Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Phenylglyoxal: A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Imidoesters: Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MercaptoethanolReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Diethyl Pyrocarbonate: Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Diazonium CompoundsFluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.ImidesSpectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hydroxymercuribenzoates: Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.Dimethyl Suberimidate: The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Mersalyl: A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.CarbodiimidesMicrofluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Phenylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.MaleimidesSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.KetonesAntibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Cross Circulation: The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.PhenanthrolinesImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)PhotochemistryDiacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mercuribenzoates: Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Mice, Inbred C57BLDiazomethaneChromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dimethyl Adipimidate: Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.Ninhydrin: 2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Azo CompoundsPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mice, Inbred BALB CLysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.AcetalsBromosuccinimide: A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.o-Phthalaldehyde: A reagent that forms fluorescent conjugation products with primary amines. It is used for the detection of many biogenic amines, peptides, and proteins in nanogram quantities in body fluids.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.

Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (1/6694)

Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin.  (+info)

The C-terminal region of hPrp8 interacts with the conserved GU dinucleotide at the 5' splice site. (2/6694)

A U5 snRNP protein, hPrp8, forms a UV-induced crosslink with the 5' splice site (5'SS) RNA within splicing complex B assembled in trans- as well as in cis-splicing reactions. Both yeast and human Prp8 interact with the 5'SS, branch site, polypyrimidine tract, and 3'SS during splicing. To begin to define functional domains in Prp8 we have mapped the site of the 5'SS crosslink within the hPrp8 protein. Immunoprecipitation analysis limited the site of crosslink to the C-terminal 5060-kDa segment of hPrp8. In addition, size comparison of the crosslink-containing peptides generated with different proteolytic reagents with the pattern of fragments predicted from the hPrp8 sequence allowed for mapping of the crosslink to a stretch of five amino acids in the C-terminal portion of hPrp8 (positions 1894-1898). The site of the 5'SS:hPrp8 crosslink falls within a segment spanning the previously defined polypyrimidine tract recognition domain in yPrp8, suggesting that an overlapping region of Prp8 may be involved both in the 5'SS and polypyrimidine tract recognition events. In the context of other known interactions of Prp8, these results suggest that this protein may participate in formation of the catalytic center of the spliceosome.  (+info)

Arginine methylation and binding of Hrp1p to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation. (3/6694)

Hrp1p is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of mRNAs and mRNA export. In addition, Hrplp is one of several RNA-binding proteins that are posttranslationally modified by methylation at arginine residues. By using functional recombinant Hrp1p, we have identified RNA sequences with specific high affinity binding sites. These sites correspond to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation, UAUAUA. To examine the effect of methylation on specific RNA binding, purified recombinant arginine methyltransferase (Hmt1p) was used to methylate Hrp1p. Methylated Hrp1p binds with the same affinity to UAUAUA-containing RNAs as unmethylated Hrpl p indicating that methylation does not affect specific RNA binding. However, RNA itself inhibits the methylation of Hrp1p and this inhibition is enhanced by RNAs that specifically bind Hrpl p. Taken together, these data support a model in which protein methylation occurs prior to protein-RNA binding in the nucleus.  (+info)

Photocrosslinking of 4-thio uracil-containing RNAs supports a side-by-side arrangement of domains 5 and 6 of a group II intron. (4/6694)

Previous studies suggested that domains 5 and 6 (D5 and D6) of group II introns act together in splicing and that the two helical structures probably do not interact by helix stacking. Here, we characterized the major Mg2+ ion- and salt-dependent, long-wave UV light-induced, intramolecular crosslinks formed in 4-thiouridine-containing D56 RNA from intron 5gamma (aI5gamma) of the COXI gene of yeast mtDNA. Four major crosslinks were mapped and found to result from covalent bonds between nucleotides separating D5 from D6 [called J(56)] and residues of D6 near and including the branch nucleotide. These findings are extended by results of similar experiments using 4-thioU containing D56 RNAs from a mutant allele of aI5gamma and from the group IIA intron, aI1. Trans-splicing experiments show that the crosslinked wild-type aI5gamma D56 RNAs are active for both splicing reactions, including some first-step branching. An RNA containing the 3-nt J(56) sequence and D6 of aI5gamma yields one main crosslink that is identical to the most minor of the crosslinks obtained with D56 RNA, but in this case in a cation-independent fashion. We conclude that the interaction between J(56) and D6 is influenced by charge repulsion between the D5 and D6 helix backbones and that high concentrations of cations allow the helices to approach closely under self-splicing conditions. The interaction between J(56) and D6 appears to be a significant factor establishing a side-by-side (i.e., not stacked) orientation of the helices of the two domains.  (+info)

Hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes with disulfide bonds in sugar-phosphate backbone as potential DNA reagents for crosslinking with proteins. (5/6694)

Convenient approaches were described to incorporate -OP(=O)O(-)-SS-O(-)(O=)PO- bridges in hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes instead of regular phosphodiester linkages: (i) H2O2- or 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide-mediated coupling of 3'- and 5'-thiophosphorylated oligonucleotides on complementary template and (ii) more selective template-guided autoligation of a preactivated oligonucleotide derivative with an oligomer carrying a terminal thiophosphoryl group. Dithiothreitol was found to cleave completely modified internucleotide linkage releasing starting oligonucleotides. The presence of complementary template as an intrinsic element of the molecule protects the hairpin DNA analog from spontaneous exchange of disulfide-linked oligomer fragments and makes it a good candidate for auto-crosslinking with cysteine-containing proteins.  (+info)

Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans. (6/6694)

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization.  (+info)

The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood. (7/6694)

Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch.  (+info)

A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (8/6694)

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

*Cross-link

... polymerized resin with specific chemicals called crosslinking reagents results in a chemical reaction that forms cross-links. ... electron beam processing is used to cross-link the C type of cross-linked polyethylene. Other types of cross-linked ... The crosslink density can then be calculated. Branching (chemistry) Cross-linked enzyme aggregate Cross-linked polyethylene ... In-vitro cross-linking method, termed PICUP (photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins), was developed in 1999. They ...

*Frederic M. Richards

Peters, K.; Richards, F. M. (1977). "Chemical Cross-Linking: Reagents and Problems in Studies of Membrane Structure". Annual ... Richards FM, Knowles JR (1968). "Glutaraldehyde as a protein cross-linking reagent". Journal of Molecular Biology. 37: 231-233 ... In the 1970s, with a succession of students and postdocs, the lab developed a series of chemical, photochemical, and cross-link ... Quiocho FA, Richards FM (1964). "Intermolecular cross linking of a protein in the crystalline state: carboxypeptidase-a". ...

*Mono-BOC-cystamine

... is used as a crosslinker for the synthesis of cleavable photo-cross-linking reagent. Mono-BOC-cystamine is ... Peter E Nielsen, John B Hansen and Ole Buchard (1984). "Photochemical cross-linking of protein and DNA in chromatin". Biochem J ...

*2-Iminothiolane

"Methyl 4-mercaptobutyrimidate as a cleavable cross-linking reagent and its application to the Escherichia coli 30S ribosome". ... 2-Iminothiolane is a cyclic thioimidate compound also known as Traut's reagent. It is a thiolating reagent that reacts with ... Thus it allows for crosslinking or labeling of molecules such as proteins through use of disulfide or thioether conjugation. It ... "Traut's Reagent Instructions" (PDF). Thermo Scientific. Retrieved 2015-07-08. ...

*ATP synthase

... thiol modification and cross-linking reagents". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1458 (2-3): 443-56. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(00) ... This link is tenuous, however, as the overall structure of flagellar motors is far more complex than that of the FO particle ... Cross RL, Taiz L (January 1990). "Gene duplication as a means for altering H+/ATP ratios during the evolution of FOF1 ATPases ... Cross RL, Müller V (October 2004). "The evolution of A-, F-, and V-type ATP synthases and ATPases: reversals in function and ...

*Protein quaternary structure

... the experimenter may apply SDS-PAGE after first treating the intact complex with chemical cross-link reagents. Proteins are ...

*Allylic rearrangement

Synthesis of extended equilibrium transfer alkylating cross-link reagents and their use in the formation of macrocyclesStephen ...

*Maleimide

... and are used as crosslinking reagents in thermoset polymer chemistry. Compounds containing a maleimide group linked with ... Maleimides linked to polyethylene glycol chains are often used as flexible linking molecules to attach proteins to surfaces. ... Maleimides linked to rubber chains are often used as flexible linking molecules to reinforce the rubber (tire). The double bond ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ; Collective Volume, 5, p. 944 J. H. Birkinshaw, M. G. Kalyanpur and C. E. ...

*Genipin

... much less toxic than glutaraldehyde and many other commonly used synthetic cross-linking reagents. Furthermore, genipin can be ... Genipin is an excellent natural cross-linker for proteins, collagen, gelatin, and chitosan cross-linking. It has a low acute ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... cross-linking reagents MeSH D27.720.470.410.360 --- intercalating agents MeSH D27.720.470.410.505 --- luminescent agents MeSH ... reagent kits, diagnostic MeSH D27.720.470.410.680.680 --- reagent strips MeSH D27.720.470.410.690 --- reducing agents MeSH ... indicators and reagents MeSH D27.720.470.410.080 --- affinity labels MeSH D27.720.470.410.080.600 --- photoaffinity labels MeSH ... D27.720.470.410.700 --- sulfhydryl reagents MeSH D27.720.470.410.750 --- thiobarbituric acid reactive substances MeSH D27.720. ...

*DMPA

... a cross linking reagent Des Moines Performing Arts, the organization that operates the Civic Center of Greater Des Moines. ...

*Eukaryotic DNA replication

... and by using cross-linking reagents within some experiments, a fragile complex was identified called the pre-loading complex ( ... Dpb11 and Sld2 interact with Polymerase ɛ and cross-linking experiments have indicated that Dpb11 and Polymerase ɛ ... However, the two DNA molecules will remain linked together. This issue is handled by decatenation of the two DNA molecules by a ... The importance of this direct link between the helicase and the leading-strand polymerase is underscored by results in cultured ...

*DMP

... a cross-linking reagent 2,6-dimethylphenol, a monomer Disease management programmes for chronic diseases Dynamic Multipathing, ... a chemical reagent used to oxidise alcohols Dot matrix printer, a type of printers used very commonly in the late 20th century ... a chemical reagent Dimethyl phthalate, a plasticizer Dimethyl pimelimidate, also known as dimethyl pimelimidate dihydrochloride ...

