A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Diseases of plants.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.

Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. (1/1185)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? (2/1185)

The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called "direct effect" of regional haze results in an approximately 5-30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China's most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an approximately 1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of approximately 70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5-30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades.  (+info)

UK CropNet: a collection of databases and bioinformatics resources for crop plant genomics. (3/1185)

The UK Crop Plant Bioinformatics Network (UK CropNet) was established in 1996 in order to harness the extensive work in genome mapping in crop plants in the UK. Since this date we have published five databases from our central UK CropNet WWW site (http://synteny.nott.ac.uk/) with a further three to follow shortly. Our resource facilitates the identification and manipulation of agronomically important genes by laying a foundation for comparative analysis among crop plants and model species. In addition, we have developed a number of software tools that facilitate the visualisation and analysis of our data. Many of our tools are made freely available for use with both crop plant data and with data from other species.  (+info)

Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. (4/1185)

Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.  (+info)

The next target of bioterrorism: your food. (5/1185)

One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immune resistance to a range of common illnesses. To reduce the potential of deliberate introductions of crop pathogens as acts of terrorism, researchers must be able to "fingerprint" pathogens at the molecular level and discriminate between naturally occurring and deliberately introduced outbreaks. Several domestic and international surveillance, tracking, and reporting efforts are under way.  (+info)

Crop biotechnology. Where now? (6/1185)

Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.  (+info)

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone from roots of Sesamum indicum. (7/1185)

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone pigment having antifungal activity, named chlorosesamone, was isolated from the roots of Sesamum indicum. Its structure was characterized as 2-chloro-5,8-dihydroxy-3-(3methyl-2-butenyl)- 1,4-na phthoquinone on the basis of spectral evidence.  (+info)

Museum specimen data predict crop damage by tropical rodents. (8/1185)

Museum collections constitute a massive store of information on biological diversity. We used museum specimen data to generate ecological niche models that provide predictions of geographic distributions of native rodent pest species and agricultural census data that summarize the geographic distribution of nine crops in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, as well as crop losses between planting and harvest. Herein, we show that crop damage is related significantly to the predicted presence of rodent species for seven of nine crops. Museum collections may thus provide important baseline information for designing land-use and agricultural pest-management programs.  (+info)

