International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Blood Pressure Determination
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Insurance, Physician Services
Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Encephalitis, St. Louis
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
West Nile virus
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
West Nile Fever
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Fatal Serratia marcescens meningitis and myocarditis in a patient with an indwelling urinary catheter. (1/5242)Serratia marcescens is commonly isolated from the urine of patients with an indwelling urinary catheter and in the absence of symptoms is often regarded as a contaminant. A case of fatal Serratia marcescens septicaemia with meningitis, brain abscesses, and myocarditis discovered at necropsy is described. The patient was an 83 year old man with an indwelling urinary catheter who suffered from several chronic medical conditions and from whose urine Serratia marcescens was isolated at the time of catheterisation. Serratia marcescens can be a virulent pathogen in particular groups of patients and when assessing its significance in catheter urine specimens, consideration should be given to recognised risk factors such as old age, previous antibiotic treatment, and underlying chronic or debilitating disease, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. (+info)
Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (2/5242)Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries. (+info)
Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients. (3/5242)Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem. (+info)
Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (4/5242)Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE. (+info)
Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (5/5242)Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit. (+info)
Efficacy of sulbactam alone and in combination with ampicillin in nosocomial infections caused by multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii. (6/5242)From March 1995 to March 1997, sulbactam was prospectively evaluated in patients with non-life-threatening multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. During this period, 47 patients were treated with sulbactam; of them, five were excluded because they had received < or =48 h of sulbactam therapy. A total of 42 patients, 27 males and 15 females with a mean age of 60+/-15 years, were finally evaluated. Infections were as follows: surgical wound, 19; tracheobronchitis, 12; urinary tract, 7; catheter-related bacteraemia, 2; and pneumonia, 2. Eighteen patients received intravenous sulbactam alone (1 g every 8 h) and 24 patients received intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin (1 g:2 g every 8 h) with no major adverse effects. Of the 42 patients, 39 improved or were cured and showed A. baumannii eradication and one patient had persistence of wound infection after 8 days of sulbactam/ampicillin requiring surgical debridement. Two patients died after 3 days of therapy (one of the deaths was attributable to A. baumannii infection). The in-vitro activity of the sulbactam/ampicillin combination was by virtue of the antimicrobial activity exhibited by sulbactam. Killing curves showed that sulbactam was bacteriostatic; no synergy was observed between ampicillin and sulbactam. Our results indicate that sulbactam may prove effective for non-life-threatening A. baumannii infections. Its role in the treatment of severe infections is unknown. However, the current formulation of sulbactam alone may allow its use at higher doses and provide new potential synergic combinations, particularly for those infections by A. baumannii resistant to imipenem. (+info)
Transmission dynamics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in England and Wales. (7/5242)A simple epidemiological framework for the analysis of the transmission dynamics of hospital outbreaks of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals in England and Wales is presented. Epidemic strains EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 are becoming endemic in hospitals in the United Kingdom, and theory predicts that EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 will reach respective endemic levels of 158 (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-173) and 116 (95% CI, 109-123) affected hospitals with stochastic fluctuations of up to 30 hospitals in each case. An epidemic of VRE is still at an early stage, and the incidence of hospitals newly affected by VRE is growing exponentially at a rate r=0.51/year (95% CI, 0.48-0.54). The likely impact of introducing surveillance policies if action is taken sufficiently early is estimated. Finally, the role of heterogeneity in hospital size is considered: "Super-spreader hospitals" may increase transmission by 40%-132% above the expected mean. (+info)
Serum is more suitable than whole blood for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by nested PCR. (8/5242)PCR assays for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis can be performed either on serum or on whole blood, but results obtained with the two kinds of samples have never been formally compared. Thus we designed a nested PCR assay in which five specific inner pairs of primers were used to amplify specific targets on the rRNA genes of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. In vitro, the lower limit of detection of each nested PCR assay was 1 fg of purified DNA from the corresponding Candida species. In rabbits with candidemia of 120 minutes' duration following intravenous (i.v.) injection of 10(8) CFU of C. albicans, the sensitivities of the PCR in serum and whole blood were not significantly different (93 versus 86%). In other rabbits, injected with only 10(5) CFU of C. albicans, detection of candidemia by culture was possible for only 1 min, whereas DNA could be detected by PCR in whole blood and in serum for 15 and 150 min, respectively. PCR was more often positive in serum than in whole blood in 40 culture-negative samples (27 versus 7%; P < 0.05%). Lastly, experiments with rabbits injected i.v. with 20 or 200 microgram of purified C. albicans DNA showed that PCRs were positive in serum from 30 to at least 120 min after injection, suggesting that the clearance of free DNA is slow. These results suggest that serum is the sample of choice, which should be used preferentially over whole blood for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by PCR. (+info)
Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia, Health Care-Associated Pneumonia, and Ventilator-Associated Event Empiric Therapy: Empiric Therapy...
Empiric therapeutic regimens for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are outlined below, including those for early onset, late onset, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) factors. Definitions HAP: diagnosis made > 48h after admission VAP: diagnosis made 48-72h after ...
Estimated Hospital Costs Associated With Preventable Health Care-Associated Infections if Health Care Antiseptic Products Were...
Ms. Jordana Schmier and Ms. Svetlana Semenova recently published, Estimated Hospital Costs Associated with Preventable Health Care-Associated Infections if Health Care Antiseptic Products Were Unavailable. The article was published in ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research.. Health care-associated infections (HAIs) pose a significant health care and cost burden. This study estimates annual HAI hospital costs in the US avoided through use of health care antiseptics (health care personnel hand washes and rubs; surgical hand scrubs and rubs; patient preoperative and preinjection skin preparations).. Click here to view the article. ...
Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Health Care-Associated Infections in the NICU | From the American Academy of Pediatrics |...
Newborn infants hospitalized in a NICU have host factors that not only make them more vulnerable to acquisition of health care-associated infections but also increase their risk of developing more serious illnesses. Whether an infant is born preterm or at term, many components of their innate and adaptive immune systems exhibit diminished function when compared with older children and adults. Infants with birth weights less than1500 g (very low birth weight) have rates of health care-associated infections 3 times higher than those who weigh greater than 1500 g at birth. However, the increased susceptibility to infection in infants of very low birth weight is multifactorial and related to both the developmental deficiencies in the innate and adaptive immune systems and a greater likelihood of a critical illness requiring invasive monitoring and procedures. Furthermore, the immunologic deficiencies can be exacerbated by the critical nature of many of the illnesses affecting newborn ...
Computers in Neonatology: Haas JP
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia surveillance is difficult and time-consuming. The definition is complicated, and there are many opportunities for subjectivity in determining infection status. OBJECTIVE: To compare traditional infection control professional (ICP) surveillance for pneumonia among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with computerized surveillance of chest x-ray reports using an automated detection system based on a natural language processor. METHODS: This system evaluated chest x-rays from 2 NICUs over a 2-year period. It flagged x-rays indicative of pneumonia according to rules derived from the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System definition as applied to radiology reports. Data from the automated system were compared with pneumonia data collected prospectively by an ICP. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the computerized surveillance in NICU 1 was 71%, and specificity was 99.8%. The positive predictive value was 7.9%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was >99%. Data from ...
Attributable Mortality of Healthcare-Associated Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin...
New publication on Attributable Mortality of Healthcare-Associated Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus from Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology Attributable Mortality of Healthcare-Associated Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
CDC: Health Care-associated Infection Reaches All Time High
The incidence, mortality, and medical care costs of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), a common and sometimes fatal health care-associated infection, are all at historic highs, according to a report released yesterday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The report shows that C. difficile is not just a problem in hospitals-it is a patient safety issue in all types of medical facilities, including nursing homes, physician offices, and outpatient facilities. C. difficile causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 American deaths each year. Almost half of the infections occur in people younger than 65, but more than 90% of deaths occur in people 65 and older. About 25% of C. difficile infections first show symptoms in hospital patients; 75% first show in nursing home patients or in people recently cared for in physician offices and clinics.. To help reduce the spread of C. difficile, CDC provides guidelines and tools to the health care community, including a podcast on 6 steps to ...
Reference Literature - Altapure
1. Klevens RM, Edwards JR, Richards CL Jr, et al. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep 2007;122:160-166.. 2. Palumbo, Aimee J, Loveless, Ann, et al., Evaluation of Healthcare-Associated Infection Surveillance in Pennsylvania Hospitals, 2012. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology2012; Vol. 33, No. 2, February 2012.. 24. Gerding DN, Muto CA, Owens RC. Measures to control and prevent Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46(suppl 1):S43-S49.. 27. Huang SS, Datta R, Platt R. Risk of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria from prior room occupants. Arch Intern Med 2006;166: 1945-1951.. 29. Shaughnessy, M., MD, Micielli, R., MD, et al. Evaluation of Hospital Room Assignment and Acquisition of Clostridium Difficile Infection. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Vol. 32, No. 3 (March 2011), pp 201-206.. 30. Klevens RM, Edwards JR, Richards CL, et al. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in ...
CDPH Releases Reports on Healthcare-Associated Infections -Vaccination Rates
The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) released two annual reports recently. The reports provide information about healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and influenza vaccination rates among health care providers.. While California hospitals have made progress in preventing healthcare-associated infections, HAIs continue to be a significant public health issue in the state. In 2015, hospitals reported 19,847 healthcare-associated infections to CDPH. From 2014 to 2015, 56 hospitals demonstrated significant improvement in preventing one or more HAI type. Hospitals are making progress in preventing HAI with the exception of C. difficile diarrheal infections (CDI), which increased 8 percent since 2011. CDPH offered infection-prevention assistance to 73 hospitals with high infection rates.. The departments influenza vaccination report indicates that vaccination rates among health care providers have improved in the past five years. Since 2011, vaccination rates increased 21 percent for ...
Healthcare-Associated Infections | State Public Health | ASTHO
As a significant cause of death, healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are a critical challenge to public health in the United States. At any given time, about 1 in 25 patients has an infection while receiving care in U.S. hospitals. These infections result in up to $33 billion in excess medical costs every year.. ASTHO is working with HHS, CDC, and the Keystone Center to determine the role of state health officials in decreasing and preventing HAIs, specifically addressing priorities, challenges, and solutions at the state and regional level. In March 2011, ASTHO and CDC jointly released the HAI policy toolkit -Eliminating Healthcare-Associated Infections: State Policy Options. The companion report, Policies for Eliminating Healthcare-Associated Infections: Lessons from State Stakeholder Engagement was released in January 2012. ASTHO also maintains situational awareness on HAI-related policies and initiatives, shares this information with members, and represents the state health agency ...
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection - Prevalence of Nosocomial Infection in Different Wards of Ghaem...
Nosocomial infection is one of the leading problems in the health system, therefore it is directly related to increased costs and hospitalization time. The prevalence rate of nosocomial infection in terms of geographic region, type of hospital, the patient, and the calculating method even in various regions of the country is different. According to the WHO report, the prevalence of the nosocomial infection in developed countries is below 5%, however, in developing countries, this rate is different (6). In this study, the incidence of nosocomial infection is about 1.1%, which is not comparable to the global statistics in developing countries; a study conducted in Benin, in 2012, patients from the same ward were studied in the same day in each hospital for real estimation of nosocomial infection, and data showed that the prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 19.1% (10). Other studies, especially from developing countries, reported the prevalence rate of 13.9% - 17.9% (11, 12). The prevalence ...
Health care-associated pneumonia requiring hospital admission: epidemiology, antibiotic therapy, and clinical outcomes. -...
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Building a continuous multicenter infection surveillance system in the intensive care unit: findings from the initial data set...
