Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Nonexpendable items used in examination.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".
Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.

Fatal Serratia marcescens meningitis and myocarditis in a patient with an indwelling urinary catheter. (1/5242)

Serratia marcescens is commonly isolated from the urine of patients with an indwelling urinary catheter and in the absence of symptoms is often regarded as a contaminant. A case of fatal Serratia marcescens septicaemia with meningitis, brain abscesses, and myocarditis discovered at necropsy is described. The patient was an 83 year old man with an indwelling urinary catheter who suffered from several chronic medical conditions and from whose urine Serratia marcescens was isolated at the time of catheterisation. Serratia marcescens can be a virulent pathogen in particular groups of patients and when assessing its significance in catheter urine specimens, consideration should be given to recognised risk factors such as old age, previous antibiotic treatment, and underlying chronic or debilitating disease, even in the absence of clinical symptoms.  (+info)

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (2/5242)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients. (3/5242)

Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (4/5242)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (5/5242)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

Efficacy of sulbactam alone and in combination with ampicillin in nosocomial infections caused by multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii. (6/5242)

From March 1995 to March 1997, sulbactam was prospectively evaluated in patients with non-life-threatening multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. During this period, 47 patients were treated with sulbactam; of them, five were excluded because they had received < or =48 h of sulbactam therapy. A total of 42 patients, 27 males and 15 females with a mean age of 60+/-15 years, were finally evaluated. Infections were as follows: surgical wound, 19; tracheobronchitis, 12; urinary tract, 7; catheter-related bacteraemia, 2; and pneumonia, 2. Eighteen patients received intravenous sulbactam alone (1 g every 8 h) and 24 patients received intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin (1 g:2 g every 8 h) with no major adverse effects. Of the 42 patients, 39 improved or were cured and showed A. baumannii eradication and one patient had persistence of wound infection after 8 days of sulbactam/ampicillin requiring surgical debridement. Two patients died after 3 days of therapy (one of the deaths was attributable to A. baumannii infection). The in-vitro activity of the sulbactam/ampicillin combination was by virtue of the antimicrobial activity exhibited by sulbactam. Killing curves showed that sulbactam was bacteriostatic; no synergy was observed between ampicillin and sulbactam. Our results indicate that sulbactam may prove effective for non-life-threatening A. baumannii infections. Its role in the treatment of severe infections is unknown. However, the current formulation of sulbactam alone may allow its use at higher doses and provide new potential synergic combinations, particularly for those infections by A. baumannii resistant to imipenem.  (+info)

Transmission dynamics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in England and Wales. (7/5242)

A simple epidemiological framework for the analysis of the transmission dynamics of hospital outbreaks of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals in England and Wales is presented. Epidemic strains EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 are becoming endemic in hospitals in the United Kingdom, and theory predicts that EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 will reach respective endemic levels of 158 (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-173) and 116 (95% CI, 109-123) affected hospitals with stochastic fluctuations of up to 30 hospitals in each case. An epidemic of VRE is still at an early stage, and the incidence of hospitals newly affected by VRE is growing exponentially at a rate r=0.51/year (95% CI, 0.48-0.54). The likely impact of introducing surveillance policies if action is taken sufficiently early is estimated. Finally, the role of heterogeneity in hospital size is considered: "Super-spreader hospitals" may increase transmission by 40%-132% above the expected mean.  (+info)

Serum is more suitable than whole blood for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by nested PCR. (8/5242)

PCR assays for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis can be performed either on serum or on whole blood, but results obtained with the two kinds of samples have never been formally compared. Thus we designed a nested PCR assay in which five specific inner pairs of primers were used to amplify specific targets on the rRNA genes of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. In vitro, the lower limit of detection of each nested PCR assay was 1 fg of purified DNA from the corresponding Candida species. In rabbits with candidemia of 120 minutes' duration following intravenous (i.v.) injection of 10(8) CFU of C. albicans, the sensitivities of the PCR in serum and whole blood were not significantly different (93 versus 86%). In other rabbits, injected with only 10(5) CFU of C. albicans, detection of candidemia by culture was possible for only 1 min, whereas DNA could be detected by PCR in whole blood and in serum for 15 and 150 min, respectively. PCR was more often positive in serum than in whole blood in 40 culture-negative samples (27 versus 7%; P < 0.05%). Lastly, experiments with rabbits injected i.v. with 20 or 200 microgram of purified C. albicans DNA showed that PCRs were positive in serum from 30 to at least 120 min after injection, suggesting that the clearance of free DNA is slow. These results suggest that serum is the sample of choice, which should be used preferentially over whole blood for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by PCR.  (+info)

Empiric therapeutic regimens for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are outlined below, including those for early onset, late onset, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) factors. Definitions HAP: diagnosis made > 48h after admission VAP: diagnosis made 48-72h after ...
Ms. Jordana Schmier and Ms. Svetlana Semenova recently published, Estimated Hospital Costs Associated with Preventable Health Care-Associated Infections if Health Care Antiseptic Products Were Unavailable. The article was published in ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research.. Health care-associated infections (HAIs) pose a significant health care and cost burden. This study estimates annual HAI hospital costs in the US avoided through use of health care antiseptics (health care personnel hand washes and rubs; surgical hand scrubs and rubs; patient preoperative and preinjection skin preparations).. Click here to view the article. ...
Newborn infants hospitalized in a NICU have host factors that not only make them more vulnerable to acquisition of health care-associated infections but also increase their risk of developing more serious illnesses. Whether an infant is born preterm or at term, many components of their innate and adaptive immune systems exhibit diminished function when compared with older children and adults. Infants with birth weights less than1500 g (very low birth weight) have rates of health care-associated infections 3 times higher than those who weigh greater than 1500 g at birth. However, the increased susceptibility to infection in infants of very low birth weight is multifactorial and related to both the developmental deficiencies in the innate and adaptive immune systems and a greater likelihood of a critical illness requiring invasive monitoring and procedures. Furthermore, the immunologic deficiencies can be exacerbated by the critical nature of many of the illnesses affecting newborn ...
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia surveillance is difficult and time-consuming. The definition is complicated, and there are many opportunities for subjectivity in determining infection status. OBJECTIVE: To compare traditional infection control professional (ICP) surveillance for pneumonia among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with computerized surveillance of chest x-ray reports using an automated detection system based on a natural language processor. METHODS: This system evaluated chest x-rays from 2 NICUs over a 2-year period. It flagged x-rays indicative of pneumonia according to rules derived from the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System definition as applied to radiology reports. Data from the automated system were compared with pneumonia data collected prospectively by an ICP. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the computerized surveillance in NICU 1 was 71%, and specificity was 99.8%. The positive predictive value was 7.9%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was >99%. Data from ...
Cross Infection; Hospital Infections; Nosocomial Infections. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
New publication on Attributable Mortality of Healthcare-Associated Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus from Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology Attributable Mortality of Healthcare-Associated Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
The incidence, mortality, and medical care costs of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), a common and sometimes fatal health care-associated infection, are all at historic highs, according to a report released yesterday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The report shows that C. difficile is not just a problem in hospitals-it is a patient safety issue in all types of medical facilities, including nursing homes, physician offices, and outpatient facilities. C. difficile causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 American deaths each year. Almost half of the infections occur in people younger than 65, but more than 90% of deaths occur in people 65 and older. About 25% of C. difficile infections first show symptoms in hospital patients; 75% first show in nursing home patients or in people recently cared for in physician offices and clinics.. To help reduce the spread of C. difficile, CDC provides guidelines and tools to the health care community, including a podcast on 6 steps to ...
1. Klevens RM, Edwards JR, Richards CL Jr, et al. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep 2007;122:160-166.. 2. Palumbo, Aimee J, Loveless, Ann, et al., Evaluation of Healthcare-Associated Infection Surveillance in Pennsylvania Hospitals, 2012. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology2012; Vol. 33, No. 2, February 2012.. 24. Gerding DN, Muto CA, Owens RC. Measures to control and prevent Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46(suppl 1):S43-S49.. 27. Huang SS, Datta R, Platt R. Risk of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria from prior room occupants. Arch Intern Med 2006;166: 1945-1951.. 29. Shaughnessy, M., MD, Micielli, R., MD, et al. Evaluation of Hospital Room Assignment and Acquisition of Clostridium Difficile Infection. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Vol. 32, No. 3 (March 2011), pp 201-206.. 30. Klevens RM, Edwards JR, Richards CL, et al. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in ...
We offer a range of cross infection control devices to protect you and your patients from unwanted latent pathogens in the practice.
The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) released two annual reports recently. The reports provide information about healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and influenza vaccination rates among health care providers.. While California hospitals have made progress in preventing healthcare-associated infections, HAIs continue to be a significant public health issue in the state. In 2015, hospitals reported 19,847 healthcare-associated infections to CDPH. From 2014 to 2015, 56 hospitals demonstrated significant improvement in preventing one or more HAI type. Hospitals are making progress in preventing HAI with the exception of C. difficile diarrheal infections (CDI), which increased 8 percent since 2011. CDPH offered infection-prevention assistance to 73 hospitals with high infection rates.. The departments influenza vaccination report indicates that vaccination rates among health care providers have improved in the past five years. Since 2011, vaccination rates increased 21 percent for ...
As a significant cause of death, healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are a critical challenge to public health in the United States. At any given time, about 1 in 25 patients has an infection while receiving care in U.S. hospitals. These infections result in up to $33 billion in excess medical costs every year.. ASTHO is working with HHS, CDC, and the Keystone Center to determine the role of state health officials in decreasing and preventing HAIs, specifically addressing priorities, challenges, and solutions at the state and regional level. In March 2011, ASTHO and CDC jointly released the HAI policy toolkit -Eliminating Healthcare-Associated Infections: State Policy Options. The companion report, Policies for Eliminating Healthcare-Associated Infections: Lessons from State Stakeholder Engagement was released in January 2012. ASTHO also maintains situational awareness on HAI-related policies and initiatives, shares this information with members, and represents the state health agency ...
Nosocomial infection is one of the leading problems in the health system, therefore it is directly related to increased costs and hospitalization time. The prevalence rate of nosocomial infection in terms of geographic region, type of hospital, the patient, and the calculating method even in various regions of the country is different. According to the WHO report, the prevalence of the nosocomial infection in developed countries is below 5%, however, in developing countries, this rate is different (6). In this study, the incidence of nosocomial infection is about 1.1%, which is not comparable to the global statistics in developing countries; a study conducted in Benin, in 2012, patients from the same ward were studied in the same day in each hospital for real estimation of nosocomial infection, and data showed that the prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 19.1% (10). Other studies, especially from developing countries, reported the prevalence rate of 13.9% - 17.9% (11, 12). The prevalence ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of infections in intensive care units (ICUs), whether present at admission or acquired during the stay. METHODS: Prospective data collection lasting 6 months in 71 Italian adult ICUs. Patients were screened for infections and risk factors at ICU admission and daily during their stay. MAIN RESULTS: Out of 9,493 consecutive patients admitted to the 71 ICUs, 11.6% had a community-acquired infection, 7.4% a hospital-acquired infection, and 11.4% an ICU-acquired infection. The risk curve of acquiring infection in the ICU was higher in patients who entered without infection than in those already infected (log-rank test, p , .0001; at 15 days, 44.0% vs. 34.6%). Hospital mortality (27.8% overall) was higher in patients admitted with infection than in those who acquired infection in the ICU (45.0% vs. 32.4%, p , .0001). Although the presence of infection per se did not influence mortality, the conditions of severe sepsis and septic shock were strong prognostic ...