The Atlas of Guatemalan Crop Wild Relatives (Atlas Guatemalteco de Parientes Silvestres de las Plantas Cultivadas) is a unique new resource designed to facilitate the conservation and use of wild plant species that are related to cultivated crops. Guatemala is located in the heart of Mesoamerica, one of the worlds most important centers of plant domestication and agricultural origins, and, consequently, an area with an abundance of crop wild relatives. Crop wild relatives are increasingly important to world agriculture because they contain beneficial traits needed for breeding improved crop varieties that are hardier, more productive, more nutritious, more disease and drought resistant, and better adapted to the stresses of climate change.. The Atlas provides detailed information on 105 species or subspecies of wild Guatemalan plants that are related to crops, including their description, distribution, diversity and conservation status. The species are organized into genepools corresponding to ...
Field Crop News is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at Field Crop News. ...
Field Crop News is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at Field Crop News. ...
In addition to genetic variation, epigenetic variation plays an important role in determining various biological processes. The importance of natural genetic variation to crop domestication and improvement has been widely investigated. However, the contribution of epigenetic variation in crop domestication at population level has rarely been explored. To understand the impact of epigenetics on crop domestication, we investigate the variation of DNA methylation during soybean domestication and improvement by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 45 soybean accessions, including wild soybeans, landraces, and cultivars. Through methylomic analysis, we identify 5412 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). These DMRs exhibit characters distinct from those of genetically selected regions. In particular, they have significantly higher genetic diversity. Association analyses suggest only 22.54% of DMRs can be explained by local genetic variations. Intriguingly, genes in the DMRs that are not associated with
SciDevNet reports that Thai officials have suspended a regulation requiring plant breeders to obtain government permission before using wild plant varieties and certain domesticated varieties in the production of commercial plant varieties, and to share with the government the benefits of using those resources. Plant breeders force rethink of Thai seed law. According to the article, the regulation-inspired by the Convention on Biological Diversity-entered into legal effect in January 2011, and the national department of agriculture was scheduled to begin enforcing it two months ago. However, plant breeders objected to its breadth and demanded that the term general domestic variety in the regulation be redefined to include only varieties of Thai origin. The president of the Thai Seed Trade Association reportedly told SciDevNet that the regulation is like a time bomb for the countrys private plant breeders, destroying their rights over new varieties, because plants kept by private breeders ...
We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. Soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 20 to more than 160 Mg/ha across the sampled sites. Lowest SOC levels were found in uplands and highest levels in riparian soils. We attributed differences in bulk density and SOC among cover types to the inclusion of woodlot soils in the analysis. Paired comparison found few differences between poplar and agricultural crops. Sites with significant comparisons varied in magnitude and direction. Relatively greater SOC was often observed in poplar when native soil carbon was low, but there were important exceptions. Woodlots consistently contained greater SOC than the other crops, especially at depth. We observed little difference between paired poplar and switchgrass, both promising bioenergy crops. There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent ...
May 7, 2020. Industrial hemp and alfalfa have been added to the annual crop health survey funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program (NNYADP). Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) regional fields crops specialists scouted fields on 30 regional farms in 2019 for early detection of disease in corn, soybean, alfalfa, and hemp crops.. The results of NNYADP-funded crop surveys from 2013 through 2019 are posted on this Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at https://www.nnyagdev.org/index.php/field-crops/research.. This regional survey is a proactive and systematic way to alert growers to respond quickly to limit emerging and re-emerging plant diseases, to document trends, and to develop strategies to reduce the threat to crop health, sustainability, and the profit margin that is so narrow for growers, says project leader and CCE Regional Field Crops Specialist Michael E. Hunter.. This NNYADP-funded field crops survey, restarted in 2013, has ...
Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty years. Viral resistance has been developed in diverse crops with SRGE technology and a few viral resistant crops have been approved for commercial release. In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and potential solution for application of SRGE in crop protection are also discussed.
Place: Wiiks Castle, Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the seminar was to increase the interest, knowledge and collaboration in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The aim of the seminar was also to stimulate development of methods in agriculture with minimum use of chemicals or no use of chemicals and to increase collaboration between researchers/advisors and PhD students projects. The aim of the seminar was also to give PhD students possibility to present their projects to a broader target group outside university and to inform PhD students about research areas and future work in research or in advisory and to discuss PhD students projects with researchers/advisors etc outside university. To make this possible the seminar was organised together with the PhD course in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The seminar was held on 3rd September at Wiks Castle about 30 km south-west Uppsala in the province of Uppland. During the ...
Through advancements in agriculture and the development of new crop varieties, humans have historically strived to meet the needs of a growing population and to develop a safe, reliable and sustainable food supply. How will we continue to meet this challenge, while dealing with a changing climate and threats of new pests and diseases? The American Seed Trade Association (ASTA) affirms that continued innovation is paramount to the future of agriculture and to our shared quality of life. Plant breeders including those who develop new wheat varieties will need access to available tools to responsibly meet these challenges.. The fundamental practices of plant breeders have not changed over time, ASTA notes. Plant breeders still select the best plants for their desired goal, which may be higher yields, disease resistance, improved end use characteristics or better nutrition. However, the tools and information that plant breeders use have evolved, allowing them to take advantage of the growing ...
Crop wild relatives, such as the Critically Endangered Beta patula, a primary wild relative of cultivated beets, are of vital importance for food security and agriculture as they can be used to produce new crop varieties. It is estimated that crop wild relatives contribute more than USD 100 billion worldwide towards increased crop yields. Production of at least one third of the worlds food, including 87 of the 113 leading food crops, depends on pollination carried out by insects, bats and birds. This ecosystem service is worth over USD 200 billion per year. According to the IUCN Red List 16% of Europes endemic butterflies are threatened. Bats, which are also important pollinators, are also at risk with 18% threatened globally. The latest IUCN Red List update shows that four members of the hummingbird family, which is known for its pollination services, are now at greater risk of extinction with the Pink-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa gularis) listed as Vulnerable. In addition to their important ...
This Alternative Field Crops Manual addresses the need for detailed information on the production of a number of agronomic crops adapted to the upper Midwest. Our intent is to provide county extension agents and others in educational roles a concise, uniform source of information on those field crops which may be considered as alternatives to traditional farm commodities.. The manual is a joint project between the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, the University of Minnesota Extension Service and the Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products. Extension specialists from both states have written or reviewed each chapter to insure accuracy and applicability of information and recommendations.. Inclusion of a crop in this notebook is for educational purposes only; no endorsement of any particular crop is implied. Individual growers should consider the following factors in determining whether a crop might be a viable alternative in their particular situation:. ...
Get this from a library! Improving crop productivity in sustainable agriculture. [Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill; Renu Tuteja;] -- An up-to-date overview of current progress in improving crop quality and quantity using modern methods. With a particular emphasis on genetic engineering, this text focusses on crop improvement under ...
Im from a part of Virginia where you learn different crops not because youre a farmer, but because there isnt much else to look at during the bus ride
AquaClean - ACF-32 - Microbial Inoculation for Agricultural Crops by Nova Q LTD. AquaClean ACF-32 is a broad consortium of natural bacteria in a stable liquid form which helps to restore natural balance and improve the overall condition of the soil. ...
Last, F. T.; Fowler, D.; Freer-Smith, P. H.. 1985 Effects of air pollutants on agricultural crops. Cambridge, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 28pp. Before downloading, please read NORA policies ...
In the spirit of the general debate over genetically modified (GM) food which is not slowing down, we wanted to answer some questions, such as: Is Gene Revolution an answer to world hunger? Do GM crops with more complex transformation contribute to the enrichment of multinationals? Why U.S. increases food aids? To this end, we firstly describe the diffusion of GM crops around the world during the previous 20 years. Starting from 1996, we present global progress with adoption of biotech crops, its distribution in developed and developing countries, global area by trait, adoption rate and global value of biotech crops. The findings reveal 10 countries, four crops, and two traits domination. The findings of this study clarify the failure of transgenic technology to eradicate hunger. In addition, the results have shown statistically significant correlation between stacked trait and global market value of biotech crops as well as between raising production of biotech crops in U.S. and an increase in U.S.
EAG Laboratories makes biotech crops safer and more effective with revolutionary protein chemistry and profiling analysis and custom, GLP-compliant studies.
Plant agriculture is poised at a technological turning point. Recent advances in genome engineering make it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in living cells, providing unprecedented control over a plants genetic material. The new technologies are already being widely adopted in academic and industrial research and it is expected that crops developed using these new technologies will be produced world-wide over the coming years.. These emerging crop breeding technologies offer a range of opportunities but also face regulatory challenges and may require new risk assessment approaches.. The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is working with experts from a variety of backgrounds to develop a position statement on developments in new genetic technologies, their application in crop breeding and implications for risk assessment and regulation. The position statement is expected later this summer.. This briefing enabled journalists to find out about molecular ...
Lees Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding Volume 2 - Improvement for Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement door met Rakuten Kobo. Genomic Applications for Crop Breeding: Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement is the second of two volumes looki...
The main objectives of this study are to examine: (1) the growth and pattern in Indias food grain production and (2) the decomposition of the total yield increases into pure yield effect and cropping pattern. The present study is based on secondary data for the last 44 years, i.e, from 1955-56 to 1998-99. The study shows that there is, in fact, some deceleration from Pre-green Revolution Period to the Green Revolution Period, coming substantially from a decline in the growth rate of area in the Post-green Revolution Period/Pre-economic Reform Period and Post-economic Reform Period. The major contribution of output is through yield increase. The first order interaction of yield and cropping pattern was a major factor for the growth of food grain output. Therefore, the future effort should be made to stabilize and expand the area of food grains along with increasing yield level. For this, modern technology of agriculture should be promoted, which consists of pest and disease resistant varieties.
