchildren from Denmark (one of the richest countries in Europe), and two poorer countries, Estonia and Portugal. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the search for optimal glycaemic control, the cross-sectional study of Esterman and colleagues 1 is encouraging. (mja.com.au)
  • This study aims to explore the impact of financial development, technological development on poverty for Asian and Non-Asian countries. (igi-global.com)
  • This non-interventional study aims at assessing stable GOLD C and D COPD patient's perception of daily and weekly symptoms variability and their impact on daily activities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The baseline cross section of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited a population-based cohort of 6781 persons, aged 45-84 years, from 6 communities in the United States. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CRP, IL-6) were measured in separate WHI ancillary studies, using blood samples collected at baseline. (umass.edu)
  • This study examined association between selected child health indicators- anaemia, stunting and no/incomplete immunization by inter-linking maternal characteristics at district level and parental characteristics at individual level. (nature.com)
  • Single studies have shown that the respondent characteristics of gender, age and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are associated with the prevalence of pain [ 4 ]. (chiro.org)
  • Intention to treat analyses are done to avoid the effects of crossover and dropout, which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phthalates are industrial chemicals added to plastics found in products such as children's toys, cosmetics, and household items, and some laboratory studies suggest phthalates may increase levels of inflammation. (umass.edu)
  • Raat, H. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. (mdpi.com)
  • van Beelen MEJ, van Beeck EF, den Hertog P, Beirens TMJ, Raat H. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. (mdpi.com)
  • The Mazira Project is a study of the effect of egg consumption on growth, development and gut health of infants in Malawi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The study randomly assigns infants to receive one egg per day ove. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is a cross-sectional study in which all infants aged 3 months or under attending four bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization clinics accounting for over 75% of the BCG coverage in the study location were screened by community health workers between July 2005 and April 2006. (who.int)
  • For decades, cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research. (coursera.org)
  • In our study, over half of randomized controlled trials studying rare diseases were not completed or were left unpublished 4 years after trial completion, highlighting considerable inefficiencies in research activities for these conditions. (plos.org)
  • To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. (chiro.org)
  • This study specifically investigates whether the students attracted to the chiropractic program at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, are oriented toward research and what 5 years in the program does to their orientation. (chiro.org)
  • The advantage of cross-sectional study is that it is quicker, not dependent on changing resources or research teams, and reduces extraneous variables resulting from the passage of time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Christian Dussart (1989) ,"Pre-Christmas Toy Guides: a Cross Sectional Research Study", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, eds. (acrwebsite.org)
  • This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional research study related to this unusual subject in child consumers research. (acrwebsite.org)
  • The research study was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, which is an excellent location for experimental research because of the bilingual and cosmopolitan profile of the population. (acrwebsite.org)
  • Eldis is hosted by the Knowledge, Impact and Policy team at the Institute of Development Studies in the UK but our services profile work by a growing global network of research organisations and knowledge brokers. (eldis.org)
  • Our reporting of this research conforms with the STROBE statement on cross-sectional studies. (mja.com.au)
  • Although research is limited, recent studies suggest a strong positive relationship between mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) and c-reactive protein (CRP), as well as monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). (umass.edu)
  • Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can identify health problems and provide data from which many useful inferences can be made and hypotheses generated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The data management systems, quality assurance monitoring activities, standardized manuals of operating procedures and training and study management are addressed in this paper. (nature.com)
  • All the study sites adhered to a common study protocol for training, implementation of fieldwork, data collection and data management and quality control procedures. (nature.com)
  • 2017). In China, the periodontal disease standardized DALYs rate has risen from 24.7 in 1990 to 25.7 in 2013 according to the data from 2013 GBD study (Zhang et al. (medworm.com)
  • n=13), technically inadequate study (n=207), and missing covariate data (n=17). (ahajournals.org)
  • Technically inadequate studies included those with inadequate flow occlusion (n=73), poor PAT signal quality (n=64), incomplete PAT data acquisition (n=64), and computer error (n=6). (ahajournals.org)
  • Both studies in ethics and empirical studies come with different and sometimes contradictive arguments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ethics committee at the School of Psychology, Queen's University Belfast, approved the study. (springer.com)
  • The present study investigated the associations between variables on different levels in the healthcare setting (patient, unit, hospital) and the documentation of (1) risk assessment and (2) skin assessment within 24h of admission, the use of (3) pressure-reducing mattresses and (4) planned repositioning in bed. (nih.gov)
  • Nurses' perceptions of patient safety climate in intensive care units: a cross-sectional study. (ahrq.gov)
  • Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie. (urotoday.com)
  • This cross-sectional study was conducted on 501 randomly selected students from 10 high schools in an urban setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Setting: Multinational study in Europe (Western, Northern and Eastern), North and South America and Australia. (uio.no)
  • Results: The study population included 9459 women, of which 81.2% reported use of at least one medication (prescribed or OTC) during pregnancy. (uio.no)
  • The results of this study also demonstrate that an opportunity exists to promote the evidence-based VM criteria across the primary emergency care field. (7thspace.com)
  • In no previous studies of diet and bone mass have dietary habits been ascertained so carefully and the results adjusted for possible confounding factors. (diva-portal.org)
  • The studies that have been published since, have in part confirmed these results, but also conflicting results have been found. (uib.no)
  • One of the first things we'd have to determine is the type of study that will tell us the most about that relationship. (iwh.on.ca)
  • To make our choice, we need to know more about the benefits and purpose of each study type. (iwh.on.ca)
  • This study aimed to examine patterns and factors associated with medications use in pregnancy from a multinational perspective, with emphasis on type of medication utilised and indication for use. (uio.no)
  • Such a study would throw some light on the relationship of both occupational exposures and smoking behavior to respiratory symptoms and respiratory function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study examined the multivariate relationship between disturbed sleep and different work-related and background/life style factors. (nih.gov)
  • This study uses the Pooled OLS regression and found that poverty has a significant relationship with inflation and unemployment. (igi-global.com)
  • The current cross-sectional study aimed to understand the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and the risk of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection among 251 Italian women with normal cervical cytology. (mdpi.com)
  • However, longitudinal studies, particularly in early diffuse disease, are required to clarify the relationship between circulating TGF beta 1 and disease activity. (bmj.com)