*N-Ethylmaleimide

... phenylenebismaleimide can be used as cross-linking reagent for cystine residues. see Lutter, L. C., Zeichhardt, H., Kurland, C ...

*Cross-linked enzyme aggregate

The third category involves cross-linking of enzyme aggregates or crystals, using a bifunctional reagent, to prepare carrier- ... such as cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs) and cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) that offer the advantages of highly ... In biochemistry, a cross-linked enzyme aggregate is an immobilized enzyme prepared via crosslinking of the physical enzyme ... The use of cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs) as industrial biocatalysts was pioneered by Altus Biologics in the 1990s. CLECs ...

*Bioadhesive

Cross-linking the protein precursor of marine mussel adhesives: bulk measurements and reagents for curing. Langmuir 20 (9), ... The Fe(L-DOPA3) complex can itself account for much cross-linking and cohesion in mussel plaque, but in addition the iron ... 1999;80(1). Sever M.J.; Weisser, J.T.; Monahan, J.; Srinivasan, S.; Wilker, J.J. (2004) Metal-mediated cross-linking in the ... Proteins in the oothecal foam of the mantis are cross-linked covalently by small molecules related to L-DOPA via a tanning ...

*Photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins

In addition, the cross-linked protein yield is very low due to the multifunctionality of the cross-linking reagents. The ... Photo-Induced Cross-Linking of Unmodified Proteins (PICUP) is a protein cross-linking method by visible light irradiation of a ... Cross-linking methods developed prior to PICUP, including the use of physical, oxidative, and chemical cross-linkers, often ... The techniques in the 20th century were not sufficient to be applied to cross-link fast and transient changes of these proteins ...

*Andrew Lees (vaccinologist)

Selective crosslinking of proteins to CDAP-activated polysaccharides. Vaccine. 18:1273, 2000. Shafer, D. E, J. K. Inman, and A ... John Inman, Lees learned bioconjugation, the linking together of biologically relevant molecules to increase their utility. In ... Activation of soluble polysaccharides with CDAP for use in protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and immunological reagents ... Versatile and efficient synthesis of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines using aminooxy reagents and oxime chemistry. ...

*Fatty acid synthase

Witkowski A, Joshi AK, Rangan VS, Falick AM, Witkowska HE, Smith S (April 1999). "Dibromopropanone cross-linking of the ... is largely based on the observations that the bifunctional reagent 1,3-dibromopropanone (DBP) is able to crosslink the active ... and a reinvestigation of the DBP crosslinking experiments revealed that the KS active site Cys161 thiol could be crosslinked to ... Pizer ES, Kurman RJ, Pasternack GR, Kuhajda FP (1997). "Expression of fatty acid synthase is closely linked to proliferation ...

*L-Photo-Leucine

... improve the cross-linking efficiency. If the cross-linking is done in vivo, within living cells, these must be exposed to the ... that involved the use of moderately reactive bifunctional reagent, commonly attached to free amino groups. However, ... In addition, photochemical cross-linking does not interfere with the antibodies recognition whilst the former does. But Photo- ... Traditionally, the recognition of protein-protein interactions was carried out through chemical cross-linking, ...

*Biomolecular engineering

... performed by creating crosslinks between the two molecules of interest and can require a wide variety of different reagents ... Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays are used most commonly as diagnostic tests to detect HIV antibodies in blood samples to test ... The resulting product will not need purification to remove the enzyme because it will remain linked to the beads in the column ... Proteins are polymers that are made up of amino acid chains linked with peptide bonds. They have four distinct levels of ...

*CPC Scientific

"Membrane permeability of hydrocarbon-cross-linked peptides." Biophysical Journal 104.9 (2013): 1923-1932". Biophysical Journal ... "Covalent modification of gaseous peptide ions with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagent ions." Journal of the American Chemical ...

*2,2'-Dipyridyldisulfide

Futaki S. and Kitagawa K. (1994). "Peptide-Unit Assembling Using Disulfide Cross-Linking - a New Approach for Construction of ... doi:10.1016/0040-4039(94)88040-9. "Special Reagents for Thiol Groups". Aldrichimica Acta. 4 (3): 33-46. Thalmann A., Oertle K. ...

*Arabinogalactan protein

Seven residues and longer are sufficient for cross-linking, leading to precipitation of the glycans with the Yariv ... 3-linked Gal units to make aggregates with the Yariv reagent. Bioinformatics analysis using mammalian β-1,3- ... The AG found in AGPs is of type II (type II AGs) - that is, a galactan backbone of (1-3)-linked β-D-galactopyranose (Galp) ... One of the features of type II AGs, particularly the (1,3)-linked β-D-Galp residues, is their ability to bind to the Yariv ...

*Reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization

... dendrimers and cross-linked networks. The addition-fragmentation chain transfer process was first reported in the early 1970s. ... However, the technique was irreversible, so the transfer reagents could not be used to control radical polymerization at this ... thermochemical initiator or the interaction of gamma radiation with some reagent) monomer RAFT agent solvent (not strictly ...

*1,2,4,5-Tetrabromobenzene

2012), "Enantiotropic nematics from cross-like 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4'-alkyl-4-ethynylbiphenyl) benzenes and their biaxiality ... the Heck reagent palladium(II)acetate and the Heck co-catalyst 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp) in dimethylacetamide ... "New insights into carbon dioxide interactions with benzimidazole-linked polymers", Chem. Commun. 50: pp. 3571-3574, doi:10.1039 ... the Wittig reagent methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide, the base potassium carbonate, the phase transfer catalyst ...
... possess identical reactive groups at opposite ends of the protein crosslinker s spacer arm, and can be reacted in a one-step chemical crosslinking reaction.
This invention is related to a thermoplastic crosslinked product obtainable by the crosslinking reaction of a composition comprising (A) a polymer having a silicon-containing group and (B) a tetravalent tin compound, said silicon-containing group having a hydrolyzable group bound to a silicon atom and capable of crosslinking through formation of a siloxane bond.
The CD4 receptor contributes to T-cell activation by coligating major histocompatibility complex class II on antigen presenting cells with the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex, and triggering a cascade of signaling events including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Paradoxically, CD3 cross-linking prior to TCR stimulation results in apoptotic cell death, as does injection of anti-CD4 antibodies in vivo of CD4 ligation by HIV glycoprotein (gp) 120. In this report we investigate the mechanism by which CD4 cross-linking induces cell death. We have found that CD4 cross-linking results in a small but rapid increase in levels of cell surface Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family implicated in apoptotic death and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Importantly, CD4 cross-linking triggered the ability of Fas to function as a death molecule. Subsequent to CD4 cross-linking, CD4+ splenocytes cultured overnight became sensitive to Fas-mediated death. Death was ...
In this work, intramolecular and intermolecular associations under the effect of shear flow of dilute aqueous alkaline solutions of dextan, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), and the hydrophobically modified analogue (HM-2-HEC) in the presence of a chemical cross-linking agent were characterized with the aid of viscometry and rheo-small angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) methods. The picture that emerges at short times during the cross-linking reaction at a constant shear rate is that HEC coils contract because of intramolecular cross-linking; whereas the HM-2-HEC species show an incipient association and the dextran molecules are unaffected due to their compact structures. At longer times, interchain cross-linking of the polymer promotes the growth of large flocs, which are disrupted by shear forces when they are sufficiently large. The delicate interplay between intramolecular and intermolecular association is governed by factors such as the magnitude of the shear rate, the cross-linking agent ...
Dried hemoactive materials comprise both a cross-linked biologically compatible polymer and a non-cross-linked biologically compatible polymer. The cross-linked polymer is selected to form a hydrogel when exposed to blood. The non-cross-linked polymer is chosen to solubilize relatively rapidly when exposed to blood. The non-cross-linked polymer serves as a binder for holding the materials in desired geometries, such as sheets, pellets, plugs, or the like. Usually, the cross-linked polymer will be present in a particulate or fragmented form. The materials are particularly suitable for hemostasis and drug delivery.
ChemInform Abstract: Incorporating Disulfide Cross-Links at the Terminus of Oligonucleotides via Solid-Phase Nucleic Acid Synthesis.|span||/span| | S. E. OSBORNE; A. D. ELLINGTON | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
B. DNA-Protein Cross-Linking. To cross-link protein to the genomic DNA, 270 µl of formalin was added to 10 ml of DMEM containing acini to obtain a final solution of 1% formaldehyde. Cells were agitated for 10 minutes (Note 1) on a shaker table. Following the addition of 514 µl of 2.5 M glycine (125 mM final) for 5 minutes to quench the formaldehyde and terminate the crosslinking reaction, cells were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 3 minutes at 40C. The pellet of acinar cells was washed twice with ice cold PBS.. C. Isolation of Nuclei from Isolated Acinar Cells. To isolate nuclei, acinar cells were incubated in Cytoplasmic Extract buffer (CE Buffer; 10 mM HEPES pH 7.4, 10 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.1% Triton-X100, 0.5 mM DTT and protease inhibitors [5 µg/mL Aprotinin, 5 µg/mL Leupeptin, 5 µg/mL Pepstatin, 75 µg/mL PMSF]) followed by 5 strokes of Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer. The cells were set on ice for 15 minutes. To pellet the nuclei, the samples were centrifuged at 4oC and 5000 g for 10 ...
Methods are provided for making bispecific antibodies and antibody conjugates comprising site-specifically cross-linking two or more antibodies, antibody fragments or Fc-fusion proteins. Also provided
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We have identified membrane components which are adjacent to type I and type II signal-anchor proteins during their insertion into the membrane of the ER. Using two different cross-linking approaches a 37-38-kD nonglycosylated protein, previously identified as P37 (High, S., D. Görlich, M. Wiedmann, T. A. Rapoport, and B. Dobberstein. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 113:35-44), was found adjacent to all the membrane inserted nascent chains used in this study. On the basis of immunoprecipitation, this ER protein was shown to be identical to the recently identified mammalian Sec61 protein. Thus, Sec61p is the principal cross-linking partner of both type I and type II signal-anchor proteins during their membrane insertion (this work), and of secretory proteins during their translocation (Görlich, D., S. Prehn, E. Hartmann, K.-U. Kalies, and T. A. Rapoport. 1992. Cell. 71:489-503). We propose that membrane proteins of both orientations, and secretory proteins employ the same ER translocation sites, and that ...
SIA crosslinker is a non-cleavable, heterobifunctional protein crosslinker. SIA crosslinking reagent is the shortest amine and sulfhydryl (thiol) reactive protein crosslinker.
Using chemical cross-linkers to map contacts among amino acids, structural biologists predict that soluble tau is, in fact, a compact globule containing β-sheets poised to snap into a pathological formation.. ...
Hello, I am attempting to perform some experiments that inwolve cross-linking with Pierce photoreactive bifunctional cross-linker APDP. As I have no practice using that reagent, any advice would be most welcome. I plan to label one protein via sulphydryl end of APDP and then use the labelled protein in a reaction. After that the glycerol gradient will be run, and appropriate fractions will be flashed with light to activate the photoreactive group of APDP and cross-link that protein to whatever it has in proximity. I have read the papers provided by Pierce, but still have some questions, as follows: - Does APDP decompose thermally readily? Will it be possible to heat APDP-bound protein (that first one) for some 10 min, or will it destroy the photoreactive end (as I am affraid)? And how long can I keep APDP-bound protein sample before actual cross-linking with flashlight? - How photosensitive it is? Do I have to worry about ambient light when labelling the first protein by sulphydryl? - During the ...
Current hydrogels based on chondroitin sulfate (ChS) generally lack the necessary strength and precise mechanical tunability. Addressing these limitations, covalent cross-linking has evolved to produce hydrogels with desirable properties. However, such a methodology always precludes injection and self-healin
The present invention relates to a method of cross-linking a polymeric carbohydrate material with a second material by means of a soluble carbohydrate polymer and a crosslinking agent. The present invention furthermore relates to the resulting cross-linked material, to uses of the cross-linked material, as well as to a kit comprising the soluble carbohydrate polymer and the cross-linking agent. ...
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PRODUCTO ETX Cross-linking agent that improves attachment and wash fastness of resins. PRODUCTO R3 conc. Self-cross-linking agent of resin that improves wash and rubbing fastness of pigments.
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SF3B4 is one of four subunits of the splicing factor 3B. The protein cross-links to a region in the pre-mRNA immediately upstream of the branchpoint…
Tris-EDTA is used to dilute and store nucleic acid samples. Tris-EDTA-based solutions break protein cross-links and can therefore unmask antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Treatment with TE Buffer enhances the staining intensity of antibodies in the immuno-histochemical detection of certain proteins.
There is provided herein a membrane or film comprising one or more aromatic ionomers covalently crosslinked through aryl-aryl (--Ar--Ar--), aryl-ether-aryl (--Ar--O--Ar--), aryl-sulfide-aryl (--Ar--S--Ar--), aryl-sulfone-aryl bonds, or any combination thereof, wherein said one or more aromatic ionomers further comprises at least one electron withdrawing group adapted to improve oxidant resistance of said membrane or film.
WESTBURY, NY--(Marketwired - September 11, 2015) - The crosslinking process utilizes short wave (254 nm) UV light to covalently bond nucleic acids to either nitrocellulose or nylon membranes. Spectronics Corporation manufactures advanced, versatile and accurate crosslinkers to avoid the loss of nucleic acids during the hybridization process, a consistent, irritating...
Bio-Synthesis offers peptide conjugation using various cross-linking chemistries. Carrier protein such as KLH, BSA, OVA can be conjugated to peptides.
1XW7: Diabetes-associated mutations in human insulin: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking studies of a-chain variant insulin wakayama
The Spectrolinker XL-1000 UV crosslinker was made for applications including eliminating PCR contamination, cross-linking DNA an...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
When a low concentrations of crosslinker is added to resist (a film used to lay down the patterns of ever-shrinking lines and features on a chip, shown here at left), it is able to pattern smaller ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intramolecular crosslinking of hemoglobin A by sulfosuccinimidyl suberate. T2 - Application of crosslinked protein as a blood substitute. AU - Manjula, B. N.. AU - Acharya, A. S.. PY - 1994/11. Y1 - 1994/11. N2 - Sulfosuccinimidyl esters could be targeted to the residues of ββ cleft of hemoglobin A and the bis-sulfosuccinimidyl esters of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could serve as the `affinity directed ββ crosslinkers of HbA. The reactivity of sulfosuccinimidyl esters of tartaric acid and sebacic acid with HbA was also investigated to establish the appropriate length of the alkyl chain optimal for the crosslinking reaction.. AB - Sulfosuccinimidyl esters could be targeted to the residues of ββ cleft of hemoglobin A and the bis-sulfosuccinimidyl esters of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could serve as the `affinity directed ββ crosslinkers of HbA. The reactivity of sulfosuccinimidyl esters of tartaric acid and sebacic acid with HbA was also investigated to establish the ...
ABCA formed a novel intramolecular cross-linking adduct on human serum albumin in patients and in vitro via Michael addition, followed by nucleophilic adduction of the aldehyde with a neighbouring protein nucleophile. Adducts were detected on lysine, histidine, and cysteine residues in subdomain IB of human serum albumin. Only a cysteine adduct and a putative cross-linking adduct were detected on glutathione S-transferase Pi. Modelling the docking of ABCA with HLA B*57:01 confirmed that ABCA has a strong binding affinity when bound covalently to Ser116, a key residue with regards to recognition by ABC-specific CD8+ T cells. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers bifunctional and trifunctional linkers and crosslinking reagents for various conjugation applications.

