Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Diseases of plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The contamination of indoor air.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
"Energy crops". crops are grown specifically for use as fuel. BIOMASS Energy Centre. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013 ... "Developing a Willow Biomass Crop Enterprise for Bioenergy and Bioproducts in the United States". North East Regional Biomass ... Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input ... The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. ...
... use manure as fertiliser or include perennial crops in the rotation. Perennial crops have larger below ground biomass fraction ... All crops absorb CO. 2 during growth and release it after harvest. The goal of agricultural carbon removal is to use the crop ... such as converting crop and livestock grazing land into land for non-crop fast growing plants.[2] Artificial processes have ... Biomass-related[edit]. Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage[edit]. Main article: Bio-energy with carbon capture and ...
... which creates the Biomass Crop Assistance Program to support the establishment and production of biomass crops. ... Biomass Crop Assistance Program: The government issued funds for up to 75% of the cost of research to produce crops for the ... Forest Biomass for Energy Program: This program focused on getting people to use forest biomass for energy and appropriated $15 ... encourage the production of biomass crops, and expand the current Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program. ...
Biomass comes from crops such as sugar beet, potatoes or wheat: when used to produce biopolymers, these are classified as non ... Biomass , (fermentation) , Bioethanol , Ethene , Polyethylene. Many types of packaging can be made from biopolymers: food trays ... These plant materials come from agricultural non food crops. Therefore, the use of biopolymers would create a sustainable ... Biopolymers (also called renewable polymers) are produced from biomass for use in the packaging industry. ...
Improving bioenergy crop yield and quality through manipulating senescence. In: Biomass and Bioenergy Crops IV. Aspects of ... "Improving bioenergy crop yield and quality through manipulating senescence". Santos, Paulo E.; Dee, Hannah (7 August 2011). " ...
"Growth Rates of Emission-Fed Algae Show Viability of New Biomass Crop" (PDF). Arizona Public Service Company (APS) and ... "Productive usage of biomass". Retrieved 29 May 2015.. *^ "Algae Biomass Organization, Renewable, Sustainable Commodities from ... Also, they can convert a much higher fraction of their biomass to oil than conventional crops, e.g. 60% versus 2-3% for ... Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $ ...
... biomass crop assistance program; rural energy for America program; and biorefinery, renewable chemical and biobased product ... for purposes of the noninsured crop assistance program and the crop insurance program. (Thus making a loss eligible for ... 707) Makes funds available in the current fiscal year for agricultural management assistance under the Federal Crop Insurance ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund; and (31) Commodity Credit Corporation Fund. Title II: Conservation Programs - ...
"Miscanthus, a revolutionary biomass crop". Retrieved 10 April 2017. v t e. ... The bamboo-like plant grows rapidly up to 3 metres high, generating a high yield of biomass with low ash content, suitable for ...
"Candidate crops for contaminated land biofuels crop considered". Retrieved 2010-04-17.. ... Use of biomass from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) as raw material for production of paper pulp and fuel. Archived ... The grass can also easily be turned into bricks or pellets for burning in biomass power stations.[7] Furthermore, it provides ... P. arundinacea is also planted as a hay crop or for forage. ...
Materials are broken down to carbon dioxide, water and biomass. Biomass consists of wood, crops, yard and animal waste. Biomass ... Biomass contributes to roughly four percent of our energy. Biomass energy although its burned, does not pollute the air as much ...
... traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung.[19][20] ... "Biomass Pollution Basics" (PDF). WHO.. *^ "Indoor air pollution ... In India in 2014, it was reported that air pollution by black carbon and ground level ozone had reduced crop yields in the most ... In South and East Asia, pregnant women are frequently exposed to indoor air pollution because of the wood and other biomass ... During periods of actives wildfires, smoke from uncontrolled biomass combustion can make up almost 75% of all air pollution by ...
Industrial Crops and Products, 50 (2013) p. 635, table 2. *^ Klass, Donald, "Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels,. and ... Farmers may switch from producing food crops to producing biofuel crops to make more money, even if the new crops are not ... For biomass and organic waste-to-fuel production, see Biomass to liquid. For unmodified vegetable oil used as motor fuel, see ... of land to produce one crop. However, average crops of rapeseed produce oil at an average rate of 1,029 L/ha (110 US gal/acre ...
They are primary producers in the oceans that convert water and carbon dioxide to biomass and oxygen in the presence of ... Microalgae can grow 20 or 30 times faster than traditional food crops, and has no need to compete for arable land. Since ... Low bacteria and high microalgal biomass is a crucial food source for shellfish aquaculture. Microalgae can form the start of a ... Microalgae can be remarkably rich in oils (up to 80% dry weight of biomass) suitable for conversion to fuel. Furthermore, ...
The greater the biomass, the greater the nutrient turnover of land. Legume cover crops turn over nitrogen fixed from the ... Although leguminous cover crops have large biomass production and turnover, they are not likely to increase soil organic matter ... When cover crops are turned over into the soil, they contribute nutrients to the main crop so that less chemical fertilizer is ... Legume cover crops have important positive effects on the nutrient cycling of tree crops. Leguminous living mulches work in ...
Yeganehpoor, F.; Salmasi, S.Z.; Abedi, G.; Samadiyan, F.; Beyginiya, V. (2014). "The effect of cover crops on weeds biomass and ... "Trap cropping to control Delia radicum populations in cruciferous crops: first results and future applications". Entomologia ... Damicone, J.P.; Edelson, J.V. (May 2007). "Effects of border crops and intercrops on control of cucurbit virus diseases". Plant ... doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.1998.tb00369.x. Bottenberg, Harry; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, H.Charles (1999). "Refuge and cover crop ...
"Double cropping opportunities for biomass crops in the north central USA". Biofuels. 4 (6): 605-615. doi:10.4155/bfs.13.50. ... Its fast growth under cold conditions favors the usage as fodder as a second crop. Its low biomass production makes it ... a new oilseed crop for biofuel production". Biomass and Bioenergy. 130: 105354. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2019.105354. Isbell, ... As a cover crop grown over the winter period with harvest taking place in spring, it can effectively reduce soil erosion, ...
"In situ methane enrichment in methanogenic energy crop digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 6 (4): 275-282. doi:10.1016/0961-9534 ... but generate far less energy than those using crops, such as maize and grass silage; by using a modest amount of crop material ... "Methods for kinetic analysis of methane fermentation in high solids biomass digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 (2): 65-73. ... "Biomass and biogas". Climate Generation. 25 September 2009.. *^ Oaktech Consultation Response to UK Source Segregation ...
... traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung. Mobile sources include motor vehicles, trains (particularly diesel ... In India in 2014, it was reported that air pollution by black carbon and ground level ozone had reduced crop yields in the most ... "Biomass Pollution Basics" (PDF). WHO. "Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011. "Wall Paint, Perfumes ... In South and East Asia, pregnant women are frequently exposed to indoor air pollution because of wood and other biomass fuels ...
The Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) was created for two purposes: (1) To support the establishment and production of ... This includes cellulosic biomass ethanol as well as any biomass-to-liquid fuel such as cellulosic gasoline or diesel. Biomass- ... This would remove existing biomass where it might not currently be profitable to do so, such as from crop residue or forest ... "Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP): Status and Issues". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 19, 2011. "Alabama ...
Field Crops Research. 96: 63. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2005.05.005. Porter, Monty A.; Bidlack, James E. (2011). "Morphology, Biomass, ... Weed control in a pigeon pea - wheat cropping system. Field Crops Res. 96:63-70. Bidlack, J.E., and A.J. Ohlrogge. 1988. ... Biomass and nitrogen traits of summer pigeon peas and winter wheat grown for three rotations in containers. Comm. Soil Sci. ... Morphology, biomass, and vessel diameter of pigeon pea subjected to water stress. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 42:2334-2343. Rao ...
