Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.
An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.

Brucellosis: the case for live, attenuated vaccines. (1/192)

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Formaldehyde-inactivated whole-virus vaccine protects a murine model of enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis against disease. (2/192)

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Dengue virus serotype 4, northeastern Peru, 2008. (3/192)

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Pre-existing immunity against swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses in the general human population. (4/192)

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Definition of epitopes and antigens recognized by vaccinia specific immune responses: their conservation in variola virus sequences, and use as a model system to study complex pathogens. (5/192)

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Estimates of the transmissibility of the 1968 (Hong Kong) influenza pandemic: evidence of increased transmissibility between successive waves. (6/192)

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Evaluation of the efficacy and cross-protectivity of recent human and swine vaccines against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. (7/192)

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Neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: can we elicit them with vaccines and how much do we need? (8/192)

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The threat posed by this years 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus emphasized the need for new influenza A virus vaccines inducing a broad cross-protective immune response for use in both humans and pigs. vaccine, convenient for mass vaccinations, was compared with intradermal needle injection followed by electroporation. We statement that when our DNA vaccine is usually expressed by the new vectors and delivered to the skin with the needle-free device in the rabbit model, it can elicit an antibody response with the same titers as a conventional vector with intradermal electroporation. The needle-free delivery is already in use for traditional protein vaccines in pigs but should be considered as a practical alternate for the mass administration of broadly protective influenza DNA vaccines. electroporation is the practical difficulty of the method with regard to its tolerability in humans, animal welfare and inconvenience in mass vaccinations. One additional mode of delivery demonstrating the effective ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We have recently proposed a new model for antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum that relies on a network of partially cross-protective immune responses to orchestrate this complex immune evasion process. In addition to exhibiting prolonged oscillations of single variants that resemble the sequential dominance of immunologically distinct antigenic types, the model implies that a higher efficacy of cross-reactive immunity actually increases the length of infection while reducing severity of disease. Here, we analyse the behaviour of a reduced system under conditions of perfect synchrony between variants to demonstrate that these features of this system can be attributed to the antagonism between cross-reactive and variant-specific responses.
Influenza virus M2 extracellular domain (M2e) has been a target for developing cross-protective vaccines. However, the efficacy and immune correlates of M2e vaccination are poorly understood in the different host genetic backgrounds in comparison with influenza vaccines. We previously reported the cross-protective efficacy of virus-like particle (M2e5x VLP) vaccines containing heterologous tandem M2e repeats (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian influenza viruses. In this study to gain better understanding of cross-protective influenza vaccines, we compared immunogenicity and efficacy of M2e5x VLP, H5 hemagglutinin VLP (HA VLP), and inactivated H3N2 virus (H3N2i) in wild-type strains of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and CD4 and CD8 knockout (KO) mice ...
A mouse model was used to determine if protective immunity to influenza A virus infection differs between the sexes. The median lethal dose of H1N1 or H3N2 was lower for naïve females than males. After a sublethal, primary infection with H1N1 or H3N2, females and males showed a similar transient mor …
Findings could lead to improved vaccines for zoonotic diseases A collaborative study led by The Pirbright Institute has provided insights that could lead to the design of better vaccinations for animals and humans.. Swine flu, such as the H1N1 strain that was one of the strains that caused a pandemic in 2009, is an important pathogen in pig herds and can also be dangerous for humans.. Current vaccines are designed to protect against viruses of similar ancestry, so the control of infections where the virus may originate in a different species (i.e. birds) remains a challenge.. Previous research shows that pigs infected with avian-like H1N1 influenza lineage are able to induce complete protection against both the strain and the 2009 pandemic lineage. It also found that protection was conferred, despite the absence of cross-reactive antibodies - suggesting the involvement of cross-reactive T-cells.. To investigate this further, a team led by Dr Maria Montoya, a specialist in porcine immunology at ...
Flu antibodys One-Handed Grab may boost effort toward universal vaccine say Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute and Sea Lane Biotechnologies.
See todays best stories and collections about Universal Vaccine on Flipboard. Explore Vaccine, Universal Black Hole, Universal Florida and more.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for conserved viral antigens can respond to different strains of virus, in contrast to antibodies, which are generally strain-specific. The generation of such CTLs in vivo usually requires endogenous expression of the antigen, as occurs in the case of virus infection. To generate a viral antigen for presentation to the immune system without the limitations of direct peptide delivery or viral vectors, plasmid DNA encoding influenza A nucleoprotein was injected into the quadriceps of BALB/c mice. This resulted in the generation of nucleoprotein-specific CTLs and protection from a subsequent challenge with a heterologous strain of influenza A virus, as measured by decreased viral lung titers, inhibition of mass loss, and increased survival. ...
Some people have a natural resistance to all flu strains, according to British scientists who believe the finding will enable them to create a universal vaccine.
OBJECTIVES: To date there is no effective and safe vaccine to stop the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and provide cross protection among different subtypes. HIV accessory genes were overlooked for many years and recently they are becoming candidates for development of new anti-HIV drugs and vaccines. This is supported by their ability to elicit cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. To date, there are limited studies on accessory genes (nef, vif, vpr and vpu) on South African HIV strains. This study sought to amplify and analyse the sequences of HIV-1 subtype C accessory genes (vif, vpr and vpu) to assess the genetic diversity as well as the motifs and residues associated with key biological functions of these genes. This study further sought to compare the degree of genetic diversity between the accessory and structural genes. METHODS: The study was an exploratory study using stored (-70ºC) HIV positive plasma samples. The study population comprised of 25 HIV positive plasma samples ...
OBJECTIVES: To date there is no effective and safe vaccine to stop the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and provide cross protection among different subtypes. HIV accessory genes were overlooked for many years and recently they are becoming candidates for development of new anti-HIV drugs and vaccines. This is supported by their ability to elicit cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. To date, there are limited studies on accessory genes (nef, vif, vpr and vpu) on South African HIV strains. This study sought to amplify and analyse the sequences of HIV-1 subtype C accessory genes (vif, vpr and vpu) to assess the genetic diversity as well as the motifs and residues associated with key biological functions of these genes. This study further sought to compare the degree of genetic diversity between the accessory and structural genes. METHODS: The study was an exploratory study using stored (-70ºC) HIV positive plasma samples. The study population comprised of 25 HIV positive plasma samples ...
Curing virus infected plant is difficult because antiviral chemicals are not available presently. Hence, the current approaches employed to control virus diseases of chilli are, use of resistant cultivars, cultural measures, crop hygiene or eradication of diseased plants and alternative hosts, biological control using mild strain cross protection and insecticides to control the vectors. A number of research strategies have been initiated over the last decades to combat virus diseases of chilli. These include understanding virus pathosystem, preventing or delaying virus infection through ecological engineering and breeding for resistance by both conventional and pre-emptive breeding strategies. Several chilli accessions that are virus resistant have been identified. Our current research focuses on the introgression of this ...
In trials, the vaccine offered 98 percent protection in the first year and that protection remained at 85 percent or higher three years after vaccination.
To play devils advocate for a brief moment, I would like to point out that there is published work that attempts to present that cross-immunity (heterosubtypic) does occur from vaccination… however (1) they fail to compare the results in an unvaccinated population and (2) CD8+ T cells were not assessed (this is key because it is now understood that vaccination affects/hinders the induction of CD8+T cell responses which is crucial in the contribution of heterosubtypic immunity). [13] [2] ...
After analyzing the blood of a survivor of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak, a team of scientists from academia, industry and the government has discovered the first natural human antibodies that can neutralize and protect animals against all three major disease-causing ebola viruses. The findings, published online today in the journal Cell, could lead to the…
A team of scientists from the United States has recently developed a bioengineered bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle structure using CRISPR technology that can..
The candidate selected for efficacy evaluation in Phase 2/3 is BNT162b2 at a dose of 30 µg.. Participants who originally received placebo will be offered the opportunity to receive BNT162b2 at defined points as part of the study.. In order to describe the boostability of BNT162, and potential heterologous protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, an additional dose of BNT162b2 at 30 µg will be given to Phase 1 participants approximately 6 to 12 months after their second dose of BNT162b1 or BNT162b2. This will provide an early assessment of the safety of a third dose of BNT162, as well as its immunogenicity.. The assessment of boostability will be further expanded in a subset of Phase 3 participants at selected sites in the US who will receive a third dose of BNT162b2 at 30 µg or a third and potentially a fourth dose of prototype BNT162b2VOC at 30 µg (BNT162b2s01, based upon the South African variant and hereafter referred to as BNT162b2SA). A further subset of Phase 3 participants will ...
The candidate selected for efficacy evaluation in Phase 2/3 is BNT162b2 at a dose of 30 µg.. Participants who originally received placebo will be offered the opportunity to receive BNT162b2 at defined points as part of the study.. In order to describe the boostability of BNT162, and potential heterologous protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, an additional dose of BNT162b2 at 30 µg will be given to Phase 1 participants approximately 6 to 12 months after their second dose of BNT162b1 or BNT162b2. This will provide an early assessment of the safety of a third dose of BNT162, as well as its immunogenicity.. The assessment of boostability will be further expanded in a subset of Phase 3 participants at selected sites in the US who will receive a third dose of BNT162b2 at 30 µg or a third and potentially a fourth dose of prototype BNT162b2VOC at 30 µg (BNT162b2s01, based upon the South African variant and hereafter referred to as BNT162b2SA). A further subset of Phase 3 participants will ...
Two research groups successfully created vaccines with broad protection against different flu strains in mice, ferrets, and monkeys.
Congress is on the verge of approving a reckless bill that would grant the gun industry broad protection from lawsuits.No other industry enjoys such legal immunity, but gun manufacturers and dealers
Prior infection with Cal/09 virus cross-protects mice against the lethal challenge with Neth/09 isolate.(A, B) Determination of LD50 for the Neth/09 isolate in
It sounds to me as if youve understood your path. report quite well. The call about the wafer thin margin from the neoplasm in your renal cortex to the clear margin is patently one for an expert. Since I have zero medical training, I have zero authority to comment but its great to hear that you have a top man involved. Thanks for the reference to the interesting Brian Rini article, which Ive skimmed through. Its disappointing that more progress hasnt been made on this front for all the endeavours of the past 30 years. We can always hope for change. I dont know what the status is of universal vaccines as opposed to ones derived expressly from a patients own tumour but i wonder if your specimen happened to have been retained with a view to a vaccine derived from it, but presumably not. It would be interesting to know whether anything is known about any immunomodulatory propensities that Votrient may have, similar to Sutent but absent in Nexavar.. I hope you get responses from members here ...