The costs of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) and other health care-associated infections are great. These infections have affected as many as 1.7 million patients at a cost of ~$28-33 billion and 99,000 lives in U.S. hospitals annually. Although efforts to lower infection risks have been challenged by the numbers of immunocompromised patients, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, fungal and viral superinfections, and invasive devices and procedures, a prevailing viewpoint-often termed zero tolerance-is that almost all health care-associated infections should be avoidable with strict application of evidence-based prevention guidelines (Table 168-1). In fact, rates of device-related infections-historically, the largest drivers of risk-have fallen steadily over the past few years. Unfortunately, at the same time, antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have risen in number and are estimated to contribute to ~23,000 deaths in and outside of hospitals annually. This chapter reviews health care-associated and ...
Glossary for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Information includes common acronyms and terms relating to healthcare-associated infections.
Hospital-acquired infections are preventable, and it is imperative that provider and system risk factors that contribute to patients with traumatic injuries from developing a hospital-acquired infection be identified. Patients with traumatic injuries are unable to amend any patient-related risk factors such as comorbidities or gender. However, the identification of provider and system risk factors that contribute to patients with traumatic injuries from developing a hospital-acquired infection would provide clinically relevant and applicable strategies at the macro and meso level being implemented ...
The targets outlined in this report are based on data collected by the CDCs Emerging Infections Program (EIP) through its Healthcare-Associated Infections Community Interface (HAIC) activity. The EIP-a network of 10 state health departments and their academic and other partners-conducts population-based surveillance of health care-associated infections and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. It also undertakes special projects to define the epidemiology of health care-associated infections and antimicrobial use in hospitals and nursing homes. The EIPs HAIC began collecting data on antimicrobial use in hospitals in 2011. In collaboration with the EIP network, the CDC conducted a survey to measure the amount of antibiotic use in hospitals. This survey found that about half of all patients were receiving one or more antibiotics and that use of broad-spectrum antibiotics was high.27 The results suggested that there is room to reduce antibiotic use in inpatient settings. However, the survey did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial contamination of patients medical charts in a surgical ward and the intensive care unit. T2 - Impact on nosocomial infections. AU - Teng, Sing On. AU - Lee, Wen Sen. AU - Ou, Tsong Yih. AU - Hsieh, Yu Chia. AU - Lee, Wuan Chan. AU - Lin, Yi Chun. PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of bacterial contamination of patients files, and to compare the colonized bacteria between files from the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) and the surgical ward at the Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: 180 medical charts were randomly selected from the surgical ICU (n = 90) and the surgical ward (n = 90). The charts were sampled using sterile swabs moistened with sterile normal saline. The swabs were immediately transferred to trypticase soy broth and incubated aerobically for 48 h, then subcultured to separated sheep blood and eosin-methylene blue agars. Microorganisms were identified by the standard ...
HYPOTHESIS:The levels of cholesterol, its fractions (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), and serum albumin reflect nutritional status and are related to in-hospital death, nosocomial infection, and length of stay in the hospital. DESIGN:A prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients. SETTING:The Service of General Surgery of a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS:A consecutive series of 2989 patients admitted for more than 1 day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nosocomial infection, in-hospital death, and length of stay. RESULTS:During follow-up, 62 (2%) of the patients died, 382 (13%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 257 (9%) developed a surgical site infection. Serum albumin (lowest quintile vs highest quintile: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) and HDL-C (lowest quintile vs highest quintile: OR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) levels showed an inverse and highly significant relationship with nosocomial ...
This meta-analysis presents a summary of the estimated benefit of CHG bathing to prevent infection in the ICU. CHG bathing was most effective for the prevention of CLABSI among ICU patients, demonstrating a 56% reduction. However, the magnitude of benefit is affected by the underlying risk of CLABSI among ICU populations. Even among an average risk group of five CLABSI per 1000 central-line-days, 360 patients will need to be bathed with CHG to prevent a single event. If the underlying risk of CLABSI is only 1 per 1000 central-line-days than the NNT increases to 1780. Effectiveness was also shown for reducing MRSA colonisation and MRSA bacteraemia. However, even among average baseline-risk populations, the NNT is approximately 600 and 2800, respectively. Because of varying study designs (before-and-after versus randomised crossover trials), there remains uncertainty in the effectiveness of CHG-B to prevent other infections among adults in the ICU.. Previous reviews of daily CHG bathing to reduce ...
Computer illustration showing bacteria that cause nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus (top left), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (top right), Klebsiella pneumoniae (bottom left), Escherichia coli (bottom right). Labelled image.
Background: Health care-associated infections, resulting from treatment received for medical or surgical conditions in a health care setting, represent a critical public health and patient safety issue, exacting substantial medical, social, and economic costs. The costliest among the leading causes of preventable health care-associated infections is central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), to which older adults (age 65 years and older) are particularly susceptible, especially during intensive care unit (ICU) stays. A rich body of research has empirically linked the quality of the nursing practice environment (NPE) in hospitals to both positive and negative patient outcomes; yet, surprisingly few studies have sought to examine relations between the hospital NPE and older adult CLABSI outcomes. This study aimed to fill this gap through analysis of de-identified data from the 2011 national Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-Effectiveness Refined (PNICER) study, provided by the
The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported
Overview Problem: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the surgical population, HAP is associated with a 55% increase in length of stay and increased costs of approximately $31,000.00 per case. Neurologically impaired patients (those with brain injury causing alterations in mental status, immobility, impaired swallowing and cough, and increased risk of aspiration) are particularly vulnerable to HAP. HAP negatively impacts patient comfort and satisfaction, increases costs associated with diagnostic tests and treatments, increases risk for sepsis, and potential for higher level of care. It is estimated 95% of care-dependent patients on the Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) neuroscience unit acquire HAP during their stay.. Gap: Research studies have shown improving oral hygiene in critical care, neuroscience intensive care units and cardiac surgery reduces the incidence of HAP. However, in the acutely ...
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) can be serious and even deadly for patients. Those who access the health care system for illness or injury are expecting care and treatment, not additional illness and complications, yet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 20 hospitalized patients develop an HAI. Treatment of HAIs can be difficult and may last for years, especially when the organism is resistant to multiple antibiotics. In addition to the human burden, excess costs are incurred across the health care system and many patients and payors are no longer willing to accept these avoidable costs.. Transmission of organisms that cause HAIs can occur in many ways: caregiver-to-patient, environment-to-patient, or patient-to-patient. Programs that have been successful in reducing HAIs have made this a strategic imperative and generally focused on improving multiple interventions, such as hand hygiene, use of contact and other precautions, active screening, and robust ...
David B. Nash, M.D., MBA, FACP and editor of the American Journal of Medical Quality will unveil a groundbreaking supplement with three peer-reviewed articles about hospital-acquired infections in the National Press Club (Murrow Room), 529 14th Street, NW, Washington, DC on November 20, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. Two of the studies confront the issue of blaming patient characteristics (age, risk factors, severity of illness) for higher infection rates - instead of a hospitals processes of care (hand washing, timeliness of pre-surgical antibiotics, elevation of pneumonia patients, proper placement of IV tubes). The third article highlights one hospitals infection reduction efforts, which demonstrate that the costs of treating a hospital-acquired infection can outstrip the payment system - in essence creating a lose-lose-lose situation for patients, hospitals and payers.. Hospital-acquired infections are an important issue which Congress (the House Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations) ...
The services that the Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology provides are comprehensive. In some circumstances, these services are chiefly consultative and collaborative, working hand-in-hand with referring physicians. In other circumstances, care is longitudinal and the Division serves as the principal caregiver for patients that are hospitalized for the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In nearly all instances, care is multidisciplinary, involving other physicians and medical professionals.. ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Nosocomial Infection Treatment Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016-2024, the global nosocomial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 28,565 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach US$ 36,746 Mn by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 2.5% from 2016 to 2024.. Browse the full report Nosocomial Infection Treatment Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2024 report at Market Insights. Nosocomial infection, also known as hospital acquired or associated infection (HAI) is defined as an infection developed in patients during the hospital stay that was earlier not present or incubated during admission in the hospital. Nosocomial infection is majorly caused by bacteria, virus, or fungal pathogen and is becoming the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, causing enormous ...
Vascular device-related infection is suspected on the basis of the appearance of the catheter site or the presence of fever or bacteremia without another source in patients with vascular catheters. The diagnosis is confirmed by the recovery of the same species of microorganism from peripheral-blood cultures (preferably two cultures drawn from peripheral veins by separate venipunctures) and from semiquantitative or quantitative cultures of the vascular catheter tip. Less commonly used diagnostic measures include differential time to positivity (,2 h) for blood drawn through the vascular access device compared with a sample from a peripheral vein or differences in quantitative cultures (a 5- to 10-fold or greater step-up) for blood samples drawn simultaneously from a peripheral vein and from a CVC.When infusionrelated sepsis is considered (e.g., because of the abrupt onset of fever or shock temporally related to infusion therapy), a sample of the infusate or blood product should be retained for ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Study highlights serious problem of hospital-acquired infections in Africa. Research funded by the Wellcome Trust has highlighted the scale of the problem of hospital-acquired infections in sub-Saharan Africa. The study, published today in the Lancet, suggests that bloodstream infections acquired while in care might contribute to one in every 20 deaths that occur in children in hospitals in the region.. The issue of HAIs is well recognised in high-income countries, with major initiatives promoting cleanliness among hospital staff and visitors. However, despite many African hospitals being severely overcrowded, and suffering frequent shortages of basic supplies such as running water and clean linen, virtually no data exist on the number of hospital-acquired infections in the region.. The conditions in African hospitals are often poor, and it is very likely that these environments lead to considerable amounts of sickness among patients who are already debilitated by their primary illness, ...
Nasia Safdar has been the Medical Director of Infection Control at UW Hospital and Clinics since 2009. She came to Wisconsin in 1997 for her residency and fellowship. She is board certified in infectious disease and she focuses on healthcare-associated infections, particularly in the acute care setting. Dr. Safdar believes that many health care-associated infections can be prevented with adherence to known best practices. As medical director for the department of infection prevention, her job is to lead the department in its mission of reducing healthcare-associated infections by identifying, testing and implementing interventions that have benefit for reducing health care associated infections (HAI).. She is an associate professor of infectious diseases at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and the Associate Chief of Staff for Research at the William S. Middleton VA Hospital. Her research includes the evaluation of novel and innovative strategies for prevention of ...
AHRQ News and Numbers provides statistical highlights on the use and cost of health services and health insurance in the United States.
OBJECTIVES: Surveillance is a key component of any control strategy for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and public availability of methodologic aspects is crucial for the interpretation of the data. We sought to systematically review publicly available information for HAIs and/or AMR surveillance systems organized by public institutions or scientific societies in European countries. METHODS: A systematic review of scientific and grey literature following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was performed. Information on HAIs and/or AMR surveillance systems published until 31 October 2016 were included. RESULTS: A total of 112 surveillance systems were detected; 56 from 20 countries were finally included. Most exclusions were due to lack of publicly available information. Regarding AMR, the most frequent indicator was the proportion of resistant isolates (27 of 34 providing information, 79.42%); only ...