Biomass and Bioenergy. 1: 47-53. doi:10.1016/0961-9534(91)90051-D. National Non-Food Crops Centre. Farm-Scale Anaerobic ... "Methane fermentation of energy crops: Maximum conversion kinetics and in situ biogas purification". Biomass and Bioenergy. 5 (3 ... "In situ methane enrichment in methanogenic energy crop digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 6 (4): 275-282. doi:10.1016/0961-9534 ... "Methods for kinetic analysis of methane fermentation in high solids biomass digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 (2): 65-73. ...
Biomass from agricultural waste, and crops are predominantly used to make biofuel. Biofuel may be classified into two ... Bioenergy is a source of renewable energy that uses a variety of organic materials, referred to as biomass. Biomass is any ... Canada has been in a fortunate position, as it has abundant amounts of biomass products available (mainly from the forestry ... However, the most commonly employed biomass is wood; wood waste is used to produce heat for industrial facilities, create steam ...
... biomass crops also sequester carbon below ground, in roots and soil. Typically, perennial crops sequester more carbon than ... "The raw material for non-woody pellets can be herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass, aquatic biomass or biomass blends and mixtures ... Examples are wood, energy crops and waste from forests, yards, or farms. Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel ... Second-generation biofuels utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as perennial energy crops and agricultural residues/ ...
Genetically modified cropsEdit. Main articles: Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified organism, Genetically modified ... Nguyen DB, Rose MT, Rose TJ, Morris SG, van Zwieten L (2016). "Impact of glyphosate on soil microbial biomass and respiration: ... Cerdeira AL, Duke SO (January 2010). "Effects of glyphosate-resistant crop cultivation on soil and water quality". GM Crops. 1 ... kills the food crop so that it dries more quickly and evenly, similar to the use of desiccants.[53] This dry crop does not have ...
... use manure as fertiliser or include perennial crops in the rotation. Perennial crops have larger below ground biomass fraction ... All crops absorb CO. 2 during growth and release it after harvest. The goal of agricultural carbon removal is to use the crop ... Biomass-relatedEdit. Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)Edit. Main article: Bio-energy with carbon capture and ... BECCS refers to biomass in power stations and boilers that use carbon capture and storage.[43][44] The carbon sequestered by ...
The main source of biomass that can be used for vehicle fuels is food crops. These crops are cultivated using modern, ... That is biofuels are made out of food crops; these food crops are traded on international markets. When there is an increase in ... Crop-based biofuels (e.g., ethanol: produced from sugar cane or corn) have globally increased in production by 75% during the ... Food is less accessible because of the increase in price (e.g., Tortilla Crisis) and the crops that are bought are being used ...
Engineered crops grew taller and faster, yielding up to 40 percent more biomass. The study employed synthetic biology to ... Most crop plants store ~0.25% to 0.5% of the sunlight in the product (corn kernels, potato starch, etc.), sugar cane is ... Most crop plants store ~0.25% to 0.5% of the sunlight in the product (corn kernels, potato starch, etc.). Photosynthesis ... Quoted values sunlight-to-biomass efficiency The following is a breakdown of the energetics of the photosynthesis process from ...
Andrews, Susan S. (22 February 2006). "Crop Residue Removal for Biomass Energy Production: Effects on Soils and Recommendations ... Slash-and-burn "Grains and Other Crops» Crop Production» Stubble Burning". Zhang, H.; Hu, D.; Chen, J.; Ye, X.; Wang, S. X.; ... crop and sowing for the second (winter) crop. Smoke from this burning produces a cloud of particulates visible from space and ... "Crop burning: NGT slaps Rs 2 lakh as costs on Delhi govt for not filing action plan". Hindustan Times. 3 April 2018. Retrieved ...
Biomass crops such as SRC willow show higher levels of biodiversity in comparison with intensive arable and grassland crops. ... Biomass and Bioenergy. 32 (9): 829-837. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.01.002. National Non-Food Crops Centre. NNFCC Crop ... Short rotation coppice (SRC) is coppice grown as an energy crop. This woody solid biomass can be used in applications such as ... Trees portal Biomass Bioenergy Energy forestry Miscanthus Non food crops Poplar Short rotation forestry Switchgrass Willow Wood ...
Biomass Crops as a Source of Renewable Energy: European Experience with Miscanthus and Projections for Illinois (PDF). ... Final Report: EPRI-USDOE Cooperative Agreement: Cofiring biomass with coal [online]. US Department of Energy, September, 2001. ... Feedstock Composition Glossary [online]. U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program, [ ...
Currently, livestock make up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). As for ... of food crops, are declining globally in both abundance and diversity.[131] A 2017 study led by Radboud University's Hans de ... and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread through livestock and crops.[8] Humans both create and destroy ... of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of feed crop cultivation required to rear tens of billions of farm ...
Cited in Handbook of Energy Crops. By J. Duke. *^ Van Meerbeek, Koenraad; Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf; Calmeyn, Annelies; Lemmens ... biomass harvested for fuel production. By B.C. Wolverton and R.C. McDonald. 1981. Econ. Bot. 35(2):224-232. ... In New Zealand the largest commercial crop is Pinus radiata, the native Californian Monterey pine tree, which grows as well in ... Sparrows, which were brought to control insects upon the introduced grain crops, have displaced native birds as have rainbow ...
The crop can bulge to the size of a small grapefruit after they've consumed a large meal.[3][31] ... they can make a hearty contribution to the prey biomass when available (although certainly juveniles are attacked as much if ... with crop contents commonly of 190-560 g (0.42-1.23 lb).[32][96] Some semi-captive juveniles on the isle of Rùm, Scotland could ... she sometimes kills prey and returns with a full crop, but prey capture during incubation is often up to the male. Late into ...
10% biomass can reduce 0.5 Gt CO2 per year and with 16% biomass can achieve zero emission.[citation needed] Direct-cofiring (20 ... Using bio-energy crops as feedstock will not only cause sustainability concerns but also require the use of more fertilizer ... If biomass sources are not close by the combustion unit, transporting biomass emits CO2 offsetting the amount of CO2 captured ... While each type of biomass has a different heating value, biomass in general is a low-quality fuel. Thermal conversion of ...
The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the closely related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat, A. sterilis. ... Oat hulls can be used as feed, processed further into insoluble oat fibre, or used as a biomass fuel. ... avenae is a pathogen that can greatly reduce crop yields.[31] A few lepidopteran caterpillars feed on the plants-e.g. rustic ... Zhou, X.; Jellen, E.N.; Murphy, J.P. (1999). "Progenitor germplasm of domesticated hexaploid oat". Crop Science. 39 (4): 1208- ...
In some crops, particularly apples, the rootstocks are vegetatively propagated so the entire graft can be clonal if the scion ... In a sense, this process is not one of reproduction but one of survival and expansion of biomass of the individual. When an ... Too many suckers can lead to smaller crop size, so excess suckers are pruned, and mature suckers are transplanted to a new area ... It is used by farmers and horticulturalists to produce better crops with desirable qualities. The most common methods of ...
... and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the ... as well as afforestation and natural reversion of abandoned crop and pasture land to forest. However, in many areas of the ... converting carbon dioxide into oxygen and biomass.. *acting as a carbon sink. Therefore, they are necessary to stop Climate ... in global biomass and forests. This gain is due especially to reforestation in China and Russia.[44] However new forests are ...
It is likely that the large terrestrial mammal biomass of these regions supported substantial human populations with ...
S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop ... is being developed with biomass which can be turned into charcoal, syngas, and bio-oil.[17][18] ... For the principal modern crop species, see Sorghum bicolor. For other crop uses, see Commercial sorghum. For other uses, see ... implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 57 (2): 243-253. doi:10.1007/ ...
Insect crop damages also contribute largely to annual crop losses in the U.S.[49] Herbivores affect economics through the ... "Biomass transformation webs provide a unified approach to consumer-resource modelling". Ecology Letters. 14: 113-124. doi ... Agricultural crop damage by the same species totals approximately $100 million every year. ...
A common project type is renewable energy,[6] such as wind farms, biomass energy, biogas digesters[7], or hydroelectric dams. ... the Uganda Wildlife Authority evicted more than 300 families from the area and destroyed their homes and crops. That the ... Projects can include land-use, methane, biomass, renewable energy and industrial energy efficiency. Projects may also have ...