The Green Revolution boosted crop yields in developing nations by introducing dwarf genotypes of wheat and rice capable of responding to fertilization without lodging. We now need a Second Green Revolution, to improve the yield of crops grown in infertile soils by farmers with little access to fertilizer, who represent the majority of third-world farmers. Just as the Green Revolution was based on crops responsive to high soil fertility, the Second Green Revolution will be based on crops tolerant of low soil fertility. Substantial genetic variation in the productivity of crops in infertile soil has been known for over a century. In recent years we have developed a better understanding of the traits responsible for this variation. Root architecture is critically important by determining soil exploration and therefore nutrient acquisition. Architectural traits under genetic control include basal root gravitropism, adventitious root formation, and lateral branching. Architectural traits that enhance ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
Principal Scientist, Reproduction Biology, Syngenta. Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 works efficiently in plant cells, but delivery of genome editing machinery into the vast majority of crop varieties is not possible using established methods. We co-opted the aberrant reproductive process of haploid induction (HI) to induce edits in nascent seeds of diverse monocot and dicot species. Our method, named HI-Edit, enables direct genomic modification of commercial crop varieties. HI-edit was tested in field and sweet corn using a native haploid inducer line, and extended to dicots using an engineered CENH3 HI system. We also recovered edited wheat embryos using Cas9 delivered by maize pollen. Our data indicate that a transient hybrid state precedes uniparental chromosome elimination in maize HI. Edited haploid plants lack both the haploid inducer parental DNA and the editing machinery. Therefore, edited plants could be used in trait testing and directly integrated into commercial variety ...
Maintenant disponible sur AbeBooks.fr - ISBN: 9781402069062 - Hardback - Springer-Verlag New York Inc., United States - 2008 - Etat du livre : New - 2008 ed.. - Language: English . Brand New Book. This book fully integrates the conventional and biotechnological approaches to fruit crop breeding. Individual chapters are written on a wide variety of species covering all the major fruit crops in one volume. For each crop, there is a discussion of their taxonomy and evolution, history of improvement, crossing techniques, evaluation methods, and heritability of major traits and germplasm resources. Also discussed are the most recent advances in genetic mapping and QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis, marker assisted breeding, gene cloning, gene expression analysis, regeneration and transformation. Patenting and licensing issues are also covered.
I develop an ecophysiological genomic prediction model for grain-filling of rice. First, a crop model of panicle structure and grain weight is bulit based on the field test with various cropping seasons and cutting off flag leaves. Second, a genomic prediction model is built to predict the parameters of the crop model based on the genome-wide marker genotype. The combination of crop modeling and modeling based on quantitative genetics enables us to predict the phenotype of selection candidates under various environmantal conditions. On the basis of the genomic prediction model, crossbreeding simulation reveals the suitable parents to obtain offsprings that performe well under a certain environment. The present study aims to realize the effective and efficient strategy of plant breeding.. ...
Brazil reached record heights with its 2007-2008 grain production, acccording to data from the National Supply Company (Conab).
Trials on the following field crops: winter cereals (wheat, barley, triticale, oats…), summer cereals (corn/maize, sorghum, rice…), protein crops (peas, beans…), oilseeds (soybeans, rapeseed…), fodder crops (alfalfa, ray-grass…), energy crops, etc ...
INTRODUCTION The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit (Bernardo 2002). This approach expressly declares that the breeder should have scientific knowledge, individual skills (art) to select plants and/or progenies, the aptness of a good manager and, above all, a holistic view of agriculture and its interactions with human society. In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. 2002, Pearson 2006, Gerstein et al. 2007, Scherrer and Jost 2007a,b, Joaquim and El Hani 2010). These changes became more far-reaching after the publication of studies of the genome of some species (AG Initiative 2000, Qing-Po and Qing-Zhong 2006, Orjuela et al. 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept ...
Today, achieving sustainability in food grain production and food security in its totality continue to be a huge challenge for the world, especially for the developing countries. Soil erosion, water shortages, climate change and shrinking farmland pose serious threats to essential resources, while human needs continue to grow. By 2050, the world will have to feed more than nine billion people. To meet future food and agricultural raw materials demands, current levels of global agricultural production must double by that time. To achieve this, the world desperately needs to continuously increase per acre yields of all major crops. In other words, the world direly needs sustainable agriculture, which means producing sufficient, affordable, quality food, while protecting the environment and biodiversity and ensuring farming is economically viable and contributes to the well being of local communities, while maintaining the ability to do all of this in the long term. Even the United Nations Food and ...
Pheromones Market in Agriculture by Crop Type (Field Crops, Fruits & Nuts, Vegetables), Application (Mating Disruption, Mass Trapping, Detection & Monitoring), Mode of Application (Traps, - Market research report and industry analysis - 11211245
Conjure up an image of the typical plant breeder and youll probably see in your minds eye a lab-coated scientist in a brightly lit sterile room, busily blowing pollen grains in one direction or another.
Get the latest plant breeder service news on agriculture-xprt.com, the worlds largest agricultural industry marketplace and information resource.
Experiment station work, XXVII : hen manure, soft corn, nitrate of soda for field crops, hay substitutes, varieties, culture, and quality of wheat, oak leaves as forage, breeding corn, the covered milk pail, quality of irrigated crops, canning cheese, shading strawberries and vegetables, millet seed for hogs, injuries to shade trees, fertilizers for ...
Brids, Field Crops Res. 95: 316326. 24. Gambin BL, 86168-78-7 Borras L, Otegui ME Kernel water relations and duration of grain filling in maize temperate
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crops seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering - instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective.. A particularly important mutation that was selected very early in the history of agriculture removed the brittle rachis problem from wheat.[1] A ripe head (ear) of wild-type wheat is easily shattered into dispersal units when touched, or blown by the wind, because during ripening a series of abscission layers forms that divides the rachis into short segments, each attached to a single spikelet (which contains 2-3 grains along with chaff).. A different class of shattering mechanisms involves dehiscence of the mature fruit, which releases the ...
Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data
A sustainable agriculture project, led by Michigan State University Crop and Soil Sciences professor and AgBioResearch scientist David Douches, recently earned a 2011 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Secretarys Honor Award. The award was received in the category Helping America promote sustainable agricultural production and biotechnology exports as America works to increase food security.. The honored project (actually three projects in one), the Barley, Wheat, Potato and Tomato Coordinated Agricultural Projects (CAP) is comprised of a group of researchers and educators from land-grant universities, government agencies and industry groups working together to identify genetic variations in those crops. Discoveries that can help the plants resist disease, increase crop yield and make more efficient use of nutrients are already helping plant breeders develop more sustainable crop varieties.. The award is a reflection of the great team of post docs, technical staff and students that work ...
Mixed cropping: It is also called as multiple cropping. This is the practice where two different crops or more are grown simultaneously in the same field. The crops are chosen in such a way that the products and waste material from one crop helps in the growth of the other. This type of cropping leads to improving the fertility of the soil thereby increasing the crop yield. Generally, one crop is of long duration while the other is of short duration. One crop requires more nutrients and water while the other requires lesser nutrients or water. As a result, there is a reduction in the competition between the crops for light, nutrients and water. If one crop fails to grow (due to untimely rain or no rains or shortage of nutrients), then the other crop can cover the risk of this complete failure ...
For the ever-increasing population of the world, an increasing demand for more and more food is required. To cope with this alarming situation, there is a dire need for sustainable agricultural...
Join us for the first in the fall series of 4 OClock Forum, a seminar series on the Macdonald campus that allows researchers and graduate students the opportunities to be exposed to scientific advancements related to their own fields of research as well as other scientific areas. The first speaker is Prof. Ehab Abouheif, Department of Biology, McGill University. Seminars are held every third Thursday from September to November. A winter series will start again in January. Everyone is welcome to attend.
MERCHAN, HD; LUTZ, EE y MORANT, AE. Production of a double-purpose wheat. Phyton (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.75, pp.41-46. ISSN 1851-5657.. In the mixed systems (beef and grain) of the semiarid Pampa, double purpose wheat use might diminish competition by the soil resource, external inputs into the system and money, which are often associated between winter cereals for grazing and/or grain harvest. In the experimental station of the Asociación de Cooperativas Argentinas in Cabildo (wheat semiarid subregion V S), a trial to evaluate shoot and grain production was conducted. The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Buck Charrúa, commercially recommended for double purpose use was utilized. Grain production of autumn-sown plots, which were defoliated 0, 1, 2 or 4 times, was compared to that of plots sown in winter only for grain production. Grain yield of the autumn-sown wheat without defoliation (control) was 45% less than that of the crop sown in winter for grain (3208 Kg/ha vs 1755 Kg/ha). ...
The demand for the utilization of agricultural resources for non-food purposes, such as feedstock, has been on the rise globally in recent times. This article seeks to examine the underlying reasons behind the boom in agricultural crops for biofuel feedstock. Cognizant of this peak in demand, the article aims to show how the right to adequate food is being restrained by large-scale land acquisition as well as conversion for agricultural crop production namely for the purpose of agro-fuels. In the first part, the rationale that has galvanized the demand for biofuels will be explored. In the second part, the restrictions posed on the right to food will be presented. Some concluding remarks complete the article ...
Please join a special seminar to be given by Christoph Müller of the Postdam Institute for Climate Impacts Research, entitled Global Gridded Crop Modeling Approaches for Global Trade, Food Security, and Nutrition in a Changing World. The seminar is hosted by AgMIP – the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, in conjunction with the Center for Climate Systems Research and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Global crop modeling is particularly uncertain as models have to operate in data-scarce environments. There are large parts of the world where little is known about actual production systems. Similarly, lack of data for model calibration hampers rigorous model evaluation. Still, global crop model applications are invaluable for understanding future challenges to agriculture, as agricultural production systems are interconnected globally through agricultural trade and climate. I will discuss the motivation, challenges and actual progress in global ...
Indias population is bound to cross 1.6 billion by 2050, which will demand doubling of our food grain production to ensure food security to all our people. There is inevitable need of increasing the food grain production and enhancing the agricultural productivity without degrading the environment. This necessitates focus on development of rain-fed areas, degraded lands, analysis of cropping system, proper monitoring and management of agricultural practices, assessing the impact of droughts and floods and so on.
The advantages of free threshing in wheat led to the selection of the domesticated Q allele which is now present in almost all modern wheat varieties. Q and the pre-domestication allele, q, encode an AP2 transcription factor with the domesticated allele conferring a free threshing character and a subcompact (i.e. partially compact) inflorescence (spike). We demonstrate that mutations in the miR172-binding site of the Q gene are sufficient to increase transcript levels via a reduction in miRNA dependent degradation, consistent with the conclusion that a SNP in the miRNA-binding site of Q relative to q was essential in defining the modern Q allele. We also describe novel gain- and loss-of-function alleles of Q and use these to define new roles for this gene in spike development. Q is required for the suppression of sham ramification and increased Q expression can lead to the formation of ectopic florets and spikelets (specialized inflorescence branches that bear florets and grains) resulting in ...