Infections are not only transferred from person to person, but they are also passed via surface or an object. Harmful bacteria can be passed on from a person, body fluids or infected materials to anot
Since approximately 4% of patients develop one or more healthcare-associated infections (HAI) during their hospital stays, researchers set out to determine the link between HAIs and nurse understaffing.
Introduction: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a public health issue. An infection is said to be associated with the care if it occurs during or after the care of a patient, and if it was neither present _disibledevent=font-family:Verdana;>The bacterial infections associated with the care remain frequent in our service and dominated by the infections of the operating site. Isolated organisms were all resistant to amoxicillin in 88.88% case ciprofloxacin.
Our water lines are regularly checked to ensure they pass the highest water quality standards.. Additional technology includes an ultrasonic bath for pre-sterilization cleaning, an intra-oral camera and a 17 inch medical grade monitor. This enables our patients to see high resolution images of the area that we are working on, and also pre and post operative results.. Other features include an autoclave tower for sterilization, and an ecowater system. Our cabinetry is among the most innovative and hygienic available. It includes Scandanavian design, and teflon seals on all the doors and drawers. The surfaces are MRSA resistant.. Whether the treatment involves surgically placing a dental implant or a childrens check-up, Monkstown Dental Surgery maintains optimum hygiene standards at all times.. ...
Infectious diseases pose special challenges in healthcare settings, where people are more at risk due to underlying illness and vulnerability. Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are common causes of morbidity and mortality and lead to high financial burden on healthcare systems.
Douglas Delabie, which specialises in thermostatic control solutions and accessories for healthcare, has introduced an electronic wall-mounted...
The first nationwide estimates of the burden of invasive MRSA were derived from ABCs; in 2005, ≈94,000 cases and ≈18,000 deaths were attributed to invasive MRSA (16). Most (≈84%) infections were health care-associated-either hospital-onset (culture obtained ,3 days after admission) or health care-associated community-onset (culture obtained from outpatient or within 3 calendar days after admission from a patient with a health care-associated risk factor, which include presence of a central venous catheter within 2 days before MRSA culture or history of surgery, hospitalization, dialysis, or residence of long-term care facility in the 12 months preceding culture date). The prominence of health care-associated community-onset infections was newly brought to light by the ABCs network (16). This report led to increased awareness of MRSA infections, and prevention of health care-associated MRSA became a goal for public health agencies and policy makers (17-19). ABCs documented a 54% decline in ...
In efforts to combat healthcare-associated infections, nanosilver materials are used in many medical devices for silvers antimicrobial properties.
Evidence-based statements to deliver quality improvements in preventing and controlling healthcare-associated infections in secondary care settings
TORONTO, May 27, 2014- We are losing the battle in the fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), but a Canadian breakthrough could change the game.
Two board members of the Vitamin D Council, Dr. Sadeq Quraishi and Dr. William Grant, write a response to a study on healthcare-associated infections.
This summary map and searchable database includes state laws pertaining to healthcare-associated infections. Currently, laws enacted from 2006 through 2008 are included.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: BRAIN Initiative: Next-Generation Invasive Devices for Recording and Modulation in the Human Central Nervous System (UG3/UH3 - Clinical Trial Required) RFA-NS-18-021. NINDS
CUPERTINO, Calif., Aug. 21, 2017-- Cagan McAfee Capital Partners and seasoned investor/operator, Myles Sherman of Austin, TX, have teamed up to acquire Minimally Invasive Devices. Wayne Poll, will continue with the new company to be called FloShield, Inc.. Objective Capital Partners, a leading M&A investment banking firm specializing in middle market M&A,...
A prospective study of nosocomial sepsis was performed in the NICU of Surgiscope Pvt. Hospital to determine the organisms causing nosocomial infection in neonates and their resistance patterns; also studied were risk factors, clinical presentation, hematologic parameters, and outcomes over a 12-month period. A total of 363 neonates were admitted to the ICU. A total of 250 blood samples were sent for culture and sensitivity testing in suspicious cases of nosocomial infection. All patients were on antibiotics. Of these, 36.8% (92 of 250) had a positive result on culture. Isolated bacteria were mostly gram-negative bacilli (80.43%) with a marked predominance of Klebsiella (n = 32 [43.2%]) followed by Escherichia coli (n = 18 [24.32%]), Pseudomonas (n = 16 [21.62%]), and acinetobacter (n = 5 [6.75%]). Resistance to gentamicin was 100% for all organisms. Resistance to amikacin was 100% for E coli, Pseudomonas, and acinetobacter and 40% for Klebsiella. Resistance of these gram-negative rods ranged ...
Cross ML et al. Patterns of cytokine induction by gram-positive and gram-negative probiotic bacteria. FEMS Immunol Med ... Infection and Immunity 2004, Vol. 72, No. 10, 5750-5758. Martina Sassone-Corsi et al. Microcins mediate competition among ... Properties of Escherichia coli strains of serotype O 6. Infection 1995;23:234-236. Boudeau J et al. Inhibitory effect of ... Hockertz S. Augmentation of host defence against bacterial and fungal infections of mice pretreated with the non-pathogenic ...
2016). Contact infection of infectious disease on board a cruise ship. Scientific Report [Internet]. 2016 December 8; 6: 38790 ... Health service utilization in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic - a cross-sectional public survey. Int J Health Policy ... Factors Associated with Urban Risk-Taking Behaviour during 2018 Typhoon Mangkhut: A Cross Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res ... 2017). Injuries caused by pets in Asian urban households: a cross-sectional telephone survey. BMJ Open, 7(1), e012813. doi: ...
Patients are more prone than healthy people to infections of all types, especially recurrent skin infections with ... which cross the placenta but wane by four to six months. List of skin conditions Chao SC, Richard G, Lee JY (2005). "Netherton ... This therapy reduces infection; enables improvement and even resolution of the skin and hair abnormalities, and dramatically ... They may have more severe infections; but are not as vulnerable to opportunistic pathogens as patients with true Natural Killer ...
Cecily was able to demonstrate that the nurse-mother was crucial in preventing infections as infants avoided cross-infections ... OCLC 220813251 Pickerill, C.M. and Pickerill, H. P. (1954). "Nursing by the mother and cross-infection". Lancet 267 (6838): 599 ... Pickerill, H. P. and Pickerill, C. M. (1945). "Elimination of Cross-infection". British ... She successfully demonstrated that care of hospitalised infants by their mothers prevented infections. Cecily Pickerill was ...
To prevent post-surgical and cross infection Bassam was the first hospital in New Zealand where all nursing, except during ... OCLC 220813251 Pickerill, C.M. and Pickerill, H. P. (1954). "Nursing by the mother and cross-infection". Lancet 267 (6838): 599 ... Pickerill, H. P. and Pickerill, C. M. (1945). "Elimination of Cross-infection". British ... While surgeries were undertaken in the hospital the Red Cross Society in June 1919 rented for three years Woodside, the ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "One more dies of virus in Assam as infection tally crosses 3,000-mark". Devdiscource. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "With 15 new infections, COVID-19 cases in Assam cross 200 mark". Republic. 21 May 2020 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Assam records 1,093 fresh COVID-19 cases; infection tally crosses 25,000-mark". ... "Assam crosses 2400-mark with 230 new cases; total rises to 2,473". Outlook. 7 June 2020. "COVID-19 cases in Assam rise to 2,681 ...
Cross-infection between babies was greatly feared. Strict nursing routines involved staff wearing gowns and masks, constant ... SCBU might provide tube-feeding, oxygen therapy, antibiotics to treat infection and phototherapy for jaundice. In a SCBU, a ... Protection from cold temperature, infection, noise, drafts and excess handling:[20] Incubators may be described as bassinets ... However, breathing difficulties, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and infections still claim many infant ...
On April 22, 2018, the day after his wife's funeral, Bush was hospitalized with a blood infection. The infection led to sepsis ... So, cross the Bushes off your worry list." On the day of his death, his friend James Baker told Bush that he was going to ... "George H.W. Bush admitted to Houston hospital for blood infection". April 23, 2018. Reporters, Telegraph (April 23, 2018). " ...
This form of disease is characterized by the appearance of lesions at sites distant to the initial infection. Infection can ... Cross reactions with other fungal species as well as positive reactions in healthy individuals have been observed. In addition ... Gardeners, landscapers, and foresters are at high risk of infection. Sporothrix infection can also be transmitted by cat bites ... When infection is disseminated throughout the body, Amphotericin B is the drug of choice. To completely clear the fungus, the ...
Infection with influenza virus itself increases both the risk of death (up to one in ten thousand) and the risk of developing ... A cross-sectional analysis of UK telephone survey data". Vaccine. 29 (13): 2421-28. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.035. PMID ... As well as protecting mother and child from the effects of an influenza infection, the immunization of pregnant women tends to ... Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. New ...
Infection and immunity. November 2007 vol. 75 no. 11 5079-5084. "Karla Satchell". Retrieved December 27, 2017 ... Identification of a domain within the multifunctional Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin that covalently cross-links actin. PNAS. vol. ...
Cross-contamination and infection were widespread. The hospital was set up only a few months before Levi's arrival. There had ...
"Pathogens Cross Protective Barriers to Colonize the Host". Boyton RJ, Openshaw PJ (2002). "Pulmonary defences to acute ... This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and ... Thus the immune response to infection may result in changes to the sleep cycle, including an increase in slow-wave sleep ... Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells. Active immunity can also be generated ...
As Zika virus infection of pregnant women may result in congenital defects in the newborn, the vaccine will attempt to protect ... Priyamvada, L; Hudson, W; Ahmed, R; Wrammert, J (10 May 2017). "Humoral cross-reactivity between Zika and dengue viruses: ... The goal of a Zika virus vaccine is to produce specific antibodies against the Zika virus to prevent infection and severe ... A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. ...
Moylan, Elizabeth C.; Kowalczuk, Maria K. (2016). "Why Articles Are Retracted: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of ... Infection and Immunity. 79 (10): 3855-3859. doi:10.1128/IAI.05661-11. PMC 3187237. PMID 21825063. ...
Inflammation and infection[edit]. Inflammation of the trachea is known as tracheitis, usually due to an infection. It is ... Cross-section of the trachea, with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells labelled ... with bacterial infections occurring almost entirely in children.[8] Most commonly, infections occur with inflammation of other ... Infection with bacteria usually affects the trachea only and can cause narrowing or even obstruction. As a major part of the ...
Cross-matching. Determination of blood type for blood transfusion or transplants. *Blood cultures are commonly taken if ... If the immune system is fighting an infection or illness, CRP will be higher.. ... infection is suspected. Positive cultures and resulting sensitivity results are often useful in guiding medical treatment. ...
sterilising and preventing cross infection of equipment[citation needed]. *may advise patients on dental health education and ... "Guidelines for Infection Control". Australia Dental Association.. *^ a b c Prathima V, Vellore KP, Kotha A, Malathi S, Kumar VS ... Infection control[edit]. It was customary for oral health care workers and dental assistants in the 1980s to practice oral ... Examples of infection control protocols that the dental assistant needs to follow in an oral health setting include: Hand ...
Tanner, J; Parkinson, H (2006). "Double gloving to reduce surgical cross-infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Double gloving is the practice of wearing two layers of medical gloves to reduce the danger of infection from glove failure or ... But it was unclear if there was better protection against infections transmitted by the surgeon. Another systematic review ... Medical gloves are disposable gloves used during medical examinations and procedures to help prevent cross-contamination ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Watkins, A. G.; Lewis-Faning, E. (17 September 1949). "Incidence of Cross-infection in ... reducing the threat of cross infection from children with diseases such as typhus, diphtheria and measles, that were a major ... that visits by parents into hospital wards introduced cross infections had been removed. A major review in 1949, over an 11- ... periods showed that children admitted to 26 wards in 14 hospitals showed no correlation between visits and cross infection from ...