This technology allows coal or biomass to be converted to diesel.. In the Monsanto process, carbon monoxide and methanol react ... burning of crop residues, and sugarcane fire-cleaning). The burning of fossil fuels also contributes to carbon monoxide ...
The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the closely related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat, A. sterilis. ... Oat hulls can be used as feed or as a biomass fuel and are often used within the oat processing line to power solid fuel ... Neolithic founder crops. Neolithic Revolution. History of agriculture. Natufian culture. Fertile Crescent. Tell Abu Hureyra. ... 2010). "Growth And Production Of Oat And Rye". Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production Volume II. EOLSS Publishers. p. 106. ...
Many important crop plants are C4 plants, including maize, sorghum, sugarcane, and millet. Plants that do not use PEP- ... However, this was a signaling point to the idea that the bulk of a plant's biomass comes from the inputs of photosynthesis, not ... Hesketh JD, Moss DN (1963). "Variation in the response of photosynthesis to light". Crop Sci. 3 (2): 107-110. doi:10.2135/ ... of carbon into biomass per year.[12][13] The phenomenon that plants receive some energy from light - in addition to air, soil, ...
"Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. Diakses tanggal 2007-09-22.. ... In: J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, 2002, Alexandria, VA. Retrieved on September ...
... the profitability per unit of biomass was also higher, especially on larger land areas where resident herds of wild animals ... although of course far better than if communities were gaining their income primarily through livestock and cropping, as they ... noted that many locals viewed the benefits of the CAMPFIRE conservancy so highly that they would tolerate some level of crop ...
... based on each crop's contribution to supporting the farm economically.[117] This entails forgoing some crops in favor of others ... Typical measures of soil health are microbial biomass and activity, enzymes, soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen, ... Using common crops, which are generally well-studied, as bioindicators an be used to effectively test the quality of an urban ... The project, which began in 2008, has meant that food crops have been planted at forty locations throughout the town.[122] The ...
Before the American Civil War many farmers in the United States had an alcohol still to turn crop waste into free lamp oil and ... "Boosting Biomass-to...Butanol?". Green Car Congress. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-29.. ... We need never fear the exhaustion of our present fuel supplies so long as we can produce an annual crop of alcohol to any ...
... are an environmentally friendly and sustainable way of reducing damage to crops and an alternative to the use of chemical ... "Biomass transformation webs provide a unified approach to consumer-resource modelling". Ecology Letters. 14 (2): 113-24. doi ...
Algae are found in almost all ponds. There are hundreds of species of algae that can grow in garden ponds, but they are usually noticed only when they become abundant. Algae often grow in very high densities in ponds because of the high nutrient levels that are typical of garden ponds. Generally, algae attaches itself to the sides of the pond and remains innocuous. Some species of algae, such as "blanket weed", can grow up to a foot a day under ideal conditions and can rapidly clog a garden pond. On the other hand, free floating algae are microscopic and are what cause pond water to appear green. Blanket weed, although unsightly, is actually a sign that the water is clean and well-balanced. Green water (free floating algae) means there are too many nutrients in the water, usually from rotting vegetation or too many fish for the space. Killing the free floating algae with chemicals will often cause it to die, rot, and then make the problem even worse as more nutrients enter the water. Adding more ...
... crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the ... Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop ... In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, ... Office of International Affairs (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide ...
... which made the claim that hydroponic crop yields were no better than crop yields with good-quality soils. Crop yields were ... NASA research has shown that aeroponically grown plants have an 80% increase in dry weight biomass (essential minerals) ... Depressed growth rates of many crops have been observed when channels exceed 12 meters in length. On rapidly growing crops, ... Essential to many plants (e.g. legumes and some grain crops).[36] Also used in the enzyme urease. ...
A. unedo may contribute to the discontinuity of the forest biomass due to monocultures of pines and eucalyptus, particularly in ... Bonet, M. Angels; Vallès, Joan (2002). "Use of non-crop food vascular plants in Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian ... Bonet, M. Angels; Vallès, Joan (2002). "Use of non-crop food vascular plants in Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian ...
Increased biomass is one of the effects with simulations from experiments predicting a 5-20% increase in crop yields at 550 ppm ... "Crop and pasture response to climate change". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ... using evolutionary and participatory plant breeding to find the best suited species such as heat and drought resistant crop ...
... and the pollination of crops. These ecosystem processes have been estimated to be worth trillions of dollars annually.[2][1] ...
An example of a top-cropping yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sometimes called an "ale yeast".[52] Bottom-cropping yeasts are ... one of the major fermentable sugars present in cellulosic biomasses, such as agriculture residues, paper wastes, and wood chips ... Brewing yeasts may be classed as "top-cropping" (or "top-fermenting") and "bottom-cropping" (or "bottom-fermenting").[51] Top- ... The most common top-cropping brewer's yeast, S. cerevisiae, is the same species as the common baking yeast.[54] Brewer's yeast ...
BCAP supports the establishment and production of crops for conversion to bio-energy in project areas and to assist with ... collection, harvest, storage and transportation of eligible material for use in a biomass conversion facility found on USDA/FSA ...
Using a qPCR-based method we quantified root biomass distribution of four catch crop species in vertical soil profiles in pure ... In contrast, root biomass of clover and oat was severely suppressed in presence of the other species. Below-ground biomass ... While occupying the same vertical niches as in pure stands, mustard and phacelia dominated total root biomass of the mix. ... Nonetheless, the mixture mostly overyielded root biomass of the pure stands and thus shows higher potential for efficient soil ...
... for the winter and summer cover crops, respectively. Following a whole cycle of winter and summer cover crops grown, the mean ... Among winter cover crops, the highest and the lowest amounts of C accumulated were by bellbean (Vicia faba L.), 597 g/m2 and ... Among summer cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) accumulated the largest quantity of C (481 g/m2), while that by ... Six of each winter and summer cover crops were subsequently grown in two soils, Krome gravelly loam soil (KGL), and Quincy fine ...
European Biomass Industry Association. Scotland House. Rond-Point Schuman 6. 1040 Brussels, Belgium. T +32 (0) 2 282 84 40 ... Energy crops. Perennial grasses. Perennial grasses are widely used as fodder crops and have in former times significantly ... Energy crops for liquid biofuels production. Rapeseed, sunflower or soybean are used for biodiesel production, and sugar cane, ... Because the need for soil tillage in perennial grasses is limited to the year in which the crops are established the risk of ...
FSA Announces Application Period for Biomass Crop Assistance Program Project Areas USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) Administrator ... Home » Funding » Apply for FSA Biomass Crop Assistance Now. Apply for FSA Biomass Crop Assistance Now Posted on March 22, 2012 ... FSA Announces Application Period for Biomass Crop Assistance Program Project Areas. USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) ... The BCAP Project Areas where these crops are grown will be selected from proposals producers or biomass facilities submit to ...
... it appears unlikely that wide-scale planting of biomass crops will give rise to substantial public concern in relation to their ... Results are based on responses to photographic and computer-generated images as the crops are still relatively scarce in the ... Focus group meetings and interviews indicated support for biomass end uses that bring direct benefits to local communities. ... plants but based on the responses obtained and given the caveat that there was limited personal experience of the crops, ...
Biomass for soil, crop growth and biobased economy in oil palm Malaysia and Colombia. ... Biomass such as prunings are currently used as mulch in the plantation but could also serve as animal feed or be exported from ... Thirdly, which biomass sources, in which amount or form are needed to maintain or enhance the productivity of the oil palm ... Our final aim is to being able to assess what can best be done with biomass of palm oil production (and processing) based on ...
Biomass Crop Assistance Program, project area number 1 implemented for western Missouri and eastern Kansas county biomass ... Biomass Crop Assistance Program, Project Area Number 1 Implemented For Western Missouri And Eastern Kansas County Biomass ... Biomass Crop Assistance Program, project area number 1 implemented for western Missouri and eastern Kansas county biomass ... Location & Availability for: Biomass Crop Assistance Program, project. Enter Search Terms:. Keyword. Title. Author. Subject. ...