There are numerous bioconjugation possibilities with our linkers and crosslinkers, offering potential for structural stability or assistance in protein-protein, protein-peptide and peptide/protein-small molecule interactions. Other applications include immobilization for assays or purification, as well as various peptide-nucleic acid and nucleic acid-nucleic acid conjugations, among many others.

Our homo- and heterofunctional linkers contain diverse functional groups, such as primary amines, sulfhydryls, acids, alcohols and bromides. Many of our crosslinkers are functionalized with maleimide (sulfhydral reactive) and succinimidyl ester (NHS) or isothiocyanate (ITC) groups that react with amines. A selection of mono-protected (Boc, Fmoc, and Cbz) linkers is also available.
Reggie-1 and -2 proteins (flotillin-2 and -1 respectively) form their own type of non-caveolar membrane microdomains, which are involved in important cellular processes such as T-cell activation, phagocytosis and signalling mediated by the cellular prion protein and insulin; this is consistent with the notion that reggie microdomains promote protein assemblies and signalling. While it is generally known that membrane microdomains contain large multiprotein assemblies, the exact organization of reggie microdomains remains elusive. Using chemical cross-linking approaches, we have demonstrated that reggie complexes are composed of homo- and hetero-tetramers of reggie-1 and -2. Moreover, native reggie oligomers are indeed quite stable, since non-cross-linked tetramers are resistant to 8 M urea treatment. We also show that oligomerization requires the C-terminal but not the N-terminal halves of reggie-1 and -2. Using deletion constructs, we analysed the functional relevance of the three predicted ...
Dear netter, I am trying to cross-link some of my mutated actin monomers within filament actin by using the zero-length cross-linker. Anybody has success with this cross-linker? Your protocol and advice will be highly appreciated. Bing ...
Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ DSS Crosslinker 1g Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ DSS Crosslinker NHS-ester Crosslinkers
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Enzymes are immobilized by dissolving in water a photo-crosslinking resin containing stilbazolium groups, vinyl alcohol units and vinyl acetate units, adding an enzyme to the resultant aqueous solution and exposing the enzyme-containing resin solution to light to induce a crosslinking reaction of the photo-crosslinking resin and produce a polymer containing the enzyme entrapped therein.
It has been suggested that GAP-43 (growth-associated protein) binds to various proteins in growing neurons as part of its mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis in vivo, differentiated N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells were labeled with [35S]-amino acids and were treated with a cleavable crosslinking reagent. The cells were lysed in detergent and the lysates were centrifuged at 100,000 x g to isolate crosslinked complexes. Following cleavage of the crosslinks and analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, it was found that the crosslinker increased the level of various proteins, and particularly actin, in this pellet fraction. However, GAP-43 was not present, suggesting that GAP-43 was not extensively crosslinked to proteins of the cytoskeleton and membrane skeleton and did not sediment with them. GAP-43 also did not sediment with the membrane skeleton following nonionic detergent lysis. Calmodulin, but not actin or other proposed interaction partners, co-immunoprecipitated with GAP-43 from the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and reconstitution of sterol transfer by native mouse ABCG5 and ABCG8. AU - Wang, Jin. AU - Zhang, Da Wei. AU - Lei, Ying. AU - Xu, Fang. AU - Cohen, Jonathan C.. AU - Hobbs, Helen H.. AU - Xie, Xiao Song. PY - 2008/5/6. Y1 - 2008/5/6. N2 - ABCG5 (G5) and ABCG8 (G8) are ATP-binding cassette half-transporters that limit intestinal uptake and promote biliary secretion of neutral sterols. Here, we describe the purification of endogenous G5G8 from mouse liver to near homogeneity. We incorporated the native proteins into membrane vesicles and reconstituted sterol transfer. Native gel electrophoresis, density-gradient ultracentrifugation, and chemical cross-linking studies indicated that the functional native complex is a heterodimer. No higher order oligomeric forms were observed at any stage in the catalytic cycle. Sterol transfer activity by purified native G5G8 was stable, stereospecific, and selective. We also report that G5 but not G8 is S-palmitoylated and that ...
Summary. Background: Activated factor XIII (FXIIIa), a transglutaminase, introduces fibrin-fibrin and fibrin-inhibitor cross-links, resulting in more mechanically stable clots. The impact of cross-linking on resistance to fibrinolysis has proved challenging to evaluate quantitatively. Methods: We used a whole blood model thrombus system to characterize the role of cross-linking in resistance to fibrinolytic degradation. Model thrombi, which mimic arterial thrombi formed in vivo, were prepared with incorporated fluorescently labeled fibrinogen, in order to allow quantification of fibrinolysis as released fluorescence units per minute. Results: A site-specific inhibitor of transglutaminases, added to blood from normal donors, yielded model thrombi that lysed more easily, either spontaneously or by plasminogen activators. This was observed both in the cell/platelet-rich head and fibrin-rich tail. Model thrombi from an FXIII-deficient patient lysed more quickly than normal thrombi; replacement ...
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) belongs to the family of transglutaminase enzymes that catalyze the posttranslational modification of proteins via Ca(2+)-dependent cross-linking reactions. The catalytic action of tTG results in the formation of an isopeptide bond that is of great physiological significance since it is highly resistant to proteolysis and denaturants. Although tTG-mediated cross-linking reactions have been implicated to play a role in diverse biological processes, the precise physiological function of the enzyme remains unclear. Recent data, however, suggest that the protein polymers resulting from tTG-catalyzed reactions may play a role in commitment of cells to undergo apoptosis. On the same token, tTG-mediated formation of insoluble protein aggregates may underlie the markers of numerous pathological conditions, such as the senile plaques in Alzheimers disease and the Lewy bodies in Parkinsons disease. In addition to catalyzing Ca(2+)-dependent cross-linking reactions, tTG can also
Tissue engineering typically requires a use of scaffolds when delivering tissue-specific cells to be engineered. Hydrogels are frequently used as scaffolds, because their composition, structure, and function resemble the natural tissue extracellular matrix. In this study, hyaluronate-alginate hybrid (HAH) was synthesized by conjugating alginate (ALG) with the hyaluronate (HA) backbone using various types of linkers. HAH hydrogel was prepared by physically cross-linking the HAH polymer in the presence of calcium ions without chemical cross-linkers. The mechanical stiffness of HAH hydrogel was significantly affected by changing the type of a linker between HA and ALG. The mechanical stiffness increased with increasing linker length, likely due to enhanced intermolecular reactions between HA and ALG. This enables controlling the mechanical properties of HAH hydrogels. The types of linkers used to synthesize HAHs also influenced the chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells cultured in HAH ...
2005 (English)In: 8th International Symposium of Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 13th-16th Sept. 2005, Budapest, Hungary, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other scientific) ...
Polyamides comprising substantial amounts of Nylon-11 and/or Nylon-12 units are cross-linked by irradiation in the presence of an unsaturated cross-linking agent, preferably triallyl isocyanurate. The cross-linked products are particularly useful in the form of heat-recoverable shaped articles, e.g. heat-shrinkable tubing.
In order for transplanted cells to survive in the body, they need to be gently implanted, as well as provide a suitable environment allowing them to attach, survive, grow and function. Because different cell types prefer different types of environments, the delivery matrix can be modified. The HyStem® hydrogels permit gentle implantation by supporting cells when they are injected through a needle. HyStem® hydrogels are highly customizable, allowing for a variation of gel stiffness, viscosity and gelation time. They are also biocompatible. BioTime has designed these hydrogels to dissolve when needed to gently release cells from the matrix.. In addition to cells, proteins and/or other biological factors it can also be used as a time-release depot for drugs or biological molecules.. The technology underlying BioTimes HyStem® hydrogels was developed at the University of Utah and is based on a unique chemical cross-linking strategy. Building upon this platform, BioTime has developed the HyStem ...
Microcapsules are formed in the absence of coacervation by providing an oil-in-water emulsion containing a polymeric, emulsifying agent having cross-linkable groups or complexing sites and admixing with the emulsion a cross-linking agent or a complexing agent which forms an impermeable coating around the dispersed oil droplets. The emulsifying agent may be non-proteinaceous or the protein, gelatin. Impermeable capsule walls are formed solely by the addition of the cross-linking or complexing agent and extraneous hardening agents are obviated. Moreover, the emulsifying agent may be a preformed, polymeric, cross-linking agent which eliminates the need for any separate cross-linking agent.
A number of clinically important antitumor agents such as cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (a nitrogen mustard) or carmustine (BCNU, a chloro ethyl nitroso urea) for...
556 The pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs) are naturally occurring antitumor antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species. They bind covalently in the minor groove of DNA at purine-guanine-purine motifs. SJG-136, a pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer based on two PBD units joined through their C8-positions via a propyldioxy linker, is presently in Phase I evaluation in both the UK (through Cancer Research UK) and the USA (through the NCI) as a result of its striking in vitro and in vivo activity. As it contains two electrophilic centers, SJG-136 forms interstrand cross-links between guanines on opposite strands of DNA at Purine-GATC-Pyrimidine sequences. More recently we have explored the synthesis and biological activity of C2-aryl substituted PBD monomers that monoalkylate guanines in the minor groove of DNA rather than form cross-links. In this respect, their mechanism of action is similar to Ecteinascidin-743 (Yondelis, ET-743). We have found that these molecules possess encouraging ...
5-(hexyloxy)psoralen: forms a conjugate with oligonucleotide primers (at its omega-hexyl position) to promote site-specific photo-induced cross-linking at the end of the DNA fragment of interest before analysis by DGGE