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of infections in intensive care units (ICUs), whether present at admission or acquired during the stay. METHODS: Prospective data collection lasting 6 months in 71 Italian adult ICUs. Patients were screened for infections and risk factors at ICU admission and daily during their stay. MAIN RESULTS: Out of 9,493 consecutive patients admitted to the 71 ICUs, 11.6% had a community-acquired infection, 7.4% a hospital-acquired infection, and 11.4% an ICU-acquired infection. The risk curve of acquiring infection in the ICU was higher in patients who entered without infection than in those already infected (log-rank test, p , .0001; at 15 days, 44.0% vs. 34.6%). Hospital mortality (27.8% overall) was higher in patients admitted with infection than in those who acquired infection in the ICU (45.0% vs. 32.4%, p , .0001). Although the presence of infection per se did not influence mortality, the conditions of severe sepsis and septic shock were strong prognostic ...
Infections Acquired in Health Care Facilities | Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e | AccessMedicine | McGraw-Hill...
The costs of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) and other health care-associated infections are great. These infections have affected as many as 1.7 million patients at a cost of ~$28-33 billion and 99,000 lives in U.S. hospitals annually. Although efforts to lower infection risks have been challenged by the numbers of immunocompromised patients, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, fungal and viral superinfections, and invasive devices and procedures, a prevailing viewpoint-often termed zero tolerance-is that almost all health care-associated infections should be avoidable with strict application of evidence-based prevention guidelines (Table 168-1). In fact, rates of device-related infections-historically, the largest drivers of risk-have fallen steadily over the past few years. Unfortunately, at the same time, antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have risen in number and are estimated to contribute to ~23,000 deaths in and outside of hospitals annually. This chapter reviews health care-associated and ...
NC DPH: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) Glossary
Glossary for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Information includes common acronyms and terms relating to healthcare-associated infections.
Patient, provider, and system factors that contribute to health care-associated infection and sepsis development in patients...
Hospital-acquired infections are preventable, and it is imperative that provider and system risk factors that contribute to patients with traumatic injuries from developing a hospital-acquired infection be identified. Patients with traumatic injuries are unable to amend any patient-related risk factors such as comorbidities or gender. However, the identification of provider and system risk factors that contribute to patients with traumatic injuries from developing a hospital-acquired infection would provide clinically relevant and applicable strategies at the macro and meso level being implemented ...
Bacterial contamination of patients medical charts in a surgical ward and the intensive care unit: Impact on nosocomial...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial contamination of patients medical charts in a surgical ward and the intensive care unit. T2 - Impact on nosocomial infections. AU - Teng, Sing On. AU - Lee, Wen Sen. AU - Ou, Tsong Yih. AU - Hsieh, Yu Chia. AU - Lee, Wuan Chan. AU - Lin, Yi Chun. PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of bacterial contamination of patients files, and to compare the colonized bacteria between files from the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) and the surgical ward at the Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: 180 medical charts were randomly selected from the surgical ICU (n = 90) and the surgical ward (n = 90). The charts were sampled using sterile swabs moistened with sterile normal saline. The swabs were immediately transferred to trypticase soy broth and incubated aerobically for 48 h, then subcultured to separated sheep blood and eosin-methylene blue agars. Microorganisms were identified by the standard ...
Cholesterol and Serum Albumin Levels as Predictors of Cross Infection, Death, and Length of Hospital Stay
HYPOTHESIS:The levels of cholesterol, its fractions (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), and serum albumin reflect nutritional status and are related to in-hospital death, nosocomial infection, and length of stay in the hospital. DESIGN:A prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients. SETTING:The Service of General Surgery of a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS:A consecutive series of 2989 patients admitted for more than 1 day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nosocomial infection, in-hospital death, and length of stay. RESULTS:During follow-up, 62 (2%) of the patients died, 382 (13%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 257 (9%) developed a surgical site infection. Serum albumin (lowest quintile vs highest quintile: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) and HDL-C (lowest quintile vs highest quintile: OR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) levels showed an inverse and highly significant relationship with nosocomial ...
Chlorhexidine bathing and health care-associated infections among adult intensive care patients: a systematic review and meta...
This meta-analysis presents a summary of the estimated benefit of CHG bathing to prevent infection in the ICU. CHG bathing was most effective for the prevention of CLABSI among ICU patients, demonstrating a 56% reduction. However, the magnitude of benefit is affected by the underlying risk of CLABSI among ICU populations. Even among an average risk group of five CLABSI per 1000 central-line-days, 360 patients will need to be bathed with CHG to prevent a single event. If the underlying risk of CLABSI is only 1 per 1000 central-line-days than the NNT increases to 1780. Effectiveness was also shown for reducing MRSA colonisation and MRSA bacteraemia. However, even among average baseline-risk populations, the NNT is approximately 600 and 2800, respectively. Because of varying study designs (before-and-after versus randomised crossover trials), there remains uncertainty in the effectiveness of CHG-B to prevent other infections among adults in the ICU.. Previous reviews of daily CHG bathing to reduce ...
Bacteria that cause nosocomial pneumonia, illustration - Stock Image - F023/9659 - Science Photo Library
Computer illustration showing bacteria that cause nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus (top left), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (top right), Klebsiella pneumoniae (bottom left), Escherichia coli (bottom right). Labelled image.
Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use and healthcare-associated infections in Belgian acute care hospitals: results of...
The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported
Improving Oral Care to Reduce Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) in the Acute Neurologically Impaired Adult - Full Text View -...
Overview Problem: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the surgical population, HAP is associated with a 55% increase in length of stay and increased costs of approximately $31,000.00 per case. Neurologically impaired patients (those with brain injury causing alterations in mental status, immobility, impaired swallowing and cough, and increased risk of aspiration) are particularly vulnerable to HAP. HAP negatively impacts patient comfort and satisfaction, increases costs associated with diagnostic tests and treatments, increases risk for sepsis, and potential for higher level of care. It is estimated 95% of care-dependent patients on the Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) neuroscience unit acquire HAP during their stay.. Gap: Research studies have shown improving oral hygiene in critical care, neuroscience intensive care units and cardiac surgery reduces the incidence of HAP. However, in the acutely ...
Healthcare-Associated Infections | IHI - Institute for Healthcare Improvement
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) can be serious and even deadly for patients. Those who access the health care system for illness or injury are expecting care and treatment, not additional illness and complications, yet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 20 hospitalized patients develop an HAI. Treatment of HAIs can be difficult and may last for years, especially when the organism is resistant to multiple antibiotics. In addition to the human burden, excess costs are incurred across the health care system and many patients and payors are no longer willing to accept these avoidable costs.. Transmission of organisms that cause HAIs can occur in many ways: caregiver-to-patient, environment-to-patient, or patient-to-patient. Programs that have been successful in reducing HAIs have made this a strategic imperative and generally focused on improving multiple interventions, such as hand hygiene, use of contact and other precautions, active screening, and robust ...
Hospital-Acquired Infections to be Addressed | Imaging Technology News
David B. Nash, M.D., MBA, FACP and editor of the American Journal of Medical Quality will unveil a groundbreaking supplement with three peer-reviewed articles about hospital-acquired infections in the National Press Club (Murrow Room), 529 14th Street, NW, Washington, DC on November 20, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. Two of the studies confront the issue of blaming patient characteristics (age, risk factors, severity of illness) for higher infection rates - instead of a hospitals processes of care (hand washing, timeliness of pre-surgical antibiotics, elevation of pneumonia patients, proper placement of IV tubes). The third article highlights one hospitals infection reduction efforts, which demonstrate that the costs of treating a hospital-acquired infection can outstrip the payment system - in essence creating a lose-lose-lose situation for patients, hospitals and payers.. Hospital-acquired infections are an important issue which Congress (the House Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations) ...
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology - Praxis für Infektiologie
The services that the Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology provides are comprehensive. In some circumstances, these services are chiefly consultative and collaborative, working hand-in-hand with referring physicians. In other circumstances, care is longitudinal and the Division serves as the principal caregiver for patients that are hospitalized for the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In nearly all instances, care is multidisciplinary, involving other physicians and medical professionals.. ...
Global Nosocomial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach USD 36.75 Bn By 2024 - Credence Research | Daily Broadcaster
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Nosocomial Infection Treatment Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016-2024, the global nosocomial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 28,565 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach US$ 36,746 Mn by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 2.5% from 2016 to 2024.. Browse the full report Nosocomial Infection Treatment Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2024 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/nosocomial-infection-treatment-market. Market Insights. Nosocomial infection, also known as hospital acquired or associated infection (HAI) is defined as an infection developed in patients during the hospital stay that was earlier not present or incubated during admission in the hospital. Nosocomial infection is majorly caused by bacteria, virus, or fungal pathogen and is becoming the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, causing enormous ...
Health Care-Associated Infections
Vascular device-related infection is suspected on the basis of the appearance of the catheter site or the presence of fever or bacteremia without another source in patients with vascular catheters. The diagnosis is confirmed by the recovery of the same species of microorganism from peripheral-blood cultures (preferably two cultures drawn from peripheral veins by separate venipunctures) and from semiquantitative or quantitative cultures of the vascular catheter tip. Less commonly used diagnostic measures include differential time to positivity (,2 h) for blood drawn through the vascular access device compared with a sample from a peripheral vein or differences in quantitative cultures (a 5- to 10-fold or greater step-up) for blood samples drawn simultaneously from a peripheral vein and from a CVC.When infusionrelated sepsis is considered (e.g., because of the abrupt onset of fever or shock temporally related to infusion therapy), a sample of the infusate or blood product should be retained for ...
Change in epidemiology of health care-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Study highlights serious problem of hospital-acquired infections in Africa - The Cleanzine
Study highlights serious problem of hospital-acquired infections in Africa. Research funded by the Wellcome Trust has highlighted the scale of the problem of hospital-acquired infections in sub-Saharan Africa. The study, published today in the Lancet, suggests that bloodstream infections acquired while in care might contribute to one in every 20 deaths that occur in children in hospitals in the region.. The issue of HAIs is well recognised in high-income countries, with major initiatives promoting cleanliness among hospital staff and visitors. However, despite many African hospitals being severely overcrowded, and suffering frequent shortages of basic supplies such as running water and clean linen, virtually no data exist on the number of hospital-acquired infections in the region.. The conditions in African hospitals are often poor, and it is very likely that these environments lead to considerable amounts of sickness among patients who are already debilitated by their primary illness, ...
Nasia Safdar, MD
Nasia Safdar has been the Medical Director of Infection Control at UW Hospital and Clinics since 2009. She came to Wisconsin in 1997 for her residency and fellowship. She is board certified in infectious disease and she focuses on healthcare-associated infections, particularly in the acute care setting. Dr. Safdar believes that many health care-associated infections can be prevented with adherence to known best practices. As medical director for the department of infection prevention, her job is to lead the department in its mission of reducing healthcare-associated infections by identifying, testing and implementing interventions that have benefit for reducing health care associated infections (HAI).. She is an associate professor of infectious diseases at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and the Associate Chief of Staff for Research at the William S. Middleton VA Hospital. Her research includes the evaluation of novel and innovative strategies for prevention of ...
Health Care-Associated Infections Greatly Increase the Length and Cost of Hospital Stays | AHRQ Archive
AHRQ News and Numbers provides statistical highlights on the use and cost of health services and health insurance in the United States.
Study: Nurse understaffing associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections - www.hcpro.com
Since approximately 4% of patients develop one or more healthcare-associated infections (HAI) during their hospital stays, researchers set out to determine the link between HAIs and nurse understaffing.