FLA Comments on Biomass Crop Assistance. August 18, 2010. On August 16, the Forest Landowners Association submitted comments ... related to the recently completed Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Biomass Crop Assistance Program ( ...
Development of Herbicide-Tolerant Energy and Biomass Crops. Grant Number R829479C022 RFA: The Consortium for Plant ...
... importance of lignin S/G ratio as an independent recalcitrance factor that may aid future energy crop engineering and biomass ... Moreover, PdDUF266A overexpression resulted in an increase of biomass production. Their glucose contents and biomass phenotypes ... and biomass yield. To further understand GAUT12.1 function in biomass recalcitrance and plant growth, here we report the ... and biomass yield. To further understand GAUT12.1 function in biomass recalcitrance and plant growth, here we report the ...
An auto-controlled climate system was used to study how a boreal bioenergy crop (reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea L., ... Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Biomass Growth and Allocation in a Boreal Bioenergy Crop (Phalaris arundinacea L.) ... Ge ZM, Kellomäki S, Zhou X et al (2012) Seasonal physiological responses and biomass growth in a bioenergy crop (Phalaris ... Climate change Biomass growth Biomass allocation Age of cultivation Phalaris arundinacea L. ...
Cell wall recalcitrance is the major obstacle for plant biomass conversion to biofuels. In this study, we functionally ... of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase increases biomass production and reduces recalcitrance in the bioenergy crop Populus ... of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase increases biomass production and reduces recalcitrance in the bioenergy crop Populus J. ... In Populus transgenic plants overexpressing PdSHMT2, the biomass yield and sugar (glucose and xylose) release were increased ...
Evaluation of the potential of hybrid willow as a sustainable biomass energy alternative crop in northern and west-central ... Evaluation of the potential of hybrid willow as a sustainable biomass energy alternative crop in northern and west-central ... Biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts from sustainable agricultural and forest crops: proceedings of the short rotation crops ... Biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts from sustainable agricultural and forest crops: proceedings of the short rotation crops ...
... and much of it is expected to come from biomass crops. Which crop or crops will be in greatest demand and most profitable to ... and much of it is expected to come from biomass crops. Which crop or crops will be in greatest demand and most profitable to ... Crops,Corn. Southeast growers have biomass crop options. • The Southeast is projected to produce nearly 10 billion gallons of ... Crop residue. In the Southeast there is no doubt the vast amount of crop residue from cotton, peanuts and grain crops is huge. ...
Of biomass, energy crops, power stations and deforestation. In May 2010, the Global Forest Coalition warned in its report " ... Burning biomass releases chemicals (alkali salts) that corrode, i.e. ultimately destroy, the boilers. The only type of biomass ... This does not apply to new power stations built to burn biomass. Many of those can burn any type of wood and other biomass. ... And it is important to remember that Europes biomass expansion is still in the early stages - far more biomass power station ...
The energy facility must first be approved by USDA to accept the biomass crop. Facilities can apply for, or renew, their BCAP ... Home Energy USDA Announces Restart of Biomass Crop Assistance Program for Renewable Energy ... BCAP provides financial assistance to establish and maintain new crops of energy biomass, or who harvest and deliver forest or ... Farmers, ranchers and forest landowners can also receive financial assistance to grow biomass crops that will be converted into ...
A crop modeling framework, APSIM was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify ... APSIM was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify potentially useful traits for crop ... Additionally, APSIM was extended to enable modeling of VPD-limited transpiration traits that reduce crop water use under high ... Additionally, APSIM was extended to enable modeling of VPD-limited transpiration traits that reduce crop water use under high ...
Biomass Crop Assistance Program. Tag Archives: Biomass Crop Assistance Program. U.S.D.A. Accepting Applications for Biomass ... Tagged 2014 Farm Bill, agricultural residues, BCAP, biomass, Biomass Crop Assistance Program, Bureau of Land Management, crop ...
... is working on decreasing costs for harvesting and transporting crop residues,... ... According to an article in The Wichita Eagle, the harvested material (or crop residues, which include corn husks, crop stubble ... "Its not sexy, but this piece is to show farmers and (others) that there is a better way of harvesting and using crops that ... More in this category: « Biomass makes better chemicals than fuel , Biofuel a fossil fuel alternative by 2020 » ...
HOME , DATATABLES , BIODIVERSITY GRADIENT EXPERIMENT , COVER CROP AND NON-CROP BIOMASS Cover Crop and Non-crop Biomass Data in ... Treatments range from bare soil to single-crop rotations to multiple-crop rotations to annually fallowed fields with early ... Effects of crop diversity on agroecosystem function: Crop yield response. Ecosystems 11:355-366. ... This weed dataset is collected prior to harvest to understand the impact of weed competition on crop yields and includes data ...
Assessment of RapidEye vegetation indices for estimation of leaf area index and biomass in corn and soybean crops. Kross, A., ... This study demonstrates the applicability of RapidEye multi-spectral data for estimation of LAI and biomass of two crop types ( ... Leaf area index (LAI) and biomass are important indicators of crop development and the availability of this information during ... The NDVI performed best for the estimation of dry leaf biomass (CV = 27% and r2= 090) and was also insensitive to crop type. ...
Salinity in soil or water is one of the major stresses and especailly in arid and semi-arid regions, can severely limit crop ... An environmental factor that limits crop productivity or destroys biomass is referred to as stress or disturbance. ... An environmental factor that limits crop productivity or destroys biomass is referred to as stress or disturbance. Salinity in ... An environmental factor that limits crop productivity or destroys biomass is referred to as stress or disturbance. ...
As for BCAP projects to grow energy crops, the final rule gives no priority for perennial crop projects. Annual crops that may ... The final rule for the Biomass Crop Assistance Program is scheduled for official publication in the Federal Register on October ... "Crops" evidently now must be defined in the farm bill from here on out, lest manure becomes commonly understood to be a crop. ... The 2008 Farm Bill provision for the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) and the accompanying Managers Statement of ...
Algae Biofuel Project In Europe Moves Ahead With First Biomass Crop In Spain Posted by Big Gav in algae ... The biomass obtained from the algae crop showed high energy potential with a methane production capacity of 200-300 litres of ... Algae Biofuel Project In Europe Moves Ahead With First Biomass Crop At Spain Site. A European Union-backed project to produce ... biomass (9) carbon trading (9) distributed generation (9) esolar (9) four day week (9) fuel cells (9) jeremy leggett (9) ...
Partnership studies also confirmed that environmental differences across years and across sites had a large impact on biomass ... Biomass production of herbaceous energy crops in the United States: field trial results and yield potential maps from the ... Agricultural Science Commons, Agriculture Commons, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Commons, Botany Commons, Horticulture Commons, ... Partnership studies also confirmed that environmental differences across years and across sites had a large impact on biomass ...
Cereal rye has the best potential to suppress weeds because it accumulates more biomass than other cover crop species. ... One important benefit of cover crops to our production system is providing an alternative selection pressure on weed ... KEYWORDS biomass cover crop biomass weed populations weed suppression weed suppression with cover crops ... Cereal rye has the best potential to suppress weeds because it accumulates more biomass than other cover crop species. Weed ...
Information Collection Request; Emergency Conservation Program (ECP) and Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP), 57947 [2017- ... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Description of Information Collection Title: Emergency Conservation Program and Biomass Crop ... and Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). This information is collected in support of, respectively, sections 401- 407 of the ... and Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Farm Service Agency, USDA. Notice; request for comments. AGENCY: ACTION: In ...
This paper documents the breeding progress to date for four perennial biomass crops (PBCs) that have high output‐input energy ... Breeding progress and preparedness for mass‐scale deployment of perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus ... scale deployment of perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus, willow and poplar GCB Bioenergy , vol. ... At local and regional level, the most advanced cultivars in each crop are at technology readiness levels which could be scaled ...