Crosslinkable compositions contain a calcium carbonate-rich filler coated with a carboxylic acid of the formula R.sup.4--(OCR.sup.3.sub.2--C(.dbd.O)OH).sub.y. The compositions exhibit low modulus, good adhesion to substrates, and low skin formation time.
To understand outcomes, traditional data collection will only take you so far. IQVIA offers methods and expertise that take you to where you want to be. Explore our Innovative data collection techniques applied to a wide range of sources, cross-linking data and closing gaps. Use classical observational, low interventional clinical studies, or novel hybrid approaches such as mosaic and enriched studies. Designed to generate actionable insights and give you validated, representative, and fast results. Discover our track record in EMA-accepted Drug Utilization Studies (DUS) in multiple therapy areas and geographies and our experience in working with the FDA, ENCePP, EUnetHTA , MHRA.. ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Cross-links are bonds that link one polymer chain to another. These bonds can either be covalent or ionic in nature. In polymer science, the use of cross-links to promote a difference in a polymers physical properties is referred to as cross-linking. When polymer chains are linked together by cross-links, they lose some of their ability to move as individual polymer chains. For example, a liquid polymer, which possesses freely flowing chains can be turned into a "solid" or "gel" by cross-linking the chains together. Cross-linking inhibits close packing of the polymer chains, preventing the formation of crystalline regions. The restricted molecular mobility of a cross-linked structure limits the extension of the polymer material under loading. This means that when a polymer is stretched, the cross-links prevent the individual chains from sliding past each other. In the process, the chains may straighten out, but once the stress is removed they return to their original position and the object ...
A highly stable lipase from Geobacillus thermocatenolatus (BTL2) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein from Aquorea victoria (EGFP) were recombinantly produced N-terminally tagged to the lectin domain of the hemolytic pore-forming toxin LSLa from the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Such a domain (LSL 150), recently described as a novel fusion tag, is based on a β-trefoil scaffold with two operative binding sites for galactose or galactose-containing derivatives. The fusion proteins herein analyzed have enabled us to characterize the binding mode of LSL 150 to polymeric and solid substrates such as agarose beads. The lectin-fusion proteins are able to be quantitatively bound to both cross-linked and non-cross-linked agarose matrixes in a very rapid manner, resulting in a surprisingly dynamic protein distribution inside the porous beads that evolves from heterogeneous to homogeneous along the postimmobilization time. Such dynamic distribution can be related to the reversible nature of the ...
Water swellable polyacrylate articles are made from a solution of the polyacrylate having an effective amount of a soluble crosslinking agent therein by heating and/or drying the solution. The polyacrylate solution is made from a polyacrylate by saponification and the cross-linking agent is then added.
Ridder, A.N.J.A.; Spelbrink, R.E.J.; Demmers, J.A.A.; Rijkers, D.T.S.; Liskamp, R.M.J.; Brunner, J.; Heck, A.J.R.; de Kruijff, B.; Killian, J.A ...
Bifunctional crosslinker reagents for the conjugation of different biomolecules, including proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides.
A method of decorating laminated glass is disclosed. A pigment package composition comprising a cross-linkable thermoset resin, a crosslinker capable of crosslinking the thermoset resin, and a pigment is applied to a glass substrate. The crosslinker and thermoset resin are cured at a relatively low temperature (ca. 400 F.). The use of an organic based pigment composition allows use of thinner glass sheets than with traditional ceramic enamel pigment compositions.
Covalent cross-links hold many collagen molecules side by side, forming fibres.The ends of the parallel molecules are staggered.If they were not, there would be a weak spot running right across the collagen fibre.What is the meaning of staggered ends here? Why would there be a weak spot running right across the collagen fibre if the ends are not staggered? Thank you ...
The present invention relates to the penetrating networks comprising a covalently crosslinked polymer component and a polyester urethane component. The materials in accordance with the present invention are suitable in particular as materials for medicinal purposes, as implants, for target controlled stimuli-sensitive drug release, as ligament augmentation and as replacement material for inter-vertebrae disks.
Belotero Lips Contour is an advanced lip filler processed using a unique cross-linking method to produce a cohesive polydensified matrix product.
The most common schemes for forming a well-defined heteroconjugate involve the indirect coupling of an amine group on one biomolecule to a thiol group on a second biomolecule, usually by a two- or three-step reaction sequence.
DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are under-investigated DNA lesions caused by the covalent attachment of proteins to DNA. DPCs are induced by various endogenous chemicals like aldehydes or by chemotherapeutic drugs. Little is known about how cells repair DPCs and thus acquire resistance to DPC-induced chemotherapy. However, the persistence of DPCs causes genomic instability and cancer. We recently discovered a human syndrome (Ruijs-Aalfs or SPARTAN syndrome) related to the defective DPC repair pathway.
สาริกานนท์, จำลอง; สนธิสมบัติ, อภิชาติ (Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon, 2009-03-01) ...
The majority of biopharmaceutical proteins are used as is. However, the use of existing and emerging biopharmaceutical proteins can be greatly expanded, if they are derivatized with useful payloads. The resulting conjugates can be used for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, development of protein-derivatized biomedical surfaces and scaffolds, and for optimization of protein formulation and pharmacokinetic. Unfortunately, the progress in this field has been very slow. The fundamental problem has been the lack of an efficient technology for making protein-based conjugates. Most often conjugation relies on a random chemical cross-linking of a payload directly to a protein. Such process yields a mixture of products with varying activity, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetic. Alternatively, a cysteine residue is engineered into a safe position in the protein and its thiol group is used for site-specific cross-linking. However, the latter approach requires sophisticated ...
Argyris Politis is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Combining Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry of Intact Protein Complexes to Study the Architecture of Multi-subunit Protein Assemblies
An international team led by scientists at the National Institutes of Health is the first to discover a new way that cells fix an important and dangerous type of DNA damage known as a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). The researchers ...
Artemis (phospho Ser516) antibody (DNA cross-link repair 1C) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Artemis (phospho Ser516) pAb (GTX32292) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Artemis antibody (DNA cross-link repair 1C) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Artemis pAb (GTX23834) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Plasmid pDULE-ABK from Dr. Peter Schultzs lab contains the inserts tRNA synthetase and tRNA for a photocrosslinking amino acid and is published in Chembiochem. 2011 Aug 16;12(12):1854-7. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201100194. Epub 2011 Jun 15. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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Get quotes fast and Choose from 1 clinic(s) offering Corneal CrossLink (CXL) treatment in Coahiula Get quotes fast & choose the best with phone numbers, reviews, prices, maps and pictures. | Page 0
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of cross-linked chitosan microspheres by spray drying. T2 - Effect of cross-linking agent on the properties of spray dried microspheres. AU - Desai, K. G H. AU - Park, Hyun Jin. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Chitosan microspheres cross-linked with three different cross-linking agents viz, tripolyphosphate (TPP), formaldehyde (FA) and gluteraldehyde (GA) have been prepared by spray drying technique. The influence of these cross-linking agents on the properties of spray dried chitosan microspheres was extensively investigated. The particle size and encapsulation efficiencies of thus prepared chitosan microspheres ranged mainly between 4.1-4.7 μm and 95.12-99.17%, respectively. Surface morphology, % erosion, % water uptake and drug release properties of the spray dried chitosan microspheres was remarkably influenced by the type (chemical or ionic) and extent (1 or 2%w/w) of cross-linking agents. Spray dried chitosan microspheres cross-linked with TPP exhibited ...
Haemopexin receptors from mouse hepatoma (Hepa) cells were affinity-labelled by cross-linking to haem-125I-haemopexin complexes using two homo-[disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) and 3,3′-dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DTSSP)] and one hetero-[sulphosuccinimidyl 4-(p-maleimidophenyl)butyrate (sulpho-SMPB)] bifunctional cross-linking agents. Analysis of the cross-linked products by SDS/PAGE in the absence of reducing agents revealed that 125I-haemopexin was cross-linked specifically to a protein of apparent molecular mass 85-90 kDa. Upon reduction, haemopexin remained cross-linked to a protein of 20 kDa, suggesting that the murine haemopexin receptor has a subunit structure. Two subunits were identified: alpha (p65) and beta (p20). Furthermore, because haemopexin was cross-linked by all three agents to p20, the shortest cross-linker arm being 1.1 nm (11 A), we propose that the haem-haemopexin-binding site resides on this subunit. In addition, a cysteine residue of p20 is located near the ...
0024] In various embodiments, the components of the dry adhesive or the components of the shape memory polymer may include a rigid epoxy and a flexible epoxy. The range of possible crosslinking chemistries which may be used to achieve a dry adhesive or shape memory polymer may include alpha, omega-diaminoalkanes, organic multi-carboxylic acid, anhydride, or catalytic (as in imidazole type) crosslinking reactions. There are many different ways to achieve the appropriate relationships between the molecular properties. For example, the dry adhesives or shape memory polymers may include a rigid epoxy, an epoxy extender, and a crosslinking agent; or a rigid epoxy, a flexible crosslinking agent, and a flexible epoxy; or a rigid epoxy, a rigid crosslinking agent, and a flexible epoxy; or a rigid epoxy, a flexible epoxy, and a catalytic curing agent; or a rigid epoxy, a crosslinking agent, and a diluent; or a flexible epoxy, a crosslinking agent, and a diluent; or a rigid epoxy and a flexible ...