Many research groups around the world are trying to develop a universal vaccine. They need to attack something common to all influenza which does not change or mutate ...
Begin 2014 werd een planning opgemaakt voor de periode 2014-2017 (de start up-fase). Deze projectplanning bestaat uit 42 projecten van het WIV en het RIZIV, verspreid over 3 waves. De duur van elke wave werd bij aanvang geschat op 18 maanden, startend bij de functionele analyse en eindigend bij de ondersteuning van de gebruikers eens het project
Influenza viruses circulate worldwide causing annual epidemics that have a substantial impact on public health. This is despite vaccines being in use for over 70 years and currently being administered to around 500 million people each year. Improvements in vaccine design are needed to increase the strength, breadth, and duration of immunity against diverse strains that circulate during regular epidemics, occasional pandemics, and from animal reservoirs. Universal vaccine strategies that target more conserved regions of the virus, such as the hemagglutinin (HA)-stalk, or recruit other cellular responses, such as T cells and NK cells, have the potential to provide broader immunity. Many pre-pandemic vaccines in clinical development do not utilize new vaccine platforms but use tried and true recombinant HA protein or inactivated virus strategies despite substantial leaps in fundamental research on universal vaccines. Significant hurdles exist for universal vaccine development from bench to ...
A highly effective antigen construct for presenting conserved antigen domains is essential to the development of a universal influenza vaccine. We have developed a novel dual-domain nanoparticle fusion protein (DDNFP) which allows independent presentation of two conserved domains. The conserved domains used were from two separate viral surface proteins, M2e of M2 and fusion peptide (FP) or long alpha helix (CD) of HA2. The carrier is a novel nanoparticle protein - the dodecameric DNA binding protein from starved cells (Dps) of bacteria or archaea. Dps was found to be uniquely capable of simultaneous fusion and surface presentation at both N- and C-termini while retaining the ability to form nanoparticles. Thus, DDNFPs with M2e and FP or CD fused at N- and C-termini of Dps from E. coli (EcDps) or other bacteria were first constructed based on the H1 subtype sequences along with corresponding single-domain nanoparticle fusion proteins (SDNFPs). They were expressed at high levels in bacteria and ...
Because the RHD virus is highly contagious, can be spread by many means, and can be maintained in wild rabbit populations, controlling outbreaks is challenging once the virus is present in an area. The virus can live in flies for as much as nine days, in carcasses for up the three months, and for a few weeks in dried excretions/secretions. Rabbits surviving infection are believed to shed the virus for at least 30 days, but in experimental cases, they shed the virus as many as 105 days. Long term/permanent shedding is unlikely. Exposed and surviving rabbits have immunity to that viral strain for an unknown amount of time. Vaccines exist for RHDV/RHDVa and RHDV2; there is no cross protection between strains, and annual revaccination is recommended. Because RHD is considered a foreign animal disease, vaccines are only available in the U.S. through private veterinarians who have applied for and been granted permission by the USDA to purchase and distribute the vaccine. Strict biosecurity practices ...
Hi: IB Ma5 vaccine might not give good immune protection against a field strain of IBV if there is significant genetic difference. Do you know what filed strain of IBV infected the flock? If not phylogenetic sequencing might be advised to find what strain of IBV is present and proper vaccine should be administered. There are many strains of IBV and cross protection might be not present if vaccine and the filed strain is genetically different. ...
Tomaru, K., 1967: Changes in virus concentration in Tobacco plants at different periods of time after inoculation with Cucumber mosaic virus. VII. Cross protection in symptom-masked leaves, effect of DIECA on infectivity and measurements of virus concentration by serological reaction, purification, and specific infectivity
Cross Protection is an ISO & CE certified company by manufacturing and supplying various types of bandage include crepe bandage, w.o.w bandage.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunity targeting common core antigens of gram-negative bacteria.. AU - Tyler, J. W.. AU - Cullor, James S. AU - Spier, Sharon. AU - Smith, Bradford. PY - 1990/1. Y1 - 1990/1. N2 - Antibodies against common gram-negative core antigens can provide protection against environmental, commensual, and contagious bacteria that cause life-threatening gram-negative sepsis/endotoxemia. Cross-protective immunity may be effective against many common livestock diseases, including neonatal coliform septicemia, coliform mastitis, septic metritis, and severe enteritis. The greatest potential benefit of cross-protective immunity may be realized in the reduction of ill-thrift and mortality of neonates. The use of active and passive immunization against core antigens common to gram-negative bacteria has been successful in human beings, laboratory animals, and livestock. Protection has been observed following challenge with either heterologous endotoxin or unrelated, live, virulent gram-negative ...
One advantage of the more universal vaccines is theyre designed to protect against COVID-19 too, and can go through the entire range of clinical trials.. On the other hand, Troyer said, a more universal vaccine may not necessarily work broadly enough to be effective against the next pandemic virus.. I think the difficulty of the one size fits all approach - the real barrier to that - is just the diversity of coronaviruses.. Barr said the two approaches are complementary to some extent, as each might work in circumstances where the other wont. He added that evolution will eventually drive coronaviruses to mutate and evade strong protection from any vaccine, including one that works on many different variants.. And when it does that, then that so-called global vaccine wont work, he said. And so then were going to have to go back to the more specific ones that we are working on.. Researchers also agreed that having small samples of vaccines for future pandemics in the freezer isnt ...
Hi Reddit! Im Dave Topham and Im a professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Im also a member of the Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology and director of the New York Influenza Center of Excellence - one of five centers established by the National Institutes of Health to protect people against seasonal flu and future flu pandemics.. My lab, along with many others around the world, is pursuing a universal flu vaccine, one that would protect against most or all seasonal and pandemic strains of the flu virus. One of the most promising strategies is creating a vaccine that targets the stalk of a protein that covers the flu virus. Its believed that the stalk stays relatively constant from one strain of flu to another. Directing a vaccine and the bodys immune response towards the stalk is a seemingly logical strategy for creating a shot that would provide broad protection.. In a study published in November in Scientific Reports we found that ...
We performed computer simulations to study the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy. We injected three antigens sequentially. The first antigen,
Data show Novartis Meningitis B (MenB) vaccine has potential to be first vaccine to provide broad protection to infants against meningococcal B infections The m
The SonicWall TZ series of next generation firewalls (NGFW) is ideally suited for any organization that requires enterprise-grade network protection.SonicWall TZ Series firewalls provide broad protection from compromise by combining advanced security services consisting of on-box and cloud-based anti-malware, anti-spyware, intrusion prevention system (IPS), and content/URL filtering. To counter the trend of encrypted attacks, the SonicWall TZ series has the ability and processing power to inspect SSL connections against the latest threats, providing an even higher level of security. Backed by the SonicWall Global Response Intelligent Defense (GRID) network, the SonicWall TZ series delivers continuous updates to maintain a strong network defense from cybercriminals. With full deep packet inspection operating at performance levels that match broadband connection speeds, the SonicWall TZ series is able to scan every byte of every packet on all ports and protocols with almost zero latency. This eliminates
The goal of this project was to determine the strength of cross-protective immunity provided by two different PRRS live virus vaccines that have either a high (vaccine strain G16X) or low (vaccine strain Ingelvac PRRS MLV) capacity to provoke an IFN- response in swine following their administration.
A study which has found a way to develop a universal vaccine for influenza, one that gives people immunity against all strains of the disease, has been recognised by the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and gained its lead researcher a prestigious award.
A universal influenza vaccine developed with the potential to be longer lasting and more effective than commercially available vaccines is destined for human clinical trials, thanks to a $17.9 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.. ...
Ive decided to take Rebif as my treatment....I didnt really have any questions racked up for when I saw the nurse with my decision but have since and wondered if any of u lot could help wiv any answers... I ...
Vaccination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking DNA adenine methyltransferase confers cross-protective immunity against multiple Salmonella serotypes. The mechanistic basis is thought to be associated with the de-repression of genes that are tightly regulated when transiting from one microenvironment to another. This de-repression provides a potential means for the production of a more highly expressed and stable antigenic repertoire capable of inducing cross-protective immune responses. To identify genes encoding proteins that may contribute to cross-protective immunity, we used a Salmonella Typhimurium DNA adenine methyltransferase mutant strain (UK-1 dam mutant) derived from the parental UK-1 strain, and assessed the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant and UK-1 strain grown under conditions that simulate the intestinal or endosomal microenvironments encountered during the infective process. As expected, the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant identified a set
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish one universal immunoassay for universal influenza vaccine(s) because the approaches towards these vaccines ...
Warts are caused by a virus called human papilloma virus or HPV. There are approximately 100 strains of human papilloma viruses.[1][2] Type 1, 2, and 3 causes most of the common warts. Type 1 is associated with deep plantar (sole of the feet) and palmar warts (palm of the hand). Type 2 causes common warts, filiform warts, plantar warts, mosaic plantar warts. Type 3 causes plane warts, or commonly known as flat warts..[3] Anogenital warts are caused by types 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40 and others. HPV types 6 and 11 cause about 90% of genital warts cases. HPV types 16 and 18 currently cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases[4][5], and also cause some vulvar, vaginal[6], penile and anal cancers.[7] Gardasil, a vaccine for HPV is designed to prevent infection with HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11; it is claimed to prevent infections to other strains of anogenital warts through cross protection against other types of HPVs. HPV is associated with oral cancer, laryngeal cancers, tracheal and ...
Summary A case is presented of a 43 year old white male who was bitten by the deadly snake, Bungarus caeruleus, and who made a complete recovery without specific therapy. The recovery of this individual presents the possibility of a cross protection existing between the venoms of the species Bungarus and those of the Indian, African and Egyptian cobras. The phenomenon of cross protection should be investigated further with the possibility of producing a common antivenin. This would not only be of great value to the Armed Forces but to the ever increasing number of individuals who travel to areas where poisonous reptiles abound.