  • Yields of grass-only plots were ~868 lb of dry matter (DM) per acre more than cover crop mixtures composed of two or three plant species. (
  • Land in the EU for perennial biomass crops from freed-up agricultural land: A sensitivity analysis considering yields, diet, market liberalization and world food prices. (
  • Four factors were considered: crop yields, livestock demand, market liberalization, and world food prices. (
  • One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found inconsistent differences in cash crop yields between plots with or without summer cover crops. (
  • A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1986-1988 in an irrigated lettuce field in the Salinas Valley, California, USA, found similar lettuce yields in plots with or without winter cover crops. (
  • Similar lettuce yields were found in plots with cover crops or fallows (210-664 g fresh weight/head). (
  • Similar lettuce yields were found in plots with cover crops or bare fallows (290-312 vs 252 g dry matter/m 2 ). (
  • There they focus on plant growth, biomass yields, and nutrient behavior. (
  • Brome grass takes up a lot of nutrients for inflorescence (seed head) development, including phosphorus, calcium, potassium and nitrogen, and a constant removal of these nutrients will result in lower biomass and lower hay yields per harvest. (
  • Irrigation may be necessary to guarantee a good hay crop in areas where drought is a risk or rainfall is lower than required for producing moderate to high yields of brome hay. (
  • Ellis Hoffland: "In this way, our project can lead to more green and to greater crop diversification, as well as increased yields in main crops, with less deployment of minerals and pesticides. (
  • Data collection included plant populations, plant biomass at 1st square and mid-bloom, and lint yields. (
  • Loss of pollinator diversity decreases crops yields, and this may be more important than insect numbers . (
  • It can produce large biomass yields and is highly palatable to animals. (
  • In a new paper written for the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), statistical analysis on a larger data set over the years 2000 to 2006 inclusive confirms that compost use has increased yields in all the crops analysed. (
  • Corn yields are now projected at 123.4 bushels per acre, which combined with a drop in projected harvested acres results in an estimated crop size of 10.8 billion bushels-down 17 percent from USDA's July estimates. (
  • BIO, the World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology, takes over the capitol city from Monday to Thursday, bringing together leaders in areas such as crop technology, synthetic biology, advanced biofuels, biobased renewables, renewable chemicals and food ingredients. (
  • the current draft still excludes food and feed crops for use as biofuels for transport and biowaste, mentioning that a key criterion is that "food or feed crops are not used as bio-based feedstock for the manufacture" of these bio-based products and ingredients. (
  • It is targeted at companies producing biomass fuel in the form of pellets and briquettes, and those using renewable materials to produce biopower, biogas, combined heat & power (CHP), and liquid biofuels. (
  • Biopact reports that Jean Ziegler, the UN special rapporteur on the right to food , presented his annual report to the General Assembly in New York, which calls for a 5-year moratorium on the production of first-generation liquid biofuels made from food crops such as corn, wheat, palm oil and rapeseed. (
  • France wants to grow biofuels at home, so wants sustainability criteria that favor crops grown in Europe -- rapeseed, sunflower oil, sugar beet -- which have fairly poor emissions savings," said Frauke Thies, a renewable energy campaigner at Greenpeace . (
  • Scandinavian nations' current concern is that their future biofuels industry could be constrained by EU rules aimed at preventing tropical rainforest being cut down to make way for biofuels crops like palm oil. (
  • In this month's Arable Farming magazine, NFU crops board chairman Matt Culley discusses the opportunities for UK crops in the biofuels sector. (
  • In its response to the DfT's consultation, the NFU noted the huge underutilised opportunities for UK crops in the biofuels sector, not just wheat to ethanol but also the prospects for biomethane as a transport fuel which could be driven by further investment in biomass infrastructure and anaerobic digestion. (
  • The UK biofuels and biomass sectors are a great example to put in front of our politicians of how investments and policy can work for all. (
  • First generation biofuels developed of Diesel and Ford rely on easily extractable sugars and oils from primary crops such as corn, sugarcane and palm or hemp. (
  • Biomass is primarily used to heat homes, to generate steam for industrial use and to create biofuels like biodeisel and ethanol. (
  • What biomass can be used to run an industrial steam boiler? (
  • The owners of the farm business have installed a biomass boiler to supply space and water heating to the various buildings on site. (
  • Crops for Energy helped Mr Andrew with the feasibility study looking into the potential for this project, managed the boiler procurement process, completed the Energy Crops Scheme application, helped organise mechanised planting and supplied SRC willow varieties. (
  • This case study provides details of a domestic scale biomass boiler in a low energy building used for educational visits, training and conferences. (
  • Upgrading these boilers can be a good strategy, but many mills could also consider displacing bunker oil with lower cost biomass energy heat sources for their processing energy requirements without making a large capital investment. (
  • The most widely used biomass in industrial boilers for producing steam and heat is forestry mulch, which comes in various sizes, ranging from olive stones and nut shells to chips, shavings and bark from pruning trees. (
  • The industrial biomass boilers that ATTSU manufactures and installs are adapted for use with any type of biomass, since it is the grille that is adapted to the type of fuel. (
  • Gurteen Agricultural College grows 30 hectares of SRC and dries the woodchip produced before it is used to fuel 2 x 300 kilowatt biomass boilers. (
  • Other people are growing to self-supply their own biomass boilers. (
  • Feb 19, 2019 · A briquette is a block of compressed coal dust, charcoal dust, sawdust, wood chips or biomass and is used as a fuel in stoves and boilers. (
  • In high-residue conservation systems, cover crop residues will reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the soil surface. (
  • Cover crop residues reduce daily fluctuations of soil temperature and reduce the difference between daily soil temperature maximums and minimums. (
  • 2014. Crop rotation complexity regulates the decomposition of high and low quality residues. (
  • A cornerstone of the bioeconomy are biorefineries that use biomass, by- and co- products, residues and waste instead of fossil resources as their raw material. (
  • The quantity of agricultural biomass residues that are necessary to replace one tonne of coal depends on the fuels energy value and water content. (
  • NASS 2017) Flax straw has a per ton heating value similar to soft coal and thus has a heating value greater than other crop residues. (
  • Since the production of biomass, i.e. plant matter such as forestry, agricultural crops and residues, requires a large amount of land and water, competes with food production and can affect the ecosystem (e.g. deforestation, leaching of fertilisers and pesticides into water bodies), there is a delicate balance between all of these elements. (
  • Adding collards to the mixtures generally reduced total biomass production compared to single species of grasses alone. (
  • The crops, which are grasses, trees, and other types of vegetation including collections of native prairie plants, when paired with carbon capture technology makes for a very clean fuel source. (
  • Dedicated energy crops, particularly perennial grasses, represent a good alternative to provide biomass. (
  • The grasses reached the highest ground cover (83-99%) and biomass (1226-1928 g/m2) at the end of the experiment. (
  • With the highest C:N ratio (27-39) and dietary fibre (527-600 mg/g) and the lowest residue quality (~680 mg/g), grasses were suitable for erosion control, catch crop and fodder. (
  • The grass dominated mix gave a higher biomass than the clover dominated mix for both species. (
  • Low simulated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations during 1850-1950 were due to excess uptake from prescribed land cover change, which erroneously replaced arid shrublands with higher biomass crops, and assumed high 2004 LAI values in vegetated lands throughout the historical simulation. (
  • They can provide a tremendous amount of biomass that not only smothers weeds and prevents soil erosion, but also puts huge amounts of green matter, or green manure, back into the soil which improves the soil's tilth. (
  • The Malaysian government has made a strong commitment to utilise the huge amount of biomass available for the generation of energy and other high-value products. (
  • The crops can be grown in a number of areas making them accessible as well. (
  • In 1989-1990, six winter cover crops ( Raphanus sativus oilseed radish, Brassica hirta white senf mustard, Brassica alba white mustard, Lolium multiflorum annual ryegrass, Secale cereale Merced rye, and Phacelia tanacetifolia ) were grown on three plots each (two 12 m rows/plot), and bare fallows were maintained (with herbicide and hand cultivation) on three plots. (
  • In 1990-1991, two winter cover crops ( Secale cerale Merced rye and Phacelia tanacetifolia ) were grown on six plots each (two 8 m rows/plot), and bare fallows were maintained on six plots. (