A cross infection and co-infection study". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 150: 101-105. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2017.09.014. PMID ... Triatoma virus infection leads to a 97.6% mortality rate in nymphs and inhibited molting in laboratory colonies. TrV causes ... "Can Triatoma virus inhibit infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 ) in Triatoma infestans (Klug)? ...
Cross, Pamela L; Whitworth, James A; Hayes, Richard J (2006). "Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in ... Rabin, Roni Caryn (May 1, 2020). "What Is 'Covid Toe'? Maybe a Strange Sign of Coronavirus Infection". The New York Times. ISSN ... Freeman, Esther E; Weiss, Helen A; Glynn, Judith R; Cross, Pamela L; Whitworth, James A; Hayes, Richard J (2006). "Herpes ... Frostbite' toes and other peculiar rashes may be signs of hidden coronavirus infection, especially in the young". The Seattle ...
Women are most susceptible to malaria infection early on in the first trimester but the risk of infection decreases in the ... "Var2CSA DBL6-epsilon domain expressed in HEK293 induces limited cross-reactive and blocking antibodies to CSA binding parasites ... For infection caused by P. falciparum, the WHO recommends during the first trimester a treatment consisting of both Quinine and ... Therefore, infection from P. falciparum is usually associated with no symptoms in pregnant women. However, it is not to ...
"Nepal's Covid-19 infection tally crosses 200,000 mark with 2,569 new cases". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 11 November 2020. "COVID ... "Nepal's Covid-19 death toll crosses 500 mark; 1,911 new infections take the national tally to 79,728". Kathmandu Post. ... "Nepal's Covid-19 tally crosses 100,000 mark with 2,059 new infections; death toll reaches 600 with 10 more fatalities". ... "Nepal's Covid-19 tally crosses 50,000 mark with confirmation of 1,246 new infections". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 10 September ...
Several pathogens can cross the placenta and cause (perinatal) infection. Often microorganisms that produce minor illness in ... Infection[edit]. Main article: Susceptibility and severity of infections in pregnancy. Further information: Neonatal infection ... Vertically transmitted infection[edit]. Further information: Vertically transmitted infection. Further information: Neonatal ... For many infections, the baby is more at risk at particular stages of pregnancy. Problems related to perinatal infection are ...
2003). "Dictyocaulus species: cross infection between cattle and red deer". New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 51 (2): 93-98. doi: ... Routine deworming of horses and donkeys may help prevent cross infection when kept together. Pastures that housed donkeys may ... Treatment of lungworm infections[edit]. Lungworms can be treated with ivermectin, albendazole, fenbendazole, febantel and other ... D. viviparus is the most common lungworm of cattle; the infection is also known as husk or parasitic bronchitis. Although ...
Careful sterilization of such objects prevents cross-infection. Used syringes, if improperly handled, are particularly ... Focal infection theory Focus of infection Vector (epidemiology) Cramer, Lorraine (1 September 2011). "Fomites, fomites, fomites ... "The necktie as a potential vector of infection: are doctors happy to do without?". Journal of Hospital Infection. 75 (2): 138- ... The risk of infection by these diseases and others through fomites can be greatly reduced by simply washing one's hands. When ...
Infection with rotavirus is the most common cause. Although children with benign infantile epilepsy typically have a normal EEG ... Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, Buchhalter J, Cross JH, et al. Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures ...
Cross Infection, Hebbel am Ufer, Berlin, Germany, 2007. Dilemma: Three Way Fork in the Road-Recent Works by Wang Jianwei, ...
There is little or no serologic cross-reactivity between sandfly fever viruses. Infection can be confirmed through serologic ... Lesho, Emil; Ludwig, George; Wortmann, Glenn (2004). "Encephalitis and Sandfly Fever (Sicilian) Virus Infection: Case Report ... that living near wastewater treatment facilities and the presence of livestock inside the home are risk factors for infection. ...
The result is a low serum antibody level and risk of infections. ... Cross-reactivity. *inaction: Tolerance *Central. *Peripheral. * ...
Hancock and Gibbon were seriously wounded, while of the brigade commanders, Samuel K. Zook, Edward E. Cross, George L. Willard ... the latter succumbed to an infection a month and a half after the battle. Oliver Howard succeeded to command of Sedgwick's ...
Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ... Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Ebolavirus and ... Simpson DI (1977). Marburg and Ebola virus infections: a guide for their diagnosis, management, and control. World Health ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[50][52] EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
"Clostridium Infections". Advances in Research and Treatment (2011 ed.). ScholarlyEditions. 9 January 2012. ISBN 9781464960130. ... The mallard duck can cross breed with 63 other species, posing a severe threat to indigenous waterfowl's genetic integrity.[116 ...
Urinary tract infections and incontinence are more common in females.[18] Pregnancy, menstruation, breastfeeding, and diaper- ... Plaskow, Judith (July 8, 2008). "Embodiment, Elimination, and the Role of Toilets in Struggles for Social Justice". Cross ...
... cross-over comparison with morphine and placebo". Pain. 72 (1-2): 99-106. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00006-7. PMID 9272793.. ... endotoxins and other signals of infection also increases pain sensitivity as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to ...
Infection set in and he died as a result.[6] References[edit]. *^ a b c Pigeard, Dictionnaire des batailles de Napoléon, pp. ... On the 30 April Napoleon crossed the river Saale, advancing on Leipzig in three columns led by an advanced guard. His intention ... He crossed the Rhine into Germany to link up with remnants of his old Grande Armée, and to quickly defeat this new alliance ...
Early localized infection[edit]. Early localized infection can occur when the infection has not yet spread throughout the body ... ticks will tend not to cross it; acaricides may also be sprayed on it to kill ticks.[146] A sun-exposed tick-safe zone at least ... Early disseminated infection[edit]. Within days to weeks after the onset of local infection, the Borrelia bacteria may spread ... Singh SK, Girschick HJ (July 2004). "Lyme borreliosis: from infection to autoimmunity". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 10 ...
The most common of these minor issues is probably ear infection. Ear infections are a problem in all poodle varieties because ... A cross between a shedding breed and a poodle (which does not shed much) does not reliably produce a nonshedding dog. Traits of ... Poodles are crossed with other breeds for various reasons, and the resulting puppies (called designer dogs) are described by ... A veterinarian should be consulted if the dog shows signs of an ear infection. ...
One possibility is that peoples from central Asia or the Middle East migrated into Iberia as peoples from Africa crossed into ... or alternatively the result of chronic viral infection which is known to also elevate anti-tranglutaminase antibody. A German ...
Self-report survey methodology is the most used approach in OHP research.[37] Cross-sectional designs are commonly used; case- ... Johnson, J.V., & Hall, E.M. (1988). Job strain, workplace social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study ... because the data were cross-sectional, no conclusions bearing on cause-and-effect relations are warranted. Evidence from a ... Hospital-acquired infection. *Indium lung. *Laboratory animal allergy. *Lead poisoning. *Mad hatter disease ...
... the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the South ... Control of human hookworm infection through regular deworming of at-risk school children, endorsed in 2001 ... and the first-ever human infections with the H7N9 avian influenza virus reported in China in 2013.[16] She attributed the ... "Scientists race to understand deadly new virus: SARS-like infection causes severe illness, but may not spread quickly" ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... Since these tests can cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, these indirect methods cannot conclusively ... Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity,[20] and normally no permanent organ damage results.[21] ... An estimated 90% of the infections occur on the African continent.[4] In 2008, the largest number of recorded cases was in Togo ...
"Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Prevention - Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)". Retrieved 10 February 2013.. ... Examples (depending on circumstances) include activities such as camping, hiking, cross country running, rural fishing, amateur ... "Preventing kidney infection". National Health Service. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2014.. ... Urinary tract infection, which can cause urinary frequency and dysuria. *Polyuria, abnormally large production of urine, ...
He wrote that "Although the incidence of cross-infection contracted in hospital has not entirely ceased, it has reached such a ... Red Cross workers also volunteered frequently, with a special focus on making the hospital more comfortable and enjoyable for ... The Recreation Building replaced the Red Cross building which had been added in 1915, adjacent to Hospital Outbuilding and the ... Each pavilion contained separate hospital functions that could be sealed off from each other in order to prevent cross- ...
On May 1 the apparent MDR TB infection was discussed with the CDC lab by his doctors and they discussed discontinuing the ... where he crossed over the border and back into the United States while infected with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. The ... "A Timeline of Andrew Speaker's Infection, June, 2007". NPR. Retrieved 16 April 2016. "CNN story on wedding". Archived ...
... and chronic infections. The Infectious Disease Society of America states that Lyme disease is easily treated with a few weeks ... and fibromyalgia are two separate disorders that share many overlapping symptoms and are often cross-diagnosed. FDA approved ...
Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword. *Grand Crosses Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal ... Ailing Thai king's lung infection eases, kidneys still failing: Palace Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Channel ... Knights Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic ... King Bhumibol underwent tests that revealed a blood infection and an X-ray found inflammation on his left lung, along with ...
The parable of the blind men and an elephant has crossed between many religious traditions and is part of Jain, Buddhist, Sufi ... Uveitis: is a group of 30 intraocular inflammatory diseases[44] caused by infections, systemic diseases, organ-specific ... Tactile paving and audible traffic signals can make it easier and safer for visually impaired pedestrians to cross streets. In ... and a number of infections.[6] Visual impairment can also be caused by problems in the brain due to stroke, premature birth, or ...
... is a stiffly erect plant 0.5 to 1.8 metres (1.6 to 5.9 ft) tall, with stems that are square in cross-section. The ... which is a homemade remedy to keep your child fed and hydrated in cases of diarrhea or stomach infection and even for cholera ...
... thereby potentially decreasing the possibility of cross-infection.[15] Supporters of Proposition 2 say that increased density ... "Salmonella enteritidis, Phage Type 4 Infection in a Commercial Layer Flock in Southern California: Bacteriologic and ... the infection of free-range hens in the California study was caused via the "fecal-oral route through contamination of the feed ... fingerprinting evidence of the contribution of wildlife vectors in the maintenance of Salmonella Entiritidis infection in layer ...
... some species of methanogens have been suggested to be involved in infections in the mouth,[187][188] and Nanoarchaeum equitans ... "The origin of a derived superkingdom: how a Gram-positive bacterium crossed the desert to become an archaeon". Biol Direct. 6 ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... "Identification and quantification of archaea involved in primary endodontic infections". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (4): 1274-82. ...
"Texas compounding pharmacy recalls drugs after 15 infections". CBS News. 2013-08-12. Retrieved 2014-02-18.. ... are prepared or when there is a risk of cross-contamination of the compounded product. Pharmacists preparing compounded ... At that time, another incident was reported after at least 15 people at two Texas hospitals developed bacterial infections. All ... and that infections were linked to more than 17,600 doses of methylprednisolone acetate steroid injections used to treat back ...
Symmetry: e.g., herpes zoster usually only affects one side of the body and does not cross the midline. ... Jock itch, yeast infection or diaper rash Red itchy rash Groin Tinea versicolor Light coloured patches Anywhere ...