Purpose : To evaluate the stromal corneal findings in 3 different cross-linking techniques (epi-off, trans-epithelial and iontophoresis-assisted). Methods : 18 eyes of 18 keratoconus patients (group A) were treated by epi-off corss-linking technique, 15 eyes of 15 keratoconus patients (group B) were treated by trans-epithelial crosslinking technique and 22 eyes of 26 keratoconus patients (group C) were treated by iontophoresis-assisted cross-linking technique. All eyes were examined with the confocal microscope (Confoscan 4, Fortune Technologies, Italy), a central scan of the total corneal thickness was taken before, 1 week and 1 month after cross-linking treatment. Corneal stroma was evaluated by using the Navis v. 3.5.0. Software (NIDEK, Multi-Instrument Diagnostic System, Japan). Results : In group A we found, after cross-linking treatment, activated keratocites from superficial stroma to 275.1 ± 85.9 µm stromal depth at 1 week and from superficial stroma to 324.9 ± 66.0 µm stromal depth ...
To identify the molecular components of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the liver, 125I-labelled VIP was covalently linked to liver membranes by using the cleavable cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate). Purified rat liver plasma membranes were incubated with 125I-VIP, washed and treated with 1 mM-cross-linker. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by autoradiography revealed a major 125I-VIP-protein complex of Mr 51 000. A minor Mr 89 000 complex was also observed. An identical pattern of protein labelling was obtained using crude membranes from rat liver. Labelling of the Mr 51 000 and 89 000 species was specific in that it could be abolished by native VIP, but was unaffected by 1 microM-glucagon and cholecystokinin octapeptide. Densitometric scanning of autoradiographs indicated that the labelling of the two species was abolished by similar low VIP concentrations (0.1-100 nM). It was also reduced by two VIP agonists, peptide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ruthenium-catalyzed photo cross-linking of fibrin-based engineered tissue. AU - Bjork, Jason W.. AU - Johnson, Sandra L.. AU - Tranquillo, Robert T. PY - 2011/4/1. Y1 - 2011/4/1. N2 - Most cross-linking methods utilize chemistry or physical processes that are detrimental to cells and tissue development. Those that are not as harmful often do not provide a level of strength that ultimately meets the required application. The purpose of this work was to investigate the use of a ruthenium-sodium persulfate cross-linking system to form dityrosine in fibrin-based engineered tissue. By utilizing the tyrosine residues inherent to fibrin and cell-deposited proteins, at least 3-fold mechanical strength increases and 10-fold stiffness increases were achieved after cross-linking. This strengthening and stiffening effect was found to increase with culture duration prior to cross-linking such that physiologically relevant properties were obtained. Fibrin was not required for this effect as ...
Autori: Moldovan GL, DAndrea AD. Editorial: Cell, 139, p.1222-1224, 2009.. Rezumat:. Left unrepaired, DNA interstrand crosslinks represent impassable hurdles for DNA replication, and their removal is a complicated stepwise process involving a variety of enzymes. In a recent paper in Science, Knipscheer et al. (2009) demonstrate that the Fanconi Anemia protein FANCD2 promotes multiple steps of the crosslink repair process. Cuvinte cheie: DNA repair, Fanconi Anemia, DNA replication, cell cycle regulation, cancer URL: http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(09)01553-0. ...
Photo cross-linkable thermoresponsive polymers of UCST-type based on acrylamide (AAm) and acrylonitrile (AN) useful for preparing thermophilic hydrogel films and fibers are presented. The polymers prepared via free radical and reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization methods usi
Corneal collagen cross-linking successfully halted the progression of keratoconus for up to 4 years or more, according to a study.Investigators analyzed 30 patients with early to moderate keratoconus who underwent unilateral corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A 4 years to 6 years previously. Mean age at the time of cross-linking was 26.3 years; the mean interval between cross-linking and clinical evaluation was 53.3 months. Full Story →. ...
D2647 - 10 Standard Specification for Crosslinkable Ethylene Plastics , crosslinkable, crosslinked, ethylene plastics, insoluble fraction, volume resistivity, Crosslinking, Ethylene plastics--specifications,
In this article, Non-Tin Catalysts for Crosslinkable Silane-Terminated Polymers, published in the February 2016 issue of Coatings Tech, John Florio and Ravi Ravichandran discuss new tin-free compounds that have been developed for the catalysis of crosslinkable silane-terminated polymer systems. Each catalyst demonstrates superior activity with different organosilane chemistries used for a variety of applications, such as adhesives, sealants, and coatings. Read the full article here.. ...
0021] The polymerization may additionally be carried out in the presence of at least one crosslinker. In that case copolymers are obtained which have a higher molar mass than if the anionic monomers are polymerized in the absence of a crosslinker. Incorporating a crosslinker into the polymers results, moreover, in reduced solubility of the polymers in water. Depending on the amount of crosslinker copolymerized, the polymers become insoluble in water, but are swellable in water. Crosslinkers which can be used are all compounds which possess at least two ethylenically unsaturated double bonds in the molecule. Examples of crosslinkers are triallylamine, pentaerythritol triallyl ether, pentaerythritol tetraallyl ether, methylene bisacrylamide, N,N-divinylethyleneurea, allyl ethers comprising at least two allyl groups or vinyl ethers comprising at least two vinyl groups, of polyhydric alcohols such as, for example, sorbitol, 1,2-ethanediol, 1,4-butanediol, trimethylolpropane, glycerol, diethylene ...
Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure
[80 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Crosslinking Agent Market Research Report 2011-2023 report by HeyReport. Summary The global Crosslinking Agent market will reach xxx Million...
We have devised a generally applicable strategy for analysis of protein structure and have applied it to examine the structure of the transmembrane portion of the Tar receptor of Escherichia coli. The basis of our approach is the use of disulfide cross-linking to identify residues that are within close proximity. To generate and test large numbers of cysteine pairs, we used an unusual method of mutagenesis by which cysteine substitutions can be created randomly at a number of targeted codons. Cysteine-substituted proteins encoded by mutagenized genes may be screened directly for disulfide formation within oligomers or, alternatively, different pools of genes may be randomly recombined to generate gene populations with substitutions in multiple regions. Thus, it is possible to detect a variety of disulfide cross-links between and within individual protein molecules. Interactions between the four membrane-spanning stretches of the Tar dimer were probed by measuring the tendency of 48 cysteine ...
The in vivo association of histone H1 with specific genes in Tetrahymena thermophila was studied by using a simplified cross-linking and immunoprecipitation technique. Four genes were analyzed whose activities vary in three different developmental states (logarithmic growth, starvation, and conjugation). Hybridization of the immunoprecipitated DNA to cloned probes showed an inverse correlation between the level of immunoprecipitation with H1 antiserum and transcriptional activity. This represents the first demonstration of an alteration in histone H1-DNA interaction associated with developmental changes in transcriptional activity. ...
Tendon, porous matrix of cross-linked collagen and glycosaminoglycan matrix (tenoglide tendon protector sheet), per square centimeter (Tenoglide tendon prot, cm2)
We recently synthesized and characterized water-soluble dinuclear Ru-II arene complexes, in which two {(eta(6)-p-isopropyltoluene)RuCl[3-(oxo-kappa O)-2-methyl-4-pyridinonato-kappa O4]} units were linked by flexible chains of different length [(CH2)(n) (n = 4, 6, 8, 12)]. These new dinuclear ruthenium drugs were found to exert promising cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells. In the present work DNA modifications by these new dinuclear Ru-II arene compounds, which differed in the length of the linker between the two Ru-II centers, were examined by biochemical and biophysical methods. The complexes bind DNA forming intrastrand and interstrand cross-links in one DNA molecule in the absence of proteins. An intriguing aspect of the DNA-binding mode of these dinuclear Ru-II compounds is that they can cross-link two DNA duplexes and also proteins to DNA-a feature not observed for other antitumor ruthenium complexes. Thus, the concept for the design of interhelical and DNA-protein cross-linking agents ...
Cisplatin is a crucial agent in the treatment of many solid tumors, yet many tumors have either acquired or intrinsic resistance to the drug. We have used the homozygous diploid deletion pool of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, containing 4728 strains with individual deletion of all nonessential genes, to systematically identify genes that when deleted confer sensitivity to the anticancer agents cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and mitomycin C. We found that deletions of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair, recombinational repair, postreplication repair including translesional synthesis, and DNA interstrand cross-link repair resulted in sensitivity to all three of the agents, although with some differences between the platinum drugs and mitomycin C in the spectrum of required translesional polymerases. Putative defective repair of oxidative damage (imp2Delta strain) also resulted in sensitivity to platinum and oxaliplatin, but not to mitomycin C. Surprisingly in light of their different profiles of ...
A novel photocrosslinkable polymeric system has been developed for processing into films having stable second-order nonlinear optical properties. In the present system, polymers bearing photo-crosslinkable chromophores, such as polyvinylcinnamate and are reacted with appropriately designed nonlinear optical molecules with the cinnamate or other photocrosslinkable functionalities for photocrosslinking at one, two or more points. The system can be poled and photocrosslinked in the poled state to yield a material with stable optical nonlinearity and large electro-optic coefficients.
April 2015 - San Diego (USA). At the World Cornea Congress the results of different keratoconus Cross-Linking technics have been discussed.. Cross-linking is a corneas treatment for patients with keratoconus. The main purpose of this treatment is improve the links between collagens molecules of the cornea. The treatment can be done with EPI-OFF technic (removing corneal epithelium) or with EPI-ON technic (corneal epithelium isnt removed).. At San Diego was show how the EPI-ON technic(transepithelial Cross-Linking) is less powerful than EPI-OFF (keratoconus Cross-Linking).. ...
