Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.PakistanRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.IranSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.IndiaCookbooks as Topic: Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.EnglandRespiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Sri LankaUganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cranial Fontanelles: Any of six membrane-covered openings between the CRANIAL SUTURES in the incompletely ossified skull of the fetus or newborn infant. The fontanelles normally close sometime after birth.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.PrintingSaudi ArabiaOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.NepalNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.ScotlandRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.LondonQuartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.NorwayMetallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Great BritainHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Coal MiningRespiratory Tract DiseasesSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.GermanyAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.PaintAsthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.BangladeshChild Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.SwedenMalawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.DenmarkNew South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.TurkeyRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.BrazilInterviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Schools: Educational institutions.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.JapanItalyData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (1/42185)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/42185)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (3/42185)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (4/42185)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (5/42185)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. (6/42185)

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (7/42185)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (8/42185)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

Vol 14: How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Illness Perception and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
Introduction Does Deregulation Raise Electric Rates? A Cross Sectional Analysis by William B. Marcus Principal Economist, JBS Energy, Inc. December, 2011 The theory behind deregulation is that competition
In this population-based study of a general adolescent population, the strongest and most consistent finding is the significant association between acne and mental distress which is found among both boys and girls in the crude and the adjusted model. Another result from our study that supports a link between acne and mental distress is the increase in mental distress when the severity of acne increases. These two findings have to our knowledge never been seen before in the same study.. Previous studies have also shown an association between mental problems and acne. In a large study in New Zealand of 9567 adolescents of 12-18 years of age, a significant odds ratio of 2.04 was seen between self-reported acne and depressive symptoms measured using Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale [15]. In Australia, Kilkenny et al found an association (OR = 1.61) between self-reported severe acne and psychiatric symptoms measured using the Clinical Interview Schedule among 2491 students [17]. From the United ...
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and accounting for 443,000 deaths (nearly 1 in 5) each year [1]. Tobacco use and tobacco-related illnesses are common among emergency department (ED) patients. Studies performed in multiple ED settings have found that 30-40% of ED patients smoke--prevalence rates that are well above that of the general population [2, 3].. Although providing smoking counseling has not traditionally been a function of emergency-care services, the field is increasingly recognizing the necessity and practicality of assuming such functions. As the number of primary care physicians declines [4], ED volume is steadily increasing, and health-care reform is not projected to significantly reduce this high utilization over the next decade. In 2006, there were 40.5 ED visits per 100 people in the US, an 18% increase ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2011 May 1;89(5):352-9. doi: 10.2471/BLT.10.085738. Epub 2011 Mar 30. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
A relationship has not been found between apple intake and asthma in the present cross-sectional study in children. However, there is some evidence to suggest that children who have a higher consumption of apple juice from concentrate and bananas exhibit a lower prevalence of current wheeze than children with a lower intake.. In contrast to studies in adults 8, 9, the present authors have not been able to replicate a significant negative association between apple intake and asthma in children. However, the present negative findings are consistent with previous studies 13-15, which showed no clear relationship between wheezing in children and fresh fruit intake despite a beneficial effect on lung function. It is not clear why the link observed in adult asthma was not replicated in children. The variation in the choice of outcome measures between studies and in the validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaires in children might have been responsible for the differences observed. ...
Over three-quarters of 11-year-old children in this sample (78%) had at least one adverse health condition, and 43% experienced co-occurrence (two or more conditions). Co-occurrence differed by sex and was socially patterned, with boys and children living in lower income households being at higher risk of having multiple adverse health conditions. LCA identified five distinct classes of conditions, in addition to the group of children with no or one adverse health condition: atopic burdened, socioemotional burdened, unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury and eczema/unfavourable weight. Children identified by the index as having greater numbers of adverse health conditions were more likely to be in the atopic burdened and socioemotional burdened classes; these children were more likely to be boys, have mothers with lower educational attainment and live in lower income households. Children in unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury (6.0%) and eczema/unfavourable weight ...
Data will be collected in 12 countries (500 children per site) from five major regions of the world (Eurasia & Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Pacific). Cross-sectional evaluations will be undertaken in each country. The physical characteristics of the children will be directly measured in order to classify their body weight and adiposity status, and physical activity and dietary patterns will be measured with the most objective techniques currently available. A concise set of environmental measures that are feasible, valid and meaningful across the international settings included in this research will also be employed. The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of obesity and weight gain in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle interventions to address childhood obesity that can be culturally adapted for ...
Introduction. This essay will compare and contrast the Longitudinal and Cross-sectional methods of research, by firstly describing each method and listing the main types. It will also give examples of research which have used these methods in order to gather data. Then through discussing the advantages and disadvantages for using each method a conclusion will be formed. Conducting research is important in psychology as it gives the evidence needed to support theories and hypothesis. Developmental research methods aim to examine changes or differences in behaviour by looking at different ages or stages across a lifetime. This is usually carried out using two basic methods, the longitudinal and cross-sectional. Cross-sectional research is where individuals of different ages are studied at the same time; this is in contrast with longitudinal studies which involves testing one age group repeatedly over many years. A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study as well as a panel and retrospective ...
ATN 066b consists of a cross-sectional evaluation of three groups of recently diagnosed HIV-infected adolescents including: (1) care non-initiation; (2) care initiation, no maintenance; and (3) care initiation with maintenance. Social, psychological and behavioral factors associated with HIV-related care-seeking will be assessed using an ACASI. Three recruitment strategies using a randomized permuted block list of possible sequences for HIV-infected youth not in care will be also compared.. The ACASI instrument will be adapted from previously used instruments intended to retrospectively reconstruct the care-seeking process and to assess quality of life, concerns and expectations for care, satisfaction with care, and social-problem solving.. Ideally, the ACASI will be administered during a single session and may take up to 90 minutes to complete. Participants who are unable to complete the ACASI in one session will be allowed up to 7 days after initiation to complete it. Completion of all study ...
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses ...
Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for medi...
Objective To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery.. Design Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient diaries.. Setting Primary care.. Participants Adults with a new or worsening cough or clinical presentation suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection.. Main outcome measures Prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians and total symptom severity scores over time.. Results 3402 patients were recruited (clinicians completed a case report form for 99% (3368) of participants and 80% (2714) returned a symptom diary). Mean symptom severity scores at presentation ranged from 19 (scale range 0 to 100) in networks based in Spain and Italy to 38 in the network based in Sweden. Antibiotic prescribing by networks ranged from 20% to nearly 90% (53% ...
Objective. To examine black female students for the occurrence of risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle, namely obesity, hypertension, nicotine usage, dyslipidaemia and compromised mental health (depression). Design. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. All participants were examined within a period of 3 months during 1994. Weight, height, and hip and waist measurements were taken. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were calculated for each subject. Two systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to determine specific risk factors related to lifestyle. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure psychological well-being. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. Setting. The University of the North in the Northern Province of South Africa. Subjects. A complete data set of sociodemographic information, ...
Background: Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in India. Assessment of knowledge and practices of community about prevention of mosquito borne diseases is important for designing community-based interventions. Therefore, the study was carried out to assess such information. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 adults selected by systematic sampling method in a rural and urban area in Delhi. Data was collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square and Fishers Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P ,,/i, 0.05 was considered significant. Results: One hundred and forty-two (67.6%) subjects in rural and 89 (63.6%) in the urban area were able to name at least one mosquito borne disease. Only small number of participants (from rural 28.1% and urban 18.6% areas) was ...
Sir, The present study highlights the role of educational status on the cardiovascular health status of the study population. As identified by the authors, education as a proxy measure of socio-economic status has its own limitations and hence the title should have focused on educational level only. The study tool used for getting information on physical exercise also has some limitation. The question on physical exercise pertaining to exercise is nonspecific for the last response category inactive since "exercising several times a year" would also include those who are exercising four or more times a week. This overlap would cause confusion among the respondents while answering. The study nowhere mentions about the presence or absence of cardiovascular diseases viz. coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes etc. among the study population. The intake of medications, health interventions from the health care providers would also have relevance on the status of cardiovascular health as ...
The study showed a high prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in young, northern European men, which was significantly associated with decreased BMD. PTH and 25OHD were found to be inversely related to the markers of insulin resistance.
Objective data from the clinical laboratory are critical to the majority of medical decisions, including initial diagnosis and monitoring of treatment outcome. Laboratory errors, including inaccurate RIs, can lead to inappropriate diagnosis, unnecessary test repetition, and inappropriate follow-up investigations (7). Excessively wide RIs may mask subclinical disorders, and the use of incorrect RIs may confuse the clinical picture. Therefore, relevant RIs are essential for correct test result interpretation and reducing the risk of false negatives and false positives. Failure to provide proper RIs in the pediatric population carries obvious consequences for immunochemical analytes such as TSH (8) and ferritin (9).. The current investigation established RIs in a large, multiethnic pediatric cohort. However, the study was not without its limitations. As it was a cross-sectional investigation, the long-term health of the participating children was not verified. Additionally, the RIs provided are ...