  • Without "ecological services" like insect pollination, some of these crops could no longer be grown. (
  • Green manures can be grown in the same year as a vegetable crop, such as a cover crop of white clover planted around a cole crop. (
  • In harsher climates, cover crops can be grown in rows between the crops or as a component of rotation in your garden. (
  • Except for field pea, the compost generally doubled the grain yield when compared to each respective check (crops grown without any inputs). (
  • Thus, we can build a detailed and rich representation of the influence, on the whole of the nexus, of the types of biomass grown, where they are grown, the types of technologies used (and therefore the products that will be made from biomass) and where they are located. (
  • An optimisation model will then be used to determine the combinations of crops grown and technologies used to convert biomass to energy and high-value products (thus forming a biomass value chain) that provide the greatest benefit with the lowest impact on the nexus. (
  • My findings proved that they indeed adapt and produce high biomass and were nutritionally competent or better than many of the low desert grown grass forage crops. (
  • Bachie's Rhodes grass trial proved that the crop could be grown in the Imperial Valley and produce high biomass and nutritious forage for livestock. (
  • Total biomass production was affected by the number of plants in the mixture. (
  • The projects expect to generate 100 tons of total biomass per hectare, per yearn, using two cropping cycles per year, with total tonnage including tops, leaves, stalks and the primary crop. (
  • That equates to roughly 20 tons of total biomass per growing season, per acre. (
  • Science is working on alternatives and as it turns out, biomass fuels are one way that we can shift the tides on climate change. (
  • Both fuels use various sources of renewable biomass such as municipal solid waste, agricultural wastes and forest wastes, wood and energy crops. (
  • This led to massive increases in the price of biomass fuels, particularly wood pellets. (
  • Biomass fuels account for around four percent of the nation's energy use. (
  • the criteria included in REDII under the risk-based approach take into account the fundamentals of forest biomass sustainability such as legality, regeneration, nature protection, soil and biodiversity maintenance and forests' long-term production capacity. (
  • Therefore, it is considered essential, specifically for forests, to have REDII as the key reference for taxonomy to ensuring the sustainability of forest biomass. (
  • Update and expansion of European forest biomass potentials using EFISCEN, including updated forest inventory data. (
  • Development of cost-supply curves for forest biomass. (
  • Updated European forest biomass potentials. (
  • Spatial distribution of the potential forest biomass availability in Europe. (
  • Cover crops have multiple benefits to integrated agricultural production systems. (
  • According to this "food first" principle, only agricultural land not used to produce crops or fodder is included in analyses to determine the production potential of perennial biomass crops (PBC) for the bioeconomy. (
  • Crop yield enhancement and diet change that favors less animal protein have smaller implications because, unless there are incentives for farmers to adopt PBC, a production surplus or deficit is translated into international trade rather than into cultivation areas. (
  • Emerging objectives include mitigation of climate change by enhanced carbon sequestration and increased production of woodfuel biomass, alongside ecological restoration and enhanced rural development forestry benefits. (
  • Wider deployment of native tree species, principally birch and aspen, within Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), has the potential to achieve resilient biomass production from upland site types while securing significant benefits for landscape amenity, biodiversity conservation, soil and freshwater protection. (
  • In many cases, cover crops provide multiple benefits to cash crops that are enhanced as biomass production and years of cover crop use increase. (
  • Juniper cutting removed overstory interference and resulted in significant increases in herbaceous cover, biomass, and seed production when compared to adjacent woodlands. (
  • Herbaceous cover, standing crop, perennial grass density, and seed production all increased in the ungrazed-cut treatment compared to ungrazed-woodland. (
  • We know from recent research on natural grasslands and mixed cropping that increased biodiversity leads to increased production and to more organic material entering the soil. (
  • We're going to investigate which combinations of cover crops improve biomass production and result in more organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphate entering the soil. (
  • Budgeting for bioenergy crop production and analyzing your cost of production will be critical to determining if bioenergy crops pay on your farm. (
  • Annual crops like corn are easy to figure out the cost of production each year. (
  • These are typical expenses you would expect to pay each year for normal crop production. (
  • The large root system and biomass production, plus the fact that white clover competes well in adverse conditions, will hardly inhibit weed growth. (
  • The committee has suggested as much as a fifth of agricultural land will need to be repurposed for tree planting, as well as for producing energy crops (for biomass energy production), and peatland restoration. (
  • Economics of energy crop production. (
  • SLU, Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Uppsala. (
  • Biomass production without N fertilizer! (
  • Conclusions Resource efficient strategies need to be developed to wean our dependency off petroleum-based energy inputs in primary production of agricultural crops and their associated processing industries. (
  • The ReMIX project (Species mixtures for redesigning European cropping systems) was designed to encourage the use of crop diversity and to employ diversity in order to achieve resilient, agroecological European plant-based production systems. (
  • ReMIX focuses on the development of resilient plant-based production systems through the creation of successful mixed crops. (
  • Crop production in developing and emerging countries is increasingly dependent on the usage of farm machinery. (
  • His knowledge is very widespread covering policy, biomass production, processing, logistics and end use. (
  • The sharply lowered production estimates suggest the preliminary assessment of the impact of the drought on crop prices and biofuel production that I conducted last month needs to be updated. (
  • Farm-Scale Production Cost of Switchgrass for Biomass. (
  • They also indirectly influence subsequent cash crops by increasing soil organic matter, which affects water availability and nutrient cycling. (
  • By means of laboratory analysis, C and nutrient content in the crops' biomass was also determined. (
  • Though it would help the soil by reducing (not preventing) erosion because of such a crop being a perennial crop--perennial crops do not need to be tilled every year--it does not help the soil with nutrient quality. (
  • In addition, the project involves investigating crop combinations that result in plant waste with a particular property: it influences soil microbial life in such a way that nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emission are reduced and disease resistance improved. (
  • This suppression should allow your cash crop to gain the upper-hand with nutrient management. (
  • These cover crops are nature's great nutrient recyclers. (
  • The American Council on Renewable Energy has compiled the first global definition of biomass for introduction into legislation. (
  • The American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE) Biomass Definition subcommittee decided to aggregate all the definition of biomass into one singular definition that can be integrated into piece of legislation. (
  • Kevin Lindegaard has 21 years experience working in the field of energy crops and renewable energy. (
  • A study was conducted to compare a conventional variety, a glyphosate tolerant variety, and a glufosinate tolerant variety in both conventional tillage and conservation tillage systems for standard row (102-cm) and narrow row (38-cm) cotton planting patterns during the 2004-2006 growing seasons at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL. (
  • Some of these, like the ashy mining bee and the lobe-spurred furrow bee, are pollinators of field crops like oilseed rape. (
  • The new report notes that among those pollinating insects whose ranges have expanded, species associated with field crops are well represented. (
  • As WUR Field Crops, we are involved in the following project components: research into the impact of mixed crops on infestation, diseases, and weed density and the breeding and selection of successful cultivars that deliver optimum performance in a mixed cultivation system. (
  • He studied insects, weeds, pathogens and other crop pests on field crops, vegetables and horticultural crops. (
  • When soil moisture is depleted by a high-residue cover crop in the humid Southeast, a rainfall event can usually replenish soil water and can provide adequate water for cash crop establishment. (
  • Use it in conjunction with local recommendations to guide planting dates for cash crops and to avoid cool, wet soil conditions that can persist with high-residue cover crops. (
  • The farm reform laws have been a major distraction this year, with unrest in the farmer community taking attention away from the need to tackle the crop-residue problem. (