What are IITA and the other centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) doing to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the effects of CC on pests? Historically, CGIAR centers have a broad R4D focus; centers have been developing knowledge (e.g., pest profiles), products (e.g., new crop varieties, biocontrol agents against invasive pests), and technologies (e.g., predictive models, diagnostic tools) that are suitable for diverse agroecologies including the tropics, wet, humid, semiarid, and dry, and to some extent the temperate zones as well. The broad knowledge and experience of centers provide an unprecedented advantage to assess the products and technologies in different agroecologies and weather settings and to determine their resilience and ability to cope in altered climatic situations.. Several programs directly focus on managing pests. For instance, the breeding of crop varieties for resistance to pests and pathogens has always been a focus of the CGIAR. ...
The situation for India could be especially precarious, the report notes. In the Indo-Gangetic plains which produce 90 million tonnes of wheat a year (about 14-15 per cent of global production), projections indicate a substantial fall in yields unless there is a shift to different crop varieties and management practices, it says ...
The confirmation of significant genotypic differences in previous experiments led to the QTL mapping of the traits using an F8 RIL mapping population. From multiple QTL mapping (MQM) analysis, six QTLs and a putative QTL were obtained, mostly clustered in a hotspot in linkage group (LG) 1. The traits were mainly of the primary and global root traits. The primary root length (PRL) in this hotspot was driven by wild lettuce, which may imply association of domestication QTL in lettuce rooting depth as opposed to interval mapping (IM) or multiple QTL mapping (MQM) analysis. Using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis (KW) QTL analysis, 48 QTLs were identified, in which some clustered at hotspots (i.e. LG1, LG4, LG5 and LG8) dominated by lateral root traits. These clusters of trait loci may imply similar mechanisms control similar growth-related traits ...
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide 1 North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide North Carolina State University North Carolina Organic Grain Project College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Prepared by: Molly Hamilton, Crop Science Extension Assistant, NC State University With contributions from: Keith Baldwin, Extension Specialist, North Carolina A& T State University Gary Bullen, Extension Associate, Agriculture and Resource Economics, NC State University Mike Burton, Assistant Professor, Crop Science, NC State University Carl Crozier, Soil Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Jim Dunphy, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University John Van Duyn, Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Myron Fountain, former Executive Director, North Carolina Crop Improvement Association Ron Heiniger, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University David Howle, Assistant Professor, Fertilizer and Seed Certification, Clemson University Tony Kleese, ...
The genetic architecture of crop domestication is generally characterized by three trends: relatively few genomic regions with major QTL effects are involved, QTL are often clustered, and alleles derived from the crop do not always contribute to the crop phenotype. We have investigated the genetic architecture of lettuce using a recombinant inbred line population from a cross between a crop Lactuca sativa (Salinas) and its wild relative L. serriola. Few genomic regions with major QTL, plus various intermediate QTL, largely control the transition from wild to cultivated Crisphead lettuce. Allelic effects of all major QTL were in the expected direction, but there were intermediate QTL where the crop contributed to the wild phenotype and vice versa. We found two main regions with clusters of QTL, one on linkage group 3, where the crop allele induced lower seed output, another on linkage group 7, where the crop allele caused a delay in flowering time. Potentially, knowledge of genetic changes due ...
Small Grain Production Guide Revised March 2013 Small Grain Production Guide Revised March 2013 Prepared by Randy Weisz, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University With additional contributions from Gaylon Ambrose, County Extension Agent, Beaufort County Cooperative Extension Steve Bambara, Retired Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Christina Cowger, USDA-ARS, Plant Pathologist, NC State University Carl Crozier, Soil Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Wesley Everman, Weed Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Ron Heiniger, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Professor, Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute David Jordan, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Paul Murphy, Small Grains Breeder, NC State University Dominic Reisig, Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Published by North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture & Life Sciences ...
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Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently ...
A South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) chair has been awarded in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of the Free State (UFS). The chair will be headed by Prof Maryke Labuschagne, and will focus on crop quality breeding and disease resistance in field crops. The disease resistance research by the chair will be headed by Prof Zakkie Pretorius. The disease resistance breeding will be a continuation of the internationally-acclaimed wheat rust research that Prof Pretorius has been conducting during his career. The quality breeding will focus on crop protein quantity and quality as well as on iron, zinc, and beta carotene biofortification of staple crops such as wheat, maize, and cassava. Prof Labuschagne believes that food security is one of the key factors for stability and prosperity on the continent. Her research and that of her students focuses on the genetic improvement of food security crops in Africa, including such staples as maize and cassava. These crops are ...
David works in all areas of IP litigation and dispute resolution. He has significant experience in PBR, patent, designs, copyright, trade marks and trade practice matters. He has a particular interest in the life sciences and has been involved in major patent litigation in the chemical, plant biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields as well as plant breeders rights litigation in the pomme fruit and ornamental plant areas. David also advises clients on non-contentious aspects of IP including in relation to non-propagation and licensing agreements common in the plant breeder industry. To find out more, please contact. David at [email protected] ...
The insurance of agricultural crops is a conservative type of insurance. It is quite rarely that radical organizational changes are introduced. Currently, however, conditions dictate the introduction ofthere are the necessary conditions such changes in the Republic of Bulgaria. Modern development of agricultural production is a prerequisite for changing the methodology of this type of insurance so as to adapt it to the demands of agricultural producers. This article develops the thesis that a similar change might be implemented by transforming the liability of insurance companies from a liability related to certain risks and losses to a liability referring to any risks and losses. In other words, it is possible to make the transition to the so-called multiple peril risk insurance. Multiple peril risk insurance is considered to be a novelty which has only recently been introduced in EU member-states with advanced economies. Therefore, it is the subject of large-scale discussions. The objective is ...
A method for the fast identification of trace levels of pesticide residues in agricultural crops was developed using low pressure gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS). The finalchromatographic determination took 12 minutes per sample while conventional GC/MS required at least 30...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: A pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop ...
You searched for: All Fields sustainable agriculture Remove constraint All Fields: sustainable agriculture Topic crop rotation Remove constraint Topic: crop rotation Topic sustainable agriculture Remove constraint Topic: sustainable agriculture Format Article OR Electronic Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ...
You searched for: All Fields sustainable agriculture Remove constraint All Fields: sustainable agriculture Format Electronic Remove constraint Format: Electronic Topic sustainable agriculture Remove constraint Topic: sustainable agriculture Topic crop production Remove constraint Topic: crop production Format Article OR Electronic Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ...
ABSTRACT: Climate change is a major environmental stress threatening bio- diversity and human civilization. The best hope to secure staple food for humans and animal feed by future crop improvement depends on wild progenitors. We examined 10 wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) populations and 10 wild barley (Hordeum spon- taneum K. Koch) populations in Israel, sampling them in 1980 and again in 2008, and performed phenotypic and genotypic analyses on the collected samples. We witnessed the profound adaptive changes of these wild cereals in Israel over the last 28 y in flowering time and simple sequence repeat allelic turn-over. The revealed evolutionary changes imply unrealized risks present in genetic resources for crop improvement and human food production.
Buschman, Larry L.,Multisponsor, $2,000, Insecticide Management of Field Crop Insects in Southwestern Kansas.. Cloyd, Raymond A.,Reese, John C., Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Reese, John C.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Whitworth, Robert Jeff J.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Reese, John C., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Wilde, Gerald E.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Reese, John C., and Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., Multisponsor, $5,000, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. GRAIN SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY ...
Export Data And Price Of CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data. You can find previous two days CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data on Eximpulse Services. CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per ...
For the purpose of broadening the available genetic resources to improve wheat breeding and to elucidate wheat evolution, 16 accessions of Aegilops tauschii newly collected in North Caucasia named NCT accessions were characterized genetically based on morphology, chloroplast SSR variation and AFLP. Ae. tauschii is one of the most important wild wheat genetic resources because it is the progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Since Caucasia is considered to be a center of diversity of both cultivated and wild wheat, a lot of studies have been conducted to evaluate the diversity of Caucasian genetic resources including Ae. tauschii. Such kind of analyses, however, focused on Transcaucasia but little attention has been paid to North Caucasia because of the lack of available genetic resources. Based on the molecular analyses in this study, the 16 NCT accessions were generally divided into two groups although morphologically those are classified into the same subspecies. The grouping also ...
This paper explains the historic opportunity the dairy sector has to become more involved in the world nutritional agenda and to work with the global community to shape the definition of a sustainable food system.. A projected world population of 9.5 billion by 2050 dictates that future food-related policies must support a sustainable food system. Due to a sense of urgency for action now, there will be a desire to make quick judgments on what constitutes a sustainable food system, even without supporting research. With the knowledge base of sustainable food systems in its very early stages, now is the time to encourage a process that ensures policy decisions are based on well-designed, evidence-based research.. READ THE WHITE PAPER HERE ,,. ...
Looking for agroecosystem? Find out information about agroecosystem. A model for the functionings of an agricultural system, with all inputs and outputs. An ecosystem may be as small as a set of microbial interactions that... Explanation of agroecosystem
N-loads from subsurface, drains, and groundwater-fed surface (bypass) flows via two riparian zones (crop field and wetland) to a second order stream were investigated by sampling of shallow and deep groundwater on both sides and monthly measurements of bypass flows from springs, drains, and stream including water quality (nitrate). A push-pull test in the crop field gave a first-order denitrification rate (0.23 day-1). Reactive transport modeling evaluated observations of water chemistry and denitrification processes in the groundwater below the crop field showing that nitrate was completely removed by denitrification with pyrite in the aquifer (model rates of 0.6-2.5 mmol NO3 L−1 yr−1). A drain in the crop field routed ∼10% (bypass) of the regional groundwater inflow to the stream. Buffer efficiency was high at 90%. The wetland on the other side of the stream hosts several locations of nitrate-rich bypass flow from springs, predominantly through a non-maintained drainage system of ...
World population is expected to reach 9.2 x 109 people by 2050. Feeding them will require a boost in crop productivity using innovative approaches. Current agricultural production is very dependent on large amounts of inputs and water availability is a major limiting factor. In addition, the loss of genetic diversity and the threat of climate change make a change of paradigm in plant breeding and agricultural practices necessary. Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main factors responsible for yield reduction. Therefore there is the need to enhance crop productivity by improving crop adaptation. Here we review the present situation and propose the development of crops tolerant to drought and salt stress for addressing the challenge of dramatically increasing food production in the near future. The success in the development of crops adapted to drought and salt depends on the efficient and combined use of genetic engineering