Bacteriology of Healthcare-Associated Infections in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of CHU Gabriel Touré - Open...
Introduction: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a public health issue. An infection is said to be associated with the care if it occurs during or after the care of a patient, and if it was neither present _disibledevent=font-family:Verdana;>The bacterial infections associated with the care remain frequent in our service and dominated by the infections of the operating site. Isolated organisms were all resistant to amoxicillin in 88.88% case ciprofloxacin.
Cross Infection Protocol
Our water lines are regularly checked to ensure they pass the highest water quality standards.. Additional technology includes an ultrasonic bath for pre-sterilization cleaning, an intra-oral camera and a 17 inch medical grade monitor. This enables our patients to see high resolution images of the area that we are working on, and also pre and post operative results.. Other features include an autoclave tower for sterilization, and an ecowater system. Our cabinetry is among the most innovative and hygienic available. It includes Scandanavian design, and teflon seals on all the doors and drawers. The surfaces are MRSA resistant.. Whether the treatment involves surgically placing a dental implant or a childrens check-up, Monkstown Dental Surgery maintains optimum hygiene standards at all times.. ...
Healthcare-Associated Infections | bioMérieux
Infectious diseases pose special challenges in healthcare settings, where people are more at risk due to underlying illness and vulnerability. Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are common causes of morbidity and mortality and lead to high financial burden on healthcare systems.
CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: Twenty Years of Active Bacterial Core Surveillance - Volume 21, Number 9-September 2015 - Emerging...
The first nationwide estimates of the burden of invasive MRSA were derived from ABCs; in 2005, ≈94,000 cases and ≈18,000 deaths were attributed to invasive MRSA (16). Most (≈84%) infections were health care-associated-either hospital-onset (culture obtained ,3 days after admission) or health care-associated community-onset (culture obtained from outpatient or within 3 calendar days after admission from a patient with a health care-associated risk factor, which include presence of a central venous catheter within 2 days before MRSA culture or history of surgery, hospitalization, dialysis, or residence of long-term care facility in the 12 months preceding culture date). The prominence of health care-associated community-onset infections was newly brought to light by the ABCs network (16). This report led to increased awareness of MRSA infections, and prevention of health care-associated MRSA became a goal for public health agencies and policy makers (17-19). ABCs documented a 54% decline in ...
Healthcare-associated Infections Inhibited by New Applications of Old Metals
In efforts to combat healthcare-associated infections, nanosilver materials are used in many medical devices for silvers antimicrobial properties.
Healthcare-associated infections | Guidance and guidelines | NICE
Evidence-based statements to deliver quality improvements in preventing and controlling healthcare-associated infections in secondary care settings
We are losing the battle in the fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), but a
TORONTO, May 27, 2014- We are losing the battle in the fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), but a Canadian breakthrough could change the game.
Letter to the editor: Vitamin D and healthcare-associated infections
Two board members of the Vitamin D Council, Dr. Sadeq Quraishi and Dr. William Grant, write a response to a study on healthcare-associated infections.
RFA-NS-18-021: BRAIN Initiative: Next-Generation Invasive Devices for Recording and Modulation in the Human Central Nervous...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: BRAIN Initiative: Next-Generation Invasive Devices for Recording and Modulation in the Human Central Nervous System (UG3/UH3 - Clinical Trial Required) RFA-NS-18-021. NINDS
Cagan McAfee Capital Partners teams with Myles Sherman to Acquire Minimally Invasive Devices
CUPERTINO, Calif., Aug. 21, 2017-- Cagan McAfee Capital Partners and seasoned investor/operator, Myles Sherman of Austin, TX, have teamed up to acquire Minimally Invasive Devices. Wayne Poll, will continue with the new company to be called FloShield, Inc.. Objective Capital Partners, a leading M&A investment banking firm specializing in middle market M&A,...
A Prospective Study of Nosocomial Infection in a Neonatal ICU (NICU) | American Academy of Pediatrics
A prospective study of nosocomial sepsis was performed in the NICU of Surgiscope Pvt. Hospital to determine the organisms causing nosocomial infection in neonates and their resistance patterns; also studied were risk factors, clinical presentation, hematologic parameters, and outcomes over a 12-month period. A total of 363 neonates were admitted to the ICU. A total of 250 blood samples were sent for culture and sensitivity testing in suspicious cases of nosocomial infection. All patients were on antibiotics. Of these, 36.8% (92 of 250) had a positive result on culture. Isolated bacteria were mostly gram-negative bacilli (80.43%) with a marked predominance of Klebsiella (n = 32 [43.2%]) followed by Escherichia coli (n = 18 [24.32%]), Pseudomonas (n = 16 [21.62%]), and acinetobacter (n = 5 [6.75%]). Resistance to gentamicin was 100% for all organisms. Resistance to amikacin was 100% for E coli, Pseudomonas, and acinetobacter and 40% for Klebsiella. Resistance of these gram-negative rods ranged ...
10 Common Hospital-acquired Infections
Hospital-acquired infections occur because a hospital puts many people with infections in one place. Learn more about hospital-acquired infections.
Latest nosocomial infections emerging treatments studies and research news. Medical professionals and specialists can stay updated on nosocomial infections research.
Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with pediatric healthcare-associated infections: Summary of data reported to the...
Previous reports on pediatric HAIs are sparse, with many studies restricted to a few hospitals or a limited time period. 14 - 16 While many studies provide data on HAI incidence among pediatric patients, few focus on pathogens and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This report is an update of the NHSNs previous pediatric-specific HAI antimicrobial resistance report, 2 and it provides a summary of pathogens and AST data reported from ,2,500 healthcare facilities. This report can be used by the pediatric infectious disease community and other pediatric or neonatal healthcare professionals, as well as by infection control and public health organizations, to inform prevention and antimicrobial stewardship policies that seek improvements in antimicrobial prescribing for pediatric patients.. Overall, 60% of pathogens included in this analysis were reported from general acute-care hospitals. Because of federal reporting requirements for participation in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ...
EpiCast Report- Healthcare-Associated Gram-Negative Infections-Epidemiology Forecast to 2026
(EMAILWIRE.COM, September 11, 2017 ) Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major threat to patient safety. HAIs occur in hospitalized patients, and are not present at the time of admission. The most common types of HAIs are related to the use of invasive devices or surgical procedures, and...
Search | European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
An EU-wide survey estimated that 4.2 million healthcare-associated infections occur every year in European long-term care facilities, compared to an estimated 3.5 million occurring in European acute care hospitals, and that on any given day, over 116 400 residents have at least one active healthcare-associated infection. Pete Kinross, an expert in surveillance of healthcare-associated infections at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), speaks about these findings during a session on antimicrobial resistance in these healthcare settings, at ECCMID 2017.. ...
News & Events | European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
An EU-wide survey estimated that 4.2 million healthcare-associated infections occur every year in European long-term care facilities, compared to an estimated 3.5 million occurring in European acute care hospitals, and that on any given day, over 116 400 residents have at least one active healthcare-associated infection. Pete Kinross, an expert in surveillance of healthcare-associated infections at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), speaks about these findings during a session on antimicrobial resistance in these healthcare settings, at ECCMID 2017.. ...
Hospitalized Adults: Septic Shock, Source Unknown: Hospital-Onset or Community Onset with Recent Healthcare Exposure |...
For hospital-acquired infection ID consultation is recommended.. Weigh risks and benefits of adding aminoglycoside for critical illness, immunocompromise, or history of infection or colonization with drug-resistant Gram-negative rods.. At UCSF Medical Center, refer to the UCSFMC Code Sepsis Guidelines.. For patients with neutropenia, organ transplant, severe hepatic failure, or current/recent (,7 days) piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime:. Vancomycin. Plus. MeropenemID-R: SFGH VASF 1-2 g IV q8h ...
What is a nosocomial infection?
What is a nosocomial infection? A hospital-acquired infection, also known as a HAI or in medical literature as a nosocomial infection, is an infection whose development is favoured by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff. Such infections include fungal and bacterial infections and are aggravated by the reduced resistance of individual patients.
Cross-section through the middle of the thigh. Femoral sheath laid open to show its three compartments. The spermatic cord in ... This is associated with a significant risk of infection. The practice of delivering recreational drugs intravenously using the ... Infections Associated with Intravascular Lines and Grafts", Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), Elsevier, pp. 427-438.e3, doi ... Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15-Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna. ...
Emily Ying Yang Chan
2016). Contact infection of infectious disease on board a cruise ship. Scientific Report [Internet]. 2016 December 8; 6: 38790 ... Health service utilization in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic - a cross-sectional public survey. Int J Health Policy ... Factors Associated with Urban Risk-Taking Behaviour during 2018 Typhoon Mangkhut: A Cross Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res ... 2017). Injuries caused by pets in Asian urban households: a cross-sectional telephone survey. BMJ Open, 7(1), e012813. doi: ...
Ross River virus
... infection, and disease: a cross-disciplinary review". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14 (4): 909-32, table of contents. doi:10.1128/CMR. ... Infection. 43 (2): 229-230. doi:10.1007/s15010-014-0695-0. PMID 25380568. "Ross River virus infection - Symptoms, Treatment and ... The RRV infection is characterised by inflammation and pain to multiple joints. Hydration by sufficient fluid intake is ... Ross River fever is also known as Ross River virus infection or Ross River virus disease. Ross River virus is named after the ...
2019 in Bangladesh
By August the number of infections crossed 50,000. 24 September - Various illegal casinos were raided across the country by the ...
In humans, P. multocida is the most common cause of wound infections after dog or cat bites. The infection usually shows as ... The bacteria may also cross the blood-brain barrier and cause meningitis. P. multocida expresses a range of virulence factors ... It can also cause a zoonotic infection in humans, which typically is a result of bites or scratches from domestic pets. Many ... Animal bite infections (healthAtoZ.com) Genome Projects from Genomes OnLine Database Type strain of Pasteurella multocida at ...
Goldstein, E.J.C.; Citron, D.M.; Peraino, V.A.; Cross, S. A. (2003). "Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Bacteremia and Review of ... Desulfovibrio vulgaris is ubiquitous in nature and has also been implicated in a variety of human bacterial infections, ... Human Desulfovibrio Infections". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 41 (6): 2752-4. doi:10.1128/JCM.41.6.2752-2754.2003. PMC ...
James, S. A.; Carvajal Barriga, E. J.; Bond, C. J.; Cross, K.; Núñez, N. C.; Portero, P. B.; Roberts, I. N. (2009). "Candida ... Systemic infections of the bloodstream and major organs (candidemia or invasive candidiasis), particularly in patients with an ... Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals ... "Yeast Infections (Candidiasis) in Men and Women". WebMD. 2012-11-12. Retrieved 2014-03-23. Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, ...
... transmission and cross-species infection". Current Opinion in Virology. Virus entry / Environmental virology. 4 (Supplement C ... In other animals as well, morbillivirus is connected to acute febrile respiratory tract infection. It is also hypothesized that ... of stray cats in Hong Kong and mainland China were reported to possess the virus at the time with additional infections found ... which acts to increase interferon production in the face of infection. Once virally infected, MDA-5 sends out signals ...
"Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus". Nature Immunology. 17 ( ... During an infection only antibodies that bind to the pathogenic antigen with high affinity are produced. This is achieved by ... mAbs against infections stop working when virus mutates the epitope that is targeted by the mAbs or multiple strain are ... In case of a virus infection, NAbs can bind to glycoproteins of enveloped viruses or capsid proteins of non-enveloped viruses. ...