... it will cross US$10 billion mark by 2017. Trade in fake drugs is driven caused by lack of adequate regulations, shortage of ... drug used by cancer patients to stimulate the production of white blood cells in order to decrease the incidence of infections. ...
It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat ... and treatment of infections, there is preliminary laboratory research, but no clinical studies in humans showing a benefit.[9] ... and infections.[9] While it has shown some potential clinical activity in laboratory experiments, "further studies are required ...
"British Red Cross. Retrieved 15 May 2016.. *^ "Florence Nightingale Medal". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2003. ... Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. There was no ... Royal Red Cross (1883) Lady of Grace of the Order of St John (LGStJ) (1904) Order of Merit (1907). ... In 1883, Nightingale became the first recipient of the Royal Red Cross. In 1904, she was appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order ...
This is because fluorescein is xylem-mobile and unable to cross plasma membranes, making it particularly useful in tracking ... corneal ulcers and herpetic corneal infections. It is also used in rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting to evaluate the ...
In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): Immunodefiency in HIV Infection and AIDS, Karger Publishers, Basel, 1992:185-194. D. ... transplant cross-matching and graph rejection, pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, leukemia diagnosis and minimal residual ...
Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... JCV can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro. Furthermore, using the ... This study shows that memory T-cell activation in viral infection occurs, in part, by cross-dressing; that is, the transfer of ... Linda Wakim and Michael Bevan now show that memory T-cell activation in viral infection occurs in part through cross-dressing. ... As an alternative mode of antigen presentation to memory T cells during viral infection, cross-dressing avoids the need for ...
COVID-19 has impacted infection control standards in a range of organisations and industries across the country. This course is ... Cross-Sector Infection Control Skill Set. Scan me Scan this QR code using your mobile phone camera to view this content on the ... with the Cross-Sector Infection Control Skill Set course at Victoria University Polytechnic. ... knowledge regarding the bases of infection and transmission.. You must be currently employed (paid or voluntary) in Victoria in ...
Cross-presenting CD103+ dendritic cells are protected from influenza virus infection Julie Helft,1,2 Balaji Manicassamy,3,4 ... Influenza a virus infection of human primary dendritic cells impairs their ability to cross-present antigen to CD8 T cells. ... Preventing DC infection while promoting cross-presentation of virally infected cells may therefore provide a means to achieve ... The DC receptor DNGR-1 mediates cross-priming of CTLs during vaccinia virus infection in mice. ...
Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans. By Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Naruthai ... Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans. By Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Naruthai ... Antibodies to envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus during the natural course of infection are predominantly cross-reactive and ...
... infection among patients at a tertiary healthcare center in Lebanon. ... 33] reported no relationship between H. pylori infection and education. In contrast, a cross-sectional study on 19,272 subjects ... dietary patterns are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep. 2016;6: ... Dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori infection: a cross sectional study at a Lebanese hospital. ...
Cross-dressed dendritic cells drive memory CD8+ T-cell activation after viral infection.. Wakim LM1, Bevan MJ. ... After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro. Furthermore, using the ... Immunology: Cross-dressers turn on T cells. [Nature. 2011]. *Antigen presentation: cross-dress to impress. [Nat Rev Immunol. ... Cross-dressed dendritic cells drive memory CD8+ T-cell activation after viral infection ...
Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study BMJ 2001; 323 :264 ... Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study ... Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on blood pressure: a community based cross sectional study ... Helicobacter pylori infection and early onset myocardial infarction: case-control and sibling pairs study.BMJ1999;319:1157-1162 ...
Android Malware Cross-infection. Posted on January 23, 2014. by Simon Judge ... Android Malware Cross-infection was last modified: January 23rd, 2014 by Simon Judge ...
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association.. ® Registered ... About Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Terms of Use, Privacy & Security Accessibility Nondiscrimination and Translation ... Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. Our ... Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc.. 101 Huntington Avenue, Suite 1300, Boston, MA 02199-7611 , 1-800-262-BLUE ( ...
One of the best ways to keep your baby infection-free is to wash your hands before and after handling him or her. Other ... Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association.. ® Registered ... About Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Terms of Use, Privacy & Security Accessibility Nondiscrimination and Translation ... Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. Our ...
Sexually Transmitted Infections Nov 2018, 94 (7) 522-527; DOI: 10.1136/sextrans-2017-053397 ...
At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. ... At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. ... Their research was published in Antimicribial Resistance and Infection Control.. Reference: Chalfine A, et al. Ten-year ... Infection Control Today is part of the Global Exhibitions Division of Informa PLC ...
The reception centres operated by the Finnish Red Cross have prepared for the coronavirus. To this end, each centre has an ... Only a few coronavirus infections have been detected in reception centres maintained by the Red Cross. If an asylum seeker is ... Finnish Red Cross 2020 , Legal notes , Data protection , Collection licences POL-2015-8798 & ÅLR 2019/7863 ... You are here:Ajankohtaista › Uutiset › Reception centres protect against coronavirus infections. Reception centres protect ...
... pushing the infection tally to 11,070, officials said on Wednesday.,/p, ... Ladakh records over 800 coronavirus cases in 10 days, infection tally crosses 11,000. Read full article. ... The infection can lead to blackening or discolouration over the nose, blurred or double vision, chest pain, breathing ... They said 10,088 people have recovered from the infection. The recovery rate stands at 96 per cent in Kargil and 91 per cent in ...
Coronavirus: Confirmed cases cross 1,000; govt orders sealing of state, district borders to check mass infection. .breadCrumb ... Coronavirus: Confirmed cases cross 1,000; govt orders sealing of state, district borders to check mass infection. ... Coronavirus: Confirmed cases cross 1,000; govt orders sealing of state, district borders to check mass infection ... The confirmed infections worldwide has topped 6,67,000, with the US topping the list with more than 1,04,000 cases. Ironically ...
... R. ... There were 222 who reported personal oral infection control 6-12 times per week, and 539 reported personal oral infection ... M. K. Jeffcoat, N. C. Geurs, M. S. Reddy et al., "Periodontal infection and preterm birth: Results of a prospective study," The ... Mothers whose personal oral infection control was less frequent than 13 times per week were more likely to have babies with low ...
Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections.. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Johnson ... Strong cross-reactivity occurred when sera from individuals with Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, and louse-borne ... Sera from subjects with syphilis cross-reacted in IFA tests and the ELISA for Lyme disease. Immunoglobulin antibodies to ...
Horses are susceptible to many diseases and infections. These can cause health problems for the individual animal and may also ... procedures form an essential part of horse management by preventing disease and minimising the potential spread of infection. ... Common infections in horses. Horses can suffer numerous health problems as a result of bacterial, viral or fungal infections. ... The risk of infection varies from area to area and from horse to horse, with younger horses (and those with impaired health) at ...
"The threat of cross-contamination of medical devices is very real," says infection prevention consultant Kathy Arias, MS, CIC ... In fact, one of the first articles on how cross-contamination of medical devices can transmit infection was written back in ... Rautenbach P, Wilson A, Gouws P. The reuse of opthalmic Minims: an unacceptable cross-infection risk? Eye (Lond). 2010 Jan;24(1 ... And with the rise of dangerous multi-drug-resistant organisms, the dangers of transmitting infection by cross-contamination are ...
A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses in a virus-endemic area ... Cross-sectional Survey of Hantavirus Infection, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(12):1981-1983. doi:10.3201/ ... Because asymptomatic infection with hantaviruses also has been detected in Minas Gerais, we conducted a cross-sectional survey ... Armien B, Pascale JM, Bayard V, Munoz C, Mosca I, Guerrero G, High seroprevalence of hantavirus infection on the Azuero ...
Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola Hotspot: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey. Richardson, Eugene ... "Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola Hotspot: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (11 ... Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola Hotspot: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey. en. ... The findings provide further evidence that Ebola, like many other viral infections, presents with a spectrum of clinical ...
Coronavirus: Confirmed cases cross 1,000; Govt orders sealing of state, district borders to check mass infection. By: PTI , ... The confirmed infections worldwide has topped 6,67,000, with the US topping the list with more than 1,04,000 cases. Ironically ... Coronavirus Confirmed cases cross 1000 Govt orders sealing of state district borders to check mass infection. ... The nationwide tally of confirmed Coronavirus cases crossed the 1,000-mark and the death toll reached 27 on Sunday, even as the ...
The current cross-sectional study aimed to understand the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and the risk of high- ... However, further research is needed to understand whether dietary antioxidant intake is associated with hrHPV infection or its ... risk HPV (hrHPV) infection among 251 Italian women with normal cervical cytology. Women were tested for hrHPV using the Digene ... infection and cervical cancer. However, the effect of combined intake of antioxidants has not been investigated thus far. ...
HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection: cross-sectional findings from a German hotspot. *S. Noe. ORCID: ... Noe, S., Schabaz, F., Heldwein, S. et al. HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection: cross-sectional findings from a German hotspot. ... HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection: cross-sectional findings from a German hotspot ... Infection fatality rate of sars-cov-2 infection in a german community with a super-spreading event. medRxiv. 2020. ...
... investigate whether recent seasonal human or swine H1N1 vaccines could induce cross-reactive immune responses against infection ... Receipt of a-CAN01/04 (2-doses) but not a-Brisbane/59/07 induced detectable but modest (20-40 units) cross-reactive serum ... Only double administration (7.5 µg HA) of both vaccine in ferrets could elicit cross-reactivity (30-60 HI titers). Similar ...
Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... To determine how common cross-reactive T cells are, we performed a comprehensive ex vivo analysis of cross-reactive CD4+ and ... Matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of cross-recognition. In addition, cross-reactive ...
The highly cross-reactive antibodies to EDI/II elicited by ZIKV or DENV infection that are poorly neutralizing but potently ... Cross-reactive antibody responses may pose a risk for disease on secondary infections with Dengue and/or Zika viruses. ... Cross-reactive antibody responses may pose a risk for disease on secondary infections with Dengue and/or Zika viruses. ... 4 In vivo enhancement of DENV2 infection by an anti-ZIKV cross-reactive mAb and ZIKV therapeutic efficacy of a potent anti-ZIKV ...
The contribution of antigen cross-presentation by DCs to the induction of anti-viral cytotoxic T cells remains controversial. ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are critical for viral clearance from the lungs upon influenza virus infection. ... Cross-presenting CD103+ dendritic cells are protected from influenza virus infection J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov;122(11):4037-47. ... We also observed that CD103+ DC resistance to infection correlates with an increased anti-viral state in these cells that is ...
... were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. Information about demographics, disease activity, ... were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. Information about demographics, disease activity, ... 2017). The subgingival microbiome, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and ... The present cross-sectional study is a project within NorJIA (Norwegian JIA Study - Imaging, oral health and quality of life in ...