COVID-19 (short for "Coronavirus Disease 2019) is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. COVID-19 represents a particular challenge to people with serious chronic medical conditions such as diabetes. To keep our community as informed as possible, the American Diabetes Association is partnering with the Chan Zuckerberg Initiatives Meta to highlight the latest research developments at the intersection of COVID-19 and diabetes. ...
A cross-linking system using boron alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acid salts is shown for use in a water based well treating fluid. The cross-linker will gel the water based fluid usually after a delay at a relatively neutral pH. The cross-linker is provided as a concentrated stable solution containing borate ion as boric acid in a concentration of from less than 1% up to 25% by weight. The cross-linking solution additionally may contain from 1% to 10% of EDTA and/or Glycerine, however, without these additives the cross-linking solution is stable through temperature changes and freeze-and-thaw cycles. Water based fracturing fluid is shown using galactomannan guar polymers, hydroxypropyl guar polymers or derivatives thereof.
Sodium borate is used in biochemical and chemical laboratories to make buffer solutions, e.g. for gel electrophoresis of DNA. It has a lower conductivity, produces sharper bands, and can be run at higher speeds than can gels made from TBE Buffer or TAE Buffer (five to 35 V/cm as compared to five to ten V/cm). At a given voltage, the heat generation and thus the gel temperature is much lower than with TBE or TAE buffers, therefore the voltage can be increased to speed up electrophoresis so that a gel run takes only a fraction of the usual time. Downstream applications, such as isolation of DNA from a gel slice or Southern blot analysis, work as expected with sodium borate gels. Borate buffers (usually at pH 8) are also used as preferential equilibration solution in DMP-based crosslinking reactions.. Lithium borate is similar to sodium borate and has all of its advantages, but permits use of even higher voltages due to the lower conductivity of lithium ions as compared to sodium ions.[3] However, ...
We have isolated cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP)-resistant variants, C/CDP-1 and C/CDP-2, from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line after a stepwise exposure to increasing concentrations of CDDP, and a CDDP-sensitive revertant, R-1, from C/CDP-2 after continuous incubation for 5 months in the absence of CDDP. C/CDP-1 and C/CDP-2 showed 7- and 10-fold higher resistance to CDDP, respectively, compared to CHO cells. C/CDP-2 was cross-resistant to carboplatin, l-phenylalanine mustard (melphalan), and CdSO4, but not to other anticancer agents. Alkaline elution of DNA showed an increased amount of DNA interstrand cross-linking formation in CHO cells, but not in C/CDP-2 cells, when CHO and C/CDP-2 cells were cultured with CDDP. By contrast, alkaline elution of DNA showed increased formation of DNA cross-links when nuclei of C/CDP-2 cells were treated with CDDP. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of C/CDP-1 and C/CDP-2 was 4- and 6-fold higher than that of CHO cells, ...
Two changes were observed in the u.v. crosslinked complex between IRE1 and RNA during the UPR: in stressed cells, more radiolabeled RNA was revealed by the in vitro labeling of the immunoaffinity purified complex and, the labeled species recovered from the complex with IRE1 decreased in size. These changes were observed with three different agents that cause ER stress and that activate IRE1. Formation of the IRE1-RNA complex was dependent on the kinase domain of IRE1. Therefore, we regard it as highly likely that the changes in the complex reflect the activity of IRE1, as opposed to being a less specific consequence of the pharmacological manipulations or the stress they cause.. Because the RNA species that associate(s) with IRE1 have not yet been identified, we can only speculate about the nature of the ER stress-induced alteration in the complex. This alteration may be a consequence of IRE1-mediated splicing of the bound RNA. The splicing event may diminish the length of the protected RNA ...
Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft interpenetrierende Netzwerke aus einer kovalent vemetzten Polymerkomponente und einer Polyesterurethankomponente. The present invention relates interpenetrating networks consist of a covalently crosslinked polymer component and a polyester urethane. Die Materialien der vorliegenden Erfindung eignen sich insbesondere als Materialien auf dem medizinischen Gebiet, als Implantate, zur zielgesteuerten, stimuli-sensitiven Wirkstofffreisetzung, zur Bandaugmentation, als Bandscheibenersatz. The materials of the present invention are particularly suitable as materials in the medical field, as implants for target-controlled, stimuli-sensitive drug release for Bandaugmentation as disc replacement.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of induction and inhibition of matrix cross-linking on remodeling of the aqueous outflow resistance by ocular trabecular meshwork cells. AU - Yang, Yong Feng. AU - Sun, Ying Ying. AU - Acott, Ted. AU - Keller, Kate. PY - 2016/7/28. Y1 - 2016/7/28. N2 - The trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue controls drainage of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye primarily by regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Glaucomatous TM tissue is stiffer than age-matched controls, which may be due to alterations in ECM cross-linking. In this study, we used genipin or beta-Aminopropionitrile (BAPN) agents to induce or inhibit matrix cross-linking, respectively, to investigate the effects on outflow resistance and ECM remodeling. Treatment with BAPN increased outflow rates in perfused human and porcine anterior segments, whereas genipin reduced outflow. Using a fluorogenic peptide assay, MMP activity was increased with BAPN treatment, but ...
Abstract: : Purpose:Transducin activation by rhodopsin has been shown under positive allosteric control (Wessling-Resnick and Johnson, JBC 262,3996 (1987)). The origin of this allosteric behavior has not been identified. Chemical cross-linking study (Hingorani, et al., JBC,259,6694 (1984)) suggested that transducin forms supermolecular structure as large as [Tαßγ]4 in solution. In this study, the role of the tetrameric [Tαßγ]4 on the allosteric behavior of transducin is investigated. Methods:Correlations of the tetrameric transducin [Tαßγ]4 and its binding to rhodopsin have been studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and chemical modification methods. Specific inhibitory effect of bovine serum albumin (Buzdygon and Leibman, JBC,259,14567,(1984)) on the allosteric binding of transducin was examined. Results:Ultracentrifugation study confirmed that transducin in solution is under equilibrium of [Tαßγ]4 and Tαßγ. Upon activation with Gpp(NH)p, these complexes dissociate into ...
This is a non-randomized study. All eyes that qualify for the study will receive the cross-linking (CXL) procedure. Corneal collagen cross-linking is performed as a single treatment. Depending on the patients condition, the CXL procedure may be performed under sedation or anesthesia. Subjects are followed for 12 months after the procedure to evaluate the long term effects of corneal collagen cross-linking ...
Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin (vitamin B2) and UV-A light is a surgical treatment for corneal ectasia such as keratoconus, PMD, and post-LASIK ectasia. It is used in an attempt to make the cornea stronger. According to a 2015 Cochrane review, there is insufficient evidence to determine if it is useful in keratoconus. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration approved riboflavin ophthalmic solution crosslinking based on three 12-month clinical trials. A 2015 Cochrane review that looked at all high quality evidence on corneal collagen cross-linking found that it was insufficient to determine if it is useful in keratoconus. Among those with keratoconus who worsen CXL may be used. In this group the most common side effects are haziness of the cornea, punctate keratitis, corneal striae, corneal epithelium defect, and eye pain. In those who use it after post-LASIK ectasia, the most common side effects are haziness of the cornea, corneal epithelium defect, corneal striae, dry eye, ...
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents. The resulting genomic instability is thought to underlie early-onset cancer, bone marrow failure, and other problems seen in the disease. Central to the FA DNA repair pathway is the Fanconi anemia I-Fanconi anemia D2 (ID) complex formed by the FANCD2 and FANCI proteins, which localize to sites of DNA repair. Joo et al. determined the crystal structure of the mouse ID complex and the isolated FANCI protein. The complex has a trough-like shape, with the monoubiquitination sites within the ID interface, at the bottom of the electropositive trough, in two solvent-accessible tunnels that could each accommodate a ubiquitin tail. The trough forms a series of grooves that, in FANCI, are able to bind to a Y-shaped fragment of DNA, suggesting how the complex might bind to a replication fork stalled at a DNA cross-link.. W. Joo, G. Xu, N. S. Persky, A. Smogorzewska, D. G. Rudge, O. Buzovetsky, S. J. Elledge, ...
The present study was designed to evaluate the |I|in vivo|/I| nutritional quality of the modified proteins of milk and wheat by cross-linking with microbial transglutaminase (TGase). White Wistar rats were divided into six groups receiving diets that contained casein, cross-linked milk protein, milk protein, cross-linked wheat protein, wheat protein, or a protein free diet. Results showed that cross-linked milk and wheat proteins can support growth, with the animals showing a positive nitrogen balance. Protein true digestibility was similar between casein and non-cross-linked milk protein diets. It was also observed that milk and wheat proteins were not affected by cross-linking concerning several quality parameters: protein efficiency ratio, food efficiency ratio, food transformation index, apparent nitrogen digestibility, true digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, net protein ratio and protein retention efficiency. Based on these results, it can be suggested that the use of
Simultaneous intratunnel cross-linking with intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation versus simultaneous epithelium-off cross-linking with intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation for keratoconus management Mohamed Hosny, Moustafa Nour, Sarah Azzam, Mohsen Salem, Esraa El-Mayah Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of intratunnel cross-linking combined with intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation versus combined epithelium-off (epi-off) cross-linking and ICRS implantation for the management of keratoconus.Methods: Our study included 20 eyes of 12 patients with moderate-to-severe keratoconus. Group A included 10 eyes that underwent simultaneous ICRS implantation with intratunnel cross-linking. Group B included 10 eyes that underwent simultaneous ICRS implantation with epi-off cross-linking. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest sphere and