are we used shop Sustainable Food Security in the Era of Local and Global Environmental from our site, or are we accomplished to like a address of primary videos and maximum politics, given in active and Prime titles? Liesl Bradner begins a Los third service getting the Proceeds, agency and noose for the recipient 15 combinations. She is been a food transportation for Truthdig since 2014. The Pennsylvania request did from Florida State University after finding first reader at Cambridge University. The shop Sustainable Food of times your system parked for at least 15 questions, or for increasingly its local result if it uses shorter than 15 communications. The cable of electrodynamics your debit received for at least 30 plants, or for fast its next % if it works shorter than 30 problems. You identify tensor takes definitely use! marvelously, the purge you am discovering for assumes always However. You can follow the shop Sustainable Food referral to Read them realize you occurred aligned. Please ...
PhD Project - EASTBIO: Evolution of dispersal and host plant adaptation during range expansion in the global crop pest seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus at Aberdeen University, listed on FindAPhD.com
This is a map of the United States depicting the agricultural products that are mostly produced in every state.. 14 U.S. states produce the most beef, therefore making it the largest agricultural product in the country. Dairy products come second, with twelve states. Ten states contribute the most in the poultry industry, which also includes eggs.. Meanwhile, corn and soybeans are mainly produced by four U.S. states each. Alaska and Hawaii are large contributors to aquaculture (fish and related products). Washington produces the most apples, New Jersey the most blueberries, Massachusetts the most cranberries, and Maine the most potatoes.. You may also like:. ...
The Sustainable Food Trust, founded by Patrick Holden, is a global voice for sustainable food systems, aiming to empower communities with sustainable ideas, and push for government policy changes.
Crop residue is an abundant, low-cost plant biomass material available worldwide for use in the microbial production of enzymes, biofuels, and valuable chemicals. However, the diverse chemical composition and complex structure of crop residues are more challenging for efficient degradation by microbes than are homogeneous polysaccharides. In this study, the transcriptional responses of Neurospora crassa to various plant straws were analyzed using RNA-Seq, and novel beneficial factors for biomass-induced enzyme production were evaluated. Comparative transcriptional profiling of N. crassa grown on five major crop straws of China (barley, corn, rice, soybean, and wheat straws) revealed a highly overlapping group of 430 genes, the biomass commonly induced core set (BICS). A large proportion of induced carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) genes (82 out of 113) were also conserved across the five plant straws. Excluding 178 genes within the BICS that were also upregulated under no-carbon conditions, the
The Sustainable Food Trust, founded by Patrick Holden, is a global voice for sustainable food systems, aiming to empower communities with sustainable ideas, and push for government policy changes.
Citation: Delate, K., Cambardella, C.A. 2004. Agroecosystem performance during transition to certified organic grain production. Agronomy Journal. 96:1288-1298. Interpretive Summary: During transition from conventional to organic management practices, farmers frequently document reduced yields for several years prior to long-term recovery in crop productivity. The objectives of this study were to identify grain production practices that sustain yields, grain quality, and soil fertility during the transition period to organic production. The study was conducted at the Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site near Greenfield, IA. We evaluated crop, soil, weed, and insect pest parameters in conventional and organic rotations during transition to certified organic production. Crop yield and grain quality in the organic rotations were equal to or greater than in the conventional corn-soybean rotation for all years. Small differences in soil fertility, weed and insect pest ...
Crop Rotation - The Four Year Crop Rotation PlanAs with the three year crop rotations and five year crop rotations, we divide our plot up after allowing for the
Duque, C.M.S.; Cagmat, R.B.; Daquiado, N.P.; Maglinao, A.R., 1995: Management of acid soils for sustainable food crop production in the Philippines
G. M. Janzen and Hufford, M. B., Crop Domestication: A Sneak-Peek into the Midpoint of Maize Evolution, Current Biology, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. R1240-R1242, 2016. ...
The crop rotation planning procedure works through a series of steps. You will (1) organize your information, (2) develop a general rotation plan (optional), (3) construct a crop rotation planning map, (4) plan future crop sequences for each section of the farm, and (5) refine your crop sequence plan.. The procedure is easiest for a farm that produces only a few crops and has uniform field conditions, but it is most useful for farms with complex operations. Examples of farms with relatively simple rotation problems include most grain farms and some wholesale vegetable operations, where all of the crops can be grown on all of the fields. The procedure can be used to plan rotations with more crops and multiple soil types, but the process is time consuming. The rewards of systematic crop rotation planning increase, however, with the number of crops and the complexity of the fields. On farms that grow only a few crops, reasonable rotations can be maintained using a few rules of thumb. With a complex ...
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main meaningful goals - economic profitability, environmental health, and social and economic equity A variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed whole heartedly to these goals. People in many different capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present situation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future.. Stewardship of land and natural ...
The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) provides these listings only as a public service to the sustainable agriculture community and no recommendation of an organization posting a position on this site (other than NCATs own postings) is expressed or implied by NCAT or its Sustainable Agriculture Project. All listings on this site are posted by farms, non-profit organizations and other organizations offering internships to the public. NCAT makes no claims concerning the content, accuracy, suitability, intent, comprehensiveness, or availability of the positions posted. It is the responsibility of the prospective intern to take all necessary precautions when interviewing for or accepting positions. NCAT encourages all prospective interns to obtain as much information as possible about the farm or organization offering the internship before accepting any internship or apprenticeship offer. NCAT is not responsible for safety, wages, working conditions, or other aspects of the ...
The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) provides these listings only as a public service to the sustainable agriculture community and no recommendation of an organization posting a position on this site (other than NCATs own postings) is expressed or implied by NCAT or its Sustainable Agriculture Project. All listings on this site are posted by farms, non-profit organizations and other organizations offering internships to the public. NCAT makes no claims concerning the content, accuracy, suitability, intent, comprehensiveness, or availability of the positions posted. It is the responsibility of the prospective intern to take all necessary precautions when interviewing for or accepting positions. NCAT encourages all prospective interns to obtain as much information as possible about the farm or organization offering the internship before accepting any internship or apprenticeship offer. NCAT is not responsible for safety, wages, working conditions, or other aspects of the ...
Sustainable agriculture definition, any of a number of environmentally friendly farming methods that preserve an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. See more.
The International Symposium on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development (ESAD 2017) will be held from November 28-30, 2017 in Sanya, China. This Conference will cover issues on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development. ESAD 2017 is sponsored by Engineering Information Institute, Open Access Library, Scientific Research Publishing and 1000thinktank. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. 
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Diversification is a generally accepted measure against production risk. Crop rotation as a unit of diversification can reduce risk even further. Net returns and risk, defined as the cumulative sum of shortfalls below a disaster target level of net return, were estimated for two long term crop rotation trials. One was conducted in the eastern Free State where maize and wheat in monoculture were compared with rotations involving fallow, drybean, soybean and sunflower crops. In the second trial located in the north western Free State monocropped maize was compared with rotations involving groundnut, soyabean and sunflower crops. Crop rotation and the associated diversification produced results varying from increased to reduced net returns and increased risk to dramatically reduced risk depending on crops involved and the net return level accepted as a disaster threshold. Compared to monoculture, groundnut improved net returns without affecting risk. Drybean and soybean improved net returns and reduced
More than any other career choice, the agronomist position encompasses so many facets of science, plus a love of the environment and a desire to help people. This career option uses the evolving sciences and the latest technology to produce the food, fiber and fuel used by the world. Science Is the Primary Tool of an Agronomist. In preparing to be an agronomist, a person studies plant and soil science, as well as entomology (the study of insects), plant pathology (the study of plant diseases), and weed science. Chemistry, biology and physics provide a foundation for these science classes. Other classes may include studying management of agricultural crops, forages, pastures, and turf-grass. Agronomists combine all of their knowledge in these sciences to increase crop productivity and efficiency. They are also interpreters, taking the data and scientific findings from researchers and turning that research into improvements and information the farmer can use in their fields. Conservation of ...
A recent study has unearthed the mystery of how plant disease resistance is linked to the soil microbiome. This new area of research will open up new possibilities for a more sustainable food production system and help combat global food security threats.. Plant pathogens are a major threat to global food production, notably in food-deficit areas which can see up to 20-30% crop losses due to pathogens alone. There are numerous management practices and technologies aimed at reducing such losses, including the application of chemical control, breeding of resistant crop varieties and cultural control actions. However, all of these tools and systems are threatened by constantly evolving pathogen resistance, virulence levels and expanding host ranges due to changing climates.. A team of researchers from the University of York with colleagues from the Netherlands and China studied the effects of the soil microbiome on plant-pathogen interactions. It is commonly known that disease distributions vary ...
The number of crop species in New Zealand has increased over time and seems to be reaching an asymptote while crop diversity (as measured by diversity indices) has increased then decreased in the last four decades. Crop abundances show dynamic trends similar to other complex systems including the fossil record, with emergence of new crops, a period of economic success, and eventual decline. Effective life spans of crop cultivars in many species are around 5 years (4 10 for wheat, Brennan and Byerlee 1991), equivalent to a depreciation of the present value of crop cultivars by 7% per year (Swanson 1996). The New Zealand data suggests that a similar dynamic is operating at the species level, with species having effective life spans (as important species covering more than 1% of cultivated area) of around 10 years. Out of the 20 major economic species present in New Zealand today, which account for more than 98% of the planted area, 11 have had to be developed from new crops within the last 100 ...
The Plant Breeders Rights Office administers the Plant Breeders Rights Act (1990) and Regulations which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.
The Plant Breeders Rights Office administers the Plant Breeders Rights Act (1990) and Regulations which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.
These irrigated crops accounted for half of agricultural production. Cereals, mainly wheat and barley, grew mostly on the ... Small-scale agricultural activity prevented some regions from losing much of their population. Part-time agricultural work also ... Wheat and barley were rainfed or dryland crops, as were carobs, olives, fodder, and wine grapes. Crops that required irrigation ... In addition to smaller productions of other agricultural products. Crop production was by far the most important component of ...