Making Flu HistoryThe Sabin Vaccine Institute (Sabin) is committed to ending the threat of influenza through the development of a universal influenza vaccine, because only a longer lasting, broadly protective vaccine can shield us from the constant threat of influenza.Why NowEach year, seasonal flu costs the United States more than $10 billion in direct medical costs and more
Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the major pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients. LPS-based monovalent (MV) and polyvalent (PV) conjugate vaccines were prepared from the most prevalent strains of P. aeruginosa International Antigenic Typing Scheme (IATS) 6, 10, 11 and 20 to evaluate their immunogenicity and protective capacities from infection by the pathogens. Conjugation of the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) antigens of P. aeruginosa strains to the common immunogenic recombinant Exotoxin A (rEPA) supports the multi-antigenic approach for the development of a vaccine that provides cross protection against various strains of the pathogen. The O-PSs were indirectly conjugated through adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) to rEPA by carbodiimidemediated condensation reaction. Mice were immunized with the conjugates emulsified with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) or Freunds adjuvant compared with conjugates without adjuvant, unconjugated mixture of rEPA and O-PS emulsified with MPL, and sterile saline. The MV
Martin Karplus of Harvard University in the U.S. will integrate informatics and artificial intelligence approaches to design stable, synthetic antigens based on the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein to be used as a universal influenza vaccine. Seasonal influenza causes substantial morbidity worldwide, and the development of a universal vaccine is a global health priority. The current HA-based vaccines do not provide broad coverage against multiple strains, and must be administered annually because of the high mutability of the virus. To address this, they will use a new approach to develop vaccines that elicit broadly-neutralizing antibodies effective against many different influenza strains, including avian, swine, and human varieties. First, they will assemble the publicly-available DNA sequences of the HA gene of avian, swine, and human influenza A strains, and use homology modeling with existing protein structures as templates to create a library of antigens that together are predicted to ...
The anti-cancer vaccine being tested targets approximately 30 abnormal proteins found on the surface of cancer cells. These proteins, a result of improperly coded RNA - so-called frame-shift mutations - are generally only found in patients with cancer (in dogs and people).. By injecting this cluster of proteins into healthy patients, along with a substance that stimulates an immune response, researchers believe the vaccine could serve as a universal defender against cancer by turning on the immune system.. The vaccine will target several cancers common to dogs, including lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphatic system; osteosarcoma, or bone cancer; hemangiosarcoma, a deadly cancer that originates in the blood vessels and is almost exclusive to dogs; and mastocytomas, or mast cell tumors.. The potential to preventively target several types of cancer with a single vaccine series would be a major paradigm shift in veterinary and human medicine, explains Vail, who is also a member of the UW Carbone ...
Researchers report the discovery of a novel compound that confers broad protection against influenza viruses, including deadly avian influenza.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidemics in Competition. T2 - Partial Cross-Immunity. AU - Andreasen, Viggo. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - The competition between two pathogen strains during the course of an epidemic represents a fundamental step in the early evolution of emerging diseases as well as in the antigenic drift process of influenza. The outcome of the competition, however, depends not only on the epidemic properties of the two strains but also on the timing and size of the introduction, characteristics that are poorly captured by deterministic mean-field epidemic models. We describe those aspects of the competition that can be determined from the mean-field models giving the range of possible final sizes of susceptible hosts and cumulated attack rates that could be observed after an epidemic with two cross-reacting strains. In the limit where the size of the initial infection goes to zero, the possible outcomes lie on a (one dimensional) curve in the outcome space.. AB - The competition between two ...
vaccine is a fundamental problem to begin with. These vaccine induced (long-lived) antibodies have high specificity, of course; they out-compete our natural antibodies.!! Our natural antibodies provide us with broad protection - this protection is variant non-specific. It does not matter what virus or COVID spread virus it is, our immune system will protect you - unless you suppress this innate sort of immunity. Or unless it is out-competed by long lived specific antibodies. Vaccine induced antibodies are permanent - you just cant erase them; this is very serious. ***[0:38:52] Video Graphics… Geert uses the term Long Lived Antibodies. In our natural immune system we have what is called Non-Specific Antibodies. Our system of Non-Specific NK Cells will attack and eliminate any variant of the COVID virus that they find. This is how our natural immune system works - it is fantastic.!! … Now this is what happens when we are given a COVID Experimental vaccine. This Experimental COVID ...
Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 91: 283-6. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a033219. INIST:1532995. Hayden, C.G.J.; Cross, S.E.; ... Often used as an active ingredient in sunscreens combined with oxybenzone and titanium oxide for its use in protection against ...
Memopal Cross-user de-duplication, delta sync. MiMedia Initial seed via a MiMedia-owned external hard drive available (no extra ... Continuous Data Protection. "Virtual drive" explorer. Jungle Disk Proprietary license download client sample code. KeepVault ... Security & Privacy - Online Storage Protection and Secure File Sharing for Egnyte Cloud File Server "Egnyte map drive". Linux ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ...
the modernisation of data protection. the cross-border portability of online content. the agreement to unlock e-commerce by ... Basically, the Court says: 'If you have domestic conversion, it should not be more difficult to make cross-border conversion ... The rights to provide cross-border services in the field of finance is also guaranteed within the Union's legislative framework ... In this case, the Court ruled that the Hungarian measure forbidding cross-border conversion constitutes a hindrance to the ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ... In June 2008, Egypt brokered a ceasefire which lasted until 4 November when Israeli forces crossed into Gaza and killed six ... "Israeli ground forces cross border into Gaza". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ... On 18 August, a series of cross-border attacks were carried out in southern Israel near the Egyptian border. The initial ...
Staff (May 31, 2011). "Cross Florida Greenway Land Bridge". Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved July 24, ... I-75 passes beneath the Cross Florida Greenway, which contains a land bridge built across the highway in 2001 between Exits 341 ... Planners made the decision in 1973 to shift I-75's proposed route to cross the Everglades along Alligator Alley over ... where it also crosses over the Withlacoochee River. All of Interstate 75 from the Georgia border to Tampa, Florida is three ...
... a cross would mean faith; a flower would mean affection; or a dragon for protection. Many sailors carved spoons as they had ...
On 18 August 2011, a series of cross-border attacks was carried out in southern Israel near the Egyptian border, by a squad of ... "Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ... The United Nations estimates that as many as half the 1.5 million population of the Gaza Strip crossed the border into Egypt ...
Customs and Border Protection. It is designed to expedite travel cross the US-Canada border and makes use of biometric ... "866 Protection (Class XA) Visa". Immi.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2012-06-10. Biometrics ... The system allows those enrolled to utilise automated "airlock" barriers to cross the border. French passports issued after ... Customs and Border Protection, is already operational. It is a functioning example of biometric technology, specifically "iris ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ... The abuse of this recognized protection for the working journalist is a grave development and we condemn those that carried it ... Such an incident will reduce the protection offered by marked vehicles. During a press conference, an Islamic Jihad ...
Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2014 The LIVEChart of Nuclides - IAEA with filter on delayed neutron ... "Photoneutron Cross Sections for Nuclear Astrophysics". Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology. Supplement 2: 542-545. doi: ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), June 8, 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ... Hence, we would like to draw attention to the seriousness of the attacks on Muslims or those who live under their protection or ... international offices of the UN and the Red Cross. Iraqi men waiting to apply for jobs with the new army and police force were ...
Kingsdown, lately President, British Red Cross Society, Kent. For services to the British Red Cross Society. John Neville Knox ... For services to Environmental Protection. Mohammed Akram Khan, Grade 6, Office for Standards in Education. Ronnie King, Q.F.S.M ... Villiers, Vice President, British Red Cross Society, London. For services to the British Red Cross Society. Geoffrey Michael ... Sergeant Barry John Wilkinson, Royalty and Diplomatic Protection Department, Metropolitan Police. Joyce Anne, Mrs. Anelay, O.B. ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ... "International Protection of Human Rights and Politics: An Inescapable Reality: Interview with Professor William Schabas" (PDF ...
"Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ... Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. ...
Cross, Glenn (2017). Dirty War: Rhodesia and Chemical Biological Warfare, 1975-1980. Solihull, UK: Helion & Company. ISBN 978-1 ... Based on animal studies, parathion is considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to be a possible human carcinogen ... To provide the end user with a minimum standard of protection, suitable protective gloves, clothing, and a respirator with ... U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 26 January 2007. "Pesticide Information Profiles - Parathion". Extension Toxicology ...
... in nature designed for storage and protection, and those that are 'offensive' permitting cross-border penetrations into Israel ... The report did not represent a cross-section of the army, but rather they were troops who had approached the group or were ... The International Red Cross said the situation was "intolerable" and a "full blown humanitarian crisis". The importation of ... "Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the ...
The main principle of such a machine is that it brushes the ripe seeds off the plant and creates a cross flow fan action that ... Progress in Plant Protection. 50 (1): 285-290. Carreck N., Williams I. (2002). "Food for insect pollinators on farmland: insect ... Adamczewski, K.; Kierzek, R. (2010). "Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) cross resistant on ALS inhibitors". ... Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection (Special Issue 16): 333-344. ...
Wet scrubbers (particulates). In F. L. Cross and H. E. Hesketh (Eds.), Handbook for the Operation and Maintenance of Air ... U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1982, September. Control Techniques for Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources. ... Control of Particulate Emissions (APTI Course 413). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Richards, J. R. 1995. Control of ... APTI Course 415). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Schifftner, K. C. 1979, April. Venturi scrubber operation and ...
United States Environmental Protection Agency. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2017. Wallace, John M. and Peter V. Hobbs. ... Mann, Michael E. (1 April 2014). "Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036". Scientific American. Retrieved 30 ... "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 15 April 2012. p. 1.4. ... "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 December 2019. The burning of coal, ...
The Faulks subsequently designated 100 acres of the property as the "Nellie McCoy Nature Reserve" for the protection of Cross ... Irving's travels were chronicled in A Tour on the Prairies in which he described the Cross Timbers: The Cross Timber is about ... The Cross Timbers is a small and unique ecoregion that stretches from Kansas to Texas. Millions of 200 to 400-year-old trees ... The Cross Timbers is one of the least disturbed natural places on Earth, with some of the ancient post oak forest appearing ...
Ziebell, Heiko; Carr, John Peter (2010). "Cross-protection: a century of mystery". Advances in Virus Research. 76: 211-264. doi ... It is unknown how the virus is able to directly invade and cross the embryo and boundary between the parental and progeny ...
"Bearing the cross: Recent attacks against Christians worrisome". hindustantimes.com. 15 March 2015. "Churches under fire! A ... and the protection available to them". Refworld. Retrieved 1 February 2021. "Violence against Christians: Cong slams govt". ...
"SAP Cross-Site Request Forgery Protection". SAP SE. Retrieved January 20, 2015. "Django Cross Site Request Forgery protection ... "Angular Cross Site Request Forgery (XSRF) Protection". AngularJS. Retrieved January 20, 2015. "What is the X-REQUEST-ID http ... "Web Tracking Protection: Minimum Standards and Opportunities to Innovate". Retrieved March 24, 2011. IETF Do Not Track: A ... "Cross-Origin Resource Sharing". Retrieved July 24, 2017. "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing". ...