2020 in Nepal
June 23 - The number of total COVID-19 infections crosses 10,000. June 27 - Locusts are reported to have entered into the ... May 28 The number of total COVID-19 infections crosses 1000. Finance Minister Yuba Raj Khatiwada presents the federal budget of ... May 7 - The number of total COVID-19 infections exceeds 100. May 8 - Sixth session of Federal Parliament begins. May 11 - The ... "Nepal confirms first case of new coronavirus infection". Xinhua. Retrieved 25 January 2020. "ललितानिवास जग्गा प्रकरणमा को को ...
Duron, O; Weill, M (2006). "Wolbachia infection influences the development of Culex pipiens embryo in incompatible crosses". ... it is an incompatible cross. Hosts can be cured from Wolbachia infection by antibiotic use. In diploid organisms CI leads to ... The infection of a population with CI-inducing Wolbachia can have different effects on the population's dynamics. At low ... This loss of uninfected individuals is outweighed by the loss of infection due to the incomplete Wolbachia transmission. If the ...
Some authors believe that the infection is much more common than reported, as it may not appear to be a serious infection. Most ... tubules with a diameter of 10-20 nm form a criss-cross pattern. Genomes are linear, around 130-150kb in length. Viral ... This may be attributed to the use of gorse, an animal feed that may cause trauma, thereby leading to infection. Sealpox virus ... Early expression begins at 30 minutes post-infection. Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now ...
Scholarly peer review
Moylan, Elizabeth C.; Kowalczuk, Maria K. (2016). "Why Articles Are Retracted: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of ... Infection and Immunity. 79 (10): 3855-3859. doi:10.1128/IAI.05661-11. PMC 3187237. PMID 21825063. ...
... which is the death of a small number of host cells at the site of infection, for the purpose of limiting pathogenic infection. ... Protein cross linking and aggregation may also occur, as well as disruption of FeS groups. Integral to hypochlorous acid ... The bacterial infection is not cleared. In non-phagocytic cells, oxidative burst products are used in intracellular signalling ... Oxidative burst acts as a defence mechanism to pathogen infection in plants. This is seen post PAMPs detection by cell-surface ...
Reindeer hunting in Greenland
It may be necessary to cross streams and rivers, and slippery rocks present a hazard. If there is snow and ice, there can be ... Good hygiene and adequate hydration can protect against infections, diarrhea, and gastroenteritis. A small first aid kit should ...
Infection and immunity. November 2007 vol. 75 no. 11 5079-5084. "Karla Satchell". northwestern.edu. Retrieved December 27, 2017 ... Identification of a domain within the multifunctional Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin that covalently cross-links actin. PNAS. vol. ...
Luijckx, Pepijn; Duneau, David; Andras, Jason P.; Ebert, Dieter (2014). "Cross-Species Infection Trials Reveal Cryptic Parasite ... The likelihood of infections is related to the spore density in the environment and can be affected by temperature. After ... Following infection with Pasteuria, the parasite interferes with the reproduction of their female hosts. Hosts can live with ... In water fleas, the ability of the spore to successfully attach during the infection process is related to the genotype of the ...
Serological relationships between different members are found (among Feline calicivirus). Cross-reactivity is found. Cross- ... Premises that are heavily contaminated with vesivirus can be a source of infection for several months. As part of the family ... The clinical features of vesivirus infection include intensely itching vesicles with clear fluid-containing blisters that erode ... but other animals such as chimpanzees may have persistent recurring infections. In 2002, a new strain of vesivirus (termed 2117 ...
Organic egg production
If the crop is contaminated by cross-fertilization with GMOs, it is rendered useless for organic grading. Finally, there can be ... Antibiotics are only allowed during an outbreak of infection or disease. Some farms induce molting in their flocks to affect ...
Infection with viral pathogens can induce anti-dsDNA antibodies transiently. Human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19 and ... Upon exposure to pneumococcal polysaccharides, cross reactive antibodies between dsDNA and pneumococcal polysaccharides are ... This effect can also occur after an infection causes the production of autoantibodies to other structures within the nucleus. ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies can also be produced through infection via a mechanism known as molecular mimicry. ...
Apple mosaic virus
Another method that has been tested is cross protection. Cross protection is a type of induced resistance that is developed ... Healthy strains of the Johnathon apples were infected with a mild strain of ApMV and then further exposed to viral infections ... As it can be seen, cross protection provides a control technique for mild strains of ApMV. All in all, as stated above, the ... Other methods such as thermotherapy and cross protection have also been used in the past. ApMV infects crops from all around ...
In more simple terms, (he) wanted to be treated as a human." Ji's father tried to cross into China the same way, but was caught ... He reportedly had many infections while being treated at home. His father did extra labor to get medicine and antibiotics from ... At one point Ji crossed the border into China in search of food; on his return, he was arrested and tortured and his crutches ...
Niclosamide (2 mg) is very effective against experimental infection in human. In general cestode infections are treated with ... Even though it gives 100% sensitivity, it has not been tested with human sera for cross-reactivity, and it may show a high ... T. asiatica infection in human is usually asymptomatic. There was an isolated report of severe pathogenic lesions in a 60-year- ... Humans contract the infection by eating raw or undercooked meat - a practice common in East and Southeast Asia - which are ...
Depression and immune function
By viewing social adversity as a recurrent cue of likely injury and infection risk across human evolutionary history, social ... a cross-sectional study". BMC Public Health. 11 (1): 878. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-878. PMC 3248872. PMID 22103993. Pasco JA, ... Goodwin RD (November 2011). "Association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community: ... with both infections and autoimmune disorders increasing one's risk of depression later in life. In addition to its association ...
These methods also aid in the prevention of misdiagnosis of Spondweni viral infection with other viral infections and ... Due to its serological cross-reactivity and similar clinical presentations with ZIKV, SPONV may be maintained and transmitted ... as other viral infections like Zika. The majority of SPONV infections have been reported as asymptomatic. However, in certain ... The degree of infection and dissemination of both strains differs by primary vector species. In regards to Chuku strain, no ...
During this time, there may be limited signs of infection in stool samples due to lack of egg production and shedding. The ... EMedicine,article,788570,Trichuris Trichiura Cross, John H. (1996). "Enteric Nematodes of Humans". In Baron, Samuel (ed.). ... Within the United States, infection is rare overall but may be common in the rural Southeast, where 2.2 million people are ... Children are especially vulnerable to infection due to their high exposure risk. Eggs are infective about 2-3 weeks after they ...
Women are most susceptible to malaria infection early on in the first trimester but the risk of infection decreases in the ... "Var2CSA DBL6-epsilon domain expressed in HEK293 induces limited cross-reactive and blocking antibodies to CSA binding parasites ... For infection caused by P. falciparum, the WHO recommends during the first trimester a treatment consisting of both Quinine and ... Therefore, infection from P. falciparum is usually associated with no symptoms in pregnant women. However, it is not to ...
The time between infection and disease is 14 to 18 days, although a fever can appear from 3 to 6 days after infection. Canine ... Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P (December 2015). "Cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update". One ... The viral infection can be accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can present eventual serious neurological symptoms ... infection in large felids. Both large and domestic cats are now known to be capable of infection, usually through close housing ...
Cross-Assembly of Metagenomes Bas E. Dutilh; Robert Schimeder; Jim Nulton; Ben Felts; Peter Salamon; Robert A. Edwards; John L ... Infection. 144 (16): 3549-3553. doi:10.1017/S095026881600176X. PMID 30489235. Ahmed W; Lobos A; Senkbeil J; Peraud J; Gallard J ... The virus was named after the crAss (cross-assembly) software that was used to find the viral genome. CrAssphage is possibly ... crAssphage (cross-assembly phage) is a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria), discovered in 2014 by computational ...
... is based on cross-reactions which occur between antibodies produced in acute rickettsial infections with ... Validity of the Weil-Felix test in the diagnosis of acute rickettsial infections in Sri Lanka. 2009. T Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 103 ... The Weil-Felix test is an agglutination test for the diagnosis of rickettsial infections. It was first described in 1916. By ... The basis of the test is the presence of antigenic cross-reactivity between Rickettsia spp. and certain serotypes of non-motile ...
The result is a low serum antibody level and risk of infections. ... Cross-reactivity. *inaction: Tolerance *Central. *Peripheral. * ...
Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ... Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Ebolavirus and ... Simpson DI (1977). Marburg and Ebola virus infections: a guide for their diagnosis, management, and control. World Health ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system. EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
"Clostridium Infections". Advances in Research and Treatment (2011 ed.). ScholarlyEditions. 9 January 2012. ISBN 9781464960130. ... The mallard duck can cross breed with 63 other species, posing a severe threat to indigenous waterfowl's genetic integrity.[116 ...
Unisex public toilet
Urinary tract infections and incontinence are more common in females. Pregnancy, menstruation, breastfeeding, and diaper- ... Plaskow, Judith (July 8, 2008). "Embodiment, Elimination, and the Role of Toilets in Struggles for Social Justice". Cross ...
... cross-over comparison with morphine and placebo". Pain. 72 (1-2): 99-106. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00006-7. PMID 9272793.. ... endotoxins and other signals of infection also increases pain sensitivity as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to ...
Battle of Lützen (1813)
Infection set in and he died as a result. References. *^ a b c Pigeard, Dictionnaire des batailles de Napoléon, pp. ... On the 30 April Napoleon crossed the river Saale, advancing on Leipzig in three columns led by an advanced guard. His intention ... He crossed the Rhine into Germany to link up with remnants of his old Grande Armée, and to quickly defeat this new alliance ...
The most common of these minor issues is probably ear infection. Ear infections are a problem in all poodle varieties because ... A cross between a shedding breed and a poodle (which does not shed much) does not reliably produce a nonshedding dog. Traits of ... Poodles are crossed with other breeds for various reasons, and the resulting puppies (called designer dogs) are described by ... A veterinarian should be consulted if the dog shows signs of an ear infection. ...
One possibility is that peoples from central Asia or the Middle East migrated into Iberia as peoples from Africa crossed into ... or alternatively the result of chronic viral infection which is known to also elevate anti-tranglutaminase antibody. A German ...
Occupational health psychology
Self-report survey methodology is the most used approach in OHP research. Cross-sectional designs are commonly used; case- ... Johnson, J.V., & Hall, E.M. (1988). Job strain, workplace social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study ... because the data were cross-sectional, no conclusions bearing on cause-and-effect relations are warranted. Evidence from a ... Hospital-acquired infection. *Indium lung. *Laboratory animal allergy. *Lead poisoning. *Mad hatter disease ...
World Health Assembly
... the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the South ... Control of human hookworm infection through regular deworming of at-risk school children, endorsed in 2001 ... and the first-ever human infections with the H7N9 avian influenza virus reported in China in 2013. She attributed the ... "Scientists race to understand deadly new virus: SARS-like infection causes severe illness, but may not spread quickly" ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease. ... Since these tests can cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, these indirect methods cannot conclusively ... Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity, and normally no permanent organ damage results. ... An estimated 90% of the infections occur on the African continent. In 2008, the largest number of recorded cases was in Togo ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
"Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Prevention - Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)". Urologychannel.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.. ... Examples (depending on circumstances) include activities such as camping, hiking, cross country running, rural fishing, amateur ... "Preventing kidney infection". nhs.uk. National Health Service. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2014.. ... Urinary tract infection, which can cause urinary frequency and dysuria. *Polyuria, abnormally large production of urine, ...
Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital
He wrote that "Although the incidence of cross-infection contracted in hospital has not entirely ceased, it has reached such a ... Red Cross workers also volunteered frequently, with a special focus on making the hospital more comfortable and enjoyable for ... The Recreation Building replaced the Red Cross building which had been added in 1915, adjacent to Hospital Outbuilding and the ... Each pavilion contained separate hospital functions that could be sealed off from each other in order to prevent cross- ...