  • Objectives To describe, using routine data in selected countries, chlamydia control activities and rates of chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and infertility and to compare trends in chlamydia positivity with rates of PID and ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Relationships between levels of chlamydia infection and complication rates between or within countries over time were not straightforward. (
  • 1-4 Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Europe 5 and can cause female pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. (
  • Chlamydia Infection Between Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study of Heterosexual Partnerships. (
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant public health problem among the youth in Western countries: 75% of all Chlamydia trachomatis infections and 41% of all gonorrhoea infections are reported in the population aged 15-24 years. (
  • Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15-20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. (
  • A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). (
  • We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. (
  • Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15-20 years. (
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Europe and USA mainly affecting young individuals aged 15-24 years, and is more often diagnosed in adolescent females than in males [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • This study estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy in a sample of women up to 29 years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and investigated socio-demographic risk factors such as maternal age, marital status, maternal schooling, and family income. (
  • Este estudio estimó la prevalencia de Chlamydia trachomatis durante la gestación, entre mujeres de hasta 29 años, e investigó factores de riesgo sociodemográficos como: edad materna, estado civil, escolaridad materna y renta familiar, para esta infección en la ciudad de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (
  • Several vertically transmitted infections are included in the TORCH complex:[citation needed] T - toxoplasmosis from Toxoplasma gondii O - other infections (see below) R - rubella C - cytomegalovirus H - herpes simplex virus-2 or neonatal herpes simplex Other infections include: Parvovirus B19 Coxsackievirus Chickenpox (caused by varicella zoster virus) Chlamydia HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis Zika fever, caused by Zika virus, can cause microcephaly and other brain defects in the child. (
  • abstract = "Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. (
  • To examine the association between dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection among patients at a tertiary healthcare center in Lebanon. (
  • Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify the association between socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and other health-related variables with H pylori infection. (
  • The prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be 52.4% in this sample. (
  • No relationship between dietary habits and H. pylori infection was found in the adjusted analysis. (
  • Lifestyle factors are also believed to contribute to H. pylori infection development. (
  • 20 ] reported that lower consumption of raw vegetables was significantly associated with higher risk of H. pylori infection in a group of Iranian students. (
  • Many studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • There are several methodological difficulties in carrying out studies to determine whether H pylori infection results in raised blood pressure. (
  • We have attempted to minimise such problems in a large prospective community based study of the association between H pylori infection and blood pressure. (
  • The primary aims of the study are to assess the effects of H pylori infection (and its eradication, on a double blind basis) on digestive symptoms and their treatment and on various other aspects of health and quality of life. (
  • Of the 10 537 subjects enrolled in the project, 1634 (15.5%) were positive for H pylori infection on a 13 C- urea breath test, using 100 mg 13 C urea with a standard orange juice and citric acid test meal and a cut off of 3.5 δ 13 C per ml. (
  • Blood pressure (mm Hg) in subjects with or without Helicobacter pylori infection. (
  • Our findings indicate that, contrary to some previous suggestions, the association that exists between cardiovascular disease and H pylori infection is not accounted for by any increase in blood pressure. (
  • H pylori infection had little effect on blood pressure in the general population in the age groups studied when methods designed to minimise potential sampling biases and selection biases were used. (
  • The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of oral H.pylori among adults and to investigate the correlation between H.pylori infection and common oral diseases. (
  • The study included 1050 subjects in total and oral H.pylori infection occurred in 60.29% of the subjects. (
  • 1.164 to 2.285) increased the risk of H.pylori infection. (
  • Oral H.pylori infection is common in adult Chinese, which is significantly associated with oral diseases including periodontal diseases and caries. (
  • and the relation with patient characteristics, Helicobacter pylori infection, and psychological distress. (
  • H pylori infection, frequency of symptoms, and age had no influence on dyspepsia severity. (
  • Severity of dyspepsia and psychological distress, but not H pylori infection or duration of symptoms, affected health status univariately. (
  • H pylori infection relates neither to functional health status, nor to intensity of dyspepsia. (
  • Furthermore, a basic biological problem of the assay is that it cannot distinguish between cross-protective immunity and serotype-specific protective immunity. (
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that herd immunity to a prevalent serotype protects the population for several years against the serotype of infection but not against other serotypes ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • On the other hand, an infection with one serotype confers temporary immunity to all four serotypes, showing that a cross-reactive component of the immune response elicits temporary tetravalent protection ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • Previous studies have shown that some respiratory virus infections leave local populations of tissue TRM cells in the lungs which disappear as heterosubtypic immunity declines. (
  • Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus prevented viremia from St. Louis encephalitis virus, but only reduced West Nile virus viremia titers. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Infection and Immunity. (
  • Human flavivirus infections appear to provide lifelong immunity to the infecting virus, yet only temporally transient protection to heterologous flavivirus infections ( 14 ). (
  • Does immunity after Zika virus infection cross-protect against dengue? (
  • Our results indicate that Oas1b status as wild-type or truncated, and overall Oas1b gene dosage, link with novel innate immune gene signatures that impact specific biological pathways for the control of flavivirus infection and immunity through both Oas1b -dependent and independent processes. (
  • Pregnant women are more prone to hookworm infection by virtue of their compromised immunity, secondary to the physiological process of pregnancy. (
  • Pre-existing immunity against the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stalk underlies the elicitation of cross-group antibody induced by natural H7N9 virus infection and immunization in humans. (
  • However, whether broadly reactive antibodies can be induced by H7N9 infection and immunization in the absence of pre-existing stalk-specific immunity is unclear. (
  • These antibodies are highly cross-reactive among the dengue virus serotypes and, even at high concentrations, do not neutralize infection but potently promote ADE. (
  • This study aimed to determine the proportion of people living with HIV with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in a sample from a large single HIV center in Munich, Germany, after the first phase of the coronavirus pandemic and to infer the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in people living with HIV. (
  • The standard neutralization assay cannot differentiate between serotype-specific and serotype cross-reactive antibodies in patients early after infection, leading to an overestimation of the long-term serotype-specific protection of an antibody response. (
  • To better define the specificity of polyclonal antibodies during disease and after recovery, longitudinal samples from patients with primary or secondary DENV-2 infection were collected over a period of 1 year. (
  • We found that serotype cross-reactive antibodies peaked 3 weeks after infection and subsided within 1 year. (
  • Since secondary patients rapidly produced antibodies specific for the virus envelope (E) protein, an E-specific ELISA was superior compared to a virus particle-specific ELISA to identify patients with secondary infections. (
  • Dengue infection triggered a massive activation and mobilization of both naïve and memory B cells possibly from lymphoid organs into the blood, providing an explanation for the surge of circulating plasmablasts and the increase in cross-reactive E protein-specific antibodies. (
  • The primary cause of transfusion-transmissible viral infections is thought to be related to donations made by individuals in the window period, which is the interval between the time of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms or detectable disease markers, such as specific antibodies or viral nucleic acid sequences. (
  • Protective virus-specific antibodies are elicited by the E glycoprotein, which contains both virus-specific and flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (
  • Using mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), the majority of the cross-reactive epitopes have been mapped onto domains I and II of the E protein ( 5 , 19 - 22 , 24 ). (
  • Cross-reactivity with high-level dengue virus antibodies was not detected. (
  • Among patients with potentially cross-reactive antibodies anti-ZIKV positive rates were 0.8% (95% CI: 0-3.0) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0-2.4) for IgM and IgG, respectively. (
  • The results showed that H7N9 infection and immunization with inactivated vaccine resulted in potent induction of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN) and HA-binding antibodies, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7N9 vaccine induced marginal HI and VN titers but high levels of HA-binding antibody. (
  • In addition, H7N9 infection and immunization induced stalk-specific antibodies in na?ve chickens and these antibodies recognized different epitopes in the stalk. (
  • Virus infection and immunization with inactivated vaccine elicited antibodies cross-reactive with both group 1 and group 2 HAs, while antibodies induced by NDV-H7N9 vaccination showed a narrower cross-reactivity within group 2. (
  • Moreover, only homologous neutralizing activity of the sera against H7N9 virus was observed, and cross-binding antibodies did not show heterosubtypic neutralizing activity. (
  • Our results indicated that cross-group binding but non-neutralizing antibodies primarily targeting the stalk can be induced by natural H7N9 infection and immunization with inactivated vaccine in na?ve chickens. (
  • The present study demonstrated that different levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced against variable DENV-2 genotypes after primary, secondary and tertiary infections, and that neutralizing antibody titers to some heterologous genotypes were higher than those to homologous genotypes within a serotype. (
  • The results indicate that heterogeneity and homogeneity of infecting genotypes influence the levels and cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies induced in following infections. (
  • Additional protection against common infections can be provided by routine vaccination. (
  • Objectives To address whether the effect of BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) infection lasts to adulthood. (
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that BCG vaccine seems to have a protective effect in adults decades after vaccination according to the number of recent infections (QFT-IT ≥0.7 IU/ml). (
  • Further prospective cohort studies on the protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB infection in adults are warranted. (
  • We explored whether BCG vaccination continues to be associated with decreased prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults. (
  • Vaccine effectiveness (VE) of BCG, ascertained based on presence of a scar or vaccination history, against latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), measured via IGRA, was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. (
  • The results also suggest that certain genotypes may possess advantage in terms of breakthrough infections against vaccination. (
  • 1 hantaviruses circulating in this region causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, mild disease, or asymptomatic infection. (
  • Because asymptomatic infection with hantaviruses also has been detected in Minas Gerais, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses and to identify associated risk factors. (
  • Human infections range from asymptomatic to self-limiting mild flu-like illness to hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis ( 1 ). (
  • STI are important infections from a public health perspective because they are often asymptomatic but, untreated, can cause severe morbidity including ectopic pregnancy, infertility and late complications of syphilis [3, 4]. (
  • Methods Cross-national comparison including national data from Australia, Denmark, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland. (
  • Methods Parents of pupils aged 6-12 years from schools in Barcelona province (Spain), Utrecht province (the Netherlands) and Eastern and Central Finland were administered a questionnaire including questions on the frequency of infections (influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis, bronchitis and pneumonia) in the past 12 months and bleach use at home. (
  • Methods: We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats. (
  • In conclusion, the risks of cross-infection will be reduced through these methods. (
  • Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in Denmark among a random sample of 20 000 men and women in 2012. (
  • Infection control in dogs and cats is challenging, and there is a need to develop new methods to control transmission across all species. (
  • METHODS A cross sectional, general practice based survey of 360 unselected primary care dyspeptic patients from 92 general practices in The Netherlands was conducted. (
  • Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adult contacts of tuberculosis cases participating in a UK cohort study. (
  • Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). (
  • Horses can suffer numerous health problems as a result of bacterial, viral or fungal infections. (
  • Myeloid-related protein 8 induces self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection via TLR4- and TLR2-mediated signal pathways. (
  • However, it is unclear whether Mrp8 could induce self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection. (
  • Pre-stimulation of murine macrophages and human monocytes with Mrp8 induced self-tolerance to Mrp8 re-stimulation and cross-tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial challenges, with substantially attenuated TNF-α and IL-6 release. (
  • Increasing numbers of cases of notifiable bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Switzerland have been reported since 1999 [1]. (
  • Viral skin infections that accounts 48 (53.3%), were the leading cause of skin infections followed by 43 (47.8%), 33(36.7%) and 22 (24.7%) fungal infections, inflammatory and bacterial skin infections respectively. (
  • As well as, this bacterial contamination was the reason for the false positive results observed during the detection of HCV infections. (
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2012, 1:18 doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-18. (
