Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Byssinosis: A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Journalism, Dental: Content, management, editing, policies, and printing of dental periodicals such as journals, newsletters, tabloids, and bulletins.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.AlaskaEducation, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.SculptureArtHumanitiesFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Saints: Persons officially recognized or acknowledged as pre-eminent for consecration, holiness, and piety, especially through canonization by a branch of the Christian church. (From Webster, 3d ed)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule: Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (1/7712)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (2/7712)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (3/7712)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Antiproteinuric efficacy of verapamil in comparison to trandolapril in non-diabetic renal disease. (4/7712)

BACKGROUND: Non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as verapamil are equally effective in reducing proteinuria as ACE inhibitors in hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy. To date it is unknown whether verapamil elucidates such an antiproteinuric capacity in non-diabetic renal disease. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, random cross-over study which compared the antiproteinuric effect of 6 weeks treatment with verapamil SR (360 mg) to that of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril (4 mg), and their fixed combination vera/tran (180 mg verapamil SR and 2 mg trandolapril) in 11 non-diabetic patients with proteinuria of 6.6 (5.1-8.8) g/day, a creatinine clearance of 87 (74-106) ml/min, and a 24-h blood pressure of 136/85 (126/76-157/96) mmHg at baseline. RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour mean arterial pressure did not change during verapamil, whereas both trandolapril and vera/tran induced a significant reduction in MAP. Verapamil showed no significant effects on renal haemodynamics. Trandolapril and vera/tran did not significantly change GFR, but ERPF increased and FF decreased during both treatments (P<0.05). The antiproteinuric response of verapamil was significantly less compared to that of trandolapril and vera/tran (-12% (-17/-1) vs -51% (-56/-25) and -41% (-50/-19) respectively). The blood pressure and antiproteinuric response during verapamil tended to be greater in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients, although this difference was not significant. Baseline blood pressure was related to the change in blood pressure during verapamil (r = -0.70; P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The antiproteinuric and antihypertensive response of verapamil is less than that of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril in patients with non-diabetic renal disease. In contrast to the antiproteinuric response of trandolapril, the antiproteinuric reponse of verapamil seems to be completely dependent from effective blood pressure reduction. The fixed combination of verapamil and ACE inhibition at half doses has similar effects as ACE inhibition at full dose.  (+info)

A nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, reduces cue-induced cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent subjects. (5/7712)

We have previously shown that nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. In the present study, the effects of a nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, on cue-induced cocaine craving were investigated. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to mecamylamine (2.5 mg tablet) or placebo in a single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study. Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cocaine cues with visual analog scales for desire to use cocaine and mood. Skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate were recorded before and during cocaine cues. Following exposure to cocaine cues, all patients reported an increase in cocaine craving and anxiety relative to the precue measures. Cue exposure also produced an increase in skin conductance and decrease in skin temperature. The cue-induced increase in cocaine craving was reduced, while the cue-induced skin conductance and temperature responses were unaffected, by mecamylamine. These findings show that cue-induced cocaine craving is attenuated by mecamylamine. Further study on the use of mecamylamine in relapse prevention programs are suggested.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (6/7712)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to it systemic effects. (7/7712)

Salmeterol is approximately eight times as potent as salbutamol for systemic effects. This may be because the drug is eight times more potent on receptors or there may be differences in systemic bioavailability. The systemic effects of salbutamol are limited by its fairly high first-pass metabolism, but the oral bioavailability of salmeterol is unknown. The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to its systemic effects were analysed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were given inhaled salmeterol 400 microg, inhaled salmeterol 400 microg plus oral activated charcoal or inhaled placebo plus oral activated charcoal on three separate days. Cardiac frequency (fC), Q-T interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), plasma potassium and glucose concentrations were measured for 4 h following the inhaled drug. Salmeterol with and without oral charcoal produced significant changes for all measures compared to placebo. The magnitude of effect following salmeterol alone was significantly greater than that following salmeterol plus charcoal for fC and glucose (mean (95% confidence interval) differences 8 (2-13) beats x min(-1), 0.59 (0.04, 1.13) mmol x L(-1), respectively) and nonsignificantly greater for QTc interval and potassium concentration. The differences between salmeterol given with and without charcoal suggest that 28-36% of the systemic response to salmeterol administered from a metered-dose inhaler are due to drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, most of the systemic effects are due to the inhaled fraction of the drug.  (+info)