  • To answer this, we review three factors that have a bearing on the number of fire incidents-the area under rice cultivation, the penetration of farm implements, and the market for crop residue. (
  • Second, the number and types of implements that are available to manage crop-residue within the field have increased. (
  • The third factor, putting crop residue to economically beneficial end-uses, offers only a sliver of hope. (
  • As per government records, the utilisation of crop residue by all end-users, including thermal power plants, biomass gasifiers, cardboard and paper mills stood at 1.1 million tonnes in 2018 (~5% of total residue). (
  • Conversations with leading biomass aggregators suggest that, this year, the utilisation of crop residue is not likely to show a significant rise, despite the ambition shown by users such as NTPC. (
  • One reason for this is the high costs associated with transporting crop-residue (densified or otherwise) over longer distances that reduce the attractiveness of biomass against coal. (
  • Biomass feedstock (such as wood waste, agricultural residue, and energy crops) can be gasified by thermo-chemical or biological processes. (
  • Ranking among the world's top biomass trade fairs, APBE 2019 - The 8th Asia-Pacific Biomass Energy Exhibition 2019 is going to be held on a show floor of 18,000 sq.m with 200+ exhibitors. (
  • To share information with Imperial Valley growers, Bachie has presented his research results on Rhodes grass varieties at field days and workshops and published in the UCCE Imperial AgBrief newsletter and in the proceedings of the 2019 Western Alfalfa and Forage Crops Symposium. (
  • Returning that land to pasture, food crops or trees would convert enough carbon into biomass to stabilize emissions of CO2, the biggest greenhouse gas, for 15-20 years, giving the world time to adopt carbon-neutral technologies. (
  • Bachie grew up farming with his parents in the rural western part of Oromia, where most coffee and food crops are produced in Ethiopia. (
  • It's not only wild plants that are affected, but also agricultural crops. (
  • Viaspace believes the grass has the highest energy yield per hectare of potential energy crops. (
  • Giant King ® Grass is a proprietary, high yield, dedicated biomass energy crop. (
  • This high number is the result of the unique attributes of the crop - its low fertilizer requirements, high oil yield, and the use of co-products, such as meal and biomass, for other uses. (
  • But the yield difference for all the other crops was greater with that from the compost treatment being always higher than that from the use of chemical fertilizer. (
  • The results also showed that compost not only increases the overall biomass yield, but also increases the proportion of the grain to straw in the yield. (
  • Giant king grass and Rhodes grass were brought to my attention by companies who wanted me to test their adaptability, biomass yield and nutrition as livestock feed," Bachie said. (
  • This is the number you would use to compare various bioenergy crops. (
  • She went on to study the role of bioenergy crops in Ireland and how privately-owned forests in Ireland could meet demand for bioenergy. (
  • Shell Oil, the most successful company in the oil industry, estimates that "by 2010 commercial energy from biomass could provide five percent of the world's power. (
  • He has been a diligent scientist, visionary and pioneer in laying all the groundwork to use Giant King Grass as the world's most productive biomass/animal feed platform. (
  • Cover crops choke out weeds by restricting sunlight to the soil, stabilize the soil surface, and through their deep-reaching roots, help to break up hardpan and bring nutrients to the surface for other plants to utilize. (
  • Mixed crops from "plant teams" can contribute to soil fertility, productivity of the "main" crop and suppression of weeds, diseases, and infestations. (
  • Viaspace Green Energy has signed a memorandum of understanding with Seema Energy in Thailand to grow 'giant king grass' to power Seema's proposed 90MW biomass plant. (
  • Giant king grass is similar to sugarcane but it is not a food crop and develops cellulosic characteristics rather than sugar strands. (
  • In this one-year study, the single species grass cover crops produced the most biomass. (
  • 77% of total DM biomass was from grass species in mixtures). (
  • April 27, 2015 - Walnut, California - VIASPACE Inc. (OTC: VSPC) announced that an article on Giant King Grass as a dedicated energy crop was published in the current issue of Bioenergy Insight magazine. (
  • VIASPACE CEO, Dr. Carl Kukkonen, was invited by the magazine to write the article entitled: "Top of the Crops: Giant King Grass is proving its worth as a dedicated energy crop within the renewables sector. (
  • VIASPACE and its partner AGRICORP in Nicaragua are developing a 12 MW biomass power plant co-located with a 2,100 acre Giant King Grass plantation. (
  • We have worked long and hard to build our brand name with Giant King ® Grass and seeing GKG referenced as "Top of the Crops" in a respected international publication is an accomplishment for VIASPACE and its shareholders. (
  • I encourage all of our shareholders and interested parties to read the Bioenergy Insight article because it represents a nice summary of using Giant King Grass as a dedicated energy crop. (
  • Rhodes grass, giant king grass, quinoa and teff are among the crops Bachie has been studying since he joined UC Agriculture and Natural Resources in 2012. (
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, he has been giving talks via Zoom on Rhodes grass as a new emerging crop, including a zoom workshop organized by the University of Arizona. (
  • Cameron, AD & Wilson, S 2014, ' Alternative models for productive upland forestry: Model 1: Biomass crops using native tree species ', Scottish Forestry , vol. 68, pp. 26-31. (
  • Her background is in investigating climate change impacts on food and forestry and evaluating sustainable resources for bioenergy from forestry and biomass crops. (
  • DAFM Stimulus project: Supplychip 2010-2012 - The potential supply of biomass from privately owned forestry in the North West. (
  • In Europe, EU Commission proposals to source 10% of road transport fuel from renewable sources like crops and biomass by 2020 have been called into question. (
  • This is something that the government has recognised in its response to the 2020 climate change report and has committed to developing a new bioenergy strategy by 2022, which includes a key role acceptance for bioenergy and biomass. (
  • The ECS provided 50% establishment grants, so the fact that growers are planting Miscanthus and Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) without financial support suggests that they are more convinced of the full lifetime economic benefits of these crop options. (
  • Cover crops directly influence subsequent cash crops, such as when a legume provides nitrogen to the crop as it decomposes. (
  • In addition to this benefit, legume green manures (peas, beans, clovers, favas and vetch) act as a host for the bacteria that fix and make nitrogen available for your vegetable or fruit crops. (
  • Legume cover crops are an essential component of good soil management. (
  • Spring forage peas did not perform well as a summer cover crop, yielding the same biomass as the fallow areas. (
  • The introduction of cover crops in the intercrop period may provide a broad range of ecosystem services derived from the multiple functions they can perform, such as erosion control, recycling of nutrients or forage source. (
  • Often called the "king of forage" Berseem germinates rapidly, grows quickly, and produces abundant biomass which breaks down to replenish organic matter. (
  • Chicory has been promoted as an alternative forage crop for livestock farming. (
  • Oli Bachie, shown in a forage sorghum trial field, researches new crops for Imperial County farmers to grow in the low desert. (
  • NFI-based, remote sensing and modelling studies on C stocks and/or fluxes in different ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter or soil) are encouraged. (
  • This data table has the information of calculated WUE-maximum biomass (kg/ha/mm) for different crops. (
  • More than 400 different crops and animals are commercially produced in California. (
  • Plots with cover crop mixes yielded on average 1,348 lb DM/acre more than single species plots with legumes or collards. (
  • Thus, species selection and definition of targeted objectives is critical when growing cover crops. (
  • The goal of the current work was to describe the traits that determine the suitability of five species (barley, rye, triticale, mustard and vetch) for cover cropping. (
  • Variable quantification allowed finding variability among the species and provided information for further decisions involving cover crop selection and management. (
  • These two species increased their ranges five-fold during the same period, suggesting that crop-specialist species are thriving at the expense of most others. (
  • Superficially, the increases in crop pollinators seem encouraging, but it may not be good news. (
  • By 2022, the Thai government plants to be producing 3,700MW from biomass and is in particular promoting biomass power generation from dedicated energy crops. (
  • Rest or deferment is required the first several growing seasons after juniper cutting to provide plants the opportunity to maximize seed crops. (
  • It's their job to eat plants which convert the energy of sunlight into biomass - the foundation of most terrestrial food webs. (
  • Earlier this year, National Thermal Power Corporation Limited ( NTPC Ltd ) floated a tender for procurement of up to 6 million tons of biomass pellets to co-fire its coal-based power plants. (
  • Vigorous plants will reach up to 5-6 feet when in bloom, producing upwards of 4-5 tons of biomass per acre. (
  • Environmental Efficiency Among Corn Ethanol Plants", Biomass and Bioenergy 46:634-644. (