2007 tuberculosis scare
On May 1 the apparent MDR TB infection was discussed with the CDC lab by his doctors and they discussed discontinuing the ... where he crossed over the border and back into the United States while infected with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. The ... "A Timeline of Andrew Speaker's Infection, June, 2007". NPR. Retrieved 16 April 2016. "CNN story on wedding". Cnn.com. Archived ...
... and chronic infections. The Infectious Disease Society of America states that Lyme disease is easily treated with a few weeks ... and fibromyalgia are two separate disorders that share many overlapping symptoms and are often cross-diagnosed. FDA approved ...
Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword. *Grand Crosses Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal ... Ailing Thai king's lung infection eases, kidneys still failing: Palace Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Channel ... Knights Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic ... King Bhumibol underwent tests that revealed a blood infection and an X-ray found inflammation on his left lung, along with ...
The parable of the blind men and an elephant has crossed between many religious traditions and is part of Jain, Buddhist, Sufi ... Uveitis: is a group of 30 intraocular inflammatory diseases caused by infections, systemic diseases, organ-specific ... Tactile paving and audible traffic signals can make it easier and safer for visually impaired pedestrians to cross streets. In ... and a number of infections. Visual impairment can also be caused by problems in the brain due to stroke, premature birth, or ...
... is a stiffly erect plant 0.5 to 1.8 metres (1.6 to 5.9 ft) tall, with stems that are square in cross-section. The ... which is a homemade remedy to keep your child fed and hydrated in cases of diarrhea or stomach infection and even for cholera ...
... some species of methanogens have been suggested to be involved in infections in the mouth, and Nanoarchaeum equitans ... "The origin of a derived superkingdom: how a Gram-positive bacterium crossed the desert to become an archaeon". Biol Direct. 6 ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... "Identification and quantification of archaea involved in primary endodontic infections". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (4): 1274-82. ...
Symmetry: e.g., herpes zoster usually only affects one side of the body and does not cross the midline. ... Jock itch, yeast infection or diaper rash Red itchy rash Groin Tinea versicolor Light coloured patches Anywhere ...
... it will cross US$10 billion mark by 2017. Trade in fake drugs is driven caused by lack of adequate regulations, shortage of ... drug used by cancer patients to stimulate the production of white blood cells in order to decrease the incidence of infections. ...
It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat ... and treatment of infections, there is preliminary laboratory research, but no clinical studies in humans showing a benefit. ... and infections. While it has shown some potential clinical activity in laboratory experiments, "further studies are required ...
"British Red Cross. Retrieved 15 May 2016.. *^ "Florence Nightingale Medal". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2003. ... Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. There was no ... Royal Red Cross (1883) Lady of Grace of the Order of St John (LGStJ) (1904) Order of Merit (1907). ... In 1883, Nightingale became the first recipient of the Royal Red Cross. In 1904, she was appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order ...
This is because fluorescein is xylem-mobile and unable to cross plasma membranes, making it particularly useful in tracking ... corneal ulcers and herpetic corneal infections. It is also used in rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting to evaluate the ...
In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): Immunodefiency in HIV Infection and AIDS, Karger Publishers, Basel, 1992:185-194. D. ... transplant cross-matching and graph rejection, pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, leukemia diagnosis and minimal residual ...
Infection and pathogenesis. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils, or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... JCV can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes. Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
An investigation for infection with the spirochaete Leptospira interrogans did not find any infected animals, suggesting that ... From here, they crossed the strait and occupied Eysturoy during the years 1776 to 1779. In 1779, they reached Vagar. Whether ... Brown rats cannot survive in the wild boreal forest to the north, the Rocky Mountains to the west, nor can they safely cross ... "The Epidemiological Investigation of Trichinella Infection in Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Domestic Pigs in Croatia ...
Also rather important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid- ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal meningitis - cryptococcosis - Cryptococcus neoformans - cryptosporidiosis - ... ocular - off-label use - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - organelle - ... breakthrough infection - Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS - bronchoscopy - budding - buffalo hump - bugchasing and giftgiving ...
White blood cell
They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. ... Infection. *Chronic inflammation - especially juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease, Crohn's ... Basophils can also release chemical signals that attract eosinophils and neutrophils to an infection site. ...
Cross Infection Protocol
Cholesterol and Serum Albumin Levels as Predictors of Cross Infection, Death, and Length of Hospital Stay
... Academic Article * ... levels showed an inverse and highly significant relationship with nosocomial infection (mainly due to surgical site infection) ... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nosocomial infection, in-hospital death, and length of stay. RESULTS:During follow-up, 62 (2%) of the ... patients died, 382 (13%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 257 (9%) developed a surgical site infection. Serum albumin ( ...
Cross-dressed dendritic cells drive memory CD8 + T-cell activation after viral infection | Nature
After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro. Furthermore, using the ... This study shows that memory T-cell activation in viral infection occurs, in part, by cross-dressing; that is, the transfer of ... Linda Wakim and Michael Bevan now show that memory T-cell activation in viral infection occurs in part through cross-dressing. ... As an alternative mode of antigen presentation to memory T cells during viral infection, cross-dressing avoids the need for ...
JCI - Cross-presenting CD103+ dendritic cells are protected from influenza virus infection
Cross-presenting CD103+ dendritic cells are protected from influenza virus infection Julie Helft,1,2 Balaji Manicassamy,3,4 ... Influenza a virus infection of human primary dendritic cells impairs their ability to cross-present antigen to CD8 T cells. ... Preventing DC infection while promoting cross-presentation of virally infected cells may therefore provide a means to achieve ... The DC receptor DNGR-1 mediates cross-priming of CTLs during vaccinia virus infection in mice. ...
Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans | Science
Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans. By Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Naruthai ... Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans. By Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Naruthai ... Antibodies to envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus during the natural course of infection are predominantly cross-reactive and ...
Dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori infection: a cross sectional study at a Lebanese hospital | SpringerLink
... infection among patients at a tertiary healthcare center in Lebanon. ... 33] reported no relationship between H. pylori infection and education. In contrast, a cross-sectional study on 19,272 subjects ... dietary patterns are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep. 2016;6: ... Dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori infection: a cross sectional study at a Lebanese hospital. ...
Cross-dressed dendritic cells drive memory CD8+ T-cell activation after viral infection. - PubMed - NCBI
Cross-dressed dendritic cells drive memory CD8+ T-cell activation after viral infection.. Wakim LM1, Bevan MJ. ... After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro. Furthermore, using the ... Immunology: Cross-dressers turn on T cells. [Nature. 2011]. *Antigen presentation: cross-dress to impress. [Nat Rev Immunol. ... Cross-dressed dendritic cells drive memory CD8+ T-cell activation after viral infection ...
Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study | The BMJ
Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study BMJ 2001; 323 :264 ... Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study ... Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study ... Helicobacter pylori infection and early onset myocardial infarction: case-control and sibling pairs study.BMJ1999;319:1157-1162 ...
Android Malware Cross-infection | Mobile Phone Development
Infection in Babies - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts
Infection in Babies - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts
cross-sectional | Sexually Transmitted Infections
Cross-Transmission Prevention Pays Dividends in MRSA Reduction | Infection Control Today
At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. ... At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. ... Their research was published in Antimicribial Resistance and Infection Control.. Reference: Chalfine A, et al. Ten-year ... Infection Control Today is part of the Global Exhibitions Division of Informa PLC ...
Reception centres protect against coronavirus infections | Red Cross
The reception centres operated by the Finnish Red Cross have prepared for the coronavirus. To this end, each centre has an ... Only a few coronavirus infections have been detected in reception centres maintained by the Red Cross. If an asylum seeker is ... Finnish Red Cross 2020 , Legal notes , Data protection , Collection licences POL-2015-8798 & ÅLR 2019/7863 ... You are here:Ajankohtaista › Uutiset › Reception centres protect against coronavirus infections. Reception centres protect ...
Personal Oral Infection Control, Low Birthweight, and Preterm Births in Appalachia West Virginia: A Cross-Sectional Study
... R. ... There were 222 who reported personal oral infection control 6-12 times per week, and 539 reported personal oral infection ... M. K. Jeffcoat, N. C. Geurs, M. S. Reddy et al., "Periodontal infection and preterm birth: Results of a prospective study," The ... Mothers whose personal oral infection control was less frequent than 13 times per week were more likely to have babies with low ...
Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections. - PubMed - NCBI
Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections.. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Johnson ... Strong cross-reactivity occurred when sera from individuals with Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, and louse-borne ... Sera from subjects with syphilis cross-reacted in IFA tests and the ELISA for Lyme disease. Immunoglobulin antibodies to ...
Horse and pony vaccinations and disease control | Preventing equine infections | Blue Cross
Horses are susceptible to many diseases and infections. These can cause health problems for the individual animal and may also ... procedures form an essential part of horse management by preventing disease and minimising the potential spread of infection. ... Common infections in horses. Horses can suffer numerous health problems as a result of bacterial, viral or fungal infections. ... The risk of infection varies from area to area and from horse to horse, with younger horses (and those with impaired health) at ...
Reusables, Disposables Each Play a Role in Preventing Cross-Contamination | Infection Control Today
"The threat of cross-contamination of medical devices is very real," says infection prevention consultant Kathy Arias, MS, CIC ... In fact, one of the first articles on how cross-contamination of medical devices can transmit infection was written back in ... Rautenbach P, Wilson A, Gouws P. The reuse of opthalmic Minims: an unacceptable cross-infection risk? Eye (Lond). 2010 Jan;24(1 ... And with the rise of dangerous multi-drug-resistant organisms, the dangers of transmitting infection by cross-contamination are ...
Cross-sectional Survey of Hantavirus Infection, Brazil - Volume 15, Number 12-December 2009 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses in a virus-endemic area ... Cross-sectional Survey of Hantavirus Infection, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(12):1981-1983. doi:10.3201/ ... Because asymptomatic infection with hantaviruses also has been detected in Minas Gerais, we conducted a cross-sectional survey ... Armien B, Pascale JM, Bayard V, Munoz C, Mosca I, Guerrero G, High seroprevalence of hantavirus infection on the Azuero ...
Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola 'Hotspot': A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey
Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola Hotspot: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey. dc.contributor.author. Richardson, Eugene ... "Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola Hotspot: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (11 ... Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola Hotspot: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey. en. ... The findings provide further evidence that Ebola, like many other viral infections, presents with a spectrum of clinical ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Human Papillomavirus Infection: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional...
The current cross-sectional study aimed to understand the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and the risk of high- ... However, further research is needed to understand whether dietary antioxidant intake is associated with hrHPV infection or its ... risk HPV (hrHPV) infection among 251 Italian women with normal cervical cytology. Women were tested for hrHPV using the Digene ... infection and cervical cancer. However, the effect of combined intake of antioxidants has not been investigated thus far. ...
Evaluation of the Efficacy and Cross-Protectivity of Recent Human and Swine Vaccines against the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus...
... investigate whether recent seasonal human or swine H1N1 vaccines could induce cross-reactive immune responses against infection ... Receipt of a-CAN01/04 (2-doses) but not a-Brisbane/59/07 induced detectable but modest (20-40 units) cross-reactive serum ... Only double administration (7.5 µg HA) of both vaccine in ferrets could elicit cross-reactivity (30-60 HI titers). Similar ...
JCI - Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy...
Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... To determine how common cross-reactive T cells are, we performed a comprehensive ex vivo analysis of cross-reactive CD4+ and ... Matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of cross-recognition. In addition, cross-reactive ...