Neonatal examination and screening trial (NEST): a randomised, controlled, switchback trial of alternative policies for low risk infants. (8/7712)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of one rather than two hospital neonatal examinations in detection of abnormalities. DESIGN: Randomised controlled switchback trial. SETTING: Postnatal wards in a teaching hospital in north east Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: All infants delivered at the hospital between March 1993 and February 1995. INTERVENTION: A policy of one neonatal screening examination compared with a policy of two. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital conditions diagnosed in hospital; results of community health assessments at 8 weeks and 8 months; outpatient referrals; inpatient admissions; use of general practioner services; focused analysis of outcomes for suspected hip and heart abnormalities. RESULTS: 4835 babies were allocated to receive one screening examination (one screen policy) and 4877 to receive two (two screen policy). More congenital conditions were suspected at discharge among babies examined twice (9.9 v 8.3 diagnoses per 100 babies; 95% confidence interval for difference 0.3 to 2.7). There was no overall significant difference between the groups in use of community, outpatient, or inpatient resources or in health care received. Although more babies who were examined twice attended orthopaedic outpatient clinics (340 (7%) v 289 (6%)), particularly for suspected congenital dislocation of the hip (176 (3.6/100 babies) v 137 (2.8/100 babies); difference -0.8; -1.5 to 0.1), there was no significant difference in the number of babies who required active management (12 (0.2%) v 15 (0.3%)). CONCLUSIONS: Despite more suspected abnormalities, there was no evidence of net health gain from a policy of two hospital neonatal examinations. Adoption of a single examination policy would save resources both during the postnatal hospital stay and through fewer outpatient consultations.  (+info)

  • Patients taking statin medication were asked to stop that medication for four weeks before entering the study. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of anamorelin in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with MM with cachexia. (edu.au)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
  • On 20-22 September 2017, the Lower Austria region hosted a study visit entitled "Cross-border health care" in the city of Sankt Pölten. (who.int)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - Aug. 10, 2017 - eGenesis, a biotechnology company focused on transforming xenotransplantation into a lifesaving medical procedure, announced the publication of a study in the journal Science by eGenesis scientists and their collaborators demonstrating the inactivation of PERV to prevent cross-species viral transmission and a breakthrough in producing the first PERV-free pigs, an important milestone for xenotransplantation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unlike in a cohort study, however, matching does not on its own eliminate confounding. (bmj.com)
  • The study is based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, established in 1. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project discovery and replication criteria for cases and controls: Data from a community-based prospective cohort study with autopsy follow-up. (cambridge.org)
  • The baseline cross section of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited a population-based cohort of 6781 persons, aged 45-84 years, from 6 communities in the United States. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore analyzed longitudinal data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a biracial, community-based cohort of adults aged 45-64, to test the hypothesis that diabetes is associated with reduced lung function independently of known risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The basic objective of the HELENA cross-sectional multi-centre study was to obtain reliable and comparable data from a selected cohort of European adolescents (boys and girls aged 13-16 years) on a broad battery of relevant nutrition and health-related parameters: dietary intake, food choices and preferences, anthropometry, serum indicators of lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism, vitamin and mineral status, immunological markers, physical activity, fitness and genetic markers. (nature.com)
  • Stijepic, Damir, A Cross-Country Study of Workers' Skills and Unemployment Flows (August 31, 2018). (ssrn.com)
  • In their 2015 paper "Changing Cities and Changing Lives: Development Induced Displacement in Kochi, Kerala", researchers with the Centre for Development Studies and Union Christian College examine the lives of those uprooted by development. (idrc.ca)