TNO Repository search for: subject:Cross Linking ReagentsTNO Repository search for: subject:'Cross Linking Reagents'

... cross linking reagent · Cross Linking Reagents · disulfide · globular protein · milk protein · monomer · ovalbumin · thiol ... Cross-linked 2-nitroalkyl starches · Starch, cross-linking · Starch · Chemical reaction · Controlled study · Cross linking · ... Cross-Linking Reagents · Molecular Sequence Data · Nitro Compounds · Starch · Viscosity Granular starch was cross-linked with 1 ... cross linking reagent · arthritis · articular cartilage · collagen synthesis · cross linking · disease course · inflammation · ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject:%22Cross%20Linking%20Reagents%22

Protein Cross-Linking & Protein Modification ReagentsProtein Cross-Linking & Protein Modification Reagents

Protein cross-linking agents and protein modification reagents optimized to help researchers achieve highly efficient reactions ... Protein Cross-Linking & Protein Modification * Protein Cross-Linkers * Homobifunctional Cross-Linkers * Heterobifunctional ... Our high-quality reagents help researchers consistently achieve the protein cross-linking and protein modification results they ... Protein Cross-Linkers. Protein cross-linking or bioconjugation is the process of creating covalent bonds between two or more ...
more infohttps://www.gbiosciences.com/Protein-Research/Cross-Linking-Modification

mass spectrometry cross-linking and derivatization reagents | NCBO BioPortalmass spectrometry cross-linking and derivatization reagents | NCBO BioPortal

XLMOD is an ontology for cross-linking mass spectrometry reagents and GC-MS derivatization reagents.. ... mass spectrometry cross-linking and derivatization reagents Last uploaded: March 15, 2019 ...
more infohttp://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/XLMOD

Chemical Crosslinking Reagents-Section 5.2 | Thermo Fisher ScientificChemical Crosslinking Reagents-Section 5.2 | Thermo Fisher Scientific

Note: You clicked on an external link, which has been disabled in order to keep your shopping session open. ... Chapter 5-Crosslinking and Photoactivatable Reagents * *Introduction to Crosslinking and Photoactivatable Reagents-Section 5.1 ... Amine-Amine Crosslinking The scientific literature contains numerous references to reagents that form crosslinks between amines ... Protein-Protein Crosslinking Kit. Our Protein-Protein Crosslinking Kit (P6305) provides all of the reagents and purification ...
more infohttp://www.thermofisher.com/cn/zh/home/references/molecular-probes-the-handbook/crosslinking-and-photoactivatable-reagents/chemical-crosslinking-reagents.html

Faculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term Cross-Linking ReagentsFaculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term Cross-Linking Reagents

Mesh term Cross-Linking Reagents. Browse to parent terms:. Indicators and Reagents. Description. Reagents with two reactive ...
more infohttps://fcd.mcw.edu/?module=search&func=showTerm&id=68003432

What is cross-linking reagents?What is cross-linking reagents?

Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby ... What is cross-linking reagents?. 3 years ago by Pozzter Q&A 0 replies, read ~324032 times ... Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby ...
more infohttps://pozzter.com/post/what-is-cross-linking-reagents-kmbQ0cZ

Protein Crosslinking | Thermo Fisher Scientific - MXProtein Crosslinking | Thermo Fisher Scientific - MX

Learn more about protein crosslinking and browse popular protein crosslinking products amongst many categories including other ... Crosslinking is the process of chemically joining two or more molecules by a covalent bond. Crosslinking reagents contain ... Note: You clicked on an external link, which has been disabled in order to keep your shopping session open. ... Crosslinking reagents based on maleimide and hydrazide reactive groups for conjugation and formation of covalent crosslinks ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/mx/en/home/life-science/protein-biology/protein-labeling-crosslinking/protein-crosslinking.html

Coupling & Cross-Linking Reagents, Linkers, LigandsCoupling & Cross-Linking Reagents, Linkers, Ligands

Cross-Linking Reagents, Linkers, Ligands. HOAT (1-Hydroxy-7-azobenzotriazole) , 98%, Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA) , 99.9%, HATU ... Cross-Linking Reagents, Linkers, Ligands Coupling & Cross-Linking Reagents, Linkers, Ligands. 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-Ethyl ...
more infohttp://srlchem.com/products/product_tree/entryId/5777/Coupling---Cross-Linking-Reagents--Linkers--Ligands

mass spectrometry cross-linking and derivatization reagents | NCBO BioPortalmass spectrometry cross-linking and derivatization reagents | NCBO BioPortal

XLMOD is an ontology for cross-linking mass spectrometry reagents and GC-MS derivatization reagents.. ... mass spectrometry cross-linking and derivatization reagents Last uploaded: August 22, 2019 ...
more infohttp://obo-foundry.bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/XLMOD

DSS Crosslinking Reagent 1 gram - Disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) - ProteoChemDSS Crosslinking Reagent 1 gram - Disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) - ProteoChem

Bulk quantities of DSS crosslinking reagent are also available from ProteoChem. - DSS crosslinker is a homobifunctional protein ... crosslinker that is cell membrane permeable and can be used to crosslink intracellular proteins. - ... DSS crosslinking reagent can be used to crosslink intracellular proteins. If extracellular crosslinking is desired, then BS3, ... Protein Crosslinking Reagents » Homobifunctional Crosslinkers » Disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) » DSS Crosslinking Reagent 1 gram ...
more infohttp://www.proteochem.com/dsscrosslinker1gram-p-75.html

CROSSLINKING REAGENT FOR ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION - Patent applicationCROSSLINKING REAGENT FOR ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION - Patent application

An intramolecular crosslink occurs when both protein linking groups of the crosslinking reagent cross-link to accessible amino ... subject crosslinking reagents may be used to cross-link two members of such complexes. The length of the crosslinking reagent ... The crosslinking reagents include a trifunctional scaffold that links to two protein linking groups and also links to an ... The subject kits contain at least the crosslinking reagent. The kit may also contain reagents for cross-linking, affinity ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120107855

Ametycine
        -
        Antibiotics, Antineoplastic,  Alkylating Agents,  Cross-Linking Reagents,  Nucleic Acid Synthesis...Ametycine - Antibiotics, Antineoplastic, Alkylating Agents, Cross-Linking Reagents, Nucleic Acid Synthesis...

The guanine and cytosine content correlates with the degree of mitomycin-induced cross-linking. At high concentrations of the ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Ametycine.html

Mytomycin
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        Antibiotics, Antineoplastic,  Alkylating Agents,  Cross-Linking Reagents,  Nucleic Acid Synthesis...Mytomycin - Antibiotics, Antineoplastic, Alkylating Agents, Cross-Linking Reagents, Nucleic Acid Synthesis...

The guanine and cytosine content correlates with the degree of mitomycin-induced cross-linking. At high concentrations of the ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Mytomycin.html

Chemical cross-linking with thiol-cleavable reagents combined with differential mass spectrometric peptide mapping--a novel...Chemical cross-linking with thiol-cleavable reagents combined with differential mass spectrometric peptide mapping--a novel...

Comparison of the peptide maps obtained from digested cross-linked ParR dimers in the presence and absence of a thiol reagent ... The strategy of chemical cross-linking combined with differential MALDI-MS peptide mapping (+ thiol reagent) enabled ... thiol reagent). The data revealed the presence of an intermolecular cross-link between the receptor regions of the glycoprotein ... Glycoprotein fusion constructs CD28-IgG and CD80-Fab were cross-linked in vitro by DTSSP, characterized by nonreducing SDS-PAGE ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Chemical-cross-linking-with-thiol-cleavable-with-to-Bennett-Kussmann/a945ac351188ed9d6842ab7e2a12876b4d398532

Mass spectrometry evidence for cisplatin as a protein cross-linking reagent  - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive PortalMass spectrometry evidence for cisplatin as a protein cross-linking reagent - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal

... are shown to be a valuable means of characterizing cross-linking sites. Cisplatin is different from current cross-linking ... 2011) Mass spectrometry evidence for cisplatin as a protein cross-linking reagent. Analytical Chemistry, Vol.83 (No.13). pp. ... Thus, it has the potential to function as a cross-linker. In this report, the cross-linking ability of cisplatin is ... Cisplatin is a potent anti-cancer drug, which functions by cross-linking adjacent DNA guanine residues. However within one day ...
more infohttp://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/37623/

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Different Decellularization Methods and Genipin-Cross-Linking on the Properties of...A Comparative Study of the Effects of Different Decellularization Methods and Genipin-Cross-Linking on the Properties of...