The prevalence of depression and the association between depression and kidney function and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: a multicenter cross-sectional study
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
Sampling Methods. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. ...
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The current study found that baseline vitamin D status was an independent predictor of better β-cell function and AUCglucose after 3 years of follow-up in the PROMISE study cohort. This is the first study to examine the prospective association of serum 25(OH)D with β-cell function.. Previous studies assessing the association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function have used cross-sectional designs and have reported inconsistent findings (14,16-21,34). These inconsistencies may be attributed to the use of less-detailed, fasting-based surrogate measures of β-cell function (e.g., HOMA-β or C-peptide) in the majority of previous studies (16-18,20,34). Only two studies have used gold-standard methods, including the hyperglycemic clamp (14) and the IVGTT (21), but no significant association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function was found after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, the findings in the current study support our cross-sectional results in the PROMISE study cohort (19), in ...
Direction of study: Exposure and outcome at the same time. Strength of association: Strength of association in cross-sectional study is weak. Cross sectional study is popular study because:Easy to conduct: Readiness and easily it can conductedSimple: Simple in terms of design, calculation & conduct.Time: It can be done very quicklySuitable for problem identification and study cases…
Objective To assess whether randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were registered were less likely to report positive study findings compared with RCTs that were not registered and whether the association varied by funding source.Design Cross sectional study.Study sample All primary RCTs published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by November 2013. Trial registration was determined based on the report of a trial registration number in published RCTs or the identification of the trial in a search of trial registries. Trials were separated into prospectively and retrospectively registered studies.Main outcome measure Association between trial registration and positive study findings.Results 1122 eligible RCTs were identified, of which 593 (52.9%) were registered and 529 (47.1%) were not registered. Overall, registration was marginally associated with positive study findings (adjusted risk ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.98), even with stratification as prospectively and
meant by Statistics ❖ What is meant by Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics ❖ Difference between Parameter & Statistic ❖ Types of Statistical
Health,A new study has found out that babies breastfed for six months have re... In the words of Caroline Chantry a pediatrician with UC Davis Ch... This research can be read in the February 2006 issue of Pediatrics.... An analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey ... Pneumonia wheezing and recurrent (three or more) colds or ear infe...,Another,advantage,of,breastfeeding,kids:,lower,chances,of,respiratory,illnesses,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Cross-sectional study example cancer Higher risk they have a higher incidence total smokers that gives me a prevalence, classified either a smoker or nonsmoker have a bias study we could have, surprisingly the value for the odds weeks in the early parts of this course.
There were striking similarities in the anatomy of annual change and acceleration of annual change with age, and we now consider the most appropriate framework for age-related changes with reference to the results of both analyses.. Overall, as illustrated by slice-by-slice profiles, age-related changes appear to be principally governed by inferior-to-superior gradients. Cross-sectional DTI studies have previously indicated that superior fiber tracts may be more susceptible to the effects of age (Sullivan et al., 2010a, 2010b), but, to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of continuous inferior-to-superior gradients. Our conclusion, however, may well reflect the combination of methods used, rather than the anatomy itself, representing a major departure from published cross-sectional results. Indeed, our results can be considered with reference to several alternative anatomical frameworks.. For example, first, it has been proposed that the frontal lobe is particularly vulnerable to ...
The SeniorAdvisor.com Best of 2017 Awards represent the top 1 percent of senior living and home care providers nationwide, according to the online...
If we assume the null hypothesis to be true (and make some assumptions about the distribution of various variable), then the test statistic should be no different than a single random draw from a specific probability distribution. This is the Z-distribution of N(0,12) ...
Descriptive and inferential statistics, including t-tests, correlation, chi square, tests of normality, and distribution-free procedures. Other topics include independent groups, repeated measures and factorail ANOVA, mulitple comparisons, multiple regression and ANCOVA. Return to Course Schedule. ...
The purpose of inferential statistics is to predict differences between groups in the general population by measuring the difference in a small sample. Ex
More on: Trade A new report from the Pew Research Center finds an increase in those who believe government regulation of business …
This page contains the ABSTRACT- High Prevalence of Daily and Multi-site pain -- A Cross-sectional Population-based Study Among 3000 Danish Adolescents http://www.chiro.org/pediatrics/ABSTRACTS/High_Prevalence_of_Daily_and_Multi-site.shtml
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The present study described the research activity, self-reported success level, motivations and barriers of eight AHP teams in undertaking research and explored whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and audited research activity within each team. The study revealed variation in research activity between teams, however the majority of teams were undertaking some form of ethically approved research and had disseminated their research. All teams, apart from one, reported average success at undertaking various aspects of research. No significant correlations were found between self-reports of research success and team barriers to undertaking research with research activity. Motivating factors were found to have a stronger association with research activity, with enhancing team credibility having a significant correlation with funding received.. The most consistent form of research activity across teams was undertaking ethically approved research projects and conference ...
A cross sectional questionnaire based study on self medication practice of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to childrens physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding childrens ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of childrens ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour ...
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) provides a wealth of information on the Health Status of Americans. As one part of this cross-sectional survey study, researchers evaluated the relationship between serum levels of various antioxidant micronutrients and the prevalence of AMD. Data were presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Chicago (1). Methods: Cross-sectional relationships of serum levels of vitamins C, E and various carotenoids to the following: late AMD, presence of pigment abnormalities, and the presence of soft drusen (the latter 2 factors considered as early predictors of late AMD). Fundus photos and serum samples were obtained on 7935 participants age 40 and older. Age adjusted and multivariate logistic models were used. Factors adjusted for in the analyses included age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and eye color. Results: Prevalence of late AMD was 0.7%, while ...
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters. Methods and Material: A quantitative, observational cross-sectional study of 400 subjects was conducted in public venues in Sharjah. Probability sampling method was used for selection of subjects (parents who have daughters). A self-administered 32- question questionnaire was distributed. SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for entry and analysis of data. Frequency was calculated, Chi square test was used to conduct bivariate analysis and bar
This study is designed to characterize and define serum and cerebrospinal fluid valued for inflammatory cytokines and early idiopathic Parkinsons disease (IPD). Researchers are also looking for patterns in early IPD, hoping that they may lead to early diagnosis before symptoms occur.
BACKGROUND: Policymakers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor, and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association of health literacy with preventable ED visits. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of potentially preventable ED visits (outcome) among adults (≥18 years old) in an ED serving an urban community. We assessed health literacy (predictor) through structured interviews with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We recorded age, sex, race, employment, payer, marital and health status, and number of comorbidities through structured interviews or ...
Objective: Left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist play an important role in LV contraction and relaxation. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) deteriorates both diastolic and systolic functions. We evaluated the LV twist in patients with LBBB and preserved ejection fraction (EF) (>50%) to determine twist as a potential marker for subtle myocardial dysfunction. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 34 LBBB patients with preserved EF who were free from ischemic and valvular disease (Group 1) and 36 healthy controls (Group 2). All patients underwent 2-D Doppler and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography. LV apical, basal rotation, and twist were evaluated in both groups and compared accordingly. In addition, subjects were dichotomized considering the median twist value of the study population. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables associated with inframedian twist. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in LBBB ...
Women report more occupational ill-health and are more sick-listed than men. Exploration of womens working conditions would therefore seem to be valuable. In this study we investigated the prevalence of work-related stress and its association with self-perceived health and sick-leave in a population of employed, working Swedish women. This cross-sectional population study comprised 424 employed, working women who answered questionnaires on work-related stress, self-perceived health and sick-leave. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated in order to analyse the association between the exposure variables of work-related stress and outcome variables of ill-health symptoms, self-rated health and sick-leave. Ten percent of the group reported high perceived stress owing to indistinct organisation and conflicts, and 25% high perceived stress owing to individual demands and commitment. Twenty-two percent reported low influence at work and 33% reported work interference with leisure
Human aging is characterized by expanded and altered adaptive immune responses to human CMV (HCMV). It is unclear whether this expansion has its origins in age-related homeostatic disturbances or viral reactivation, whether anti-CMV immune surveillance may still be effective, and what are the consequences of this expanded immune response for health and longevity. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in groups of HCMV-seropositive subjects aged ≥65 y of variable health status to compare the intensity of Ab responses against HCMV with those against EBV and with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proinflammatory effector responses directed to HCMV-derived pp65 and immediate-early protein 1 synthetic peptides. Ab responses to HCMV, but not to EBV, and anti-HCMV CD4+, but not CD8+, T cell responses were more intense in elderly subjects aged ≥85 y in poor health and were inversely correlated with markers of functional activity and cognitive function. Therefore, humoral and CD4+ T cell anti-HCMV ...