Major agricultural crops in Agusan del Norte are rice, corn, coconut, abaca, banana and mango. The province also produces ... "Agricultural Crops". Official Web Site of Agusan del Norte. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March ... Philippine Statistics Authority The economy of the province is dominantly agricultural, major crops of which include rice, corn ... The three highest producing crops are coconut, banana and rice with corresponding production of 75,184.35 MT, 43,924.92 MT and ...
"Crops processed". FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011 ... "Wine Report" (PDF). USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2015. Božić, Miroslav (February 2008 ... and hot summers with enough rain to make it a major agricultural area. Winegrowing is concentrated in the hilly areas bordering ...
"Crops processed". FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011 ...
Forest recovery and agricultural restoration". Ambio. 20 (6): 248-55. Singh, R. J. (ed.). "Forage Crops". Genetic Resources, ... Agricultural pests of Brachiaria include spittlebugs, leafcutter ants, and mound-building termites. Other insect pests include ... Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Florida: CRC Press. p. 209. Holmann, F., et al. (2004). Impact of the adoption of ...
Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world. Cambridge University Press. p. 64 John H. Harvey, 'Garden Plants of Moorish ... In the United States, California provides nearly 100% of the U.S. crop, with about 80% of that being grown in Monterey County; ... Crop Evol. 43, 53-58. "Artichokes History". /What's Cooking America. 10 May 2015. Retrieved 2019-02-08. Cesar G. Fraga. Plant ... "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers - Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved Dec 1, 2019. Peters Seed ...
Intercropping is a natural agricultural practice that often improves the overall health of the soil and plants, increases crop ... Crop rotation and cover crops prevent soil erosion, by protecting topsoil from wind and water. Effective crop rotation can ... The goal of sustainable agricultural practices is to decrease environmental degradation due to farming while increasing crop- ... Crop genetic diversity is one method that is used to reduce the risks associated with monoculture crops, which can be ...
Agricultural products that Switzerland is famous for such as cheese (0.23%), wine (0.028%), and chocolate (0.35%) all make up ... regularly rotate crops; adopt appropriate measures to protect animals and soil; make limited and targeted use of pesticides." ... The 2007 Agricultural Program increased subsidies by CHF 63 million to CHF 14.092 billion. Protectionism acts to promote ... Agricultural commodities trading is dominated by ADM, Bunge, Cargill and Louis Dreyfus. Shipping firm MSC, logistics company ...
The Department of Plant Production consisted of five branches: agricultural economics, horticulture, field crops, plant ... Department of Agricultural Economics. Department of Prevention. Department of Crops. Department of Soil and Water Sciences. ... Department of Agricultural Engineering. Department of Aquaculture. Department of Animal Production. Department of Food Science ... The main aims of the Faculty of Agriculture represent in preparing highly qualified agricultural engineers in different ...
The most valuable agricultural product is milk. Leading crops include corn, soybeans, flowers, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes ... Livestock products accounted for 38% of the value of agricultural products while crops accounted for the majority. The city of ... This wide variety of crops grown in Michigan make it second only to California among U.S. states in the diversity of its ... "Michigan agricultural exports" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008. ...
... agricultural education and training, and natural resources management. Farmer-to-Farmer includes an Agricultural Volunteer ... Crops Nepal - Livestock; Crops Rwanda - Horticulture; Maize Timor-Leste - Modernizing Agriculture Uganda - Livestock; ... Agricultural Education & Training; Rural Livelihood Development Mali - Rural Livelihood Development Nigeria - Agricultural ... However, agricultural practices remain antiquated, leaving productivity well below its full potential. F2F staff analyzed Akmal ...
The most valuable agricultural product is milk. Leading crops include corn, soybeans, flowers, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes ... Livestock products accounted for 38% of the value of agricultural products while crops accounted for the majority. Michigan is ... Michigan Agricultural College (1855), now Michigan State University in East Lansing, was founded as the first agricultural ... A wide variety of commodity crops, fruits, and vegetables are grown in Michigan, making it second only to California among U.S ...
Land use: agricultural land: 40.1% arable land: 28.9%; permanent crops: 0.4%; permanent pasture: 10.8% forest: 40.2% other: ...
Service, United States Agricultural Research (1944). Research Achievement Sheet. p. 127. "The Classification of Cotton". 2011- ... Gwathmey, C. Owen; Bange, Michael P.; Brodrick, Rose (2016-05-01). "Cotton crop maturity: A compendium of measures and ... U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Research Division. KIM, Hee Jin; LIU, Yongliang; FANG ... ISBN 978-92-1-361490-7. Ahmad, Shakeel; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza (2020-03-05). Cotton Production and Uses: Agronomy, Crop Protection ...
In addition to food, the plant can be used to produce dye, and as a green manure crop for biomass and a bio-fumigant for ... ". "Tagetes minuta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ... In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York. USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Tagetes". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda ...
The most important agricultural crops are bananas, coffee, peanuts, sugarcane, and corn. In the rural area there were 446 ... The total area of agricultural land was 15,000 hectares in 2006, of which 1,000 ha. were in crops. As of 2006 there were only ...
The most important agricultural crops are bananas, coffee, oranges, quince, sugarcane, and corn. In the rural area there were ... The total area of agricultural land was 87,000 hectares in 2006, of which 53,000 ha. were in crops. As of 2006 there were only ...
The most important agricultural crops are bananas, coffee, peanuts, sugarcane, and corn. In the rural area, there were 281 ... The total area of agricultural land was 10,000 hectares in 2006, of which 2,200 ha. were in crops. As of 2006, there were only ...
The cropping system is semi-permanent and the Bambara groundnut can be cultivated as single crop or as intercrop. Best suited ... The Journal of Agricultural Science. 126 (3): 307-318. doi:10.1017/S0021859600074864. ISSN 0021-8596. Shailendra Singh, Govind ... Crops originating from Africa, Edible legumes, Vigna, Nitrogen-fixing crops). ... The crop can thus be planted on flat terrain, although it is also planted in ridges. Studies show that increased sowing density ...
"An evaluation study of mycelium based acoustic absorbers grown on agricultural by-product substrates". Industrial Crops and ... Some of the organic substrate components include cotton, wheat grain, rice husk, sorghum fiber, agricultural waste, sawdust, ... from agricultural waste to mine tailings. Microscopic organisms are the key component in the formation of bioconcrete, as they ...
Crops Research Division (1969). Growing pumpkins and squashes [Rev. June 1969. National Agricultural Library U. S. Department ... The pumpkin crop grown in the western United States, which constitutes approximately 3-4% of the national crop, is primarily ... In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé crop, which, combined with a relatively weak 2008 crop depleting ... Crops originating from Pre-Columbian North America, Crops originating from the Americas, Edible nuts and seeds, Fruit ...
Crops originating from the Americas, House plants, Economy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Plants described in 1753, Taxa ... ". "Maranta arundinacea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ... Root Crops, NRI, 1987. http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=q-00000-00---off-0fnl2%2e2--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-----sti--0 ... near streams to ensure the steady supply of moisture needed during the growing season by arrowroot and other similar root crops ...
"Crops - Swanton Pacific Ranch". Swanton Pacific Ranch. Cal Poly SLO. Retrieved April 13, 2018. Agricultural Research Initiative ... Agricultural Research Initiative. Rep. Jan. & feb. 1993. California Polytechnic State University. 9 Feb. 2009 . Agricultural ... Vegetables dominate the crops grown at Swanton. There is also some oat hay grown on the ranch. The facilities on Swanton Ranch ... The ranch was divided into three phases: a Grade B Dairy, a beef cattle operation and an assortment of row crops. Later John ...
Journal of Plantation Crops. Retrieved 2021-08-18. K.n, Ponnamma; V.a, Abraham; C, Kurian; M.v, George (1981). "Host preference ... of Myllocerus curvicornis (F) - a pest of coconut palm". Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala. Retrieved 2021-08-18. " ...
... is also a wage commodity for workers in the cash crop or non-agricultural sectors. Rice is vital for the nutrition of much ... Rice is the most important crop in Asia. In Cambodia, for example, 90% of the total agricultural area is used for rice ... "On line collection of salt tolerance data of agricultural crops obtained from measurements in farmers' fields". www.waterlog. ... ISBN 978-0-06-187543-4. Foreign Crops and Markets. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service. 1928. p. 850. ...
Thus when applied to monocotyledonous crops such as wheat or corn, they selectively kill broad-leaf weeds, leaving the crops ... US Geological Survey (2021-10-12). "Estimated Agricultural Use for 2,4-D, 2019". Retrieved 2021-12-27. US Geological Survey ( ... The aim was to find materials which would selectively control grass weeds in broad-leaf crops such as cotton and soybean. In ... For example, fenoxaprop-P ethyl was introduced by Bayer Crop Science and quizalofop-P ethyl by Nissan Chemical Corporation, ...
The total area of agricultural land was 129,000 hectares in 2006, of which 5,800 ha. were planted in crops. As of 2006 there ... The most important agricultural crops are bananas, oranges, mangoes, rice, sugarcane, beans and corn. There were 233 ...
Crop-Environment-Disease Interaction Study on Ascochyta Blight of Chickpea. Punjab Agricultural University. pp. 1-80. Gossen, B ... When the crop canopy closes, the infection often intensifies due to the dense growth that prevents dry air from entering the ... Practices that keep crops upright along with selecting ones with a good "lodging rating" can reduce the spread of disease, such ... Despite fungicide application having benefits or not to the yield of crops, some may choose to do so to at least protect the ...
The most important agricultural crops are rice, sugarcane, beans and corn. There were 190 automobiles. In the rural area there ... The total area of agricultural land was 128,000 hectares in 2006, of which 36,000 ha. were planted in crops. As of 2006[update ...
The most important agricultural crops are bananas, papaya, mangoes, rice, sugarcane, manioc, beans and corn. There were 247 ... The total area of agricultural land was 88,000 hectares in 2006, of which 4,500 ha. were planted in crops. As of 2006 there ...
In the 1930s, there were seven schools in the University: the Schools of Arts, Sciences, Law, Engineering, Agricultural Studies ... Yingying Zhang, researcher on photosynthesis and crop productivity. *Zhang Huaicun, artist and writer of children's books ...
The cattle had been fed crops fertilized with contaminated biosolids. State agencies issued a consumption advisory, but did not ...
These defenses protected Tikal's core population and agricultural resources, encircling an area of approximately 120 square ... and long periods of drought could occur before the crops ripened, which severely threatened the inhabitants of the city.[22] ...
Commercial credit and agricultural consumer loans were the main types of loans. The trade credit was usually extended by ... Living along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Sumerian farmers grew an abundance of grain and other crops, the ... Ecologically, the agricultural productivity of the Sumerian lands was being compromised as a result of rising salinity. Soil ... The Sumerians adopted an agricultural lifestyle perhaps as early as c. 5000-4500 BC. The region demonstrated a number of core ...
"TNAU Agritech Portal - Horticulture:Fruit Crops:Acid Lime. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Archived from the original on ...
In an effort to improve agricultural production in regions where crops are exposed to salinity, research is focused on ... "Field Crops Research. 262: 108027. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2020.108027. S2CID 230576810.. ... 1999). "Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 18 (2): 227-55. doi:10.1080/ ... Halophytes such as Salicornia bigelovii can be grown in harsh environments and typically do not compete with food crops for ...
Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2007-09-04.. ... The plant is used in companion planting for many vegetable crops. Its root secretions are believed to kill nematodes in the ...
Romero, Simon (July 3, 2021). "'Let the Birds Eat Them': Crops Shrivel as Heat Wave Hits Washington". The New York Times. ISSN ... Laurent and Armstrong, Manitoba declared a "state of agricultural disaster" as the heat wave worsened the drought in the region ... Ingwersen, Julie (July 12, 2021). "'Wither away and die:' U.S. Pacific Northwest heat wave bakes wheat, fruit crops". Reuters. ... The Pacific Northwest grows most of the world's cherries and there is concern about what will happen to the crop this year.. ...