Methods of protection 8035-8069.........Special classes of crimes, offenses and criminals 8073-8079.35......Investigation of ... Red Cross. Red Crescent 599-639............Special types of disasters 640-645..............Refugee problems 650-670 ... Homelessness 4701-4890.9.........Protection of animals. Animal rights. Animal welfare 4905-4959...........Animal ... Including medical charities 697-4959.............Protection, assistance and relief 697-3024............Special classes 697- ...
He is a member of Myanmar Red Cross Society. He is also a founding member of the Consumer Protection Association, and a member ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Nyan Win Shein (18 March 2015). "Red Cross member: A man with a missio". The Nation. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yamon Phu Thit (6 August 2012). "Activists to form Consumer Protection Association". ...
The hills offered protection. The rivers offered a way to trade but also protection. No one dared cross a swollen Chambal ... Peshwa again crossed Narmada near Hoshangabad, and on 18 March and re-entered Malwa. After wandering for a couple of weeks, on ...
Wildlife Protection Society of India (2010). Leopards Battling For Survival In India. Wildlife Protection Society of India, 18 ... Wildlife Conservation Nepal Wildlife Trust of India (2008). Cross-border wildlife traders arrested in Nepal with WTI's help. ... Wildlife Protection Society of India. The Hindu (2008). Leopard skin, other wildlife products seized; five held. Wildlife ... In May 2010, the Wildlife Protection Society of India estimated that in India at least 3,189 leopards were killed since 1994. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Lauren Cross (2017-07-22). "East Chicago neighborhood celebrates Calumet Day". Times of ... "Background about the USS Lead Site". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2017-11-13. CS1 maint: ...
a b c Cross Currents. Labor unions in Japan. CULCON. Retrieved 11 June 2011 ... In addition to the protection of rights, SEWA educates, mobilizes, finances, and exalts their members' trades.[37] Multiple ... Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism),[3] a cross-section of workers from various trades ... Labor Notes is the largest circulation cross-union publication remaining in the United States. It reports news and analysis ...
... cross country, lacrosse, soccer, swimming & diving, tennis, and track & field; women's sports include basketball, cross country ... and enforce rules and regulations for the protection of property at the academy. The guards have no arrest authority other than ...
Cross-Strait relations *Chinese Civil War. *One-China policy. *Political status of Taiwan *Republic of China on Taiwan *Taiwan ... Environment Protection and Resources Conservation. *Agriculture and Rural Affairs. *Social Development Affairs ...
The leaf is a vital source of energy production for the plant, and plants have evolved protection against animals that consume ... protection against water loss by way of transpiration, regulation of gas exchange and secretion of metabolic compounds. Most ... lay their eggs into leaves that they then roll up as means of protection. Other herbivores and their predators mimic the ... or to sacrifice light-absorption efficiency in favor of protection from herbivory. For xerophytes the major constraint is not ...
"Final trial results confirm Ebola vaccine provides high protection against disease". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived ... Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Ebolavirus and ... gloves and eye protection; do not wear it properly; or handle contaminated clothing incorrectly.[59] This risk is particularly ...
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, passed in 2010, would have revised and expanded Medicaid eligibility starting ... Special rules apply to several limited noncitizen categories: certain "cross-border" American Indians, Hmong/Highland Laotians ... Unlike Medicare, Medicaid is a means-tested, needs-based social welfare or social protection program rather than a social ... The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) significantly expanded both eligibility for and federal funding of ...
... not only for warmth and protection but also to learn about and remember their habitat as well as how and where to forage for ... The mallard duck can cross breed with 63 other species, posing a severe threat to indigenous waterfowl's genetic integrity.[116 ...
Use of fire reduced mortality rates and provided protection against predators.[34] Early hominins may have begun to cook their ... a group of humans crossed Beringia and quickly expanded throughout the Americas.[9] ...
The protection that we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as from external sources of confusion. In many ... Forms which are evocative of mandalas are prevalent in Christianity: the Celtic cross; the rosary; the halo; the aureole; oculi ... Painted 19th century Tibetan mandala of the Naropa tradition, Vajrayogini stands in the center of two crossed red triangles, ... the Crown of Thorns; rose windows; the Rosy Cross; and the dromenon on the floor of Chartres Cathedral. The dromenon represents ...
... the village was incorporated followed by municipal infrastructure improvements and services including fire protection, water ... The village is crossed by Routes 104, 250, and 404. Contents. *1 Geography ...
In fact, women's struggles for equality is intricately tied up with efforts to find protection from sexual assault and sexual ... Plaskow, Judith (July 8, 2008). "Embodiment, Elimination, and the Role of Toilets in Struggles for Social Justice". Cross ... "Social inclusion, toilet rights, and legal protection for transgender Americans". Retrieved March 4, 2017.. ... the protection of women's bodies, which were seen as weaker, and to protect social morality especially as it pertained to the ...
C21 - Modelos de corte transversal (Cross-sectional); Modelos espaciais; Treatment effect models; Regressões quantílicas ... JEL: F13 - Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations. JEL: F14 - Country and ... C31 - Modelos de corte transversal (Cross-sectional); Modelos espaciais; Treatment effect models; Regressões quantílicas ...
"Kucinich says Obama "crossed the line," calls attacks on Libya an "indisputable" impeachable offense". CBS News. Retrieved 14 ... Subcommittee on Workforce Protections. *Subcommittee on Health, Employment, Labor, and Pensions. *Committee on Oversight and ...
It was assumed that 2020 becomes even more improbable as an opening date.[200] The fire protection malfunction seems to be too ... The issue is complicated by the fact that the line would have to cross the state border between Berlin and Brandenburg and it ... "Zeitung: Brandschutzanlage am BER undicht" [Newspaper: Fire protection system at BER leaking]. Yahoo! News (in German). 18 May ... "Spätestens im Mai muss eine Einigung zum Brandschutz fallen" [At least in May a decision is needed concerning fire protection ( ...
An old belief is that the southwest corner of a basement provides the most protection during a tornado. The safest place is the ... They form over water similarly to mesocyclonic tornadoes, or are stronger tornadoes which cross over water. Since they form ... Tornadoes have been known to cross major rivers, climb mountains,[120] affect valleys, and have damaged several city centers. ... "Dryline cross section". University of California Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 2008-01-20. Retrieved 2009-12-13 ...
See in particular Article 8 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. *^ Barendregt JJ, Bonneux L, van der Maas PJ (October ... national cross sectional survey". BMJ. 335 (7619): 549. doi:10.1136/bmj.39315.670208.47. PMC 1976488. PMID 17827485.. ... In the United States, some cite unequal protection under the law while others cite loss of business without compensation, as ... Surgeon General found that even the use of elaborate ventilation systems and smoking rooms fail to provide protection from the ...
"Repellents: protection against mosquitoes, ticks and other arthropods". Insect repellents. Environmental Protection Agency. 9 ... ticks will tend not to cross it; acaricides may also be sprayed on it to kill ticks.[146] A sun-exposed tick-safe zone at least ... Environmental Protection Agency. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.. ... "Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods". Travelers' Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...
Cross KM, Kuenze C, Grindstaff TL, Hertel J (September 2011). "Thoracic spine thrust manipulation improves pain, range of ... which might have provided legal protection under the U.S. constitution, but decided against it partly to avoid confusion with ...
... and resurrected the pickled children by making the Sign of the Cross.[29][56] Adam C. English notes that the story of the ... Taking advantage of the confusion and the loss by the Greek Christian community of Myra of its Byzantine imperial protection, ... and holding a book of the scriptures in his left hand while making the hand gesture for the sign of the cross with his right. ... Many renderings contain a cypress tree or a cross-shaped cupola.[35] ...
Seeram E, Brennan PC (2016). Radiation Protection in Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging. Jones & Bartlett. ISBN 9781284117714. .. ... The difference between soft and hard body parts stems mostly from the fact that carbon has a very low X-ray cross section ... "Radiation Protection of Patients". Rpop.iaea.org. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.. ... Any given point within the subject is crossed from many directions by many different beams at different times. Information ...
The Florida Legislature's March 29, 2001, law, also known as the Earnhardt Family Protection Act, was sponsored by Daytona ... When Earnhardt attempted to regain control and turned back onto the track, he crossed in front of Schrader, colliding with ... Race officials threw the checkered flag and the yellow simultaneously as the front-runners crossed the finish line, aware only ...
Delacroix, D.; Guerre, J. P.; Leblanc, P.; Hickman, C. (2002). Radionuclide and Radiation Protection Data Handbook 2002 (2nd ed ... and cross-section towards neutron absorption.[10]:74 ...
The first generation crosses (one wolf parent, one dog parent) generally are backcrossed to domestic dogs to maintain a ... Likhachev Scientific Research Institute for Cultural Heritage and Environmental Protection in Russia. Male jackal pups had to ... This is now so widespread that in some areas, dingoes are now mostly mixed-breed dogs, crossed in recent times with dogs from ... Gray wolves have been crossed with dogs that have a wolf-like appearance, such as Siberian huskies, and Alaskan malamutes. The ...
A cross between a shedding breed and a poodle (which does not shed much) does not reliably produce a nonshedding dog. Traits of ... the coat is extra protection against snow getting impacted in its coat. ... Poodles are crossed with other breeds for various reasons, and the resulting puppies (called designer dogs) are described by ... The progenitor of the breed might have also been crossed with the Hungarian Puli.[14] The French name Caniche comes from the ...
Copy protectionEdit. All MiniDisc-recorders used the SCMS copy protection system which uses two bits in the S/PDIF digital ... Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) and a modification of CD's CIRC code, called Advanced Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code ( ... All consumer-grade MiniDisc devices feature a copy-protection scheme known as Serial Copy Management System. An unprotected ... to freely move uncompressed digital recordings back and forth from the MiniDisc to a computer without the copyright protection ...
bite protection - it is extremely hard for fish to cut the steel wire, regardless of jaw and teeth strength and sharpness, ... The tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured. ...
The alternative older name, Cruciferae, meaning "cross-bearing", describes the four petals of mustard flowers, which resemble a ... which is used as a wide spectrum biological plant protection against caterpillars. Parasitoid wasps that feed on such insect ... cross. Cruciferae is one of eight plant family names, not derived from a genus name and without the suffix -aceae that are ...