The complex multiracial/multilingual situation of Malaysia poses challenges for local professionals, such as speech and language therapists, who work with children. The present cross-sectional study investigated ethnic Chinese childrens simultaneous phonological acquisition of English, Mandarin and Malay, which are the three major local languages for the Malaysian Chinese population. The aims were to provide preliminary normative data on phonological acquisition for this population, as well as to investigate processes underlying multilingual phonological acquisition. Sixty-four pre-school children aged between 2;06-4;05 were recruited. A single-word naming test, a word consistency production subtest and an intonation imitation sub-test were devised for each of the three languages. Particular attention was paid to the characteristics of the local adult speech varieties as the benchmark for assessing and analyzing the childrens responses on the tests. This sociolinguistic dimension has often ...
Free Online Library: Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.(Research Article, Report) by BioMed Research International; Biotechnology industry High technology industry Cardiology Optical tomography Methods Tissue engineering Technology application
Most patients in our study do not describe dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD. However, more than one in seven patients is explicitly dissatisfied. The chance of dissatisfaction is increased with a lower level of education, the involvement of more than one additional healthcare provider, a second opinion on the patients initiative and delay caused by the healthcare provider. In addition, if only the GP and neurologist have been involved in the diagnostic pathway, women are more likely to be dissatisfied than men.. Although dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD appears to be playing a limited role in quantitative terms, dissatisfaction with the initial diagnostic process can have an impact on long-term care, stressing the importance of paying attention to it: cognitions formed at an early stage tend to determine care experiences during the further treatment episode [2, 5, 20].. Our study shows that it is not the duration of the diagnostic pathway of PD on its own that ...
In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) ± 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups with p < 0.01. highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of 23 years with a mean of 11.61 ± 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 ± 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. the anova analysis for haemoglobin content and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicoepidemiological Profile of Elderly PLHIV Attending a Tertiary Care Center in South India. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Ramakrishnan, Neha. AU - Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran. AU - Ramapuram, John. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Rathi, Priya. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Background: Physicians are coming across a considerable number of HIV-positive patients belonging to older age-group, in practice. They pose a challenge as they might present with advanced forms and comorbid conditions. We aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological profile of elderly people living with HIV. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. We analyzed the record of 120 patients from 2009 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients. Results: Of 786 HIV-positive patients, 120 were elderly. Mean age was 55.9 ± 6.1 years. Majority 68% were male. In all, 63.33% were male. Commonest route of ...
Cross sectional data reporting the height, weight, and body mass index of UK patients with cystic fibrosis are presented. During the first decade of life height and weight in patients with cystic fibrosis are maintained at about 0.5 SD below those of the general population, which reflects an improvement over earlier published observations....
Background: Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youths PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youths participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA ...
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, reporting rates for tuberculosis (TB) are rising in an emerging HIV epidemic. To describe the HIV epidemic among TB patients and quantify its impact on rates of reported TB, we performed a repeated cross-sectional survey from 1997 through 2002 in a randomly selected sample of inner city TB patients. We assessed effect by adjusting TB case reporting rates by the fraction of TB cases attributable to HIV infection. HIV prevalence in TB patients rose exponentially from 1.5% to 9.0% during the study period. Young (&lt;35 years), single, male patients were mostly affected; injection drug use was a potent risk factor. After correction for HIV infection, the trend in TB reporting rates changed from a 1.9% increase to a 0.4% decrease per year. An emerging HIV epidemic, concentrated in young, male, injection drug users, is responsible for increased TB reporting rates in urban Vietnam.
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses helped ...
Purpose: : Focal cortical disturbances associated with multiple sclerosis, trauma or tumor can interfere with higher visual processing even in the presence of preserved visual acuity (VA). Diabetes affects both retinal vasculature and neurons, but its effects on the CNS are less well described. We hypothesized that DM patients exhibit central visual processing deficits compared with non-DM controls. Methods: : Subjects aged 20-69 with ,0.5 logMAR ETDRS VA and varying stages of diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative, severe untreated proliferative (PDR), severe PDR + pan-retinal photocoagulation, PRP), and non-DM controls underwent standard and psychophysical testing: monocular color vision (FM100Hue), binocular illusory contours (IC), motion-defined letter recognition (MDR), Titmus fly stereoacuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. After ensuring shape recognition, 5 IC and 1 control shape were presented at 2 support ratios (0.2 and 0.4, luminance-defined versus total contour length) at ...
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ...
Objective A clinical trial (REQUIRE) was started to investigate the use of an ultrasound renal denervation system in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RHT). We analyzed the prevalence of patients who were eligible for inclusion in this cross-sectional study at the time of screening. Methods Nine-hundred ninety-nine consecutive hypertension (HT) patients who were treated in our hospital as outpatients were classified into the following categories: patients treated with at least 3 types of antihypertensive drugs including diuretic agents who were eligible for enrolment in SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan (SH-J) with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥160 mmHg, who were ≤80 years of age, and an eGFR of ≥45 mL/min/1 ...
Objective-To evaluate the differences among each states Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (ICVI) form and the legibility of data on paper ICVIs used to support disease tracing in cattle. Design-Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. Sample-Examples of ICVIs from 50 states and 7,630 randomly sampled completed paper ICVIs for cattle from 48 states. Procedures-Differences among paper ICVI forms from all 50 states were determined. Sixteen data elements were selected for further evaluation of their value in tracing cattle. Completed paper ICVIs for interstate cattle exports in 2009 were collected from 48 states. Each of the 16 data elements was recorded as legible, absent, or illegible on forms completed by accredited veterinarians, and results were summarized by state. Mean values for legibility at the state level were used to estimate legibility of data at the national level. Results-ICVIs were inconsistent among states in regard to data elements requested and availability of
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
In the present analysis including 967 community-dwelling elderly men and women no significant association between hemoglobin levels or anemia and falls could be found. Thus, the suggestion that anemia is an independent risk factor of falls in elderly people from the general population could not be supported by these results. However, we found an additive effect of anemia and disability on the occurrence of falls.. On the contrary to our study prior studies were mostly conducted in selected groups [15-17] in women only [32] or they used self-reported data regarding anemia status or information from chart reviews [33]. Furthermore, most of the former analyses were based on smaller study samples [15, 17, 18].. The group of Duh et al. employed a retrospective open-cohort design and analyzed data of 47,350 individuals regarding anemia and risk of injurious falls in community-dwelling elderly people. Results showed that anemia increased the risk of injurious falls by 1.47 times in multivariate ...
Author: Sasikala.J, Gnanavel.P, Milind V.Bhutkar. Category: Physiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Background : The present study was undertaken because there is only limited information available regarding the effect of menopause over heart rate recovery and lipid profile.. Aim: Aim of the study was to calculate heart rate recovery and to estimate lipid profile and to compare the parameters between pre and post menopausal women.. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 healthy non athletic female volunteers consisted of 60 premenopausal women between the age group of 40-45 years and 60 post-menopausal women between the age group of 45-50 years. All the 120 subjects underwent a modified Bruce exercise protocol testing on a treadmill after taking blood sample for lipid profile. Heart rate was recorded during the exercise at each stage and also during the recovery period (1 minute, 2 minute and 5 minutes after the exercise). Result: The heart rate recovery was ...
In the present study, we provided a snapshot of the nutritional status of CD adolescents in Brazil using instruments and methods that are available at any health facility where such patients might be followed. We found that BMI-for-age and height-for-age were significantly lower in the patients with CD than in the controls, a finding that was consistent with those of Burnham et al. [18], who studied 104 children and young adults with CD evaluated an average of 4 years after the disease had been diagnosed (as was the case in the present study).. In a similar study, Thayu et al. [19] investigated a sample of 78 children and adolescents with CD and found significant changes in growth, pubertal development, and body composition (in particular, lean body mass loss) at diagnosis in comparison with the control group, although they found no differences between the genders. The deficit of lean body mass persisted throughout the follow-up period.. In the present study, caloric intake was found to be lower ...