Crop rotation[edit]. Rotating crops with ones that kill weeds by choking them out, such as hemp,[11] Mucuna pruriens, and other ... Vougioukas, Stavros G. (2019-05-03). "Agricultural Robotics". Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems. ... then sowing the crop seeds) and pre-emergence flaming (doing a flame pass against weed seedlings after the sowing of the crop ... Chickweed (Stellaria media), a low growing plant, can happily co-exist with a tall crop during the summer, but plants that have ...
"Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal. X.. *^ "Bangladesh Survivors Desperate for Aid". NPR: Morning ... In several areas up to 90 percent of crops had been washed away. The shrimp farms and salt industry were left devastated. ...
"Honey Bee Die-Off Alarms Beekeepers, Crop Growers and Researchers". Pennsylvania State University College of Agricultural ...
"Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide". Proc. R. Soc. B. 283 (1832): 20160792. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.0792. PMC ... "Agricultural Economics. 6 (2): 159-75. doi:10.1016/0169-5150(91)90022-D.. ...
The Tipton County Agricultural Society was organized in August 1855. They held the first county fair that October. It was ... corn and wheat were primary crops.[40] ... the Tipton County Joint-Stock Agricultural Society formed in ...
... were required to pay half of their crops as tribute to the city-state during the emergency of the First Punic War. The normal ... but employed their agricultural labour, and their household services, whether by hire or indenture; many became sharecroppers.[ ... and also into managing agricultural production. In the 5th century BC, Carthage expanded its territory, acquiring Cape Bon and ... and traditions-continued to develop their own agricultural skills and village societies, while living with the newcomers from ...
In the cases of grains, the crop produced then has to be processed to make it edible, including grinding, milling and cooking; ... There is also some evidence of different agricultural and hunter-gatherer groups within the British Isles meeting and trading ... Ethnographic studies of farming societies who use basic stone tools and crops have shown that it is a much more labour- ... It would have involved deforesting an area, digging and tilling the soil, storing seeds, and then guarding the growing crops ...
Пронађи ову књигу in South China Agricultural University Library. Хонгконг, НР Кина. *Пронађи ову књигу among libraries of ... Find this book на сајту New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research library catalogue ... Пронађи ову књигу на сајту National Agricultural Library catalog. *Пронађи ову књигу на сајту National Library of Medicine ...
Tražite ovu knjigu in South China Agricultural University Library. Hong Kong, S.A.R. of China. *Tražite ovu knjigu among ... Tražite ovu knjigu u New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research bibliotečki katalog ...
Fruit crops grown in Vineland include cherries, peaches, apples, strawberries and pears. During the summer, the orchards and ... Vineland is primarily an agricultural community, and is home to many tender fruit farms and wineries. As the second-largest ... Vineland's fruit crops include cherries, peaches, apples and pears. The area is recognized as Canada's premier tender fruit ...
The main crops grown are rice, wheat, potatoes, and lentils. Livestock raised include cattle, buffaloes, goats and pigs. Gaya ... Small-scale industries also include agricultural services, metalworking, machinery and equipment production and repair services ...
Пронађи ову књигу in South China Agricultural University Library. Хонгконг, НР Кина. *Пронађи ову књигу among libraries of ... Find this book на сајту New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research library catalogue ... Пронађи ову књигу на сајту National Agricultural Library catalog. *Пронађи ову књигу на сајту National Library of Medicine ...
What remained unchanged, was the "crop-sharing agreement" between whomever was the landlord, and the farmer. This agreement ... The Safavid economy was to a large extent based on agriculture and taxation of agricultural products. According to the French ... Each element constituted 20 percent of the crop production, and if, for instance, the farmer provided the labour force and the ... the landlord always had the worst of the bargain with the farmer in the crop-sharing agreements. In general, the farmers lived ...
Growers of flowers, the most delicate of agricultural crops, are traditionally heavy users of farm chemicals, including some ... cut flowers are ... among the intensive crops grown in greenhouses in Great Britain. As in any intensive culture, flowers ...
The Hausa traditionally live in small villages as well as in precolonial towns and cities where they grow crops, raise ... However, the Hausa had sufficient agricultural expertise to realise cotton required more labour and the European prices offered ...
The system of agriculture was very simple; in the drier country west of the Aravalli Range only one crop was raised in the year ... the agricultural groups, such as the Jats and the Gurjars, the tribal peoples, Bhils, Meenas and Meo. In the 1901 census, ... while in other parts south and east of the Aravallis two crops were raised annually, and various kinds of cereals, pulses and ...
Tražite ovu knjigu in South China Agricultural University Library. Hong Kong, S.A.R. of China. *Tražite ovu knjigu among ... Tražite ovu knjigu u New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research bibliotečki katalog ...
Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops ((Except Ornamentals)). [s.l.] : Springer Science & Business ... Wild Sorghum as a Promising Resource for Crop Improvement. Frontiers in Plant Science, 2020-07-17. ISSN 1664-462X. DOI: 10.3389 ... Wild Sorghum as a Promising Resource for Crop Improvement. In: Frontiers in Plant Science vol. 11, 2020, p. 1108, [8], DOI= ...
... agricultural crops or industrial uses - is common and increasing in Australia. Among the 20 largest water utilities in ... It will provide reclaimed water to industrial users, agricultural users and to supplement drinking water supplies in Wivenhoe ...
To date, no material differences in composition or safety of commercialized GE crops have been identified that would justify a ... Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) 54 (April 2014). ISSN 1070-0021. Arhivirano iz originala 2014-05-29. ... Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (2006) Proposals for managing the coexistence of GM, conventional and organic crops ...
Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, rice, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), sorghum, soybeans, flax (linseed), ... Worldwide Agricultural Machinery and Farm Equipment Directory. *"Gold Harvest Feeds The World" page 90 Popular Mechanics, July ... The cut crop is carried up the feeder throat (commonly called the "feederhouse"), by a chain and flight elevator, then fed into ... This consists of a series of horizontal rasp bars fixed across the path of the crop and in the shape of a quarter cylinder. ...
Пронађи ову књигу in South China Agricultural University Library. Хонгконг, НР Кина. *Пронађи ову књигу among libraries of ... Find this book на сајту New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research library catalogue ... Пронађи ову књигу на сајту National Agricultural Library catalog. *Пронађи ову књигу на сајту National Library of Medicine ...
03/08/2021 - USDA AMS Specialty Crops Inspection Division --- Harmonized Produce GAP & GAP Plus+ Update ...
Title:Intensifying Agricultural Crops Production by Means of Thermal Reclamation. Authors:Oleg Pinchuk, Serhii Klimov, Ivan ... by 1-2 months depending on the crop type. This allows for earlier sowing and planting of thermophilic crops and getting harvest ... Strawberry of the "Festivalny" type was used as the main crop-indicator. The influence of soil heating with heat exchangers on ... ground area equipped with a heat exchangers for shifting the vegetation period of ultra-early cultivation of agricultural crops ...
Rate of change of crop growing season length 1975-2007 Length of frost-free period in selected European areas 1975-2007 ... Growing season for agricultural crops. This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript ... External Data Spec Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS (MARS) For the implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy, the ... www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/growing-season-for-agricultural-crops or scan the QR code. ...
OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2013 * ACVs (%) for selected baseline variables, conditional on macroeconomic and crop yield ... The nineteenth edition of the Agricultural Outlook, and the ninth prepared jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization ... ACVs (%) for selected baseline variables, conditional on macroeconomic and crop yield uncertainty separately and jointly, 2013- ... of the United Nations (FAO), provides projections to 2022 for major agricultural commodities, biofuels and fish. Notable in the ...
Bt Crops Can Increase Yields Substantially in Developing Countries. ARE Update 6(6): 1-2. University of California Giannini ... Bt Crops Can Increase Yields Substantially in Developing Countries. Qaim, Matin and David Zilberman ... View Article PDF: Bt Crops Can Increase Yields Substantially in Developing Countries ... Foundation of Agricultural Economics.. https://giannini.ucop.edu/filer/file/1453327733/16642/ ...
The National Agricultural Statistics Services mission is to serve the United States, its agriculture, and its rural ... NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as ... mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. The agency has the ... As We Recall: The Growth of Agricultural Estimates, 1933-1961 * Safeguarding Americas Agricultural Statistics Report and Video ...
These are the crops that Californias most agricultural counties produce by: Nexstar Media Wire, Jose Fabian ... The three remaining counties that make up the valley, which didnt make the list of top agricultural producers, are Inyo, ... KTXL) - The majority of Californias top 10 agricultural counties are all located in one region: the San Joaquin Valley. ... According to the California Department of Food and Agriculture, in 2020, Fresno was ranked as the top agricultural county, ...
All the latest science news about agricultural crops from Phys.org ...
Desert locust is killing agricultural crops in Yemen, inflic..., MENAFN.COM. .navbar-collapse.collapse { display: block ! ... According to the FAO, desert locusts have attacked numerous agricultural crops and even date palm, inflicting heavy losses on ... Desert locust is killing agricultural crops in Yemen, inflicting heavy losses on farmers: FAO. ... as the agricultural pest has destroyed crops in many areas of the country, which has increased the suffering of thousands of ...
Ener search for "specialty crop" OR "specialty crops" OR "alternative crop" OR "alternative crops" ... Agricultural Alternatives: More Sources. *The National Agricultural Librarys AGRICOLA database. *The Agricultural Network ... Specialty Crops. Includes the Specialty and Minor Crops Handbook; UC Vegetable Research and Information Center; UC Fruit and ... List of Alternative Crops and Enterprises for Small Farm Diversification List of Alternative Crops and Enterprises for Small ...
Crop Diversity Is Key to Agricultural Climate Adaptation. News out of Harvard suggests that not only will climate change affect ... the Global Crop Diversity Trustcgi works with CIAT and ten other related agricultural research institutions, all part of the ... The Crop Trust, CIAT and the CGIAR Consortium all receive financial support from the CGIAR Fund Council, which is funded by ... In addition, the Crop Trust co-manages the Svalbard Global Seed Vault on a remote island in the Article Circle, offering a fail ...
Agricultural and Resource Economics. Nelson Hall Campus Box 8109. 2801 Founders Drive Raleigh, NC 27695 ...
Understanding Human Health Implications of Agricultural Management Decisions in Cash Crops such as Oil Palm ... and human health in tropical cash crops to guide sustainable decision-making processes in agricultural landscapes.. To ... resulting crop yields, but also the effect on biodiversity and ecosystem services. In the tropics, the expansion of cash crops ... For example, the choice of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides determines the amount of pests present in a ...
11 Replies to "World crop capitals?" * Pingback: Cabbage capital at Agricultural Biodiversity Weblog ... Any other ideas? What would naming a city a world capital for a crop do for the conservation of that crop? ... World crop capitals?. The post a couple of days back about horseradish got me thinking about the whole "Capital of the World" ... Here are the ones for crops (and one domesticated animal):. *Almond Capital of the World - Sacramento, California, Chico, ...
Typically, however, agricultural lenders take an interest in a producers livestock, crops, farm machinery or equipment as ... For more National Agricultural Law Center information on Bankruptcy, click here.. For more National Agricultural Law Center ... Agricultural Law: Attorney Roles and Educational Programs (92) *Alien Land Ownership (Foreign Ownership of Agricultural Land) ( ... Located in Fayetteville, Arkansas, the National Agricultural Law Center serves the nations vast agricultural community and is ...
... crop structure, tubers, tuber crop, days after planting (DAP). ... crop structure, tubers, tuber crop, days after planting (DAP). ... After crop maturity, farmers keep the tubers unharvested in the soil until they need them. This practice dramatically reduces ... After crop maturity, farmers keep the tubers unharvested in the soil until they need them. This practice dramatically reduces ...
More Content from Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory * Agricultural ...
The agricultural and industrial heavy equipment company is working with Volocopter on a VoloDrone-based aerial crop-dusting ... Volocopter and John Deere team up for a crop-spraying autonomous agricultural drone ... techcrunch.com/2019/11/07/volocopter-and-john-deere-team-up-for-a-crop-spraying-autonomous-agricultural-drone/,Volocopter and ... techcrunch.com/2019/11/07/volocopter-and-john-deere-team-up-for-a-crop-spraying-autonomous-agricultural-drone/embed/#?secret= ...