Specificity, cross-reactivity, and function of antibodies elicited by Zika virus infection | Science
The highly cross-reactive antibodies to EDI/II elicited by ZIKV or DENV infection that are poorly neutralizing but potently ... Cross-reactive antibody responses may pose a risk for disease on secondary infections with Dengue and/or Zika viruses. ... Cross-reactive antibody responses may pose a risk for disease on secondary infections with Dengue and/or Zika viruses. ... 4 In vivo enhancement of DENV2 infection by an anti-ZIKV cross-reactive mAb and ZIKV therapeutic efficacy of a potent anti-ZIKV ...
Frontiers | Salivary Oral Microbiome of Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Norwegian Cross-Sectional Study |...
... were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. Information about demographics, disease activity, ... were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. Information about demographics, disease activity, ... 2017). The subgingival microbiome, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and ... The present cross-sectional study is a project within NorJIA (Norwegian JIA Study - Imaging, oral health and quality of life in ...
Frontiers | Dengue Serotype Cross-Reactive, Anti-E Protein Antibodies Confound Specific Immune Memory for 1 Year after...
We found that serotype cross-reactive antibodies peaked three weeks after infection and subsided within one year. Since ... We found that serotype cross-reactive antibodies peaked three weeks after infection and subsided within one year. Since ... Dengue infection triggered a massive activation and mobilization of both naïve and memory B cells possibly from lymphoid organs ... Dengue infection triggered a massive activation and mobilization of both naïve and memory B cells possibly from lymphoid organs ...
Lung-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM) are indispensable for optimal cross-protection against pulmonary virus infection
Previous studies have shown that some respiratory virus infections leave local populations of tissue TRM cells in the lungs ... Lung-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM) are indispensable for optimal cross-protection against pulmonary virus infection J ... Previous studies have shown that some respiratory virus infections leave local populations of tissue TRM cells in the lungs ...
Transfusion-transmissible infections: Viral | Australian Red Cross Blood Service
Transfusion-transmissible infections: Viral. Transfusion-transmissible infections: Viral. Submitted by Cindy Flores on Wed, ... Residual risk estimates for transfusion-transmissible infections. Transfusion-transmissible infection surveillance in Australia ... The Australian Red Cross Blood Service mandatory testing includes the screening of donations for a number of transfusion- ... The primary cause of transfusion-transmissible viral infections is thought to be related to donations made by individuals in ...
Chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility: cross-national study | Sexually...
Chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility: cross-national study ... Chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility: cross-national study ... Screening for chlamydial infections and the risk of ectopic pregnancy in a county in Sweden: ecological analysis. BMJ 1998;316: ... Cross-Cultural Survey Methods. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience - A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003:3-16. ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | PREVIOUS INFECTION WITH WEST NILE OR ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES...
Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis ... Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented ... Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. ... f PREVIOUS INFECTION WITH WEST NILE OR ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES PROVIDES CROSS PROTECTION DURING REINFECTION IN HOUSE ...
Risk Factors for Dengue Virus Infection in Rural Amazonia: Population-based Cross-sectional Surveys | The American Journal of...
... personal protection measures when visiting high-risk urban areas may reduce the incidence of DENV infection in this rural ... acute febrile illnesses implemented at the study site and in a nearby town between 2004 and 2006 confirmed 11 DENV infections ... f Risk Factors for Dengue Virus Infection in Rural Amazonia: Population-based Cross-sectional Surveys * Mônica da Silva-Nunes1 ... Risk Factors for Dengue Virus Infection in Rural Amazonia: Population-based Cross-sectional Surveys ...
PreventionNosocomial infectionHealth care associated infectionsHealthcare-associated infectionHospitalSymptomsInfectiousAbstractChlamydiaAntimicrobial Resistance and Infection ControlBacterialPylori infectionViral infectionsMethodsInfectious diseasesZikaReduced cross-reactivityHerpesClinicalTuberculosisDENVConclusionsHelminth infectionsAcuteImmunologyChronicSexually TransmitteTransfusion-transmissibleEncephalitisAntigenPathogensHelicobacterHeterologous flavivirusSyphilisPlasmodiumSectional studyProtectiveHuman papillomavirusLTBIDiagnosisInfluenzaAfricaDiseaseMaternalVirusMortalityMalariaDengue Serotype Cross-ReactiveSusceptiblePregnant WomenSerotypes
- As medical director for the department of infection prevention, her job is to lead the department in its mission of reducing healthcare-associated infections by identifying, testing and implementing interventions that have benefit for reducing health care associated infections (HAI). (uwhealth.org)
- HYPOTHESIS:The levels of cholesterol, its fractions (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), and serum albumin reflect nutritional status and are related to in-hospital death, nosocomial infection, and length of stay in the hospital. (edu.au)
- MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nosocomial infection, in-hospital death, and length of stay. (edu.au)
- RESULTS:During follow-up, 62 (2%) of the patients died, 382 (13%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 257 (9%) developed a surgical site infection. (edu.au)
- 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) levels showed an inverse and highly significant relationship with nosocomial infection (mainly due to surgical site infection) in crude and multivariate analyses (controlling for the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control [SENIC] index, the American Society of Anesthesiologists' score, cancer, and age). (edu.au)
- Regarding total and LDL-C levels, only their lowest quintiles increased the risk of nosocomial infection. (edu.au)
- CONCLUSION:The levels of serum albumin and cholesterol fractions, mainly HDL-C, which are routinely measured at hospital admission, are predictors of in-hospital death, nosocomial infection, and length of stay. (edu.au)
- She said that experts in nosocomial infection have guided medical workers to take preventive measures and perform regular disinfection during the construction and in the process of using the hospitals. (chinadaily.com.cn)
Health care associated infections1
- Dr. Safdar believes that many health care-associated infections can be prevented with adherence to known best practices. (uwhealth.org)
- Dr. Safdar is interested in examining the efficacy of novel interventions to reduce healthcare-associated infection such as the use of probiotics for reducing colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile and has ongoing trials in this area. (uwhealth.org)
- Nasia Safdar has been the Medical Director of Infection Control at UW Hospital and Clinics since 2009. (uwhealth.org)
- The cabin hospitals now receive confirmed cases with mild symptoms, so no cross infection will happen in the hospitals," said Jiao Yahui, deputy chief of the medical administration bureau of the National Health Commission, at a news conference organized by the State Council Information Office in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province and also the epicenter of the outbreak. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- She is board certified in infectious disease and she focuses on healthcare-associated infections, particularly in the acute care setting. (uwhealth.org)
- abstract = "Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. (monash.edu)
- Objectives To describe, using routine data in selected countries, chlamydia control activities and rates of chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and infertility and to compare trends in chlamydia positivity with rates of PID and ectopic pregnancy. (bmj.com)
- Relationships between levels of chlamydia infection and complication rates between or within countries over time were not straightforward. (bmj.com)
- 1-4 Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Europe 5 and can cause female pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. (bmj.com)
- Chlamydia Infection Between Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study of Heterosexual Partnerships. (edu.au)
- Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant public health problem among the youth in Western countries: 75% of all Chlamydia trachomatis infections and 41% of all gonorrhoea infections are reported in the population aged 15-24 years. (bmj.com)
- Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15-20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). (biomedcentral.com)
- We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15-20 years. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Europe and USA mainly affecting young individuals aged 15-24 years, and is more often diagnosed in adolescent females than in males [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several vertically transmitted infections are included in the TORCH complex: T - toxoplasmosis from Toxoplasma gondii O - other infections (see below) R - rubella C - cytomegalovirus H - herpes simplex virus-2 or neonatal herpes simplex Other infections include: Parvovirus B19 Coxsackievirus Chickenpox (caused by varicella zoster virus) Chlamydia HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis Zika fever, caused by Zika virus, can cause microcephaly and other brain defects in the child. (wikipedia.org)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control2
- Horses can suffer numerous health problems as a result of bacterial, viral or fungal infections. (bluecross.org.uk)
- Myeloid-related protein 8 induces self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection via TLR4- and TLR2-mediated signal pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- However, it is unclear whether Mrp8 could induce self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Pre-stimulation of murine macrophages and human monocytes with Mrp8 induced self-tolerance to Mrp8 re-stimulation and cross-tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial challenges, with substantially attenuated TNF-α and IL-6 release. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Increasing numbers of cases of notifiable bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Switzerland have been reported since 1999 . (smw.ch)
- Viral skin infections that accounts 48 (53.3%), were the leading cause of skin infections followed by 43 (47.8%), 33(36.7%) and 22 (24.7%) fungal infections, inflammatory and bacterial skin infections respectively. (springer.com)
- As well as, this bacterial contamination was the reason for the false positive results observed during the detection of HCV infections. (ajol.info)
- It is commonly caused by bacterial or viral infections but may also be due to irritants (chemicals, pollutants, or allergens). (medicinenet.com)
- Toxaemia (blood poisoning) can result from any conditions where an animal suffers a severe bacterial infection, such as retention of the placenta after foaling, a severe colic attack or prolonged diarrhoea. (bluecross.org.uk)
- To examine the association between dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection among patients at a tertiary healthcare center in Lebanon. (springer.com)
- Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify the association between socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and other health-related variables with H pylori infection. (springer.com)
- The prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be 52.4% in this sample. (springer.com)
- No relationship between dietary habits and H. pylori infection was found in the adjusted analysis. (springer.com)
- Lifestyle factors are also believed to contribute to H. pylori infection development. (springer.com)
- 20 ] reported that lower consumption of raw vegetables was significantly associated with higher risk of H. pylori infection in a group of Iranian students. (springer.com)
- Many studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
- There are several methodological difficulties in carrying out studies to determine whether H pylori infection results in raised blood pressure. (bmj.com)
- We have attempted to minimise such problems in a large prospective community based study of the association between H pylori infection and blood pressure. (bmj.com)
- The primary aims of the study are to assess the effects of H pylori infection (and its eradication, on a double blind basis) on digestive symptoms and their treatment and on various other aspects of health and quality of life. (bmj.com)
- Of the 10 537 subjects enrolled in the project, 1634 (15.5%) were positive for H pylori infection on a 13 C- urea breath test, using 100 mg 13 C urea with a standard orange juice and citric acid test meal and a cut off of 3.5 δ 13 C per ml. (bmj.com)
- Blood pressure (mm Hg) in subjects with or without Helicobacter pylori infection. (bmj.com)
- Our findings indicate that, contrary to some previous suggestions, the association that exists between cardiovascular disease and H pylori infection is not accounted for by any increase in blood pressure. (bmj.com)
- H pylori infection had little effect on blood pressure in the general population in the age groups studied when methods designed to minimise potential sampling biases and selection biases were used. (bmj.com)
- The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of oral H.pylori among adults and to investigate the correlation between H.pylori infection and common oral diseases. (medsci.org)
- The study included 1050 subjects in total and oral H.pylori infection occurred in 60.29% of the subjects. (medsci.org)
- 1.164 to 2.285) increased the risk of H.pylori infection. (medsci.org)
- Oral H.pylori infection is common in adult Chinese, which is significantly associated with oral diseases including periodontal diseases and caries. (medsci.org)
- and the relation with patient characteristics, Helicobacter pylori infection, and psychological distress. (bmj.com)
- H pylori infection, frequency of symptoms, and age had no influence on dyspepsia severity. (bmj.com)
- Severity of dyspepsia and psychological distress, but not H pylori infection or duration of symptoms, affected health status univariately. (bmj.com)
- H pylori infection relates neither to functional health status, nor to intensity of dyspepsia. (bmj.com)
- The findings provide further evidence that Ebola, like many other viral infections, presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including minimally symptomatic infection. (harvard.edu)
- Clinically assess patients for manifestations of specific viral infections. (transfusion.com.au)
- Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children are mainly due to viral infections [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Methods Cross-national comparison including national data from Australia, Denmark, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland. (bmj.com)