T-72B obr.1990g: Additionally fitted with new FCS, cross-wind sensor and sometimes V-92S2 engine. *T-72B obr.1990g with an ... Protection is enhanced with the use of Nozh ERA tiles on the turret while retaining the Kontakt-1 tiles on the hull (however ... Increased protection against mines. A new fire control system.[92][93] The most notable upgrade is the stabilized, panoramic, ... T-72S "Sniper" - Syrian-Italian upgrade adds Galileo Avionica TURMS-T computerized FCS, and improve tank protection by adding ...
Self-report survey methodology is the most used approach in OHP research.[37] Cross-sectional designs are commonly used; case- ... Johnson, J.V., & Hall, E.M. (1988). Job strain, workplace social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study ... because the data were cross-sectional, no conclusions bearing on cause-and-effect relations are warranted. Evidence from a ... Worker Protection Standard (US). *Working Environment Convention, 1977. See also. *Environment, health and safety ...
... all of which require the route to cross either an embayment of the Adriatic Sea or a part of the territory of Bosnia and ... Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction. 16 May 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010.. ...
Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the ... The Two Strains Form a Cross-Protection Mutualism.. To probe the extent to which the partnership between the two strains ... Oscillatory dynamics in a bacterial cross-protection mutualism. Eugene Anatoly Yurtsev, Arolyn Conwill, and Jeff Gore ... Up to now, we have shown that the growth-dilution cycles can produce robust oscillations in our cross-protection mutualism, and ...
... officers and agriculture specialists throughout Vermont and New Hampshire are providing guidance to assist cross-border ... However, if you plan to cross the border with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables and you are not sure if they are allowed into ... Albans area of operations are here to assist you with your cross-border travels. These officers are a part of Americas first ... Tip 4 - Travelers should build extra time into their trips in the event they cross during periods of exceptionally heavy ...
Commission and the ICRC jointly held a seminar in Addis Ababa on 22 October on the protection of health services in situations ... "The aim of this years event on the protection of health care in conflict and other emergencies is to create a forum for the ... African Union: Protection of health care services in armed conflict and other emergencies. For further information, please ... Addis Ababa (ICRC) - The African Union (AU) Commission and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) jointly held a ...
Inside Microsoft Threat Protection: Solving cross-domain security incidents through the power of correlation analytics * ... Inside Microsoft Threat Protection: Attack modeling for finding and stopping lateral movement Microsoft Threat Protection uses ... Inside Microsoft Threat Protection: Mapping attack chains from cloud to endpoint. *Inside Microsoft Threat Protection: Attack ... To start using Microsoft Threat Protection, go to security.microsoft.com.. Learn how Microsoft Threat Protection can help your ...
Please visit www.cbp.gov to view additional news releases and other information pertaining to Customs and Border Protection. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection is the unified border agency within the Department of Homeland Security charged with the ... management, control and protection of our nations borders at and between official ports of entry. CBP is charged with securing ...
More specifically, vaccination with FluSure XP® or FluSure XP combination vaccines offers broad cross-protection against the ... as well as cross-protection against H3N2 Cluster IV-B, H1N1 alpha and H1N1 beta.[5-8] In one study, when pigs vaccinated with ... Protection Right When You Need It. We typically think of flu season being in the fall and winter months, but swine influenza ... Demonstrated Protection. The influenza virus can spread rapidly through herds - even herds with pre-existing immunity.[3] A ...
Kaiser Permanente has given its support to a ballot initiative that seeks to weaken the states consumer protection law, which ... Kaiser Permanente, Blue Cross Support Ballot Initiative To Alter State Consumer Protection Law. Kaiser Permanente has given its ... Supporters of the ballot initiative, including Kaiser and Blue Cross of California, say their efforts are intended to help ... Californias Unfair Competition Law is the only consumer protection law in the United States that allows people to sue ...
... homologous protection against virus shedding, while the P particle and VLP vaccines provided cross-variant protection (47% and ... This study demonstrated, for the first time, the cross-variant protection (46.7%) of the intranasal P particle vaccine against ... Intranasal P particle vaccine provided partial cross-variant protection against human GII.4 norovirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic ... Intranasal P Particle Vaccine Provided Partial Cross-Variant Protection against Human GII.4 Norovirus Diarrhea in Gnotobiotic ...
How Do Legal Rules Evolve? Evidence from a Cross-Country Comparison of Shareholder, Creditor and Worker Protection. European ... Armour, John and Deakin, Simon and Lele, Priya and Siems, Mathias M., How Do Legal Rules Evolve? Evidence from a Cross-Country ... The results for worker protection are more consistent with the legal origin claim than in the other two cases, but this overall ... The pattern of change differs depending on the area which is being examined, with the law on creditor and worker protection ...
Gradual pediocin PA-1 resistance in Enterococcus faecalis confers cross-protection to diverse pore-forming cationic ... which conferred cross-protection to diverse CAMPs, viz., HNP-1, nisin and alamethicin but not to polymyxin B, lysozyme and ... Naghmouchi K, Kheadr E, Lacroix C, Fliss I (2007) Class I/class IIa bacteriocin cross-resistance phenomenon in Listeria ... Mehla J, Sood SK (2011) Substantiation of Enterococcus faecalis of dose-dependent resistance and cross-resistance to pore- ...
2020 Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc., or Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts HMO Blue, Inc. ... Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ® Registered ... Registered Marks of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc., or Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts HMO Blue ... These offer clear vision and protection. Plenty of frames on the market today give protection and look stylish. ...
... J. A. M. Rezende and D. A. Pacheco ... These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of cross-protection for the control of the mosaic disease caused by PRSV-W in ... were tested under greenhouse and field conditions to study the potential of cross-protection for control of zucchini squash ... The mild strains did not have a visible negative effect on the development of the plants and offered effective protection ...
... in Massachusetts and that failure to induce cross-reactive antibodies may explain poor vaccine-induced cross-protection. ... Although T-cell responses induced by wP or aP cross-reacted with B. holmesii, vaccine-induced antibodies failed to efficiently ... Neither whole-cell (wP) nor acellular (aP) B. pertussis vaccination conferred protection against these B. holmesii isolates in ... Lack of Cross-protection against Bordetella holmesii after Pertussis Vaccination Xuqing Zhang, Laura S. Weyrich, Jennie S. ...
... the induction of cross-protection against Salmonella and Shigella infections, two pathogenic bacteria responsible for ... The study thus shows that cross-protection against Salmonella - Shigella is possible and paves the way for the development of ... You are here : Home , News , Salmonellosis and shigellosis: first demonstration of cross-protection induced by virulence ... These elements led the researchers to consider the possibility of obtaining cross-protection against Salmonella and Shigella ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association.. ® Registered ... About Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Terms of Use, Privacy & Security Accessibility Nondiscrimination and Translation ... Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. Our ... Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc.. 101 Huntington Avenue, Suite 1300, Boston, MA 02199-7611 , 1-800-262-BLUE ( ...
Avian Infectious Bronchitis Cross-Protection Studies Using Different Australian Subtypes. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66, ... Endo-Munoz, L.B. and Faragher, J.T. (1989) Avian Infectious Bronchitis: Cross-Protection Studies Using Different Australian ... Protection against Infectious Bronchitis Virus, a Corona Virus Infection, Using Ostrich Antibodies ... 4/91 and D274 have been used extensively for immunoprophylaxis against velogenic strain across Pakistan with minimal protection ...
The level of protection induced by the 540-bp ON was similar to pIC. Thus, dsRNA ONs can serve as effective adjuvants in an ... These two DC subsets and the CD24high FL-DC uniquely cross-present Ags to CD8+ T cells (42-45). Thus, we conclude that high ... These two subsets are known to cross-present exogenous Ags to CD8+ T cells (38, 43-45, 49, 50) and are related by requiring ... These DC then cross-present viral Ags to CD8+ T cells, inducing them to proliferate and differentiate into virus-specific CTL ( ...
Swiss Bank Corporation Comprehensive Disability Protection Plan, et al., Defendants-appellants, Cross-appellees, 195 F.3d 975 ( ... Judith Perlman, Plaintiff-appellee, Cross-appellant, v. Swiss Bank Corporation Comprehensive Disability Protection Plan, et al ... Quinn v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield Assn, 161 F.3d 472, 476-78 (7th Cir. 1998); Schleibaum v. Kmart, 153 F.3d 496, 503 (7th Cir ... Neither the cases that the majority cites, i.e. Quinn v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield Assn, 161 F.3d 472 (7th Cir. 1998); ...
Cross-protection in mice infected with influenza A virus by the respiratory route is correlated with local IgA antibody rather ... The protection however occurred in parallel with the presence of cross-reactive IgA antibody in the lung washings. It thus ... The protection induced by respiratory infection with Rec 31 virus was specific for influenza A viruses. It was not correlated ... appears that local secretory IgA plays a causal role in the prevention of cross-infection by influenza A virus. Serum antibody ...
... this approach we advanced in the design of a nucleoside hydrolase NH36 polytope vaccine capable of inducing cross-protection to ... In mice, the NH36 induced protection against visceral leishmaniasis is mediated by a CD4+ T cell response against its C- ... In mice, the NH36 induced protection against visceral leishmaniasis is mediated by a CD4+ T cell response against its C- ... Cross-protection to L. amazonensis infection was maximal (99.8-99.9%) in mice vaccinated with the chimera. As described before ...
... to induce cross-reactivity to and cross-protection against the pandemic swine-origin H1N1 virus, A/California/04/09. We show ... Immunity to Pre-1950 H1N1 Influenza Viruses Confers Cross-Protection against the Pandemic Swine-Origin 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza ... This finding suggests that influenza strains that circulated 50-60 y ago might provide cross-protection against the swine- ... Immunity to Pre-1950 H1N1 Influenza Viruses Confers Cross-Protection against the Pandemic Swine-Origin 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza ...
Multiple studies implicate the coiled-coil N-terminal domain in cross-reactivity with and cross protection against pneumococcal ... important for cross protection, was identified in the variable α1α2 region. The capacity to evoke in vivo protection can easily ... mediated cross-reactivity and associated with cross protection. Based on 1,352 PspA sequences derived from a pneumococcal ... Th17-Mediated Cross Protection against Pneumococcal Carriage by Vaccination with a Variable Antigen. Kirsten Kuipers, Wouter S ...
Truth Table for Cross-Layer Proactive Packet Protection Scheme. QoS Level. Measured OSNR Level. Decision. ... Cross-Layer Proactive Packet Protection Switching Caroline P. Lai, Franz Fidler, Peter J. Winzer, Marina K. Thottan, and Keren ... Experimental demonstration of packet-rate 10-Gb/s OOK OSNR monitoring for QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection Caroline P. ... F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, "Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection ...