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2:5. (
  • On successfully completion of this course, students will be issued a Statement of Attainment for the unit BSBWHS332X Apply infection prevention and control procedures to own work activities. (
  • Ten-year decrease of acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at a single institution: the result of a multifaceted program combining cross-transmission prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. (
  • Proper and thorough environmental hygiene in hospitals is critical for the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). (
  • After several years work by the Clinical Advisory Panel, CFNZ has released revised guidelines on infection prevention and control in non-healthcare settings. (
  • In the care of patients, the prevention of nosocomial infections is crucial. (
  • Hygiene quality is a particularly important focus, because the prevention of nosocomial infections poses a central challenge to modern medicine. (
  • QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: In the next Swiss National HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Strategy 2011-2017, STI control will be integrated with HIV prevention. (
  • This study provides evidence necessary to influence decision making on prevention of hookworm infection in the study area. (
  • The findings provide further evidence that Ebola, like many other viral infections, presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including minimally symptomatic infection. (
  • Clinically assess patients for manifestations of specific viral infections. (
  • Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children are mainly due to viral infections [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • If an asylum seeker is diagnosed with a coronavirus infection, the instructions of the local emergency department or an infectious diseases specialist are followed. (
  • New York- Outside the epicentres of New York and New Jersey, the US coronavirus infection curves were "starting to plateau", the White House task force indicated even as the country's death toll has increased to 23,608 and some states on the east and west coasts began collaborating on strategies to reopen their economies. (
  • There are 5,16,632 active cases of coronavirus infection in the country as on date which comprises 6.11 per cent of the total caseload, the data stated. (
  • Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) patients. (
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of LTBI. (
  • However, little is known about the prevalence of latent TB infections (LTBI) among CWP patients. (
  • Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). (
  • In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among homeless in Seoul metropolitan city, South Korea, and to compare the TB burden among homeless people with that of a control group. (
  • Understanding the placenta might one day lead to ways to prevent fetal damage from the so-called TORCH infections: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes and HIV, he added. (
  • Conclusions/Significance: By using ELISA to measure Zaire Ebola virus antibody concentrations, we identified a significant number of individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection in a 'hotspot' village in Sierra Leone, approximately one year after the village outbreak. (
  • Conclusions Passive exposure to cleaning bleach in the home may have adverse effects on school-age children's health by increasing the risk of respiratory and other infections. (
  • These results correspond well with cross-sectional survey conclusions. (
  • Serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging due to high cross-reactivity between flaviviruses. (
  • Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Magee-Womens Research Institute (MWRI) have devised a cell-based model of the human placenta that could help explain how pathogens that cause birth defects, such as Zika virus, cross from mother to unborn child. (
  • The researchers are beginning to use their model to test whether Zika virus, and other pathogens associated with congenital disease, can infect placental cells and/or cross the placental barrier. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus infection found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, with an estimated 50 to 100 million infections per year ( 1 ). (
  • A sequence variation of 30 to 35% allows DENV to be divided into four serotypes, and infection with one serotype does not provide protection from infection with the other serotypes, so that secondary or sequential infections are common ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • In 1977, Halstead suggested antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) to explain severe DENV infections ( 4 ). (
  • ADE has been widely studied and results from the high sequence divergence between DENV so that antibody to the first infection may not be of sufficient avidity to neutralize a secondary infection ( 5 ). (
  • The partial cross-reactivity may cause a degree of opsonization that promotes virus uptake into Fc-bearing cells such as monocytes and macrophages-a major site of DENV replication in vivo-leading to increased virus replication. (
  • Because DENV exposure is associated with migration or travel, personal protection measures when visiting high-risk urban areas may reduce the incidence of DENV infection in this rural population. (
  • In monkeys that had been infected once or twice with DENV-2, neutralizing antibody was cross-reactive with all four serotypes after secondary or tertiary infection with DENV-3. (
  • In monkeys that had been inoculated with DENV-1 and DENV-2 in the primary and secondary infections, neutralizing antibody titers did not increase after tertiary infection with DENV-3. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV) infection poses a serious global public health challenge to three billion people, resulting in approximately 200 million cases of morbidity and 50,000 cases of mortality annually. (
  • In Cameroon like in most sub-Saharan African countries, DENV infection occur concurrently with other infectious diseases whose symptoms often overlap, rendering differential diagnosis challenging. (
  • DENV infection therefore is an important cause of fever among children in Cameroon. (
  • Thus, there is a need to include differential screening for DENV infections as a tool in the management of fever in children in the country. (
  • Plasma samples were obtained from marmosets after primary inoculation with DENV-2 infection, secondary inoculation with homologous or heterologous genotypes, and tertiary inoculation with heterologous DENV. (
  • After secondary DENV-2 infection with heterologous genotype (Asian I in primary and Asian/American in secondary), neutralizing antibody titers to Asian/American genotype was significantly higher than those against Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. (
  • Following tertiary infection with DENV-1 following DENV-2 Asian I and Cosmopolitan genotypes, neutralizing antibody titers to Asian/American were also significantly higher than those against Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. (
  • It is estimated that 50 to 100 million cases of dengue virus (DENV) infection occur annually worldwide. (
  • 5 Center for Molecular and Cellular Biology of Inflammation and Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammatory Diseases, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. (
  • Immunology: Cross-dressers turn on T cells. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Helminth infections" applicable to this article? (
  • One of the main impacts of malaria and helminth infections is anaemia. (
  • Therefore, the aims of this study were to asses the associations between anemia/nutrition status and helminth infections in patients with clinical malaria in communities of Alaba Kulito area, southern Ethiopia. (
  • Mechanisms that may contribute to this association include abnormalities in the levels of certain blood proteins (for example fibrinogen or C reactive protein) secondary to the chronic infection 1 2 and raised blood pressure in people infected with H pylori . (
  • People without CF rarely carry the particular bacteria that cause chronic infection in CF, but they may still carry other bacteria or viruses that cause problems for people with CF. Thus, "The concept of 'less threatening' bacteria is no longer accepted and all pathogens should be considered as potentially transmissible and universal precautions should be taken. (
  • Chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease, suggesting that HCV-infected individuals warrant vigilant cardiovascular risk assessments. (
  • Oral health, the mirror of general well being, is altered by many mediators like infection, chronic inflammation, and genetic predisposition. (
  • Periodontal disease, also generally called periodontitis or gum disease, is a chronic infection-induced inflammatory disease that causes tooth loss if not properly treated, and is considered as a modifying factor in systemic health. (
  • However, most of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. (
  • Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. (
  • Background: Tanzania has a high prevalence (7.17%) of chronic hepatitis B infection. (
  • Mother to Child transmission is very common, resulting in high rate of chronic infections. (
  • This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for chronic HBV infection in pregnant women in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. (
  • Low condom use was the only statistically significant risk factor for chronic HBV infection (OR = 3.514, 95%CI = 1.4-8.0). (
  • In the 3 years follow-up only 1 out of 7 children showed evidence of chronic HBV infection. (
  • These results indicate that antibody responses after secondary and tertiary infections with different serotypes are cross-reactive with all four serotypes, consistent with what has been observed in humans, and suggest that monkeys are useful for determining neutralizing antibody responses. (
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV-infected people are of increasing concern. (
  • In 2011, the Blood Service and the Kirby Institute published a comprehensive surveillance report for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) - Safe blood - a focus on education, epidemiology and testing . (
  • This supports the general effectiveness of the donor questionnaire and specifically that repeat donors understand what constitutes 'risk behaviour' for acquiring transfusion‑transmissible infections. (
  • After an infection, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors proliferate and become effector cells by recognizing foreign peptides in the groove of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) 1 . (
  • Professional APCs specialized for T-cell activation acquire viral antigen either by becoming infected themselves (direct presentation) or by phagocytosis of infected cells, followed by transfer of antigen to the cytosol, processing and MHC class I loading in a process referred to as cross-presentation 2 . (
  • An alternative way, referred to as 'cross-dressing', by which an uninfected APC could present antigen was postulated to be by the transfer of preformed peptide-MHC complexes from the surface of an infected cell to the APC without the need of further processing 3 . (
  • After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro . (
  • Cross-dressing is a mechanism of antigen presentation used by dendritic cells that may have a significant role in activating previously primed CD8 + T cells. (
  • Antigen presentation: cross-dress to impress. (
  • The contribution of antigen cross-presentation by DCs to the induction of anti-viral cytotoxic T cells remains controversial. (
  • Here, we used a recombinant influenza virus expressing a nonstructural 1-GFP (NS1-GFP) reporter gene to visualize the route of antigen presentation by lung DCs upon viral infection in mice. (
  • Microglia were not infected by the virus but were found to cross-present antigen after acquisition from adjacent neurons. (
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that microglia provide a front-line defense against a neuroinvasive nasal infection by cross-presenting antigen to antiviral T cells that noncytolytically cleanse neurons. (
  • D'Souza G, Cullen K, Bowie J, Thorpe R, Fakhry C (2014) Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection. (
  • Human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection) is an infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a DNA virus from the Papillomaviridae family. (
  • Background: BCG appears to reduce acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children, measured using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). (
  • These results contribute to growing evidence that suggests BCG may protect against M. tuberculosis infection as well as disease. (
  • The position statement is designed to educate people with CF, their caregivers and families about the risks of person-to-person infection from respiratory pathogens of any kind. (
  • Results: SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. (
  • A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that use mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth. (
  • Several pathogens can cross the placenta and cause perinatal infection. (
  • Blood pressure in 1633 individuals with helicobacter infection was compared with twice that number (3267) of randomly selected non-infected subjects (total 4900). (
  • Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects with helicobacter infection before adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (weight (kg)/(height (m) 2 )), smoking, and high alcohol intake, but significantly lower after these adjustments (see table). (
  • Author Summary: Hookworm infection is a parasitic condition that more often goes unnoticed, yet it presents immense detrimental effects, especially to pregnant women and their unborn children. (
  • Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities. (
  • Sera from subjects with syphilis cross-reacted in IFA tests and the ELISA for Lyme disease. (
  • Automated flow cytometry of urine remains an incompletely validated method to rule out urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. (
  • A diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) requires at least 18 h until confirmation of a positive urine culture ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • BACKGROUND: Exposure to urinary catheters is considered the most important risk factor for healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) and is associated with significant morbidity and substantial extra-costs. (
  • In addition, blood samples were collected from 1086 participants and tested for malaria infection using standard microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques specific for Plasmodium falciparum . (
  • 0.001) higher anaemia prevalence than single infection with Plasmodium parasites. (
  • The importance of the submicroscopic reservoir of Plasmodium infections for malaria elimination depends on its size, which is generally considered small in low transmission settings. (
  • Of these 164 (3 %) were infected with P. falciparum , 357 (7 %) with Plasmodium vivax , 56 (1 %) with a mixed infection, and 411 (8 %) had parasite densities that were too low for species identification. (
  • It is nationally accredited training, and include learning to implement standard and transmission-based precautions and responding to infection risks. (
  • It involves implementing standard and transmission-based precautions, identifying infection hazards, and assessing and responding to infection risks. (
  • Background: Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. (
  • Nutritional deficiencies may exacerbate the risks of perinatal infections. (
  • With our new model in the research toolkit, we and other scientists hope to advance our knowledge of the placenta, examine its function , and learn how it can prevent most, but not all, maternal infections from causing problems for the baby. (
  • In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8-7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1-22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. (
  • mean age 12.3 ± 3.0 years) were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. (