- Methods Parents of pupils aged 6-12 years from schools in Barcelona province (Spain), Utrecht province (the Netherlands) and Eastern and Central Finland were administered a questionnaire including questions on the frequency of infections (influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis, bronchitis and pneumonia) in the past 12 months and bleach use at home. (bmj.com)
- Methods: We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats. (oregonstate.edu)
- In conclusion, the risks of cross-infection will be reduced through these methods. (alliedacademies.org)
- Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in Denmark among a random sample of 20 000 men and women in 2012. (bmj.com)
- METHODS A cross sectional, general practice based survey of 360 unselected primary care dyspeptic patients from 92 general practices in The Netherlands was conducted. (bmj.com)
- Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adult contacts of tuberculosis cases participating in a UK cohort study. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). (biomedcentral.com)
- Methods: Cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire survey. (elsevier.com)
- If an asylum seeker is diagnosed with a coronavirus infection, the instructions of the local emergency department or an infectious diseases specialist are followed. (redcross.fi)
- In Cameroon like in most sub-Saharan African countries, DENV infection occur concurrently with other infectious diseases whose symptoms often overlap, rendering differential diagnosis challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
- ESGAP, ESGBIS, ESGIE and the CRGNB treatment survey study group 2018, ' Antibiotic treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli: an international ESCMID cross-sectional survey among infectious diseases specialists practicing in large hospitals ', Clinical Microbiology and Infection , vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1070-1076. (elsevier.com)
- 48 - Infections Associated with Intravascular Lines and Grafts", Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), Elsevier, pp. 427-438.e3, doi:10.1016/b978-0-7020-6285-8.00048-4, ISBN 978-0-7020-6285-8, retrieved November 19, 2020 Maliphant J, Scott J (April 2005). (wikipedia.org)
- Serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging due to high cross-reactivity between flaviviruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Magee-Womens Research Institute (MWRI) have devised a cell-based model of the human placenta that could help explain how pathogens that cause birth defects, such as Zika virus, cross from mother to unborn child. (medicalxpress.com)
- The researchers are beginning to use their model to test whether Zika virus, and other pathogens associated with congenital disease, can infect placental cells and/or cross the placental barrier. (medicalxpress.com)
- Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-transmitted flavivirus that historically caused sporadic human infections in Africa and Asia after its discovery in 1947 1 . (nature.com)
- In an effort to provide a more specific diagnostic test, we developed virus-like particle (VLP) antigens with reduced cross-reactivity for both SLEV and WNV by identifying and mutating envelope protein amino acids within the cross-reactive epitopes of VLP expression plasmids. (asm.org)
- To determine the serodiagnostic discriminatory ability of the antigens with reduced cross-reactivity, a panel of 134 human serum samples collected predominately from North American patients with SLEV or WNV infections was used to evaluate the performance of these novel antigens in imunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (asm.org)
- The use of these novel VLP antigens with reduced cross-reactivity in these serodiagnostic assays and others should lead to more accurate diagnoses of current infections, thereby reducing the need for time-consuming and cumbersome confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests to differentiate between SLEV and WNV infections in North America. (asm.org)
- Understanding the placenta might one day lead to ways to prevent fetal damage from the so-called TORCH infections: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes and HIV, he added. (medicalxpress.com)
- After several years work by the Clinical Advisory Panel, CFNZ has released revised guidelines on infection prevention and control in non-healthcare settings. (cfnz.org.nz)
- Further studies are needed to understand the potential risk of transmission and clinical sequelae in individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection. (harvard.edu)
- This cross-sectional clinical study analyzed patients rehabilitated with endosseous dental implants between September 2011 and July 2015, at the University Dental Clinic, School of Dentistry, International University of Catalonia (UIC). (readbyqxmd.com)
- Despite microbial contamination of birth pool water during delivery, antibiotic prophylaxis, as indicated by clinical and laboratory suspicion of infection, was administered to only 0.98% of babies after water birth versus 1.64% of those after land delivery. (minervamedica.it)
- Skin infections account the most common clinical manifestations in children. (springer.com)
- Therefore, the aims of this study were to asses the associations between anemia/nutrition status and helminth infections in patients with clinical malaria in communities of Alaba Kulito area, southern Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Clinical Microbiology and Infection , 24 (10), 1070-1076. (elsevier.com)
- Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). (biomedcentral.com)
- Background: BCG appears to reduce acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children, measured using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). (ucl.ac.uk)
- These results contribute to growing evidence that suggests BCG may protect against M. tuberculosis infection as well as disease. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Background: Young children exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a high risk of disease progression following infection. (sun.ac.za)
- This study aimed to determine risk factors for M. tuberculosis infection and disease in children following exposure to adults with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). (sun.ac.za)
- Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus infection found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, with an estimated 50 to 100 million infections per year ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- A sequence variation of 30 to 35% allows DENV to be divided into four serotypes, and infection with one serotype does not provide protection from infection with the other serotypes, so that secondary or sequential infections are common ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In 1977, Halstead suggested antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) to explain severe DENV infections ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- ADE has been widely studied and results from the high sequence divergence between DENV so that antibody to the first infection may not be of sufficient avidity to neutralize a secondary infection ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The partial cross-reactivity may cause a degree of opsonization that promotes virus uptake into Fc-bearing cells such as monocytes and macrophages-a major site of DENV replication in vivo-leading to increased virus replication. (sciencemag.org)
- Because DENV exposure is associated with migration or travel, personal protection measures when visiting high-risk urban areas may reduce the incidence of DENV infection in this rural population. (ajtmh.org)
- In monkeys that had been infected once or twice with DENV-2, neutralizing antibody was cross-reactive with all four serotypes after secondary or tertiary infection with DENV-3. (deepdyve.com)
- In monkeys that had been inoculated with DENV-1 and DENV-2 in the primary and secondary infections, neutralizing antibody titers did not increase after tertiary infection with DENV-3. (deepdyve.com)
- Dengue virus (DENV) infection poses a serious global public health challenge to three billion people, resulting in approximately 200 million cases of morbidity and 50,000 cases of mortality annually. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, there is a need to include differential screening for DENV infections as a tool in the management of fever in children in the country. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plasma samples were obtained from marmosets after primary inoculation with DENV-2 infection, secondary inoculation with homologous or heterologous genotypes, and tertiary inoculation with heterologous DENV. (biomedcentral.com)
- After secondary DENV-2 infection with heterologous genotype (Asian I in primary and Asian/American in secondary), neutralizing antibody titers to Asian/American genotype was significantly higher than those against Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Following tertiary infection with DENV-1 following DENV-2 Asian I and Cosmopolitan genotypes, neutralizing antibody titers to Asian/American were also significantly higher than those against Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is estimated that 50 to 100 million cases of dengue virus (DENV) infection occur annually worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conclusions/Significance: By using ELISA to measure Zaire Ebola virus antibody concentrations, we identified a significant number of individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection in a 'hotspot' village in Sierra Leone, approximately one year after the village outbreak. (harvard.edu)
- Conclusions Passive exposure to cleaning bleach in the home may have adverse effects on school-age children's health by increasing the risk of respiratory and other infections. (bmj.com)
- These results correspond well with cross-sectional survey conclusions. (emory.edu)
- Heterophile antibody testing has a specificity of nearly 100%, though case reports of false positives (most notably in acute HIV infection) exist. (shmabstracts.com)
- The patient's Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody pattern is consistent with an acute EBV infection. (shmabstracts.com)
- The positive HIV antibody test was presumed to reflect cross‐reactivity in the setting of acute EBV infection, as confirmed by a negative quantitative HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay the following day. (shmabstracts.com)
- 2) Acute HIV infection is an important diagnostic alternative, with quantitative HIV PCR as the suggested screening method in appropriate individuals. (shmabstracts.com)
- 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%) or women (no acute infections). (peerj.com)
- This may permit to distinguish acute primary and acute secondary dengue infections [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. (monash.edu)
- Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. (monash.edu)
- These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. (monash.edu)
- Mechanisms that may contribute to this association include abnormalities in the levels of certain blood proteins (for example fibrinogen or C reactive protein) secondary to the chronic infection 1 2 and raised blood pressure in people infected with H pylori . (bmj.com)
- People without CF rarely carry the particular bacteria that cause chronic infection in CF, but they may still carry other bacteria or viruses that cause problems for people with CF. Thus, "The concept of 'less threatening' bacteria is no longer accepted and all pathogens should be considered as potentially transmissible and universal precautions should be taken. (cfnz.org.nz)
- Chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease, suggesting that HCV-infected individuals warrant vigilant cardiovascular risk assessments. (natap.org)
- Oral health, the mirror of general well being, is altered by many mediators like infection, chronic inflammation, and genetic predisposition. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Periodontal disease, also generally called periodontitis or gum disease, is a chronic infection-induced inflammatory disease that causes tooth loss if not properly treated, and is considered as a modifying factor in systemic health. (readbyqxmd.com)
- However, most of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. (monash.edu)
- Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
- Background: Tanzania has a high prevalence (7.17%) of chronic hepatitis B infection. (sun.ac.za)
- Mother to Child transmission is very common, resulting in high rate of chronic infections. (sun.ac.za)
- This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for chronic HBV infection in pregnant women in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. (sun.ac.za)
- Low condom use was the only statistically significant risk factor for chronic HBV infection (OR = 3.514, 95%CI = 1.4-8.0). (sun.ac.za)
- In the 3 years follow-up only 1 out of 7 children showed evidence of chronic HBV infection. (sun.ac.za)
- Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV-infected people are of increasing concern. (peerj.com)
- In 2011, the Blood Service and the Kirby Institute published a comprehensive surveillance report for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) - Safe blood - a focus on education, epidemiology and testing . (transfusion.com.au)
- This supports the general effectiveness of the donor questionnaire and specifically that repeat donors understand what constitutes 'risk behaviour' for acquiring transfusion‑transmissible infections. (transfusion.com.au)
- In the current study, House finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. (ajtmh.org)
- Differential diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections can be complicated due to the high degree of cross-reactivity observed in most serodiagnostic assays. (asm.org)
- This barrier surface is especially vulnerable to infection, yet respiratory infections rarely cause fatal encephalitis, suggesting a highly evolved immunological defense. (sciencemag.org)
- After an infection, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors proliferate and become effector cells by recognizing foreign peptides in the groove of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) 1 . (nature.com)
- Professional APCs specialized for T-cell activation acquire viral antigen either by becoming infected themselves (direct presentation) or by phagocytosis of infected cells, followed by transfer of antigen to the cytosol, processing and MHC class I loading in a process referred to as cross-presentation 2 . (nature.com)
- An alternative way, referred to as 'cross-dressing', by which an uninfected APC could present antigen was postulated to be by the transfer of preformed peptide-MHC complexes from the surface of an infected cell to the APC without the need of further processing 3 . (nature.com)
- After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro . (nature.com)
- Cross-dressing is a mechanism of antigen presentation used by dendritic cells that may have a significant role in activating previously primed CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
- Antigen presentation: cross-dress to impress. (nih.gov)
- Of the seven specimens with higher P/Ns with heterologous virus antigens, six were from patients with SLE virus infections (the serum samples had higher levels of reactivity with WN virus antigen) and one was from a patient with a JE virus infection (this serum sample also had a higher level of reactivity with WN virus antigen). (nih.gov)
- Microglia were not infected by the virus but were found to cross-present antigen after acquisition from adjacent neurons. (sciencemag.org)
- Collectively, these data demonstrate that microglia provide a front-line defense against a neuroinvasive nasal infection by cross-presenting antigen to antiviral T cells that noncytolytically cleanse neurons. (sciencemag.org)