Possible mechanisms for cross-protection between nisin and class IIa bacteriocins.As mentioned above, previous reports on cross ... Only a few of the tested class IIa bacteriocin-resistant mutants displayed cross-protection to nisin; three out of eight ... We also found a degree of cross-protection between nisin and class IIa bacteriocins and investigated possible mechanisms. The ... There was thus no correlation between the class IIa bacteriocin resistance level and the occurrence of cross-protection to ...
... a cross-sectional study in Dallas, Texas ... fire protection service. This is an open access article ... fire protection service. Strengths and limitations of this study. *. This study newly identified spatial accessibility to fire ... In addition, capacity of fire protection services in this study related to the presence of a fire engine at a fire station. ... National Fire Protection Association. NFPA 1710, standard for the organization and deployment of fire suppression operations, ...
... by ... The effective protection of natural persons in relation to the processing of personal data also depends on the availability of ... On 4 May 2016, Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and ... Opinion 8/2010 of the Working Party on the Protection of Individuals with regard to the processing of personal data, on ...
Time, institutional support, and quality of decision making in child protection: a cross-country analysis. Berrick, Jill Duerr ...
Protection of the Name and Emblem of the Red Cross: Hearings ... on H.R .... Od autor : United States. Congress. House. Foreign ... When this act to create the present Red Cross was passed it was recognized that some protection should be given to the emblem; ... The Red Cross emblem has been used by the Red Cross societies of all of the countries that were parties to the Geneva treaty of ... Registered trade-marks, United States Patent Office, in which symbol or name of Red Cross or semblance thereof appears, Jan. 1 ...
  • In the context of recent outbreaks of HPAI H7N3, a proposed fast option was to study induced cross-protection induced by an available H7N3 Italy inactivated vaccine and monitored by clinical protection against challenge, as well as antibody production. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A vaccine that helps protect against one strain does not always cross-protect against other strains. (thepigsite.com)
  • This information provides only a small look at some of the advantages and results you'll see from a vaccine that offers cross-protection against different swine influenza strains. (thepigsite.com)
  • Intranasal P particle vaccine provided partial cross-variant protection against human GII.4 norovirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. (nih.gov)
  • Protection against human and porcine enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli in rats immunized with a cross-linked toxoid vaccine. (asm.org)
  • Conjugation conditions were identified, therefore, which yielded a vaccine of these toxins, cross-linked by the carbodiimide reaction, that consisted of equal antigenic proportions of each toxin component as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed in antigen units. (asm.org)
  • Immunization with optimal antigen unit dosages of the vaccine gave greater than or equal to sixfold increases in mucosal IgA antitoxin titers and provided significant (P less than 0.001) protection against challenge with heterologous serotypes of viable strains, of either human or porcine origin, that produce heat-stable or heat-labile toxin or both. (asm.org)
  • The protection induced in rainbow trout by a commercial monovalent, and bivalent inactivated vaccine was tested with the outcome that the ability of isolates to cause mortality in vaccinated fish varied with geographical location. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Matiaskova K., Nedbalcova K., Tesarik R., Kudlackova H., Gebauer J., Toman M., Faldyna M. (2019): A crude capsular polysaccharide extract as a potential novel subunit vaccine with cross-protection against the most prevalent serovars of Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis in the Czech Republic. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • The results from an initial full dose protection study provided encouraging data for the A/MAY/97 vaccine, while the A 22 /IRQ/64 vaccine only protected 2/7 vaccinated animals. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Our results identify a class of cross-protective antibodies that are selected at the viral replication site, and provide insights into vaccine strategies using the occluded epitope. (nature.com)
  • In a second, related analysis, the trial's researchers found that a single vaccine dose also provided long-lasting protection against three other cancer-causing HPV types not targeted by the vaccine-a phenomenon known as cross-protection. (cancer.gov)
  • The vaccine also provided lesser cross-protection against two additional cancer-causing HPV types. (cancer.gov)
  • Three other HPV types (31, 33, and 45) account for another 13% of cervical cancer cases, said DCEG postdoctoral fellow Sabrina Tsang, Ph.D., M.P.H., who led the complementary analysis of vaccine cross-protection. (cancer.gov)
  • Brito, BP , Perez, AM & Capozzo, AV 2014, ' Accuracy of traditional and novel serology tests for predicting cross-protection in foot-and-mouth disease vaccinated cattle ', Vaccine , vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 433-436. (umn.edu)
  • The worldwide administration of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines has resulted in cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tetravalent vaccine covers four HPV types, offering protection against cervical cancer (types 16 and 18) as well as genital warts (types 6 and 11). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is hypothesized that this protection can be attributed to the genetic similarity between the vaccine types and those against which cross-protection is afforded, as the types for which cross-protection was observed are in the same species as HPV 16 and 18. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significant titres of virus neutralising antibodies were detected against SHIV W61D expressing an envelope homologous with the vaccine, but only limited cross neutralisation against SHIV sbg , SHIV-4 and SHIV SF33 was observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following extended vaccination with a HIV-1 rgp120 vaccine, protection was observed against heterologous virus challenge with SHIV sbg , but not SHIV SF33 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibody findings and an earlier study that found no substantial cross-protection from seasonal flu vaccine against EAH1N1 SIV suggest that humans aren't likely to have much preexisting immunity to the virus, the team concluded. (thepigsite.com)
  • Based on the new findings, studies are urgently needed to see if current vaccines or vaccine seed stock show any protection against EAH1N1 SIV, Osterholm said. (thepigsite.com)
  • This is why we need game-changing influenza vaccines," he added, noting that if another pandemic emerged tomorrow, the world would likely be faced again with too little pandemic vaccine, too late, offering, at best, moderate protection. (thepigsite.com)
  • Primary NoV infection provided 83% homologous protection against diarrhea and 49% homologous protection against virus shedding, while the P particle and VLP vaccines provided cross-variant protection (47% and 60%, respectively) against diarrhea. (nih.gov)
  • The protection induced by respiratory infection with Rec 31 virus was specific for influenza A viruses. (nih.gov)
  • It thus appears that local secretory IgA plays a causal role in the prevention of cross-infection by influenza A virus. (nih.gov)
  • Shah, KV, Dandawate, CN & Bhatt, PN 2012, ' Kyasanur forest disease virus: Viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection ', F1000Research , vol. 1, 61. (elsevier.com)
  • The endemic non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 is known to provide some cross protection to lethal infection with the closely related Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Survival rates and survival times did not correlate with titres of serum antibodies specific to RCV-A1 or cross reacting to RHDV, but were instead influenced by the time between infection with the two viruses, demonstrating for the first time that the cross protection to lethal RHDV infection is transient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pilot infection studies showed that RCV-A1 causes a non-pathogenic infection of the small intestine and is capable of providing partial cross protection to lethal RHDV infection [ 19 ], confirming RCV-A1 is hindering effective RHDV-mediated rabbit biocontrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protection from homologous re-challenge was recently demonstrated in cats recovered from primary infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By monitoring B cell responses targeting conserved HA epitopes in mice, we previously demonstrated that influenza virus infection induces ectopic formation of lung GCs at the viral replication site, where cross-reactive B cells are selected at increased frequencies 12 . (nature.com)
  • Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Infection with multiple HPV types may offer similar cross-protection in the natural setting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protection against SHIV sbg infection was observed in vaccinated animals but none was observed against SHIV SF33 challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vision Express Westwood Cross and all our practitioners and staff are committed to operating and maintaining effective systems for infection control to protect both patients and staff. (visionexpress.com)
  • Cross-antigenicity studies of the current vaccines is a must do. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Studies of cross-antigenicity using a wide number of recent virus isolates from diverse countries from North Africa to the Indian sub-continent demonstrated the relevance of the continuous use of these vaccines in field (Herrmann et Al, 2015). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Existing developed AI vaccines, H5, H7 or H9 may be used in vaccination programmes customised to the ever evolving situation worldwide, as long as laboratory cross-protection studies are performed to help demonstrate efficacy. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • More specifically, vaccination with FluSure XP ® or FluSure XP combination vaccines offers broad cross-protection against the most relevant strains of influenza in swine to help you be more in control. (thepigsite.com)
  • Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. (asm.org)
  • The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed. (asm.org)
  • The currently available commercial vaccines are inactivated vaccines with certain limitations, such as no or poor cross-serovar protection. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • The mechanisms for this dichotomy remain elusive and constitute a key issue for developing cross-protective vaccines against rapidly mutating viruses. (nature.com)
  • Broader protection may be obtained with recombinant HIV-1 envelope based vaccines formulated with adjuvants that generate proliferative T cell responses in addition to broadly neutralising antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, it is essential that we identify adaptive immune responses elicited by vaccination that have the potential to increase the breadth of protection with HIV-1 envelope based vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers and agriculture specialists throughout Vermont and New Hampshire are providing guidance to assist cross-border travelers who intend to travel between the U.S. and Canada. (cbp.gov)
  • U.S. Customs and Border Protection travel tips are designed to ease the crossing process. (cbp.gov)
  • Please visit www.cbp.gov to view additional news releases and other information pertaining to Customs and Border Protection. (cbp.gov)
  • U.S. Customs and Border Protection is the unified border agency within the Department of Homeland Security charged with the management, control and protection of our nation's borders at and between official ports of entry. (cbp.gov)
  • United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the largest federal law enforcement agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, and is the country's primary border control organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate experimentally that two populations of resistant bacteria can form a cross-protection mutualism in a two-drug environment, allowing the coculture to survive high antibiotic concentrations at which neither of the two strains can survive alone. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. (pnas.org)
  • The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. (pnas.org)
  • Swine influenza is complicated, so I recommend this video and article to help provide clarity about the changing genetic and antigenic characteristics of IAV-S field strains and exactly what you need to consider cross-protecting against. (thepigsite.com)
  • FluSure XP has demonstrated protection against the most prevalent swine influenza strains - Delta-1 H1N2, Gamma H1N1 and H3N2 Cluster IV-A2,[4,5] - as well as cross-protection against H3N2 Cluster IV-B, H1N1 alpha and H1N1 beta. (thepigsite.com)
  • Two mild strains of papaya ringspot virus-type W (PRSV-W) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions to study the potential of cross-protection for control of zucchini squash mosaic. (apsnet.org)
  • The mild strains did not have a visible negative effect on the development of the plants and offered effective protection against the severe strains. (apsnet.org)