Breastfeeding is seen as vital for mother and child and therefore is of great public health concern. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery is important as it reduces neonatal mortality. Increasing our understanding of barriers and reasons for not commencing early breastfeeding is important to improve strategies and conditions to overcome such barriers. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate factors influencing time of breastfeeding among women in India, focusing on health care utilisation related issues and partner behaviour. Data from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of Indias National Family Health Survey (NFHS) from 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) have been used in this study. Breastfeeding for the latest child was considered in the study. A total of 35,795 female respondents are included in this study. Chi square test and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used. Among all 35,795 women in the study, a total of 31.1% initiated breastfeeding within
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities, including adverse cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) profiles, are frequent comorbid findings with HTN and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Diuretics, which are used to treat HTN and heart failure, have been associated with worsening of fasting lipid concentrations. Genome-wide meta-analyses with 39,710 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 9925 African-ancestry (AA) individuals were performed to identify genetic variants that modify the effect of loop or thiazide diuretic use on blood lipid concentrations. Both longitudinal and cross sectional data were used to compute cohort-specific interaction results, which were then combined through meta-analysis in each ancestry. These ancestry-specific results were further combined through trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Analysis of EA data identified two genome-wide significant (p , 5 × 10−8) loci with single nucleotide variant ...
Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are a leading cause of maternal morbidities and mortalities in developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 500,000 women and girls die each year from the complications. Despite proven interventions that could prevent death or disability during pregnancy and childbirth, maternal mortality remains a major burden in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the status of antenatal care utilization and modeling Bayesian Count Regression model for the determinants of utilization of antenatal care services visits among pregnant women in Amhara regional state. It was a community based analytical cross-sectional study, conducted in Amhara region among women in the reproductive age group (age 15-49). The analysis was based on data from women who had at least one birth during the 5 years preceding the survey. The source of data was the 2014 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey which was accessed from Central
This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density) based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level
National levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in adults have fallen even more drastically since 2011 than what had been previously observed since the turn of the century, according cross-sectional survey data. Additionally, these trends were maintained regardless of the use of lipid-lowering medications.. Given that lipid levels are strong predictors of cardiovascular health, this information is "a good indicator that the US populations lipid profile is improving at a population level," study author Asher Rosinger, PhD, MPH (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD), told TCTMD. "If these predictors of cardiovascular events continue to move in this favorable direction, its likely that mortality trends will also continue in a favorable direction.". For the study, Rosinger and colleagues culled lipid data on almost 40,000 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999/2000 and 2013/2014. The results-published ...
This article sought to estimate the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy (VH) among French general practitioners (GPs) and to study its demographic, professional and personal correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey about GPs vaccination-related attitudes and practices in 2014 in a national panel of 1,712 GPs in private practice, randomly selected from an exhaustive database of health professionals in France. A cluster analysis of various dimensions of VH (self-reported vaccine recommendations, perceptions of vaccine risks and usefulness) identified three clusters: 86% of GPs (95% confidence interval (CI): 84-88) were not or only slightly vaccine-hesitant, 11% (95% CI: 9-12) moderately hesitant and 3% (95% CI: 3-4) highly hesitant or opposed to vaccination. GPs in the latter two clusters were less frequently vaccinated and reported occasional practice of alternative medicine more often than those in the first cluster; they also described less experience with vaccine-preventable diseases
Over half of the sample was either overweight (36.6%) or obese (19.6%). Obesity was more common in the most deprived areas compared to the least deprived (26.3% vs. 12.0%). Healthy eating (49.0%), controlling portion size (43.4%), and increasing exercise (43.0%) were the most commonly reported weight management strategies. Less common strategies were attending a slimming club (17.2%), meal replacements (3.4%) and weight-loss medication (3.2%). Adjusting for BMI, age, deprivation and long standing health conditions, women were significantly more likely to report ever using a slimming club (adjusted OR = 18.63, 95% CI = 16.52-21.00) and more likely to report ever using over the counter weight-loss medications (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.10-4.48), while respondents from the most deprived areas were less likely to report using slimming clubs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53-0.68), and more likely to reporting using weight loss medications (AOR =1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82).. ...
As a key indicator of childhood malnutrition, few studies have focused on stunting in relation to various socio-economic factors in which disadvantaged groups face in China. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study incorporating forty-two rural counties in seven western provinces of China in 2011. In total, 5196 children aged 6-23 months were included. We used Poisson regression to examine risk factors for inadequate minimum dietary diversity (MDD) and stunting status, respectively. Overall, the proportion of children not meeting MDD was 44·5 %. Children aged 6-11 months (adjusted risk ratio (ARR)=1·39; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·49), with two siblings (ARR=1·09; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·17), delivered at home (ARR=1·30; 95 % CI 1·20, 1·41), within Yi (ARR=1·15; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·28) or Uighur groups (ARR=1·52; 95 % CI 1·36, 1·71), with an illiterate caregiver (ARR=2·12; 95 % CI 1·52, 2·96), receiving lowest income (ARR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·50), and with breast-feeding in the last ...
OBJECTIVES: We investigate trends in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults at all ages in two time points 9 years apart in two neighbouring rural populations and examine social and respiratory health determinants of quitting smoking. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the same rural area of lower Silesia in Poland in 2003 and 2012. A total of 1328 (91% of adult eligible individuals) in 2003 and 1449 (92% of eligible) in 2012 adult inhabitants were surveyed, 908 people (560 villagers and 348 town inhabitants) participated in both surveys. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviour, education level and respiratory diseases. RESULTS: Current smoking was higher in the villages than the town, among men than women and those with a middle level of education. The prevalence of current smokers decreased over time, although this decline was much more pronounced in the town than in the villages (30.2% vs 23% and ...
OBJECTIVE: Due to the increased lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC), guidelines recommend that women with Lynch syndrome (LS) age ≥ 35 undergo annual EC surveillance or prophylactic hysterectomy (PH). The aim of this study was to examine the uptake of these risk-reducing strategies. METHODS: The study population included women meeting clinical criteria for genetic evaluation for LS. Data on cancer risk-reducing behaviors were collected from subjects enrolled in two distinct studies: (1) a multicenter cross-sectional study involving completion of a one-time questionnaire, or (2) a single-center longitudinal study in which subjects completed questionnaires before and after undergoing genetic testing ...
Context: Despite the nationwide implementation of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in India, adverse outcome after treatment is on rise. Program guidelines propose follow-up of cured patients for 2 years which is rarely done. Objectives: The main objectives of this study is (1) To find the response of treatment in terms of failure and drug resistance (recurrence of symptoms and mortality experience) and (2) Collect client perspective about the program and suggest the same to program managers. Subjects and Methods: Community-based tracking of 365 cured adult Category I pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases drawn from three nearby TB units was done with a structured designed questionnaire. It was done to record the adverse events after 1-3 years of completion of treatment and also to record the client perspective about the program. In case of nonsurvivors, verbal autopsy was conducted by interviewing the next available relative. Results: A total of 365, only 226 (60%) could be covered ...
Literature Cited 1. Minino AM. Death in the United States, 2011. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;(115)(115):1-8. 2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study . Lancet. 1997;349(9064):1498-1504. 3. Mannino DM, Buist AS. Global burden of COPD: Risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):765-773. 4. The top 10 causes of death. World Health Organization Web site. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/. Updated 2014. Accessed 3/25, 2015. 5. Calderon-Larranaga A, Carney L, Soljak, M. et al. Association of population and primary healthcare factors with hospital admission rates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in England: National cross-sectional study. Thorax. 2011;66(3):191-196. 6. Akinbami LJ, Liu X. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 18 and over in the United States, 1998-2009. NCHS Data Brief. 2011;(63)(63):1-8. 7. Darnell K, Dwivedi AK, Weng Z et al.. ...
and other continuous variables), the interpretation is that when a students gpa moves 1 unit, the odds of moving from "unlikely" applying to "somewhat likely" or "very likley" applying (or from the lower and middle categories to the high category) are multiplied by 1.85.. One of the assumptions underlying ordinal logistic (and ordinal probit) regression is that the relationship between each pair of outcome groups is the same. In other words, ordinal logistic regression assumes that the coefficients that describe the relationship between, say, the lowest versus all higher categories of the response variable are the same as those that describe the relationship between the next lowest category and all higher categories, etc. This is called the proportional odds assumption or the parallel regression assumption. Because the relationship between all pairs of groups is the same, there is only one set of coefficients. If this was not the case, we would need different sets of coefficients in the model ...
This course is meant to expose the students to the techniques of drawing representative samples from various populations and then preparing them on the mathematical formulations of estimating the population parameters based on the sample data. The students would also be exposed to the real life applications of sampling techniques and estimation of parameters.. Determination of sample size and selection of sample, Simple random sampling, Stratified random sampling, Cluster sampling, Systematic sampling, Ratio and regression methods of estimation, Double sampling, Multi-stage sampling.. ...