Natural cross-linking with genipin can be applied to... ... Feasibility study of a natural crosslinking reagent for ... Natural cross-linking with genipin can be applied to improve those properties. The goals of this study were to evaluate the ... Baiguera S, Del Gaudio C, Kuevda E, Gonfiotti A, Bianco A, Macchiarini P. Dynamic decellularization and cross-linking of rat ... Langmaier F, Mládek M, Mokrejš P. Hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate cross-linked with dialdehyde starch. J Therm Anal Calorim. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13770-018-0170-6

Epoxide-crosslinked, charged cellulosic membrane - CHARKOUDIAN JOHNEpoxide-crosslinked, charged cellulosic membrane - CHARKOUDIAN JOHN

The ultraporous membrane comprises a surface-charge layer of crosslinked p ... the raw cellulose membrane is first reacted with a diepoxide linking reagent which can effect some cross-linking of the ... The ultraporous membrane comprises a crosslinked polymer formed from a cellulosic polymer and a crosslinking reagent. The ... wherein said crosslinking reagent has the formula: 4. 3. The porous synthetic membrane of claim 1, wherein said crosslinking ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2004/0206694.html

Cross-link - WikipediaCross-link - Wikipedia

... polymerized resin with specific chemicals called crosslinking reagents results in a chemical reaction that forms cross-links. ... electron beam processing is used to cross-link the C type of cross-linked polyethylene. Other types of cross-linked ... The crosslink density can then be calculated. Branching (chemistry) Cross-linked enzyme aggregate Cross-linked polyethylene ... In-vitro cross-linking method, termed PICUP (photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins), was developed in 1999. They ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-link

Denaturation (biochemistry) - WikipediaDenaturation (biochemistry) - Wikipedia

Cross-linking reagentsEdit. Cross-linking agents for proteins include:[citation needed] ... an injury-induced aggregation event that disulfide crosslinks proteins and facilitates their removal by plasmin". Cell Reports ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denaturation_

IJMS | Free Full-Text | A Crosslinking Analysis of GAP-43 Interactions with Other Proteins in Differentiated N1E-115 CellsIJMS | Free Full-Text | A Crosslinking Analysis of GAP-43 Interactions with Other Proteins in Differentiated N1E-115 Cells

... amino acids and were treated with a cleavable crosslinking reagent. The cells were lysed in detergent and the lysates were ... However, GAP-43 was not present, suggesting that GAP-43 was not extensively crosslinked to proteins of the cytoskeleton and ... Following cleavage of the crosslinks and analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, it was found that the crosslinker ... centrifuged at 100,000 x g to isolate crosslinked complexes. ... A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/9/9/1753/xml

Probing Native Protein Structures by Chemical Cross-linking, Mass Spectrometry, and Bioinformatics | Molecular & Cellular...Probing Native Protein Structures by Chemical Cross-linking, Mass Spectrometry, and Bioinformatics | Molecular & Cellular...

Conventional Cross-linking Reagents. This group of chemical cross-linking reagents consists of two reactive sites connected ... Other cross-linking areas such as protein-DNA cross-linking, photoinduced cross-linking, or the characterization of disulfide ... Functionalized Cross-linking Reagents. To facilitate the analysis of the products of cross-linking reactions by mass ... Nomenclature of common products of chemical cross-linking reactions. The terminology, cross-link, loop-link, and monolink, used ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/content/9/8/1634

Location of the Intermolecular Crosslinking Sites in Collagen | Springer for Research & DevelopmentLocation of the Intermolecular Crosslinking Sites in Collagen | Springer for Research & Development

Collagen is stabilized by intermolecular crosslinks which occur following the enzymatic conversion of the ε-amino groups of ... Siegel, R.C., Pinnell, S.R., and Martin, G.R. (1970) "Cross-Linking of Collagen and Elastin. Properties of Lysyl Oxidase," ... A Topographical Study with the Crosslinking Reagent Dimethyl Suberimidate," Eur. J. Biochem. 42 21-28Google Scholar ... Hunt, E. and Morris, H.R. (1973) "Collagen Cross-Links. A Mass-Spectrometric and 1H- and 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9113-6_37

DE4015085C2 - Crosslinked, water-absorbent polymer and use for the manufacture of hygiene articles, for soil improvement and in...DE4015085C2 - Crosslinked, water-absorbent polymer and use for the manufacture of hygiene articles, for soil improvement and in...

239000003431 cross linking reagent Substances 0 description 1 * 230000002950 deficient Effects 0 description 1 ... Powder-form cross-linked polymers capable of absorbing aqueous liquids and body fluids, method of preparing them and their use ... Cross-linked polymers of ethylenically unsaturated acids and their use in the production of hygiene articles ... Cross-linked, water-absorbent polymer and its use in the production of hygiene items ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/DE4015085C2/en

Capsid conformational sampling in HK97 maturation visualized by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM.  - PubMed - NCBICapsid conformational sampling in HK97 maturation visualized by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM. - PubMed - NCBI

Cross-Linking Reagents. Secondary source ID. *PDB/2FRP. *PDB/2FS3. *PDB/2FSY ... Mutants that cannot crosslink or EI-IV particles that have been rendered incapable of forming the final crosslink remain in the ... 7 laevo lattice with each subunit covalently crosslinked to two neighbors. Well-characterized pH 4 expansion intermediates make ... to the Head II conformation that is secured at this extent only by the formation of the final class of covalent crosslinks. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17098191?dopt=AbstractPlus

methoxsalen (CHEBI:18358)methoxsalen (CHEBI:18358)

cross-linking reagent A reagent with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of ... methoxsalen (CHEBI:18358) has role cross-linking reagent (CHEBI:50684) methoxsalen (CHEBI:18358) has role dermatologic drug ( ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:18358
  • The intermolecular contact regions between monomers of the homodimeric DNA binding protein ParR and the interaction between the glycoproteins CD28 and CD80 were investigated using a strategy that combined chemical cross-linking with differential MALDI-MS analyses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By use of glutaraldehyde, intermolecular cross-linkage of immunoglobulins to albumin was effected. (meta.org)
  • 10. The compound of claim 9, wherein at least one of Z 1 and Z 2 is --C(═Y)NH-T 3 -Z 3 wherein Z 3 is selected from an iodoacetyl group, a maleimide, a photoreactive linking group, an aldehyde and an epoxide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The cells were lysed in detergent and the lysates were centrifuged at 100,000 x g to isolate crosslinked complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent advances in instrumentation, cross-linking protocols, and analysis software have led to a renewed interest in this technique, which promises to provide important information about native protein structure and the topology of protein complexes. (mcponline.org)
  • A variety of reagents to facilitate this technique are available including the arginine specific endopeptidase SG-Arginine-C™ , the serine endopeptidase SG-Chymotrypsin™ , the serine endopeptidase SG-Glutamic-C™ , and the highly specific serine protease SG-Lysine-C™ . Also available is the chemically methylated, TPCK treated affinity purified Mass Spectrometry Grade Trypsin . (gbiosciences.com)
  • 4. The porous synthetic membrane of claim 1, wherein substantially less than all crosslinkable hydroxyl moieties are bound with said crosslinking reagent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Upon cross-linking with methyl 4-mercaptobutyrimidate hydrochloride a small amount of what seems to be a heterodimer made up of the N-terminal gag protein p10 and the hydrophobic membrane glycoprotein gp36 can be observed. (elsevier.com)
  • G-Biosciences offer a wide range of tools for protein cross-linking and protein modification applications. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Our high-quality reagents help researchers consistently achieve the protein cross-linking and protein modification results they require. (gbiosciences.com)
  • G-Biosciences provide several protein reduction and modification reagents. (gbiosciences.com)
  • In addition to our protein cross-linking and protein modification reagents, a variety of accessories including SpinOUT™ Columns , Optimizer Buffer™ , Tube-O-Reactor™ , and Tube-O-DIALYZER™ are available to ensure researchers achieve optimal results. (gbiosciences.com)
  • This area of chemistry is known as bioconjugation and includes crosslinking, immobilization, surface modification, and labeling of biomolecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • Higher charge states not only promote the detection of cross-linking products with less purification, but result in more comprehensive MS/MS fragmentation and can assist the assignment of modification sites. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The resulting modification of mechanical properties depends strongly on the cross-link density. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of SEM revealed that the decellularized trachea retained the micro- and ultra-structural architectures of the trachea and that the matrices cross-linked with genipin were denser. (springer.com)
  • We critically discuss advantages and limitations of different concepts and look beyond the immediate outcome of cross-linking experiments (putative interactions and/or distance constraints) and examine the potential role of chemical cross-linking in the analysis of protein interaction networks and, more generally, for structural and systems biology. (mcponline.org)
  • Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry is a rapidly developing technique for structural proteomics. (mcponline.org)
  • One of the tools for modern structural proteomics is chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Heterologous conjugates of wheat arabinoxylan and β-casein were prepared via enzymatic cross-linking, using sequential addition of the arabinoxylan to a mixture of β-casein, peroxidase, and hydrogen peroxide. (tudelft.nl)
  • The tracheas of New Zealand rabbits were decellularized by the Triton-X 100-processed method (TPM) and the detergent-enzymatic method (DEM) and were then cross-linked with genipin. (springer.com)
  • Especially in the case of commercially used plastics, once a substance is cross-linked, the product is very hard or impossible to recycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is also possible and, depending on the sample, even more likely that only one end of the bifunctional cross-linker will react with the protein because the other end does not come into contact with another cross-linkable residue, or the second reactive group is deactivated, e.g. by hydrolysis, before forming a cross-link. (mcponline.org)
  • Also available are a large selection of photoreactive cross-linkers including ABH , APG , NHS-ASA , Sulfo SAND , and many others. (gbiosciences.com)
  • APDP A sulfhydryl-reactive and photoreactive cross-linker Features Chemical Name: N-[4-(p-Azidosalicylamido)butyl]-3'-(2'-pyridyldithio)propionamide Synonym: APDP Formula: C₁₈H₂₀N₆O₂ Molecular Weight: 446.55 Spacer Arm: 21.0Å Reactive Toward: sulfhydryl and amino. (gbiosciences.com)
  • 2. In the majority of cases, a crosslink is a covalent structure but the term is also used to describe sites of weaker chemical interactions, portions of crystallites, and even physical interactions and entanglements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-links can be formed by chemical reactions that are initiated by heat, pressure, change in pH, or radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical process of vulcanization is a type of cross-linking that changes rubber to the hard, durable material associated with car and bike tires. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention is directed to pharmaceutical compositions, and method for preparing pharmaceutical compositions, comprising a cross-linked matrix physically entrapping at least one therapeutic agent. (google.com.au)
  • The limit of this trajectory corresponds to the Head II conformation that is secured at this extent only by the formation of the final class of covalent crosslinks. (nih.gov)
  • Several cross-links were unique to each form of the prion protein, including a Lys 185 -Lys 220 cross-link, which is unique to the PrPβ and thus may be indicative of the conformational change involved in the formation of prion protein oligomers. (mcponline.org)
  • and P 1 and P 2 each independently comprise a linked polypeptide and a carbonyl or a heterosubstituted carbonyl group in a position adjacent to T 11 and T 12 respectively. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The authors could identify 15 cross-links that did not bridge directly adjacent lysines and therefore provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, platinum(II) inherently has two positive charges which enhance the detection of cross-linked products. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Other types of cross-linked polyethylene are made by addition of peroxide during extruding (type A) or by addition of a cross-linking agent (e.g. vinylsilane) and a catalyst during extruding and then performing a post-extrusion curing. (wikipedia.org)