  • Ph.D. in Indigenous Studies, with an emphasis in Indigenous Leadership from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, of May 2016. (uaf.edu)
  • 3rd wave: February - May 2016) study was performed simultaneously in eleven European countries. (europa.eu)
  • A one-day prevalence study was conducted using the methodology specified by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, together with the established methods used by the Collaborative Alliance for Nursing Outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • 1980. Toward Explaining Human Culture: A Critical Review of the Findings of Worldwide Cross-Cultural Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • To give an extreme example, a case-control study of bladder cancer and smoking could give quite erroneous findings if controls were taken from the chest clinic. (bmj.com)
  • Findings from this study will also appear in a Museum Learning volume (co-authored with Jill Hohenstein). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Cross-sectional studies must be done on representative samples of the population if generalizations from the findings are to have any validity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers in a wide range of relevant fields, from political economy to social policy to the study of civic life, will benefit from close scrutiny of the empirical findings of this project. (routledge.com)
  • In this study, over half of clinical trials initiated for rare diseases were either discontinued or not published 4 years after completion, resulting in large numbers of patients with rare diseases exposed to interventions that did not lead to informative findings. (plos.org)
  • Findings of the cross-scale model intercomparison will be published and serve as a basis for fund raising. (pik-potsdam.de)
  • A potential limitation of our study is that certain interventional trials for rare diseases may not have been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, in particular Phase 0 and Phase I trials, which are not required to be registered. (plos.org)
  • The MA in Latin American History sees the school, and HiPLA in particular, make a critical advance in postgraduate studies through its historical provision. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The current study tests whether this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. (frontiersin.org)
  • In a multicentre study, the 10/66 Dementia Research Group interviewed 2885 people aged 60 years and older in 25 centres, most in Universities, in India, China and southeast Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Africa. (nih.gov)
  • This study indicates that parental characteristics, such as age, educational attainment and employment substantially determine child health in India, suggesting that an intervention by targeting the households where children are vulnerable is important to improve child health in the country. (nature.com)
  • Within this study we wanted to find out whether experiencing moral doubt is related to the normative attitudes of health care professionals towards coercion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Intergenerational Transmission of Risk and Trust Attitudes ," Review of Economic Studies , Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 645-677. (repec.org)
  • The Intergenerational Transmission of Risk and Trust Attitudes ," IZA Discussion Papers 2380, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies, also known as surveys, are a useful way to gather information on important health-related aspects of people's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (such studies are known as "KAP" surveys). (encyclopedia.com)
  • This study aims to describe the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults in Ireland and to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia according to CVD risk status. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study is to document the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults aged 50-79 years in Ireland and apply clinical guideline targets [ 9 ] to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia in a subgroup aged 50-64 years according to their absolute risk of CVD. (springer.com)
  • Results of studies in adults have suggested that lipid testing might be reliably performed without fasting. (aappublications.org)
  • Half of the adults studied do not meet the EFSA fluid intake recommendations. (isciii.es)
  • Cross-sectional studies have consistently shown that adults with diabetes have lower vital capacity than their nondiabetic counterparts ( 1 - 5 , 7 ), but such studies cannot establish the temporal sequence of events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The main objective of the study visit was to facilitate an in-depth exchange on the topic of the cross-border health care, introduce current related programmes and large-scale innovative projects in Lower Austria, and provide an opportunity for sharing ideas and practical approaches in this field within RHN. (who.int)
  • Our objective was to determine the frequency of noncompletion and nonpublication of trials studying rare diseases. (plos.org)
  • The evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of a population has been the main objective of only a very few studies. (isciii.es)