Author: Sharma, A. M. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2004-03; Keywords: primary care; hypertension; prevalence; control status; epidemiology; Germany; Title: High prevalence and poor control of hypertension in primary care: cross-sectional study
You predict a class if it is given maximum probability by the estimated model. So when some classes are not predicted that is simply because the model never gave them maximum probability. That might just be correct, and not necessary a reason for concern. So I disagree with the answer by @Nitin, proposing oversampling.. You might say: but they did occur in the data. Yes, but it might have been rare occurrences! never really the most probable outcome given the predictors in the model. You didnt give us a context, what your classes represent in the "real world". You have very unbalanced classes. That might be because some classes really are uncommon in your population, or it might be some problems with data collection. You didnt tell us. But it is difficult to see that over (or under)-sampling can achieve anything that cannot be achieved using weights. Even more important, you are using (ordinal) logistic regression, which is not a classifier, see Why isnt Logistic Regression called Logistic ...
Aging changes in different body system are well described, but few studies have considered the relationship between them.The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the interrelationships between markers of aging in different parts of the body.A cross-sectional study design was used. Structural and functional markers of aging were measured in a number of different body systems.Conditional independence analysis demonstrated that the aging markers selected clustered into two groups, either related to chronological age or adult height. Visual acuity, lens opacity, hearing threshold, cognitive decline, and the number of teeth were associated with age, while systolic blood pressure and skin thickness were related to height. Grip strength was associated with both.The differential associations of the aging markers with chronological age and adult height suggest that different systems do not age together. This may have relevance for understanding what underlies aging, and these preliminary findings
Eventbrite - Omni212 presents Fortaleza Data Science Training | IT Training | Disruptive Technologies - Monday, January 22, 2018 | Friday, February 23, 2018 at Instructor Led Online | Video Conference, Fortaleza, Fortaleza. Find event and ticket information.
O capítulo IGDA Fortaleza (International Game Developers Association - Fortaleza Chapter) é uma entidade sem fins lucrativos que trabalha para fomentar, desenvolver e expandir o cenário e a comunidade de desenvolvimento de jogos da cidade de Fortaleza. Trabalhamos para fortalecer o cenário por meio de eventos, encontros e iniciativas em conjunto à outras entidades para acelerar e buscar prosperidade para a comunidade local de desenvolvedores de jogos.. ...
The Effect of Demographic and Lifestyle Factors on Mode of Travel in School-Aged Children in The UK: A cross-Sectional Study From Understanding Society
Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared ...
Whats on at Plymouth University: Going where no other researchers go: Collecting information from primary and secondary care notes of people with severe mental illness in England. A multi-site cross-sectional observational study. 19 September 2017.
Palafox B, McKee M, Balabanova D, AlHabib KF, Avezum AJ, Bahonar A, Ismail N, Chifamba J, Chow CK, Corsi DJ, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Gupta R, Iqbal R, Kaur M, Khatib R, Kruger A, Kruger IM, Lanas F, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Minfan F, Mohan V, Mony PK, Oguz A, Palileo-Villanueva LM, Perel P, Poirier P, Rangarajan S, Rensheng L, Rosengren A, Soman B, Stuckler D, Subramanian SV, Teo K, Tsolekile LP, Wielgosz A, Yaguang P, Yeates K, Yongzhen M, Yusoff K, Yusuf R, Yusufali A, Zatońska K, Yusuf S. Wealth and cardiovascular health: a cross-sectional study of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Int J Equity Health. 2016; 15(1): 199 ...
OBJECTIVES: To determine perceived Quality of Life (QOL) of the diabetic patient and to assess whether QOL is associated with diabetes-related markers. DESIGN: This was a descriptive cross sectional study. SETTING: A ...
A descriptive cross-sectional study was used. Participants (n = 320) who were 7 weeks post-partum were recruited from five maternal and child health centres in Irbid city in northern Jordan. Participants provided personal and obstetric information, and completed the Satisfaction with Childbirth Care Scale. ...
Objective: To describe the presence of abuse in elderly people in Colombia and its association with socio-demographic and functional conditions. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive research. Data were taken from the SABE Colombia Survey, a population study, with a national representative sample of 23,694 adults aged over 60 years. Presence and type of abuse by partners or family members, members were investigated. Generalized linear models with Poisson link function were used to estimate the causes of the prevalence of abuse by area of residence, region, age, sex, dependence on activities of daily living and living arrangements. Results: 15.1% of the elderly in Colombia reported some type of abuse, and over 50% reported more than one form of abuse. Abuse proportion is greater in people who are aged 60-69, in women, people with lower levels of education, people who belong to lower socioeconomic status, people who live alone, people who live with children, and people in urban areas. The most ...
Abstract Objective: Diabetes and hypertension are among the commonest diseases in developed countries, and the frequency of both diseases rises with age. By progression of diabetes the incidence of hypertension become higher than the age-matched general population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 300 type 2 diabetic patients ...
Over the ten days, we reconnected and strengthened our bonds with the staff nurses. These nurses were so very keen about practicing and refining the nursing skills they had learned during the past pediatric cardiac surgery camps that it was both a privilege and a pleasure to be with them as they worked to perfect their nursing care. It was quite obvious from their practice and their questions that they have incorporated much of what has been presented to them in the camps UNCH and other groups have provided. I look forward to continued collaboration with the Mulago nursing staff developing and implementing further educational resources ...
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were found with sexual problems. In men, erectile problems and premature ejaculation were associated with increasing age. Erectile problems were most strongly associated with prostate trouble, with an age adjusted odds ratio of 2.6 (95% confidence intervals 1.4, 4.7), but hypertension and diabetes were also associated. Premature ejaculation was predominantly associated with anxiety (age adjusted odds ratio 3.1 (95% confidence intervals 1.7, 5.6)). In women, the predominant association with arousal, orgasmic, and enjoyment problems was martial difficulties, all with odds ratios ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China.. DESIGN: A national cross-sectional study in China.. SETTING: In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China.. PARTICIPANTS: Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16.. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects.. RESULTS: The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical ...
Cross-sectional assessment of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a Yemeni population.
Users socio-economic characteristics can influence the visit and utilization pattern of urban green infrastructure. Assessing the influence of socio-economic characteristics of people on the utilization of UGI is an important instrument to show gaps for city/town planners, developers and decision makers. This paper investigates the effect of socio-economic characteristics of people on a monthly visit of green infrastructure in Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and key informant interview, a total of 400 urban communities were interviewed in the entire study area. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression models and chi-square test. The majority (54%) of respondents in Hawassa city visit two to three times per month, in Bodity town 22% of respondents visited UGI two to three times per month. Whereas, 30% of respondent in Wolayita Sodo visit UGI once a month. In general, 28.75% and 23.75% of respondents visited green ...
A cross sectional descriptive study was done of 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health center in Ile-Ife. The objective of this study was to determine, among a sample of women attending a primary health center in Ile-Ife, the socio-demographic factors associated with intimate partner violence. Respondents were aged 18-37 years; the majority of them (73.8%) were aged 21-30 years (mean age was 24.9 ± 4.09). Three quarters (73.5%) were married in a monogamous setting and well over half (60.1%) were employed. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in the previous twelve months was 36.7%. Significant socio-demographic correlates of intimate partner violence were the age of the respondents (younger), marital status (single and separated), marriage type (polygamous), employment (being employed), level of education (secondary school education) and having children. Also, Respondent's and partner's use of alcohol were significantly associated with
Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7
A total of 2316 participants (mean age of 32.2 ± 10.7 years; 62.3% male; 37.7% female) were included (participation proportion 86.5%). Gender and age distributions imperfectly matched those of the national population, requiring adjustments for these to prevalence estimates. Observed 1-year prevalence of all headache was 77.2%, reducing to 65.8% when adjusted. For headache types, adjusted 1-year prevalences were migraine 25.0%, TTH 34.1%, pMOH 2.0% and other headache on ≥15 days/month 2.3%. Adjusted 1-day prevalence of any headache was 11.5%. Migraine and pMOH were associated with female gender (ORs: 1.7 and 4.7; p < 0.0001). Migraine was negatively associated with age > 45 years (OR: 0.4; p = 0.0143) while pMOH was most prevalent in those aged 46-55 years (OR: 2.7; p = 0.0415). TTH reportedly became more common with increasing level of education ...
For more than 25 years, the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project (JoCoOA) in Smithfield, NC has established itself as one of the premier longitudinal research studies world-wide regarding the epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health, and multiple other sources, it is internationally recognized as the flagship study of the UNC Thurston Arthritis Research Center. It was one of the first studies in the US to examine the incidence, prevalence and progression of osteoarthritis in African American and white men and women in a rural county. The hallmark of this study is its population-based cohort. The strength of a population-based study is that results can be applied to the general population regarding lifetime risk or prevalence of a disease. Stability is of paramount importance in the life of a research study. The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project has been continuously managed by the same research team, ...