  • This finding suggests that influenza strains that circulated 50-60 y ago might provide cross-protection against the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, our data provide an explanation for the decreased susceptibility of the elderly to the 2009 H1N1 outbreak and demonstrate that vaccination with the pre-1950 influenza strains can cross-protect against the pandemic swine-origin 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • We investigated the existence of cross- protection between two anti- leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States , and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil . (bvsalud.org)
  • The challenge was performed with cross- strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. (bvsalud.org)
  • Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains , demonstrating the existence of cross- protection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dental antibiotic amoxicillin protection how long. (asianave.com)
  • the observed cross-reactivity of the humoral immune response led to the assumption of a potential cross-protection among the three hemoplasma infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context and in countries in which vaccination is part of the control measures of avian influenza, programmes have to be adjusted according to the needs in terms of protection against mortality, clinical signs associated with the disease outbreaks, as well as field virus shedding in infected birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In vivo, dsRNA ONs, in a size-dependent manner, served as adjuvants for the generation of Ag-specific CTL and for inducing protection against lethal challenge with influenza virus when given with influenza nucleoprotein as an immunogen. (jimmunol.org)
  • To test this, we determined the ability of representative H1N1 influenza viruses that circulated in the human population from 1930 to 2000, to induce cross-reactivity to and cross-protection against the pandemic swine-origin H1N1 virus, A/California/04/09. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, exposure to the 2009 H1N1 virus induced broad cross-reactivity against H1N1 as well as H3N2 influenza viruses. (jimmunol.org)
  • This early, germline cross-reactivity is associated with B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated recognition of variable epitopes with low affinity and supported by the intriguing findings of McGargill's group showing that limiting the generation of highly specific IgG B cells by rapamycin treatment enhanced the breadth of protective antibody responses to influenza 6 . (nature.com)
  • Here, high-throughput epitope mapping of local GC B cells is used to identify conserved HA epitope selecting cross-reactive antibodies that mediate heterosubtypic protection. (nature.com)
  • Importantly, systemic immunization by the post-fusion HA antigen results in GC B cells targeting the occluded epitope, and induces a class of protective antibodies that have cross-group specificity and afford protection independent of virus neutralization activity. (nature.com)
  • In an article published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , SPI researchers show for the first time, in a mouse model, the induction of cross-protection against Salmonella and Shigella infections, two pathogenic bacteria responsible for gastrointestinal diseases (typhoid, dysentery among others) one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in children under 5 years old, in several regions of Africa and Asia. (cea.fr)
  • Limited information is available concerning potential cross-protection against infections with different feline hemoplasma species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that infections with two or more HPV types from the same species, and independently, infections with two or more HPV types from different species, associate with protection from high-grade lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context, vaccination studies suggested that the O antigen was the dominant immunogenic molecule involved in protection against the disease. (stir.ac.uk)
  • To understand the duration of the vaccine's protection, the researchers continued to follow women in the trial in a long-term follow-up study, obtaining cervical and blood samples 7, 9, and 11 years after vaccination. (cancer.gov)
  • This observation is possibly caused by an immune cross-protection through a similar mechanism to that observed after HPV vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccination against HPV was a major advance in cervical cancer prevention, offering protection against a few disease causing types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we have developed a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based model in cynomolgus macaques to investigate the breadth of protection conferred by HIV-1 W61D recombinant gp120 vaccination against SHIV sbg and SHIV SF33 challenge, and to identify correlates of protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protection did not correlate with serological responses generated by vaccination, but might be associated with T cell proliferative responses against an epitope in the second constant region of HIV-1 gp120. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ending months of speculation and insider reading of tea leaves, on July 10, 2017, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB or Bureau) published a final rule regarding the use of arbitration agreements in specified. (jdsupra.com)
  • In a vote along party lines, the House of Representatives passed the Financial CHOICE Act of 2017, which would eliminate or scale back many of the provisions found in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection. (jdsupra.com)
  • On June 8, 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives, by a vote mostly along party lines, approved a bill that would repeal many of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act ("Dodd-Frank") requirements and. (jdsupra.com)
  • The Red Cross was given its distinctive name and emblem by the convention of 1864. (google.cz)
  • Staywell®´´, an independent company, offers health and wellness engagement tools and information on behalf of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. (ahealthyme.com)
  • To illustrate how Microsoft Threat Protection protects against such sophisticated attacks, we asked our security research team to simulate an end-to-end attack chain across multiple domains, based on techniques we observed in actual investigations. (microsoft.com)
  • Despite the challenges and risks undertaken by Malaysian companies in finding the right foreign partners, appointing the genuine agents and to fulfil the global requirements to exporting, Malaysian companies must also be conscious of the cyber criminals and cyber attacks activities that vary from information leakages, stealing data, hacking and stalking, emails to financial frauds," En Md Silmi added. (matrade.gov.my)
  • Specialized cloud service improving customer experience of business web applications on virtually any device, anywhere increasing protection from web attacks. (ibm.com)
  • The upgrade is designed to protect against CSRF, or cross-site request forgery, attacks. (theregister.co.uk)
  • New detection technology that strengthens protection against targeted attacks and previously unknown exploits - i.e. zero-day attacks. (eset.com)
  • We show that exposure of mice to the 1947 virus, A/FM/1/47, or the 1934 virus, A/PR/8/34, induced robust cross-protective immune responses and these mice were protected against a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted A/California/04/09 H1N1 virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nonspecific cross-protection between cationic peptides could conceivably render bacteriocin-resistant L. monocytogenes mutants less sensitive to defensins. (asm.org)
  • Transfer of immune sera from vaccinated macaques to naive recipients did not confer protection against SHIV sbg challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A cross-protection study using a 2010 field isolate as a challenge virus helped understand the mechanisms involved by designing a cold stress protocol needed for induction of mortality and clinical signs (Delvecchio et Al, 2015). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 5-8] In one study, when pigs vaccinated with FluSure XP were challenged with a virulent H3N2 Cluster IV-A strain, protection was demonstrated by reduction of lung lesions, rectal temperature, nasal shedding and viral titer in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at necropsy. (thepigsite.com)
  • The study thus shows that cross-protection against Salmonell a - Shigella is possible and paves the way for the development of broad-spectrum therapeutic molecules. (cea.fr)
  • This study was aimed to measure spatial accessibility to fire protection services at the census block group level, and examine whether it is associated with unintentional residential fire-related injuries. (bmj.com)
  • Design A cross-sectional study. (bmj.com)
  • Main outcome measures Using multiple logistic regression, the study analysed association between unintentional residential fire incidents in the city and risk factors, including spatial accessibility to fire protection services, measured by the two-step floating catchment area method. (bmj.com)
  • This study newly identified spatial accessibility to fire protection services as a major risk factor for unintentional residential fire-related injury or death. (bmj.com)
  • This study incorporated the dimensions of both demand and supply capacity of fire protection services when measuring accessibility using the two-step floating catchment area method. (bmj.com)
  • Design Retrospective, cross sectional study of cotinine measurements in stored blood samples. (bmj.com)
  • In this study we compared the accuracy in predicting cross-protection between the r1 value estimated by VNT and two recently developed tests that measure IgG subtypes and avidity. (umn.edu)
  • In previous reports, we have utilised SHIV's to study the protection conferred by HIV-1 W61D r (recombinant) gp120 formulated in a potent adjuvant in the macaque model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Addis Ababa (ICRC) - The African Union (AU) Commission and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) jointly held a seminar in Addis Ababa on 22 October on the protection of health services in situations of armed conflict and other emergencies. (icrc.org)
  • The aim of this year's event on the protection of health care in conflict and other emergencies is to create a forum for the exchange of good practices among AU member States and the ICRC, national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, the World Health Organization and other humanitarian partners. (icrc.org)
  • We experimentally demonstrate quality-of-service-aware packet protection that leverages cross-layer signaling based on the monitoring of packets' optical-signal-to-noise ratio. (osapublishing.org)
  • Notably, studies that experimentally tested the immunological cross protection to RHDV conveyed by the non-pathogenic caliciviruses revealed disparate and partly unexpected results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The counteraction of humoral responses against the escape mutations is to acquire sufficient breadth of antibody specificity to include escape variants and to preserve cross-reactive antibody production in long-lived memory compartments (memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells) 1 . (nature.com)
  • We extend existing calculations to estimate the extent of expected cross-reactivity between the responses to different pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • and the ensemble of memory cells being sufficiently diverse to generate cross-reactive responses to new pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our populations evolved asymmetric cross protection, where oxidative stress protects against salt stress but not vice versa. (uzh.ch)
  • In this direction, we selected stable and gradual dose-dependent pediocin PA-1 single exposure resistant (Ped r ) mutants of E. faecalis , which conferred cross-protection to diverse CAMPs, viz. (springer.com)
  • Figure 2: Postexposure protection of MARV-infected cynomolgus monkeys by AVI-6003. (nature.com)
  • Patent protection strengthens the position of an enterprise in the global market and is a significant location factor. (dpma.de)
  • This was performed recently in the context of the last outbreaks of HPAI H7N3 in Central America with evidence of cross-protection against the recent isolates of that part of the world (Rojo et Al, 2015). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Cross-resistance between nisin and IIa bacteriocins is not apparent in wild-type L. monocytogenes isolates ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Tinsley JW, Lyndon AR & Austin B (2011) Antigenic and cross-protection studies of biotype 1 and biotype 2 isolates of Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Journal of Applied Microbiology, 111 (1), pp. 8- 16. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Using homogeneous dsRNA oligonucleotides (ONs) ranging in length from 25 to 540 bp, we observed that a minimum length of ∼90 bp was sufficient to induce CD86, IL-12p40, IFN-β, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression, and to mature DC into APC that cross-presented exogenous Ags to CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Defend against viruses and threats with online and offline protection. (mcafee.com)
  • McAfee LiveSafe is award-winning antivirus protection that defends against viruses, online threats, and ransomware with online and offline protection. (mcafee.com)
  • McAfee's Virus Protection Pledge that includes our 100% Guarantee: Viruses removed or your money back, available with auto-renewal. (mcafee.com)
  • In this paper, we report findings based on newly constructed indices which track legal change over time in the areas of shareholder, creditor and worker protection. (ssrn.com)
  • We also found a degree of cross-protection between nisin and class IIa bacteriocins and investigated possible mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • On 4 May 2016, Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR) was published on the Official Journal. (conflictoflaws.net)