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes is independently associated with reduced lung function, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both studies in ethics and empirical studies come with different and sometimes contradictive arguments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It explores the nature of the interaction between community involvement and political leadership in modern local governance by drawing on empirical data gathered from case-studies concerning cities in England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, and Sweden. (routledge.com)
  • Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-cultural studies are applied widely in the social sciences, particularly in cultural anthropology and psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative cultural studies Cross-cultural Cross-cultural capital Cross-cultural communication Cross-cultural psychiatry Cross-cultural psychology Cultural bias Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Human Relations Area Files Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's values orientation theory Standard cross-cultural sample Avner Ben-Zaken, "From "Incommensurability of Cultures" to Mutually Embraced Zones" in Cross-Cultural Scientific Exchanges In the Eastern Mediterranean 1560-1660 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010)], pp. 163-167. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-Cultural Research Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology World Cultures Structure and Dynamics eJournal of the Anthropological and Related Sciences Transtext(e)sTranscultures: Trilingual Journal of Global Cultural Studies Social Evolution & History Society for Cross-Cultural Research Institut d'études Transtextuelles et Transculturelles (IETT), Institute for Transtextual and Transcultural Studies, Lyons, France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor K. Ramakrishna Rao is a philosopher and psychologist with expertise in Indian psychology, consciousness studies and parapsychological research. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The ethics committee at the School of Psychology, Queen's University Belfast, approved the study. (springer.com)
  • This study guide aims to make European trainees in forensic psychiatry and psychology and young forensic psychiatrists and psychologists aware of the differences and commonalities in forensic psychiatry and psychology in different countries within Europe and to enable them to learn from the approaches adopted in each country. (springer.com)
  • Beginning with the fundamentals of human interactions, this edited volume allows scholars across a variety of disciplines (such as criminology, sociology, communication studies, social psychology, anthropology, and economics) to become familiar with and apply the core principles and the requisite terminology of human communication within a criminological context. (peterlang.com)
  • Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other factors of interest as they exist in a specified population at a particular time, without regard for what may have preceded or precipitated the health status found at the time of the study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This chapter will describe the development of a study abroad program designed to assist preservice teachers in developing and utilizing these skills and dispositions in a global setting. (igi-global.com)
  • This chapter will describe how three professors integrated cross-curricular projects grounded in children's and young adult literature, historical literacy, and understanding diverse populations. (igi-global.com)
  • In that way, if one of the control diseases happens to be related to a risk factor under study, the resultant bias is not too large. (bmj.com)
  • Bias in cross-cultural neuropsychological testing: problems and possible solutions. (cambridge.org)
  • The great advantage of the HELENA-CSS is the strict standardization of the fieldwork and the blood analyses, which precludes to a great extent the kind of immeasurable confounding bias that often interferes when comparing results from isolated studies. (nature.com)
  • Despite a substantial reduction in population mean TC from a high of 6.0 mmol/L in the 1980s to 5.1 mmol/L, this study reports a failure to control hypercholesterolaemia to recommended risk-stratified targets in the Irish adult population. (springer.com)
  • This study compared AAB for alcohol cues across age groups (early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult) and drinking groups (heavy drinkers, light drinkers, and non-drinkers) to provide a cross-sectional examination of differences in AAB and their relationship to alcohol use and age. (springer.com)
  • Results of studies in adult patients are raising questions of whether fasting is needed before lipid screening. (aappublications.org)
  • This paper contributes to cross-cultural research by identifying the theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses of selected previous research related to accountants' values and judgments. (repec.org)
  • The study combines analytical and methodological approaches from motivation, multimodality and embodied interaction to explore their effectiveness for gaining insight into the relationship between motivation to visit an exhibition and particular exhibits within it, the elicitation of embodied forms of interaction - in particular social and emotional experiences - with digitally mediated exhibits, and their role in fostering meaning making and learning in a family context. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Many economics majors participate in the College's Study Abroad Program. (holycross.edu)