In cross-sectional studies, a sample (or samples) is drawn from the relevant population and studied once.[2] A cross-sectional ... The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies.[2] ... Longitudinal studiesEdit. Longitudinal studies take measure of the same random sample at multiple time points.[2] Unlike with a ... However, longitudinal studies are both expensive and difficult to do. It's harder to find a sample that will commit to a months ...
A cross-sectional study". Trials. 12 (1): 58. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-58. PMC 3055831 . PMID 21356072. Lachin JM (June 2000 ... For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a ... ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis because it does not require observation of compliance status ... which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. ITT analysis provides information about the potential ...
A cross-sectional pilot study of the Scottish Early Development Instrument: A tool for addressing inequality. BMC Public Health ... Relationship between e-cigarette point of sale recall and e-cigarette use in secondary school children: a cross-sectional study ... A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2016; 6:e008734.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008734. 160. Van der Sluijs W, Haseen F, Miller M, ... a cross-sectional comparative study. BMJ Open 2017; 7:e016527. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016527 172. Hunter DJ, Frank JW. Making ...
Bobak M, Skodova Z, Marmot M (2003). "Beer and obesity: a cross-sectional study". Eur J Clin Nutr. 57 (10): 1250-3. doi:10.1038 ... the INTERHEART study): case-control study". Lancet. 364 (9438): 937-52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9. PMID 15364185.. ... the INTERHEART study): Case-control study". Lancet. 364 (9438): 937-52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9. PMID 15364185.. ... A study has stated that 75% of patients treated for asthma in the emergency room were either overweight or obese.[35] ...
Cross-sectional study using claims data]". Nervenarzt (in German). 79 (1): 67-72. doi:10.1007/s00115-007-2280-6. PMID 17457554 ... A randomized, cross-over, double-blind study versus placebo" (PDF). European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 59 (3): 179-188 ... One study found some slight selectivity for zopiclone on α1 and α5 subunits, although it is regarded as being unselective in ... One low quality study found that zopiclone is ineffective in improving sleep quality or increasing sleep time in shift workers ...
Cross sectional study using data from the 2001 census". Retrieved 2006-07-16.. ...
CHEN, M; LANDER, T; MURPHY, C (May 2006). "Nasal health in Down syndrome: A cross-sectional study". Otolaryngology - Head and ... The amygdala (in olfaction) processes pheromone, allomone, and kairomone (same-species, cross-species, and cross-species where ... "An Experimental Study of the Ventral Striatum of the Golden Hamster. II. Neuronal Connections of the Olfactory Tubercle." Wiley ... Mori 2014, p. 182, "The Study of Humans Uncovers Novel Aspects in Brain Organization of Olfaction (Chapter 9.2)" ...
Garrett, M; McElroy, A M; Staines, A (2002-06-22). "Locomotor milestones and babywalkers: cross sectional study". BMJ : British ... overview of systematic reviews and a systematic review of primary studies". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 60: 158-171. doi: ...
A cross-sectional observational study in Europe". European Psychiatry. 45 (Supplement C): 136-138. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.05 ...
Results from a large cross-sectional study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 67 (3): 189-197. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores. ... This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated high co-morbidity of somatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms (i.e ... "How to assess common somatic symptoms in large-scale studies: A systematic review of questionnaires". Journal of Psychosomatic ...
Cross-sectional and longitudional evidence from the Berlin Aging Study". Psychology and Aging. 15 (3): 511-526. doi:10.1037/ ... Wejbrandt A (2014). "Defining aging in cyborgs: A bio-techno-social definition of aging". Journal of Aging Studies. 31: 104-109 ... The Women's Health and Aging Study". Journal of Gerontology. 56A (10): 609. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.10.m609.. ... though the pattern between genders is not universal across all studies and some results suggest sex-based differences only ...
Chara PJ, Kuennen LM (February 1994). "Diverging gender attitudes regarding casual sex: a cross-sectional study". Psychol Rep. ... Gwen J. Broude, 'Male-Female Relationships in Cross-Cultural Perspective: A Study of Sex and Intimacy' Cross-Cultural Research ... A study published by the Archives of Sexual Behavior reported that sixty percent of college students have participated in a ... Hughes's study suggests that there were five main motivations to why college students wanted to be in a casual relationship.[13 ...
Cross-sectional and longitudional evidence from the Berlin Aging Study". Psychology and Aging. 15 (3): 511-26. doi:10.1037/0882 ... In 2016, in a study, the removal of those cells in mice has extended their lifespans by 20% to 30%.[77] Another study shows ... Cross-linkage: The idea that ageing results from accumulation of cross-linked compounds that interfere with normal cell ... while one study, by the University of Wisconsin, showed that caloric restriction does extend lifespan,[126] the second study, ...
Mashal, A.; A. Katz; P. Shartzman (2011). "Atrial fibrillation: a primary care cross-sectional study". Israel Med Assoc J. 13: ... Jiangsu Furui Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd is currently recruiting participants in their study. Myocytes Ion channels "Efficacy and ...
"Gripe Water Administration in Infants 1-6 months of Age-A Cross-sectional Study". J Clin Diagn Res. 9 (11): SC06-8. doi:10.7860 ... The study did not indicate the rate of constipation or vomiting prior to the use of GW to compare with during use.Constipation ... In a study of 350 infants conducted in Puducherry, India, two-thirds of mothers of infants ages 1 to 6 months admitted ... No evidence supports the efficacy of gripe water and one limited study in India questions whether the consumption of Gripe ...
CHEN, M; LANDER, T; MURPHY, C (May 2006). "Nasal health in Down syndrome: A cross-sectional study". Otolaryngology - Head and ... cross-species, and cross-species where the emitter is harmed and the sensor is benefited, respectively) signals. Due to ... "An Experimental Study of the Ventral Striatum of the Golden Hamster. II. Neuronal Connections of the Olfactory Tubercle." Wiley ... Further studies have concluded that the olfactory loss may be associated with intellectual disability, rather than any ...
... in a cross-sectional study.[citation needed] Baelum 1996 recalculated their previous data from Kenyan and Chinese populations ... As in other studies, a major portion of the total number of teeth lost was accounted for by a small group of persons. In this ... The study size was 560 persons and at the 48-month examination, 22% of persons and 1.8% of teeth had attachment loss incidence ... There was an apparent increase from 1% to 2% to 3% over the three study periods, which may have been due to an increase of ...
... a cross-sectional study". International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation. 43 (2): 363-378. doi: ...
A Cross-sectional Study in Iranian Population, n.d. "Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior" (PDF). csun.edu. ...
Still, all studies have been cross sectional in design. Furthermore, these results merely describe associations and do not make ... Studies have shown that meditation has both short-term and long-term effects on various perceptual faculties. In 1984 a study ... Of the 400 clinical studies, 10% were found to be good quality. A call was made for rigorous study of meditation. These authors ... Since the 1950s hundreds of studies on meditation have been conducted. Yet, many of the early studies were flawed and thus ...
Cross sectional study of political affiliation and physical activity". Christmas 2014: Going to Extremes. BMJ. 349: g7073. doi: ... The study's stated conclusion was that (literal) "armchair socialists" as a class do not exist, as holders of political views ... In December 2014, the BMJ published a study, possibly satirical in intent and described as "lighthearted" in NHS Choices, with ...
"Cross sectional, community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal". BMJ. 324: 1063. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7372.1063. " ... A descriptive study with cross-sectional and qualitative components. Dhakal, S.; Chapman, G. N.; Simkhada, P. P.; van ... However, other studies have shown coverage in rural communities to be as little as 29% and upwards of 79% in more urban areas. ... According to one study, the zonal hospital was equipped with 75% of the essential equipment and drugs based on a 22 item ...
... a population-based cross-sectional study". BJU Int. 86 (4): 443-8. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2000.00836.x. PMID 10971269. CS1 ... UCPPS is now studied as a systemic disorder. In support of this approach, a 2005 study showed that stress is correlated to Cat ... A 2010 study found that nerve growth factor could also be used as a biomarker of the condition. For CP/CPPS patients, analysis ... Studies are lacking in this area. There are no definitive diagnostic tests for CP/CPPS. This is a poorly understood disorder, ...
This type of design is common in cross-sectional studies. Another possible study design would be to give 50 infected subjects ... This type of design is common in case-control studies. The final possible study design would be to give 50 infected subjects ... The probability of a 2×2 table under the first study design is given by the multinomial distribution; the second study design ... One possible study design would be to sample 100 infected subjects, randomly give them the treatment or the placebo, and see if ...
Cross-sectional and longitudional evidence from the Berlin Aging Study". Psychology and Aging. 15 (3): 511-526. doi:10.1037/ ... Cross-linkage: The idea that ageing results from accumulation of cross-linked compounds that interfere with normal cell ... Two major ongoing studies on rhesus monkeys initially revealed disparate results; while one study, by the University of ... Leiden Longevity Study group (2012). "Cortisol serum levels in familial longevity and perceived age: the Leiden longevity study ...