- Compared with the original PC21A, piglets euthanized/died acutely from S-INDEL Iowa106 infection had relatively milder villous atrophy, lower antigen scores and more limited intestinal infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The position statement is designed to educate people with CF, their caregivers and families about the risks of person-to-person infection from respiratory pathogens of any kind. (cfnz.org.nz)
- Results: SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. (oregonstate.edu)
- A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that use mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
- Several pathogens can cross the placenta and cause perinatal infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Blood pressure in 1633 individuals with helicobacter infection was compared with twice that number (3267) of randomly selected non-infected subjects (total 4900). (bmj.com)
- Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects with helicobacter infection before adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (weight (kg)/(height (m) 2 )), smoking, and high alcohol intake, but significantly lower after these adjustments (see table). (bmj.com)
- Antibody-based countermeasures targeting the ZIKV envelope protein have been hampered by concerns for cross-reactive responses that induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of heterologous flavivirus infection. (nature.com)
- Sera from subjects with syphilis cross-reacted in IFA tests and the ELISA for Lyme disease. (nih.gov)
- In addition, blood samples were collected from 1086 participants and tested for malaria infection using standard microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques specific for Plasmodium falciparum . (biomedcentral.com)
- 0.001) higher anaemia prevalence than single infection with Plasmodium parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
- The importance of the submicroscopic reservoir of Plasmodium infections for malaria elimination depends on its size, which is generally considered small in low transmission settings. (biomedcentral.com)
- Of these 164 (3 %) were infected with P. falciparum , 357 (7 %) with Plasmodium vivax , 56 (1 %) with a mixed infection, and 411 (8 %) had parasite densities that were too low for species identification. (biomedcentral.com)
- mean age 12.3 ± 3.0 years) were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. (frontiersin.org)
- A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of LTBI. (springer.com)
- This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December, 2016, as part of a pneumoconiosis screening program at the Hospital of Occupational Diseases in Beijing. (springer.com)
- A total of 961 children under the age of 15 were recruited in a cross-sectional study using systematic sampling technique and by selecting each subject out of the three. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this repeated cross-sectional study, with prospective follow-up of 19,468 hospitalized patients, we aimed to analyze the impact of HAIs on mortality 30 days and 1 year after the prevalence survey date. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several lines of evidence suggested that antioxidants might play a protective role against high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and cervical cancer. (mdpi.com)
- These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex. (elsevier.com)
- Various risk factors for oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been described, including tobacco smoking and sexual behavior. (springer.com)
- D'Souza G, Cullen K, Bowie J, Thorpe R, Fakhry C (2014) Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection. (springer.com)
- In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. (biomedcentral.com)
- A veterinary surgeon must be contacted immediately if strangles is suspected as early diagnosis and treatment are essential for the individual animal and to prevent the spread of infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
- There is a need for early diagnosis of dengue infection since the early diagnosis of the disease can prevent fatal cases. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results highlight a need for improved diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection in pregnant women in Tanzania, in order to prevent vertical transmission. (sun.ac.za)
- Influenza debilitates the animal, leaving a horse susceptible to secondary infections. (bluecross.org.uk)
- The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. (jci.org)
- An alternative approach is to stimulate pre-existing memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection that could cross-react with H5N1 by targeting highly conserved internal proteins. (jci.org)
- To determine how common cross-reactive T cells are, we performed a comprehensive ex vivo analysis of cross-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning the full proteome of influenza A/Viet Nam/CL26/2005 (H5N1) and influenza A/New York/232/2004 (H3N2) in healthy individuals from the United Kingdom and Viet Nam. (jci.org)
- Memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from the majority of participants exhibited human influenza-specific responses and showed cross-recognition of at least one H5N1 internal protein. (jci.org)
- Significant combined associations were shown for influenza only once (RRR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), recurrent tonsillitis (RRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.71) and any infection (RRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38). (bmj.com)
- We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
- At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections. (nih.gov)
- Strong cross-reactivity occurred when sera from individuals with Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, and louse-borne relapsing fever were tested against heterologous Borrelia antigens. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, routine hygiene procedures form an essential part of horse management by preventing disease and minimising the potential spread of infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
- In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot. (harvard.edu)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (natap.org)
- Background: Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. (oregonstate.edu)
- Next, the researchers tested the functional properties of their model by exposing it to a virus and to Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found in cat feces that can lead to fetal infection, causing miscarriage, congenital disease and/or disability later in life. (medicalxpress.com)
- The scale differentiated between subgroups of persons with the hepatitis B infection in terms of age, gender, employment, education, disease duration, and stage of disease. (ovid.com)
- GIDEON Guide to Cross Border Infections summarizes the status of 2,931 Infectious Disease events which involved two-or-more countries. (gideononline.com)
- Monitoring of dengue virus infections is an important component of assessing the disease risk to humans. (asm.org)
- Shah, KV, Dandawate, CN & Bhatt, PN 2012, ' Kyasanur forest disease virus: Viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection ', F1000Research , vol. 1, 61. (elsevier.com)
- In the global burden of disease (GBD) study carried out between 2000 and 2004, high-intensity infections with STHs were given a zero disability weight (DW), while the cognitive impairment which can result from such infections was assigned DWs ranging from 0.024 to 0.463 [on a scale from 0 (perfect health) to 1 (death)], depending on the helminth species [ 11 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- View Department of Pathology profile » My main research interest is to better understand the mechanisms that enable emerging viruses to evade host immune responses and cause disease, and to identify cellular factors that contribute to viral infection. (utmb.edu)
- There are a set of published guidelines by the Center for Disease Control that lay down the procedures to be followed and the precautions to take to prevent cross infections in dialysis units. (nephroplus.com)
- With our new model in the research toolkit, we and other scientists hope to advance our knowledge of the placenta, examine its function , and learn how it can prevent most, but not all, maternal infections from causing problems for the baby. (medicalxpress.com)
- In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8-7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1-22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dengue virus co-circulates as four serotypes, and sequential infections with more than one serotype are common. (sciencemag.org)
- Signs of infection, which begin to develop a few days after exposure to the virus, include a husky cough and nasal discharge (which changes over a period of four to five days from thin to thick mucus), combined with general signs of ill health. (bluecross.org.uk)
- A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses in a virus-endemic area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (cdc.gov)
- Introduction: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. (harvard.edu)
- Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
- We describe herein the molecular events following poliovirus infection that lead to PML-dependent p53 activation and protection against virus infection. (asm.org)
- PML deficiency also renders mice more susceptible to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and VSV infections, further attesting to the antiviral activity of PML in vivo ( 4 ). (asm.org)
- We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. (usgs.gov)
- The degree of virus cross-reactivity did not appear to be related to days postonset, at least during the first 40 days of infection. (nih.gov)
- Infections with WN virus could be correctly distinguished from infections with SLE virus on the basis of the observed anti-viral IgM cross-reactivities alone 92% of the time. (nih.gov)
- Infections with SLE virus resulted in antibody that was more cross-reactive, so identification of SLE virus as the infecting agent by use of MAC-ELISA cross-reactivity alone was more problematic. (nih.gov)
- While valuable tools for diagnosing presumptive flaviviral infections, these assays use antigens prepared from virus-infected suckling mouse brains (SMB). (asm.org)
- During natural flavivirus infections, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of viral premembrane/membrane (prM/M) and envelope (E) proteins are produced in addition to mature, infectious virions ( 23 ). (asm.org)
- The extent of cross-reactivity within such individuals, each infected with characterized virus, might reflect the type of cross-reactive immune response inducible by a monovalent vaccine. (ovid.com)
- Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. (asm.org)
- Dalla Torre D, Burtscher D, Edlinger M, Solder E, Widschwendter A, Rasse M, Puelacher W (2015) Comparison of the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in histopathologically confirmed premalignant oral lesions and healthy oral mucosa by brush smear detection. (springer.com)
- We found that the syncytiotrophoblasts formed in our system recapitulated the barrier properties of the naturally occurring cells and they resisted infection by a model virus and three genetically different strains of Toxoplasma," said co-investigator Jon P. Boyle, Ph.D., associate professor of biological sciences at Pitt. (medicalxpress.com)
- Kurane, Ichiro 2011-06-01 00:00:00 Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. (deepdyve.com)
- Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. (deepdyve.com)
- In this study, antibody response induced by H7N9 virus infection and immunization with inactivated and viral-vectored H7N9 vaccines in na?ve chickens was analyzed. (flu.org.cn)
- We attempted to determine whether IgM responses in dengue virus infections are serotype specific or serotype cross-reactive. (asm.org)
- IgM responses were serotype cross-reactive in these 13 cases but were highest against infecting dengue virus serotype in 9 of the 13 cases. (asm.org)
- Although detection of dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) is widely used diagnostic method for dengue, it has not been determined whether IgM responses in dengue virus infections are dengue virus serotype specific or serotype cross-reactive. (asm.org)
- We find that IgM responses are dengue virus serotype cross-reactive in most cases but that the highest responses are against the infecting serotype. (asm.org)
- In mice, intranasal infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) does result in infection of sensory neurons in the olfactory bulb. (sciencemag.org)
- Here, using a mouse model, we sought to understand the mechanism by which innate and adaptive immune cells thwart neuroinvasion by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a potentially lethal virus that uses olfactory sensory neurons to enter the brain after nasal infection. (sciencemag.org)
- Spain has the world's second-highest death toll after Italy, with the virus so far claiming 9,053 lives and the number of confirmed cases reaching 102,136, although the rate of new infections continued its downward trend, health ministry figures showed. (bhatkallys.com)
- View Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine profile » Dr. Bao's research focuses on host-virus interaction, particularly in the infection of RSF and hMPV, with the goal of generating suitable vaccine candidates to prevent paramyxovirus infection. (utmb.edu)
- The hepatitis B virus is large and does not cross the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
- Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are reported to increase patient mortality and incur longer hospital stays. (biomedcentral.com)
- BSI, LRTI and more than one simultaneous infection were independently and strongly associated with increased mortality 30 days and 1 year after inclusion in the study. (biomedcentral.com)
- Malaria infection is associated with adverse birth outcomes that affect the mother, foetus, and infant. (biomedcentral.com)
- Infection with HIV has been shown to increase the risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the predictors of malaria infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. (biomedcentral.com)
- More than one-third of the infected cases in both malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites have negative impact upon host nutrition through a number of mechanisms which may have additive or multiplicative impacts, especially in childhood [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
Dengue Serotype Cross-Reactive1
- These results indicate that IgM responses are generally dengue serotype cross-reactive but that IgM levels are highest against the infecting serotype in most dengue cases. (asm.org)
- Horses are susceptible to many diseases and infections. (bluecross.org.uk)
- Providing high specificity and low cross-reactivity, the NS1-based ELISA has the potential to aid in counselling patients, pregnant women and travellers after returning from ZIKV-endemic areas. (eurosurveillance.org)
- These results indicate that antibody responses after secondary and tertiary infections with different serotypes are cross-reactive with all four serotypes, consistent with what has been observed in humans, and suggest that monkeys are useful for determining neutralizing antibody responses. (deepdyve.com)
- Dengue viruses, members of the family Flaviviridae , include four antigenically cross-reactive serotypes and are endemic in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. (asm.org)