  • This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December, 2016, as part of a pneumoconiosis screening program at the Hospital of Occupational Diseases in Beijing. (
  • We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 1425 households in 50 villages. (
  • A total of 961 children under the age of 15 were recruited in a cross-sectional study using systematic sampling technique and by selecting each subject out of the three. (
  • In an effort to provide a more specific diagnostic test, we developed virus-like particle (VLP) antigens with reduced cross-reactivity for both SLEV and WNV by identifying and mutating envelope protein amino acids within the cross-reactive epitopes of VLP expression plasmids. (
  • To determine the serodiagnostic discriminatory ability of the antigens with reduced cross-reactivity, a panel of 134 human serum samples collected predominately from North American patients with SLEV or WNV infections was used to evaluate the performance of these novel antigens in imunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (
  • The use of these novel VLP antigens with reduced cross-reactivity in these serodiagnostic assays and others should lead to more accurate diagnoses of current infections, thereby reducing the need for time-consuming and cumbersome confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests to differentiate between SLEV and WNV infections in North America. (
  • Heterophile antibody testing has a specificity of nearly 100%, though case reports of false positives (most notably in acute HIV infection) exist. (
  • The patient's Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody pattern is consistent with an acute EBV infection. (
  • The positive HIV antibody test was presumed to reflect cross‐reactivity in the setting of acute EBV infection, as confirmed by a negative quantitative HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay the following day. (
  • 2) Acute HIV infection is an important diagnostic alternative, with quantitative HIV PCR as the suggested screening method in appropriate individuals. (
  • 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%) or women (no acute infections). (
  • This may permit to distinguish acute primary and acute secondary dengue infections [ 18 ]. (
  • To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. (
  • Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. (
  • These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. (
  • Several lines of evidence suggested that antioxidants might play a protective role against high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and cervical cancer. (
  • which indicates a lasting protective effect of BCG against TB infection into adulthood. (
  • These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex. (
  • Skin infections account the most common clinical manifestations in children. (
  • At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. (
  • Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections. (
  • Strong cross-reactivity occurred when sera from individuals with Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, and louse-borne relapsing fever were tested against heterologous Borrelia antigens. (
  • Therefore, routine hygiene procedures form an essential part of horse management by preventing disease and minimising the potential spread of infection. (
  • In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot. (
  • As an immunodeficiency disease, HIV infection could be associated with a higher risk of acquiring COVID-19 and/or worse outcomes. (
  • Health experts around the world are warning more loudly than ever that halting social-distancing measures just when the infection curve is being blunted could result in a deadly second wave of the COVID-19 disease. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • Next, the researchers tested the functional properties of their model by exposing it to a virus and to Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found in cat feces that can lead to fetal infection, causing miscarriage, congenital disease and/or disability later in life. (
  • The scale differentiated between subgroups of persons with the hepatitis B infection in terms of age, gender, employment, education, disease duration, and stage of disease. (
  • India's COVID-19 caseload mounted to 84,62,080 with 50,356 infections being reported in a day, while the number of people who have recuperated from the disease crossed 78 lakh pushing the national recovery rate to 92.41%, according to data updated by the Union Health Ministry on Saturday. (
  • GIDEON Guide to Cross Border Infections summarizes the status of 2,931 Infectious Disease events which involved two-or-more countries. (
  • Monitoring of dengue virus infections is an important component of assessing the disease risk to humans. (
  • There is a need for early diagnosis of dengue infection since the early diagnosis of the disease can prevent fatal cases. (
  • Shah, KV, Dandawate, CN & Bhatt, PN 2012, ' Kyasanur forest disease virus: Viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection ', F1000Research , vol. 1, 61. (
  • Since the beginning of the pandemic, Ontario has seen 502,171 cases of the disease across the province, including 464,531 infections that are considered to be resolved. (
  • In the global burden of disease (GBD) study carried out between 2000 and 2004, high-intensity infections with STHs were given a zero disability weight (DW), while the cognitive impairment which can result from such infections was assigned DWs ranging from 0.024 to 0.463 [on a scale from 0 (perfect health) to 1 (death)], depending on the helminth species [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • A veterinary surgeon must be contacted immediately if strangles is suspected as early diagnosis and treatment are essential for the individual animal and to prevent the spread of infection. (
  • Differential diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections can be complicated due to the high degree of cross-reactivity observed in most serodiagnostic assays. (
  • These results highlight a need for improved diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection in pregnant women in Tanzania, in order to prevent vertical transmission. (
  • In the current study, House finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. (
  • This barrier surface is especially vulnerable to infection, yet respiratory infections rarely cause fatal encephalitis, suggesting a highly evolved immunological defense. (
  • CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are critical for viral clearance from the lungs upon influenza virus infection. (
  • Learn essential skills and knowledge to decrease the risk and transmission of infection while undertaking your daily duties, with the Cross-Sector Infection Control Skill Set course at Victoria University Polytechnic. (
  • This skill set is for workers in the security sector and education and care sector who require the skills and knowledge to reduce the risk and transmission of infection while carrying out routine work activities in their job role. (
  • It recognises that there is no reliable way to completely prevent the risk of cross infection. (
  • The risk of infection remains for people with CF who have had a lung transplant. (
  • For outdoor events there is no way to completely prevent the risk of cross infection and the safest approach is for people with CF not to attend, if they do people with CF should be separated by a distance of 4 metres. (
  • Horses are particularly at risk, being prone to small puncture wounds (eg from thorns or nails), through which infection can enter the body and then thrive. (
  • The risk of infection varies from area to area and from horse to horse, with younger horses (and those with impaired health) at greater risk. (
  • Strict hygiene measures should be adopted, to minimise the risk of infection spreading to other horses. (
  • Further studies are needed to understand the potential risk of transmission and clinical sequelae in individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a diet based on the combined intake of nutrients with antioxidant properties might reduce the risk of hrHPV infection. (
  • Better understanding would yet be important to obtain an impression about a potential contribution of HIV to an excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in PLWH. (
  • 3. The incidence of newly acquired infection measured by the rate of incident donors is also much lower than results from specific at‑risk populations in Australia. (
  • The current rate highlights the importance of promoting donor education to ensure that the potential donors understand the importance of 'self‑deferral' to reduce the risk of collecting blood from a potentially infected donor whose infection may not be detected by testing. (
  • Various risk factors for oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been described, including tobacco smoking and sexual behavior. (
  • Despite this, water birthing was found to be safe for the neonate and did not carry a higher risk of neonatal infection when compared with conventional vaginal delivery. (
  • In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2-3.6), and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1-0.8). (
  • HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. (
  • Infection with HIV has been shown to increase the risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. (
  • The survey assessed participant's risk behaviours ( e.g., injecting drug use, condom use), concerns related to HIV infection risk ( e.g., medical care exposures, personal behaviours), and ability to identify HIV-positive individuals without asking their status. (
  • Risk factors for persistent infection by sexually transmitted types include early age of first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and poor immune function. (
  • For many infections, the baby is more at risk at particular stages of pregnancy. (
  • Dengue virus co-circulates as four serotypes, and sequential infections with more than one serotype are common. (
  • The nationwide tally of confirmed Coronavirus cases crossed the 1,000-mark and the death toll reached 27 on Sunday, even as the central government ordered sealing of all state and district borders to check community transmission of the deadly virus by migrant workers and asked those having left already to be quarantined for 14 days. (
  • Infection can occur following inhalation of the airborne virus from other infected horses or by indirect transmission via, for example, the stable, equipment or grooms. (
  • Signs of infection, which begin to develop a few days after exposure to the virus, include a husky cough and nasal discharge (which changes over a period of four to five days from thin to thick mucus), combined with general signs of ill health. (
  • A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses in a virus-endemic area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (
  • Introduction: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. (
  • Strikingly, lung migratory CD103+ DCs were not productively infected by influenza virus and thus were able to induce virus-specific CD8+ T cells through the cross-presentation of antigens from virally infected cells. (
  • Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. (
  • We describe herein the molecular events following poliovirus infection that lead to PML-dependent p53 activation and protection against virus infection. (
  • PML deficiency also renders mice more susceptible to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and VSV infections, further attesting to the antiviral activity of PML in vivo ( 4 ). (
  • We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. (
  • While valuable tools for diagnosing presumptive flaviviral infections, these assays use antigens prepared from virus-infected suckling mouse brains (SMB). (
  • During natural flavivirus infections, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of viral premembrane/membrane (prM/M) and envelope (E) proteins are produced in addition to mature, infectious virions ( 23 ). (
  • The extent of cross-reactivity within such individuals, each infected with characterized virus, might reflect the type of cross-reactive immune response inducible by a monovalent vaccine. (
  • Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. (
  • Dalla Torre D, Burtscher D, Edlinger M, Solder E, Widschwendter A, Rasse M, Puelacher W (2015) Comparison of the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in histopathologically confirmed premalignant oral lesions and healthy oral mucosa by brush smear detection. (
  • The oligoadenylate-synthetase ( Oas ) gene locus provides innate immune resistance to virus infection. (
  • We found that the syncytiotrophoblasts formed in our system recapitulated the barrier properties of the naturally occurring cells and they resisted infection by a model virus and three genetically different strains of Toxoplasma," said co-investigator Jon P. Boyle, Ph.D., associate professor of biological sciences at Pitt. (
  • Kurane, Ichiro 2011-06-01 00:00:00 Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. (
  • Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. (
  • In this study, antibody response induced by H7N9 virus infection and immunization with inactivated and viral-vectored H7N9 vaccines in na?ve chickens was analyzed. (
  • We attempted to determine whether IgM responses in dengue virus infections are serotype specific or serotype cross-reactive. (
  • IgM responses were serotype cross-reactive in these 13 cases but were highest against infecting dengue virus serotype in 9 of the 13 cases. (
  • Although detection of dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) is widely used diagnostic method for dengue, it has not been determined whether IgM responses in dengue virus infections are dengue virus serotype specific or serotype cross-reactive. (
  • We find that IgM responses are dengue virus serotype cross-reactive in most cases but that the highest responses are against the infecting serotype. (
  • In mice, intranasal infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) does result in infection of sensory neurons in the olfactory bulb. (
  • Here, using a mouse model, we sought to understand the mechanism by which innate and adaptive immune cells thwart neuroinvasion by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a potentially lethal virus that uses olfactory sensory neurons to enter the brain after nasal infection. (
  • All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. (
  • Spain has the world's second-highest death toll after Italy, with the virus so far claiming 9,053 lives and the number of confirmed cases reaching 102,136, although the rate of new infections continued its downward trend, health ministry figures showed. (
  • The hepatitis B virus is large and does not cross the placenta. (
  • Providing high specificity and low cross-reactivity, the NS1-based ELISA has the potential to aid in counselling patients, pregnant women and travellers after returning from ZIKV-endemic areas. (
  • The sample included 562 pregnant women, and prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 12.3% (95%CI: 9.6-15.0). (
  • Malaria infection is associated with adverse birth outcomes that affect the mother, foetus, and infant. (
  • Multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the predictors of malaria infection. (
  • Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. (
  • More than one-third of the infected cases in both malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. (
  • In addition, co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites have negative impact upon host nutrition through a number of mechanisms which may have additive or multiplicative impacts, especially in childhood [ 13 ]. (
  • These results indicate that IgM responses are generally dengue serotype cross-reactive but that IgM levels are highest against the infecting serotype in most dengue cases. (
  • Dengue viruses, members of the family Flaviviridae , include four antigenically cross-reactive serotypes and are endemic in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. (
  • India's COVID-19 tally had crossed the 20-lakh mark on August 7, 30 lakh on August 23 and 40 lakh on September 5. (
  • It went past 50 lakh on September 16, 60 lakh on September 28, 70 lakh on October 11 and crossed 80 lakh on October 29. (
  • Does the effectiveness of BCG vaccine on latent TB infection last into adulthood? (