"A cross-sectional study of dietary habits and lipid profiles. The Rivas-Vaciamadrid study". Eur. J. Pediatr. 167 (2): 149-54. ... From the study, it is shown that more monounsaturated fats lead to less anger and irritability. Foods containing ... Studies have shown that substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical ... a Prospective Italian Study". JNCL. 93 (14): 1088-95. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.14.1088. PMID 11459870. Retrieved 2008-11-30. Sanchez ...
Observational Studies. *Cross-sectional study. *Cohort study. *Natural experiment. *Quasi-experiment. Statistical inference ...
"A cross-sectional study of men with genital piercings" (PDF). British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 3 (2): 315-322. Van der ... In an empirical study at the University of South Alabama, the authors reported a positive relationship between vertical ... Aubrey, Karen (April 1995). "Body Piercing: Gender Nihilism in the 90s". Studies in Popular Culture. Popular Culture ...
The study uses cross-sectional data from the baseline wave (October 2009 to July 2011). Analyses are based on those aged 50-79 ... This is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50-79 years (n = 5287). ... cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). ... The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing prospective cohort study representative of community living adults ...
This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three ... This study showed that experiencing moral doubt is related to some ones normative attitude towards coercion. Future research ... This study. In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional survey study among multidisciplinary employees of seven ... Study design. This paper describes a cross-sectional survey study in which we executed an explorative statistical analysis. ...
Cross sectional studies. A cross sectional study measures the prevalence of health outcomes or determinants of health, or both ... Bias may arise because of selection into or out of the study population. A cross sectional survey of asthma in an occupational ... cross sectional studies of aetiology are best suited to diseases that produce little disability and to the presymptomatic ... A cross sectional design may also make it difficult to establish what is cause and what is effect. If milk drinking is ...
Social Science Approaches to the Study of Chinese Society Part 1. In Week 5, we will focus on Study Designs. By the end of ... cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research.. Many pioneering studies from the early 20th century ... 5.4 Cross-sectional studies. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... And finally, another big issue with cross sectional studies. is that its very hard to rule out what we refer to as spurious ...
... whereas longitudinal studies make comparisons over time. The research question will determine which approach is best. ... Cross-sectional studies make comparisons at a single point in time, ... Cross-sectional study. Both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal studies are observational studies. This means that ... Cross-sectional studies can be done more quickly than longitudinal studies. Thats why researchers might start with a cross- ...
Data from a cross sectional study in Bavaria suggest that the risk of obesity in children at the time of school entry can be ... whereas a protective effect has been reported in a Canadian cross sectional study of 1320 adolescents born in the late 1960s.10 ... Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ 1999; 319 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7203.147 (Published 17 ... However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts.7-9 These small studies ...
This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ... "Credit cards and money demand: a cross-sectional study," Working Papers 9112, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. ... This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ...
The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal ... Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study. Kidest Getu Melese,1 Mignote Hailu Gebrie,2 Martha ... Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants ... In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest ...
A cross-sectional study of obesogenic behaviours and family rules according to family structure in European children.. Artikel ... the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and ... from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. ...
The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... RESULTS: Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. Age was similar between ...
This cross-sectional approach provides an insight into AAB across a key developmental period. It highlights that influential ... to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. ... This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking ... Melaugh McAteer A, Curran D, Hanna D (2015) Alcohol attention bias in adolescent social drinkers: an eye tracking study. ...
... Khalid Mahmood,1 Rabeea Farhan,2 Asif Surani,2 Arif ... This cross-sectional study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi during August 13 to March 14. The visitors who had ...
... a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of ... cross-sectional data. In economics, cross-sectional studies typically involve the use of cross-sectional regression, in order ... Cross-sectional studies are descriptive studies (neither longitudinal nor experimental). Unlike case-control studies, they can ... cross-sectional studies differ from case-control studies in that they aim to provide data on the entire population under study ...
Make research projects and school reports about Cross-Sectional Study easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Cross-Sectional Study at Encyclopedia.com. ... CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. A cross-sectional study is the simplest ... The U.S. National Health Surveys are a form of cross-sectional study. Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can ... The distinction between a cohort study and a repeated cross-sectional study is that a cohort study is conducted with the same ...
Sleep disturbances, work stress and work hours: a cross-sectional study.. Akerstedt T1, Knutsson A, Westerholm P, Theorell T, ... The study examined the multivariate relationship between disturbed sleep and different work-related and background/life style ...
... nuclear families number of living number of rooms nutritional status path analysis poor positive relationship present study ... Religions religious and caste respondents belonging rural areas sanitation index significant social socio-economic status study ...
Breastfeeding and early white matter development: A cross-sectional study.. Deoni SC1, Dean DC 3rd, Piryatinsky I, ... In this study, we used quiet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to compare measures of white matter microstructure ( ... Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter ... Does breastfeeding alter early brain development? The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early ...
Uppsatser om CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Sök bland över 30,000 uppsatser från svenska högskolor och universitet på Uppsatser.se - ... Sökning: Cross-sectional study. Visar resultat 1 - 5 av 1370 uppsatser innehållade orden Cross-sectional study. . ... 1. Spin-off Impact on Shareholder Wealth: A worldwide study on market reactions to spin-off announcements. Kandidat-uppsats, ... 5. ARE WOMEN LEADERS OF NATURE? - a quantitative study on the effect of womens political representation on environmental ...
Home , December 1st, 1996 - Volume 21 - Issue 23 , Point of View: A Cross-Sectional Study Correlating Cervical... ... Point of View: A Cross-Sectional Study Correlating Cervical Radiographic Degenerative Findings to Pain and Disability. Shekelle ... Point of View: A Cross-Sectional Study Correlating Cervical Radiographic Degenerative Findings to Pain and Disability ...
OP65 A cross-sectional study of the relationship between wealth, social participation and loneliness among older people across ... a population-based cross-sectional study Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Paul Kurdyak, John Cairney, Nathaniel Jembere, Simone Vigod ... OP29 Are socioeconomic conditions associated with asthma prevalence, severity, and treatment access? A cross-sectional study of ...
A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of Ethnically Targeted and General Audience Outdoor Obesity-Related Advertising. * *March 1 ... A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of Ethnically Targeted and General Audience Outdoor Obesity-Related Advertising (Web) ...
In this cross-sectional study we took advantage of the natural experimental conditions resulting from the variable fasting ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study. Michael J. Steiner, ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study ...
Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and ... The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were ... The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = ... Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of ...
The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents ... This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision ... "Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 856-866 ... Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. Mirjam E. J. van Beelen 1. ...
Florence Bourgeois and colleagues investigate the frequency of and reasons for discontinuation of clinical trials studying rare ... We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials studying rare diseases as defined by the Genetic and Rare ... disease studied, intervention, study dates, and features of the study design. The search protocol was repeated in both EMBASE ... We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials focusing on rare diseases registered in ClinicalTrials. ...