  • Economics majors are strongly encouraged to complete the calculus requirement during their first year at Holy Cross. (holycross.edu)
  • Economics majors studying abroad may take one economics course for credit as a lower level elective provided that an appropriate course can be found and is pre-approved by the department. (holycross.edu)
  • Make this declaration: "Heavenly Father, I accept without reservation the supernatural atonement of Jesus Christ on the cross. (ligonier.org)
  • It was my determination to concentrate entirely on Jesus Christ himself and the fact of his death upon the cross. (acts17-11.com)
  • Gal 6:12 (NAS) Those who desire to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply that they may not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. (acts17-11.com)
  • We know the suffering and humiliation that Christ suffered on the cross and the gruesome death that he endured for our sins. (spreadinglight.com)
  • If we refuse to take up our cross and submit to suffering and rejection at the hands of men, we forfeit our fellowship with Christ and have ceased to follow him. (spreadinglight.com)
  • A Nation-Wide Laboratory: Examining Trust and Trustworthiness by Integrating Behavioral Experiments into Representative Surveys ," IZA Discussion Papers 715, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Existing developed AI vaccines, H5, H7 or H9 may be used in vaccination programmes customised to the ever evolving situation worldwide, as long as laboratory cross-protection studies are performed to help demonstrate efficacy. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The mouse has been an important model for studying Aspergillus infection, but classical laboratory strains of mice used in these studies arose from a small set of founders and lack most of the genetic variation present in wild mice, limiting researchers' ability to identify additional genetic loci relevant to disease. (redorbit.com)
  • Once again, this format of cross-border study visits - a combination of seminars, workshops and visits to health facilities - proved to be an excellent laboratory for public health innovation. (who.int)
  • Superabsorbant Hydrogels: A Study of the Most Effective Application of Cross-linked Polyacrylamide Polymers main content. (amnh.org)
  • This ensured achievement of the main purpose of the study visit, namely, to enable the participants to facilitate the establishment of new contacts and provide opportunities for future cross-border collaboration. (who.int)
  • Our main outcome measures were the frequency of trial noncompletion and, among completed studies, frequency of trial nonpublication at 2 and 4 years following trial completion. (plos.org)
  • Before, during, and after the study abroad commitment, students experience and live both their curricular content as well as their culturally diverse experiences. (igi-global.com)
  • The study abroad experience required courses from both teacher education and general education content. (igi-global.com)
  • Study abroad experiences are inherently two-fold: Before, during, and after their involvement, students immerse themselves in both the curricular content and in a diverse culture. (igi-global.com)
  • The AMPX system was used to generate a P$sub 3$ 218 neutron group master cross-section library from ENDF/B-IV data for the fuel, structural, and neutron- absorbing materials tabulated. (unt.edu)
  • The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V) are data based in AMPX master format. (oecd-nea.org)
  • In support of local projects, ORNL extended the Sn neutron cross sections down to 10 -5 eV and changed the mat number to 8850, while the gamma-ray identifier was unchanged from 7850. (oecd-nea.org)
  • The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the "the pre-CC study," the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation revealed that the genomes of CC strains are genetically diverse and contain balanced contributions from each founding strain. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic analysis of complex traits in the emerging collaborative cross. (redorbit.com)
  • The development of the Collaborative Cross presents a unique opportunity to investigate how the breeding of inbred strains affects genetic structure and the diversity of phenotypes. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic analysis in the Collaborative Cross breeding population. (redorbit.com)
  • In this study, Durrant and colleagues utilized inbred mouse strains from the Collaborative Cross, taking advantage of the genetic contribution of wild-derived strains, to identify novel loci that confer susceptibility to infection with the fungus Aspergillus. (redorbit.com)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of randomized clinical trials studying rare diseases as defined by the Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center database that were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, and completed or discontinued by December 31, 2014. (plos.org)
  • Impact of home visit capacity on genetic association studies of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (cambridge.org)
  • The first is comparison of case studies, the second is controlled comparison among variants of a common derivation,[clarification needed] and the third is comparison within a sample of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • You are encouraged to apply your research interests to real world case studies, particularly of international organisations or workplaces with which you have a connection. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • New urban leaders and community involvement: The Italian case studies 5. (routledge.com)