  • Adopted on the basis of Article 16(2) TFEU, the Regulation is the core element of the Commission's Data protection reform package, which also includes a Directive for the protection of personal data with regard to the processing by criminal law enforcement authorities. (conflictoflaws.net)
  • The new measure aims at modernising the legislative framework for data protection, so as to allow both businesses and citizens to seize the opportunities of the Digital Single Market. (conflictoflaws.net)
  • Secondly, the new Regulation marks a significant extension of the extraterritorial application of EU data protection law, with the express intent of leveling the playing field between European businesses and non-EU established companies operatig in the Single Market. (conflictoflaws.net)
  • Opinion 8/2010 of the Working Party on the Protection of Individuals with regard to the processing of personal data, on applicable law). (conflictoflaws.net)
  • Panda Global Protection provides you with everything you need to protect your PC, Mac® and Android™ devices, as well as your data and family, against all types of threats. (pandasecurity.com)
  • Veeam makes it easier to build data protection services with NEW pricing, programs and product exclusively for Service Providers . (veeam.com)
  • MSPs can leverage the reliability of Veeam technology in tandem with powerful remote monitoring and management tools to deliver value-added data protection services for their customers. (veeam.com)
  • With Veeam, you can offer data protection services for any strategy including self-service backup, replication between Availability zones, or aggregation from other cloud environments to your own - granting your customers total confidence in a multi-cloud strategy. (veeam.com)
  • We discuss how the idea of the "protecton," the smallest unit of protection, might explain this discrepancy and estimate the size of "protecton" based on available precursor frequencies data. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each controller provides cache to flash for data protection. (dell.com)
  • If you continue to use our services, we will assume that you agree to the use of such cookies and our data protection policy. (falke.com)
  • The innocuously named " Second Additional Protocol " to the Council of Europe's (CoE) Cybercrime Convention seeks to set a new standard for law enforcement investigations-including those seeking access to user data-that cross international boundaries, and would grant a range of new international police powers. (eff.org)
  • But the treaty's drafting process has been deeply flawed, with civil society groups, defense attorneys, and even data protection regulators largely sidelined. (eff.org)
  • While the Terms of Reference allow the T-CY to invite individual subject matter experts on an ad hoc basis, key voices such as data protection authorities, civil society experts, and criminal defense lawyers were mostly sidelined. (eff.org)
  • As was flagged by civil society , privacy regulators , and even by the CoE's own data protection committee , two and a half weeks is not enough time to provide meaningful feedback on such a complex international treaty. (eff.org)
  • Guiyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (GETDZ) in the city of Guiyang is using big data for environmental protection, according to GETDZ officials. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Utilizing sophisticated methods for malware detection, the ThreatSense® scanning engine provides superior protection for your company's data. (eset.com)
  • Additionally, Zoetis has ongoing surveillance monitoring in place to help us ensure we are helping provide the right protection for your pigs now and in the future. (thepigsite.com)
  • If your McAfee LiveSafe subscription expires, it won't provide you with the same level of protection it does when it's active. (mcafee.com)
  • It is designed to suppress unwanted EMI-RFI signals and provide electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in portable electronic equipment. (semtech.com)
  • Two new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) reports provide important insights into the CFPB's and state regulators' latest activities and enforcement targets. (jdsupra.com)
  • Utility models provide similar protection as patents with the difference that registration procedures are significantly shorter since the inventions are not technically examined (and can therefore be more easily challenged). (dpma.de)
  • Next, we explore how diverse the immune system needs to be by exploring the relationship between the diversity of the T cell repertoire and its ability to provide protection from pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Code aims to provide complete protection for the consumers, regulating behavioral and procedural aspects and stipulating rules for the market operation. (acc.com)
  • Provide protection that goes beyond identifying static malware attributes and instead detects behavior indicative of advanced malware threats. (sophos.com)
  • Corals provide millions of people with ecosystem services such as fisheries, medicine, tourism and recreation, coastal protection as well as aesthetic and cultural benefits, yet they constitute a mere 0.2% of the world's marine ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its obvious negative impacts on viral biocontrol of introduced European rabbits in Australia, little is known about the extent and mechanisms of this cross protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibody breadth or cross-reactivity is achieved by two different pathways: germline-encoded cross-reactivity for variable viral epitopes or somatic evolution in germinal centers (GCs) for conserved viral epitopes 2 . (nature.com)
  • Protective cross-reactivity is also acquired by targeting conserved viral epitopes that are often immunosubdominant and poorly immunogenic. (nature.com)
  • This week, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) adopted a final rule prohibiting a broad range of financial firms from using mandatory arbitration clauses to bar class action suits and received wide press coverage. (jdsupra.com)
  • 9. The enclosure of claim 1, wherein the one or more electronic devices includes one or more two to eight wire interchangeable transient protection modules, protecting various signal types. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • recognized by the statute as having established previous to the incorporation of the American Red Cross in 1905 the right to label their merchandise with the red cross as a trade-mark, but an explanation of this fact to the misusers of the emblem is usually sufficient to make plain the difference between those who have and those who have not a right to use our symbol. (google.cz)
  • The committee is called to take up H. R. 14330, a bill to amend an act entitled 'An act to incorporate the American National Red Cross, approved January 5, 1905. (google.cz)
  • On October 11, 2016, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") issued proposed rules to address certain issues related to the cross-border application of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and. (jdsupra.com)
  • 2020) Transition-Metal-Free Cross-Coupling by Using Tertiary Benzylic Organoboronates. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • Justia › US Law › Case Law › Federal Courts › Courts of Appeals › Seventh Circuit › 2000 › Judith Perlman, Plaintiff-appellee, Cross-appellant, v. Swiss Bank Corporation Comprehensive Disabil. (justia.com)
  • UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon had intended Monday's UN summit on the global refugee and migration crisis to recast the world's response into a broader protection framework with more equitable responsibility sharing. (hrw.org)
  • The protection of the emblem of the Red Cross and the words 'Red Cross" and "Geneva Cross,' which was important in times of peace, is even more important now that we are at war, and makes it necessary to take steps to prevent their use for commercial purposes. (google.cz)
  • Studies involving cross-feeding amino acid auxotrophs ( 10 ⇓ - 12 ) found that the division of labor within the mutualism can increase the fitness of cross-feeding cocultures compared with a self-sufficient strain ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Currently, different strain such as H-120, 4/91 and D274 have been used extensively for immunoprophylaxis against velogenic strain across Pakistan with minimal protection reported. (scirp.org)
  • Equivalent antigen unit dosages of each toxin raised approximately the same level of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antitoxin response and degree of protection against a challenge with respective heat-stable- or heat-labile-toxin-producing viable bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Conclusions: The O antigen of Y. ruckeri was the dominant immunogenic molecule involved in the protection of rainbow trout against enteric redmouth disease. (stir.ac.uk)
  • These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of cross-protection for the control of the mosaic disease caused by PRSV-W in zucchini squash and offer growers a method for large-scale application of this technology. (apsnet.org)
  • In several uncoordinated actions, the dismantling of Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations promulgated under The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank) has begun. (jdsupra.com)
  • While defenses on endpoints and identities could successfully tackle the attack in isolation, coordinating signals across protection components significantly increases the ability of these solutions to block and mitigate. (microsoft.com)
  • The protection rates against diarrhea are significantly inversely correlated with T cell expansion in the duodenum and are positively correlated with T cell expansion in the ileum and spleen. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions In addition to fire characteristics and neighbourhood demographics, spatial accessibility to fire protection services was significantly associated with unintentional residential fire-related injuries. (bmj.com)
  • Cooperative interactions can occur when one individual or group provides nutrition, protection, or mobility to another ( 1 , 2 ), and whether an interaction is cooperative or competitive can depend on the environment ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This strategy raises the question of whether cross-resistance between the compounds could occur. (asm.org)
  • Working together to prepare for outbreaks before they occur means smaller or less outbreaks, money saved-and most importantly-lives protected from these threats," says Michael Mahar PhD, lead for the Global Health Security Agenda Team for the Division of Global Health Protection at CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • As the Council of Europe's flawed cross border surveillance treaty moves through its final phases of approval, time is running out to ensure cross-border investigations occur with robust privacy and human rights safeguards in place. (eff.org)
  • It was not correlated with specific serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer or cross-reactive cytotoxic T (Tc) cell reactivity. (nih.gov)
  • The cross-reaction of the mixed serum from the immunised mice with the tested serovars was seen in the western-blotting also. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • Figure 1: Postexposure protection of ZEBOV-infected rhesus monkeys by AVI-6002. (nature.com)
  • To help organizations address this fundamental cloud security issue, Fortinet has just introduced FortiCWP - a Cloud Workload Protection solution designed to help customers assure compliance and mitigate risks associated with IaaS-based applications. (fortinet.com)
  • Improved coordination between those providing emergency health care and enhanced respect for the red cross, red crescent and red crystal emblems - and vigorous prosecution in the event of any misuse of the emblems - were also among the recommendations. (icrc.org)
  • The Red Cross Red Crescent works to build resilience among the most vulnerable groups in a society: the poorest of the poor, pregnant and lactating mothers, the disabled, the malnourished people, the elderly, young children, unemployed people, the homeless, and others. (climatecentre.org)
  • With millions of lives affected, the national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies have helped victims of small and large disasters, often in. (europa.eu)
  • Enjoy the best antivirus software with real-time protection against the latest malware. (pandasecurity.com)
  • Cross-sell advanced anti-malware with a second opinion. (sophos.com)
  • The protection however occurred in parallel with the presence of cross-reactive IgA antibody in the lung washings. (nih.gov)
  • The Brazilian Consumer Protection Code was created with the objective of balancing consumers relationships and to offer protection for those who consume. (acc.com)
  • Two key points emerged from an audience poll at the end of the session: the inherent limitations of social protection should not get translated into the adaptive version, which must in turn be complemented by other adaptation measures. (climatecentre.org)
  • When FortiCWP is combined with FortiGate VM for Ingress/egress cloud security and FortiWeb for Web Application and API Protection, they form the only integrated cloud security solution addressing network security, web application security, and cloud platform security in a comprehensive and tightly integrated solution. (fortinet.com)
  • A runtime application self-protection tool only sounds complicated. (techtarget.com)
  • Caroline P. Lai, Jeng-Yuan Yang, Ajay S. Garg, Michael S. Wang, Mohammad R. Chitgarha, Alan E. Willner, and Keren Bergman, "Experimental demonstration of packet-rate 10-Gb/s OOK OSNR monitoring for QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • The system is realized in an experimental cross-layer enabled optical packet switched fabric, measuring the optical-signal-to-noise ratio for 10-Gb/s OOK streams. (osapublishing.org)