  • The E.U., World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank, including USAID, are generously funding cultivation of this crop. (
  • Application of sustainability constraints to the available biomass. (
  • Evaluated how various environmental and sustainability constraints affected biomass potentials. (
  • Electricity from burning biomass (crops and crop waste) also sells at a similar rate. (
  • This session invites contributions on national and subnational carbon budget estimates (past, present and future) in different land uses (forests, crops, grasslands, urban areas) using multiple data sources and different calculation methods. (
  • Starter fertilizer applied at planting of a summer crop can sometimes offset the negative effects of cool, wet soil and delayed planting, but the cold and wet soils are the more critical factors affecting germination and early-season growth. (
  • Legumes obtain their nitrogen from the air, and can provide as much nitrogen for your next crop as fertilizer, containing 100-150 pounds of nitrogen per acre. (
  • The cooler soil temperatures benefit cash crops throughout the summer but can delay spring planting. (
  • Once the crop is well established, usual mowing to keep the clover down and manageable will produce nice, green walkways in between your cash crops. (
  • Comparing annual with perennial crops can be tricky. (
  • Perennial crops are more difficult to determine because you have to amortize the establishment costs over the life of the stand. (
  • It is envisaged that this toolkit will be used by policy-makers and stakeholders to drive national strategies for effective utilisation of biomass and nexus resources and promote sustainable biomass-based opportunities. (
  • As a result of this we are already seeing signs that UK landowners are beginning to realise the benefits of planting more energy crops and woodland in order to self-supply woodfuel and service a burgeoning demand for wood fibre. (
  • Until recently, biomass almost exclusively meant wood or sugarcane bagasse. (
  • Renewable Biomass Fuel As "Green Power" Alternative for Sugarcane Milling in the Philippines T.C. Mendoza, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, P. Madrid, Sugar Regulatory Administration, R. Samson, REAP-Canada, A.R. Elepano, University of the Philippines at Los Baños. (
  • 2013. Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? (
  • This is a mighty piece of work - a highly professional publication and a very valuable tool for the willow biomass industry both in Ireland and further afield. (
  • At present, mixed cropping in main crops is not thought to be practical, so we're focusing on cover crops, including green manure, trap crops and intercrops. (
  • A green manure crop that does not re-seed in the garden. (
  • Green manure crops are a superior source of organic matter when they are cut and turned under. (
  • Most garden soils can be maintained at their highest level of productivity by sound soil management practices that involve a combination of soil tillage, crop rotation, and most importantly, the addition of organic matter through green manures. (
  • As part of a long-term rotation plan, cover crops can provide a stable habitat within your garden for beneficial insects and microorganisms. (
  • Most importantly, it is an excellent rotation crop with wheat, and it can also grow in marginal land. (
  • To optimize plant growth, summer crops should be planted according to soil temperature rather than calendar date. (
  • Plant biomass measured at 1st square and mid-bloom was also affected by growing season with 38-cm cotton plant biomass averaging 34% greater in 2004 and 2005, however, the effect of tillage system was contradictory during the same growing seasons. (
  • In 2006, plant biomass was greater for 38-cm cotton at mid-bloom. (
  • One of the easiest and most economical ways to improve your soil is to plant green manures, commonly called cover crops. (
  • There were six plots (10.7 x 1.1 m raised beds) for each of two cover crops (broad beans or rye), and there were six control plots (bare fallow, maintained with herbicide). (
  • Energy comes from the combustion of materials of biological origin (natural resources, crops or organic waste). (
  • This might not sound like a massive amount but is a significant increase on recent years and the most planted in a calendar year since the Energy Crops Scheme (ECS) closed in 2013. (
  • Upon turning under the crop, nitrogen and other elements are released or recycled back just underneath the soil surface so the next crop can utilize the nutrients that once was beyond reach and leaching away. (
  • In this project we're going to investigate whether this positive effect of biodiversity on organic matter in agriculture is achievable by deploying diversification plus crop mixing," says Ellis Hoffland. (
  • Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba This all-in-one cover crop blend provides rich organic matter to your ground, recycles nutrients and acts as natural soil fumigant to fight nematodes, insects, and pathogenic fungi. (
  • The mustard presented high N uptake in the warm year and could act as a catch crop, but low fodder capability in both years. (
  • The best practice with cover crop mustard is to mow while in flower and before seed-set to ensure it doesn't reseed itself. (
  • During early stages of development and growth, make sure your living mulch system does not compete with the cash crop for light, nutrients and moisture. (
  • Burndown before double-crop soybeans can be a particular challenge. (
  • Although USDA's August 10th projections of the size of US corn and soybeans crops are available, there still exists some uncertainty about what the actual size of the two crops will be because of forecast errors. (
  • Processing facilities that convert the biomass to energy or other chemicals will be researched and a database of all such technologies will be built, including a site suitability analysis. (
  • It does not displace other crops or compete as a food source. (
  • But setting the criteria has become a complex task, when a tweak of just a few percent can effectively rule out whole biofuel crops. (
  • Cover crops use soil water while they are growing, which can negatively affect summer crop establishment if soil water is not replenished prior to planting. (
  • The most common practice to reduce the risk of early-season soil water depletion by cover crops is to desiccate the cover well ahead of planting the cash crop. (
  • For example, Munawar [9] and Wagger and Mengel [14] report that early-season soil water depletion can be reduced by killing the cover crop a minimum of two to three weeks before planting the cash crop. (
  • The cover crops were seeded in November 1986-1987, irrigated until emergence, and chopped, disked, and chisel ploughed in spring (25-30 cm depth). (
  • van Bruggen A.H.C., Brown P.R., Shennon C. & Greathead A.S. (1990) The effect of cover crops and fertilization with ammonium nitrate on corky root of lettuce. (
  • Cover crops were tilled into the plots (15-20 cm depth in March 1990, depth not reported in February 1991). (
  • Ground cover and biomass were monitored at regular intervals during each growing season. (
  • A Gompertz model characterized ground cover until the decay observed after frosts, while biomass was fitted to Gompertz, logistic and linear-exponential equations. (
  • Does mixed cropping with cover crops improve soil biodiversity? (
  • NWO has recently approved a research request submitted by Ellis Hoffland, Gerlinde De Deyn, Wopke van der Werf en Lammert Bastiaans (Wageningen University) to investigate whether mixed cropping with cover crops is a good idea in Europe. (
  • For this reason, white clover serves as an excellent ground cover crop. (
  • For more information on using cover crop or to request copies of the factsheets, contact me at [email protected] or Paul Gross, [email protected] . (
  • Our Pollinator Cover Crop Seed Mix features a varied mix of easy-to-grow legumes, including Clover, Alfalfa, Vetch, and Sainfoin. (
  • In mild climates (zones 6 and above), cover crops can be fall planted and tilled in the following spring just before planting. (
  • There have been a number of biomass fuel tests, mostly for home heating and other small uses however, something like this encouraged on the large scale could really make a series change in the climate. (
  • U.S. renewable fuel credits soared on Tuesday to the highest on record, as higher costs for soybean oil pushed up both renewable fuel and biomass-based credits, traders said. (
  • Biomass as fuel can be found in many forms and grain sizes. (
  • Thanks to the extensive experience of the professional team at ATTSU , they can provide any advice required on the energy efficiency of each type of fuel biomass. (
  • Many users are realising that they can insulate themselves against further price rises and produce fuel quickly by planting their own perennial energy crops. (
  • However, a primary technological challenge in converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuel is overcoming the recalcitrance of its matrix to enzymatic hydrolysis. (
  • The "huge potential" of legal cannabis crops is being explored by East Anglian farmers - who are also calling for regulatory changes to unlock the versatile plant's full commercial value. (
  • New Energy Farms (NEF) will host open houses this coming spring in the U.S., Canada and the U.K. This will give landowners, farmers and end users, a chance to learn more about the different energy crops supplied by New Energy Farms. (
  • 2016. Biomass from Marginal Cropland: Willingness of North Central US Farmers to Produce Switchgrass on Marginal Fields. (
  • White clover has many benefits that are useful for cropping systems. (

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