  • 7 - 9 These small studies failed to find a protective effect possibly due to a lack of statistical power, whereas a protective effect has been reported in a Canadian cross sectional study of 1320 adolescents born in the late 1960s. (bmj.com)
  • Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter volume, and parietal lobe cortical thickness, associated with IQ, in adolescents who were breastfed as infants compared to those who were exclusively formula-fed. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent adolescents perceive or experience coercion during inpatient mental health care, and to examine predictors of experienced coercion. (uio.no)
  • However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated with respondent characteristics. (chiro.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported daily and multi-site pain among adolescents aged 12-19 years and associations of almost daily pain and multi-site pain with respondent characteristics (sex, age, body mass index, HRQoL and sports participation). (chiro.org)
  • A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 4,007 adolescents aged 12-19 years in Denmark. (chiro.org)
  • Unlike in a cohort study, however, matching does not on its own eliminate confounding. (bmj.com)
  • Special emphasis is given to explaining the challenges that social scientists face in drawing conclusions about cause and effect from their studies, and offers an overview of the approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. (coursera.org)
  • Conclusions: In this study, the majority of women in Europe, North America, South America and Australia used at least one medication during pregnancy. (uio.no)
  • However this type of study is limited in its ability to draw valid conclusions as to the association between a risk factor and health outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that addresses desire to have children in a clinical sample of trans women. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. (cambridge.org)
  • This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. (cambridge.org)
  • This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. (cambridge.org)
  • This review compared six cohort, before-and-after, and serial cross-sectional studies , from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Nigeria (1,831 women with eclampsia) and two population-based UK studies with results from randomised controlled trials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study aimed to understand the gap between safe abortion availability and use of services in Bihar and Jharkhand, India by examining accessibility from the perspective of rural, Indian women.The authors conclude that behavior change communication interventions, which address negative perceptions by improving community knowledge about abortion and support local availability of safe abortion services, are needed. (eldis.org)
  • The multicenter study will be conducted at up to 25 investigational sites in the United States and Canada and 20,000 subjects will be enrolled. (newswire.ca)
  • As discussed in the previous chapter, one of the drawbacks of using a longitudinal approach to investigate the causes of disease with low incidence is that large and lengthy studies may be required to give adequate statistical power. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption among partners of pregnant women, their motives for changing drinking patterns when becoming a parent and their perceptions of the midwifes counseling about alcohol. (diva-portal.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Iran to investigate socioeconomic inequality in various health domains. (bmj.com)
  • In order to investigate the utility and sufficiency of psychiatric beds in general hospitals (GHP beds), a cross-sectional study was performed in general hospitals all over Tokyo. (wiley.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) as a descriptor of myoelectric fatigue, at different stages after rehabilitation, post-ACL reconstruction. (mdpi.com)
  • This method contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which investigate groups over a time period, in order to observe the developmental process, the influence of changing circumstances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analytical cross-sectional surveys may also be used to investigate the association between a putative risk factor and a health outcome. (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1993 to 1994 in an urban population in Germany to investigate the association between metal exposure and oxidative DNA damage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to investigate cause(s) of heart failure (HF). (lu.se)
  • The study will be conducted in standard clinical practice conditions at public and private gynecology clinics and during a single study visit. (centerwatch.com)
  • Within the constraints of any matching criteria, their exposure to risk factors and confounders should be representative of that in the population "at risk" of becoming cases - that is, people who do not have the disease under investigation, but who would be included in the study as cases if they had. (bmj.com)
  • Among the cross-sectional studies examined--that is, studies that gather information from a representative subset of the population at a certain point in time--researchers found a significant association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive impairment and dementia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study examines whether the demographic components fertility and migration are related among 27 European countries. (uppsatser.se)
  • This study examines the associations between different types of infant feeding and BMI and overweight in childhood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a single point in time or over a short period of time (e.g. calendar year). (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • A natural progression has been suggested from cheap cross-sectional studies of routinely collected data which suggest hypotheses, to case-control studies testing them more specifically, then to cohort studies and trials which cost much more and take much longer, but may give stronger evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can identify health problems and provide data from which many useful inferences can be made and hypotheses generated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To identify the genetic and environmental determinants of diabetes we plan to study Pima Indian families to determine: (1) if there are genes that segregate with metabolic risk factors for diabetes which might therefore be genetic markers for type 2 diabetes and (2) the mechanisms mediating genetic and environmental determinants of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2 In human studies, risk factors for vascular disease have been associated with impaired vasomotor function, and individuals with abnormal vasodilator function have increased cardiovascular event rates. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous studies investigating the relations of digital pulse amplitude to clinical risk factors have been limited to small, selected samples. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Despite a substantial reduction in population mean TC from a high of 6.0 mmol/L in the 1980s to 5.1 mmol/L, this study reports a failure to control hypercholesterolaemia to recommended risk-stratified targets in the Irish adult population. (springer.com)
  • This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking groups (heavy drinkers, light drinkers, and non-drinkers) to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. (springer.com)
  • In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. (medworm.com)
  • This sociolinguistic dimension has often been neglected in previous research with similar populations, where non-local, e.g. "standard" adult varieties have been taken to be the language model for the children being studied. (bl.uk)
  • The first study to compare whole brain atrophy in PD versus other types of dementia was published in 2004, showing that the pattern of grey matter loss in PD and PDD was different from the changes found in AD. (uib.no)
  • This study showed that experiencing moral doubt is related to some one's normative attitude towards coercion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within this study we wanted to find out whether experiencing moral doubt is related to the normative attitudes of health care professionals towards coercion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study involved 3189 randomly selected schoolchildren from Den. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The study involved 3,189 randomly selected schoolchildren from Denmark (one of the richest countries in Europe), and two poorer countries, Estonia and Portugal. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In our study, we would simply measure the cholesterol levels of daily walkers and non-walkers along with any other characteristics that might be of interest to us. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As cross-sectional studies measure prevalent rather than incident cases, the data will always reflect determinants of survival as well as aetiology 1 . (healthknowledge.org.uk)
  • We sought to evaluate the correlates of digital pulse amplitude responses as a measure of peripheral vascular function in the large, community-based Framingham Heart Study. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early exclusive breastfeeding is associated with improved measures of IQ and cognitive functioning in later childhood and adolescence. (nih.gov)
  • The precarious, dispersed, and poorly accessible settlements in these farming communities make it difficult to study them, and there are no epidemiological studies in the area. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study aims to explore the impact of financial development, technological development on poverty for Asian and Non-Asian countries. (igi-global.com)
  • The Mazira Project is a study of the effect of egg consumption on growth, development and gut health of infants in Malawi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The study randomly assigns infants to receive one egg per day ove. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is a cross-sectional study in which all infants aged 3 months or under attending four bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization clinics accounting for over 75% of the BCG coverage in the study location were screened by community health workers between July 2005 and April 2006. (who.int)
  • One of the first things we'd have to determine is the type of study that will tell us the most about that relationship. (iwh.on.ca)
  • To make our choice, we need to know more about the benefits and purpose of each study type. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The study will determine if each enrolled individual demonstrates a mutation associated with one of the five TGFBI dystrophies: granular corneal dystrophy type 1, granular corneal dystrophy type 2, lattice corneal dystrophy type 1, Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy, and Thiel Behnke corneal dystrophy. (newswire.ca)
  • This study aimed to examine patterns and factors associated with medications use in pregnancy from a multinational perspective, with emphasis on type of medication utilised and indication for use. (uio.no)
  • Bladder Bacterial Diversity Differs In Continent and Incontinent Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. (urotoday.com)
  • Results: The study population included 9459 women, of which 81.2% reported use of at least one medication (prescribed or OTC) during pregnancy. (uio.no)
  • A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Approximately 1,000 women aged 18 to 29 years who have freely chosen the 3 year hormonal IUD as their contraceptive method will be included in the study. (centerwatch.com)
  • Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. (scielo.br)
  • 2. A cross-sectional study of 70 normal women (aged 19-88 years) showed a bone loss of 44% from the age of around 34 years throughout life. (portlandpress.com)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that women have greater mobility disability than men. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. (scielo.br)
  • This non-interventional study aims at assessing stable GOLD C and D COPD patient's perception of daily and weekly symptoms variability and their impact on daily activities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For decades, cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research. (coursera.org)
  • Volunteers for this study will be admitted to the clinical research ward where they will undergo several tests to determine body composition, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance and in vivo insulin action. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. (chiro.org)
  • This study specifically investigates whether the students attracted to the chiropractic program at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, are oriented toward research and what 5 years in the program does to their orientation. (chiro.org)
  • The advantage of cross-sectional study is that it is quicker, not dependent on changing resources or research teams, and reduces extraneous variables resulting from the passage of time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Christian Dussart (1989) ,"Pre-Christmas Toy Guides: a Cross Sectional Research Study", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, eds. (acrwebsite.org)
  • This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional research study related to this unusual subject in child consumers research. (acrwebsite.org)
  • The research study was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, which is an excellent location for experimental research because of the bilingual and cosmopolitan profile of the population. (acrwebsite.org)
  • Eldis is hosted by the Knowledge, Impact and Policy team at the Institute of Development Studies in the UK but our services profile work by a growing global network of research organisations and knowledge brokers. (eldis.org)
  • Our reporting of this research conforms with the STROBE statement on cross-sectional studies. (mja.com.au)
  • The study was supported by the Federal Institute for Sport Science, Germany (ZMVI1-080102A/11-18). (ovid.com)
  • For example, a pilot study undertaken in Berlin, Stuttgart, and Chemnitz during the influenza season 1998-1999 showed much higher influenza vaccination rates in East Berlin and Chemnitz in the former East Germany (called former East in this paper) than in West Berlin and Stuttgart in the former West Germany (called former West in this paper) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • By the end of this week, you should understand the differences between the most common types of study, and have some sense of the settings in which each is most relevant. (coursera.org)
  • A three-year descriptive study was done at Microbiology Laboratory, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, from April 2012 to April 2015. (scirp.org)
  • This means that researchers record information about their subjects without manipulating the study environment. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. (aappublications.org)
  • In addition, in selected subjects, adipose and/or skeletal muscle tissue will be obtained by percutaneous biopsy for in vitro studies of gene expression and insulin action in these tissues. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is the first study investigating the impact of IPV on PPD using a large number of subjects in the country. (frontiersin.org)
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In prior clinical studies, impairment of pulse amplitude hyperemic response was associated with the presence of coronary artery endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)