  • Basic demonstrable academic knowledge in the field of Media Studies or a closely related discipline. (uva.nl)
  • Together with Douglas R. White, he developed the widely used Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, currently maintained by the open access electronic journal World Cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Published in the British Journal of Nutrition, ​the study found that intakes were higher among males compared to females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed daily. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The paper discussed was the draft introductory article for a special issue of the Journal of Common Market Studies. (uio.no)
  • For example, the Massachusetts Blue Cross/Blue Shield apparently thinks that you can't publish a study criticizing its doctors without permission thanks to trademark law. (techdirt.com)
  • The Life Application Study Bible is today's #1-selling study Bible, containing notes that not only explain difficult passages and give information on Bible life and times, but also go a step further to show how God's Word speaks to every situation and circumstance of your life! (christianbook.com)
  • I'm the author/artist and I want to review NLT Life Application Study Bible, Personal Size TuTone Leatherlike Black/Celtic Cross . (christianbook.com)
  • The ESV Study Bible, Personal Size compresses nearly all the features of the award-winning ESV Study Bible into a smaller size for easier carrying. (parable.com)
  • Suited to high school and college students, the ESV Student Study Bible is also a versatile resource for anyone engaged in serious study of God's Word. (bookwire.com)
  • This cross-cultural examination first explores the varieties of conscious experience and reflects on the attempts to understand and explain consciousness in the Western scholarly and scientific tradition. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The Master's in Television and Cross-Media Culture explores contemporary media culture from a critical perspective. (uva.nl)
  • iv) The present author finds the logic of the reply faulty.This volume explores verbal and pronominal agreement with imposters from a cross-linguistic perspective. (indigo.ca)
  • The study, which is continuing, was apparently the first to examine the injury impact of such a wide range of high school sports. (nytimes.com)
  • Up to now, there has been no study at the European level that has investigated the nutritional status and lifestyle of adolescents using a central standard methodology across a consortium of several participating countries. (nature.com)
  • Unlike comparative studies, which examines similar characteristics of a few societies, cross-cultural studies uses a sufficiently large sample so that statistical analysis can be made to show relationships or lack of relationships between the traits in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examines the associations between different types of infant feeding and BMI and overweight in childhood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A cross-protection study using a 2010 field isolate as a challenge virus helped understand the mechanisms involved by designing a cold stress protocol needed for induction of mortality and clinical signs (Delvecchio et Al, 2015). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Seven of the nine required courses for the economics major must be taken within the Department of Economics and Accounting at Holy Cross. (holycross.edu)
  • Both intermediate theory courses (Econ 255 and Econ 256) must be taken within the Department of Economics and Accounting at Holy Cross. (holycross.edu)
  • On the other hand, the change in the potential energies owing to the uniaxial elongation indicated that cross-links suppressed local segmental motions in the cross-linked structure, probably at the region around the linear and terminal phenols , which resulted in an increase in the degree of cross-linking accompanied by a decrease in Poisson's ratio and an increase in Young's modulus. (rsc.org)
  • Such a study would throw some light on the relationship of both occupational exposures and smoking behavior to respiratory symptoms and respiratory function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. (redorbit.com)
  • The Critical Illness policy can only be purchased in conjunction with a health insurance policy underwritten by Southern Cross Medical Care Society. (southerncross.co.nz)
  • The Cross-Cultural Communication and Media Studies MA provides theoretical, research and practical training in areas of international and intercultural communication and the media. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Find out how theoretical calculations are used to determine, elucidate and propose mechanisms for Pd-catalyzed C-C cross-coupling reactions in Max Garcia Melchor's outstanding thesis. (springer.com)
  • The one-year Master's programme Television and Cross-Media Culture provides you with the skills, knowledge and tools to understand and evaluate the ongoing transformation of media culture. (uva.nl)
  • The Television and Cross-Media Culture specialisation within the Media Studies Research Master's Programme focuses on the on-going transformation of media culture, and its impact on culture, politics and everyday life. (uva.nl)
  • After successful completion of this programme, you will receive a legally accredited Master's degree in Media Studies and the title Master of Arts (MA). (uva.nl)