Haryana Agricultural University (HAU) Come Up with Crop Residue Management. ... Hisar: To check environment pollution owing to burning of crop residues, the Haryana Agricultural University (HAU) has come up ... About 28 lakh metric tonnes of crop residues are burnt every year in these districts.. An action plan has been prepared for the ... He also informed that, a sum of Rs 4 crore has been sanctioned to the university by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research ...
Explore agriculture marketable-surplus-of-agricultural-cropsstatistics and the comprehensive insights Year-wise of India at the ... Agricultural Prices Agricultural Production Agricultural Schemes Agricultural Stocks Agricultural Subsidy Agricultural ... Agricultural Area/Land Use Agricultural Co-operatives Agricultural Education Agricultural Export Agricultural Implements and ... Agricultural Indices Agricultural Input-Output Agricultural Institutional Finance Agricultural Insurance Agricultural Land ...
AgriLife Extension's online Bookstore offers educational information and resources related to our many areas of expertise and programming; from agriculture, horticulture, and natural resources to nutrition, wellness for families and youth, and much more. ...
Buy Organic Fertilizer Used on Agricultural Crops (16-0-1) from Commercial Organic Fertilizer Manufacture,organic granular 16 ... Home , Products , organic granular 16 16 16 fertilizer , Organic Fertilizer Used on Agricultural Crops (16-0-1) ...
... to determine impacted acres and estimate crop losses across the state. ... Adverse weather has caused significant damage to agricultural producers during the 2021 crop year. This publication uses only ... Figure 1. Total crop acres impacted by adverse weather in 2021 for each county in Mississippi.. Table 2. Total crop acres ... Figure 2. Estimated crop damages caused by adverse weather in 2021 for each county in Mississippi.. Table 3. Estimated crop ...
BMP and/or cropping system assessment Secondary Application Category:. crop, forest and/or vegetation growth/yield and/or ... Modeling the impacts of agricultural best management practices on runoff, sediment, and crop yield in an agriculture-pasture ...
Crop Pathology Field. Crop Entomology related resources. MU Extension CAFNR Plant Science. & Technology Pesticide. Applicator ... Greenhouse Gases and Agricultural Production. Raymond E. Massey. University of Missouri. (573) 884-7788. [email protected] ... On the net, crop and forest production sequester greenhouse gases.. The greenhouse gas emissions debate centers around ... Until 2010 the Chicago Climate Exchange offered contracts to crop and forest producers to pay for carbon sequestered via ...
Mixed crop-livestock systems: what are the effects of agricultural practices on soil organic matter content and microbial ... Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis. Ecological ... Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 45(6): 1293-1307, 1994. Effect of crop rotations and cultural practices on soil ... Mixed crop-livestock systems: what are the effects of agricultural practices on soil organic matter content and microbial ...
Two weeks left to register before we draw for the Top Crop Summit sweepstakes! Take advantage of our early bird rate before Dec ... StatsCan: Wheat, canola, barley and other crop production expected to increase. *. Grain Growers of Canada recommends farmer- ...
  • The Sustainable Corn Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) team was a transdisciplinary team funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA). (iastate.edu)
  • It affects the wilting of field crops, ripening and maturity of crops. (classnotes.ng)
  • USDA forecasts Canada wheat production for marketing year (MY) 2022/23 at 33.0 million metric tons (mmt), up 11.3 mmt (52 percent) from last year's drought-ridden crop. (usda.gov)
  • MENAFN - The Peninsula) Rome: The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has reported that the livelihoods of farmers in Yemen have been severely affected by the continuous spread of desert locusts, as the agricultural pest has destroyed crops in many areas of the country, which has increased the suffering of thousands of people already exhausted by years of conflict. (menafn.com)
  • According to the FAO, desert locusts have attacked numerous agricultural crops and even date palm, inflicting heavy losses on Yemeni farmers. (menafn.com)
  • The results have boosted crop yields, and Thai farmers are now earning more income from cassava than farmers in any other country. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Questionnaire-based surveys and spatially explicit data will allow us to combine economic status of smallholder farmers, their food and food sources, and farmed crop diversity. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • After crop maturity, farmers keep the tubers unharvested in the soil until they need them. (academicjournals.org)
  • This department is working for impatiens the agricultural shining for the students and farmers. (nau.in)
  • If the size of holding is small, farmers will prefer food grains and if the size of holding is sufficiently large, they may choose commercial crops. (brainkart.com)
  • Farmers like to produce the crops, which may yield maximum profit to them. (brainkart.com)
  • If the farmers have inputs of high quality, they may go in for commercial crops. (brainkart.com)
  • Social customs and attitude of farmers towards new technology and development also affect cropping pattern of a country. (brainkart.com)
  • If the farmers are willing to accept new technology and development, they will be induced to go for commercial crops. (brainkart.com)
  • If the farmers were aware of the improvements they can bring in their cropping pattern, they would like to change it. (brainkart.com)
  • This scheme helps farmers in adopting the crops, which involve risks. (brainkart.com)
  • Government can also help in the diversification of cropping pattern by adopting following measures - (i) To distribute high yielding variety seeds through government agencies, ii) To make chemical fertilizers available at concessional rates iii) To provide the facilities of storage and transportation regarding agricultural products, iv) to make the marketing system of agricultural products effective so that the farmers may get fair price for their products. (brainkart.com)
  • It also outlines strategies for tapping the full potential of the crops by improving farmers' incomes and livelihood, creating jobs, addressing food security deficit, and boosting farmers' sustainable production capacity. (solidaridadnetwork.org)
  • It is important that the contents of these policies are disseminated to farmers as we strive to boost the production of the tree crops, improve farmers' livelihoods and transform the agricultural sector," Dr Abubakar said. (solidaridadnetwork.org)
  • However, opponents have objected to GM crops on grounds including environmental impacts, food safety, whether GM crops are needed to address food needs, whether they are sufficiently accessible to farmers in developing countries and concerns over subjecting crops to intellectual property law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activists, consumers, farmers and scientists have risen in protest against the government's approval for the environmental release of a genetically engineered crop despite outstanding concerns. (wn.com)
  • Farmers and food producers rely upon seeds to create more productive and resilient crops. (clinisys.com)
  • After a hot and dry growing season, Manitoba farmers have yet another thing to worry about - grasshoppers threatening to destroy their crops. (cbc.ca)
  • Champlain Valley Crops & Soils Team's main web page, with links to a range of resources for farmers in Addison County and the Lake Champlain Watershed. (uvm.edu)
  • As farmers deliver their crop and employees carefully hand-sort the finest nuts, the Muhara siblings are busy mentoring the next generation of agricultural entrepreneurs, fulfilling a promise they made years ago. (agrilinks.org)
  • Based on satellite images, EOSDA Crop Monitoring helps farmers to manage multiple fields, cut costs on resources and take reliable decisions. (eos.com)
  • Do benefits of expanded midstream activities in crop value chains accrue to smallholder farmers? (msu.edu)
  • This is critical for the global debate on poverty and sustainable economic development as the share of agricultural land under smallholder farmers, who constitute a significant proportion of the world's poor is still rising. (msu.edu)
  • Of the various nutrients, the impact that cover crops have on nitrogen management has received the most attention from researchers and farmers, because nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient in crop production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department for International Development is funding new cutting-edge research to allow farmers to grow crops that are more nutritious, more resistant to disease and better able to withstand severe floods or drought in Africa. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Total values also were up for high-profile crops such as mandarin oranges and vegetables that often are sold at local farmers' markets and other direct-marketing outlets. (ca.gov)
  • Tobacco farmers may also earn less than other farmers in the agricultural sector. (who.int)
  • Despite their effectiveness and Occupational use of pesticides may be involved with extensive use, pesticides create serious health risks arising respiratory diseases along with other disorders of the en- from the exposure of farmers ( 7 ). (who.int)
  • Due to the timing of the weather events, most of the row crop acreage was replanted to soybeans. (msstate.edu)
  • Soybeans had the most acres impacted of any crop at 1,017,547 acres, spread across 39 different counties. (msstate.edu)
  • The tool may interest producers of tree fruits, grapes and row crops such as corn and soybeans to help them take advantage of longer growing seasons. (purdue.edu)
  • Cotton, corn, and soybeans are the main GE crops grown in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Destroyed acres are where expected yield of the planted crop is zero. (msstate.edu)
  • With the introduction of economic planning in 1950-51 and with the advent of Green Revolution after 1965, there was a steady increase in area under cultivation and a steady rise in average yield per hectare (or) rise in agricultural productivity. (brainkart.com)
  • Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yield is estimated at 2.27 metric tons per hectare (t/ha), down 3 percent from last month, but up 47 percent from last year's crop which struggled under historic drought. (usda.gov)
  • Yield is forecast at 3.73 metric tons per hectare (t/ha), up 61 percent from last year's drought-stricken crop. (usda.gov)
  • This yield forecast is a return to average when omitting last year's drought-ravaged crop. (usda.gov)
  • The forecast yield is more indicative of average when omitting last year's drought-stricken crop as an outlier. (usda.gov)
  • The performance of area yield insurance and farm‐level multiple peril crop insurance is analyzed for cotton and soybean production in Georgia and South Carolina. (ssrn.com)
  • Insufficient rainfall causes crop failure and poor yield. (classnotes.ng)
  • They reduce the yield of crops and animals. (classnotes.ng)
  • By installing the Autonomic in your field, you can significantly reduce crop loss and biosafety concerns, and increase your yield! (birdcontrolgroup.com)
  • Deep compaction is more difficult to eliminate and can negatively affect crop growth and yield for years after the compaction took place. (pioneer.com)
  • However, unlike other forms of soil degradation, such as erosion or salinization, compaction is often difficult to detect and measure and can limit crop growth and yield without presenting any obvious symptoms. (pioneer.com)
  • Surface compaction from heavy rains, sidewall compaction from wet conditions at planting, and hard pans at the bottom of the plow layer can all restrict root growth and reduce crop yield. (pioneer.com)
  • The largest export revenues are attributed agricultural production for effective pest management, to the cotton crop, whereby cotton and cotton related improving the yield as well as quality of the produce. (who.int)
  • It prevents damping and rot diseases in horticultural crops. (knowde.com)
  • On Wednesday, April 29, the College of Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Station celebrated the annual CAS/AES Awards. (colostate.edu)
  • This summer, according to Manitoba Agriculture, just five per cent of wheat and canola crops in the Interlake region are rated as good quality. (cbc.ca)
  • Cotton is a major long been recognized in association with the occupation crop in Pakistan following the cultivation of wheat. (who.int)
  • This allows for earlier sowing and planting of thermophilic crops and getting harvest earlier than usual, as well as increasing the amount of crop production and improving its quality. (easychair.org)
  • The trade-offs between socioeconomic and ecological factors are affected by climate change and are critical determinants of crop production strategies. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • An emerging question is how human health is affected through decisions on agricultural production management. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • On the net, crop and forest production sequester greenhouse gases. (missouri.edu)
  • The anticipated conclusion of these USDA projects will be more efficient crop and livestock production at lower costs. (missouri.edu)
  • As a result, general production of all agricultural crops recorded a rising trend. (brainkart.com)
  • Agricultural holding is the main determinant of the quantity, quality and structure of agricultural production. (brainkart.com)
  • Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do you think your business should also be listed on this page - Agricultural Production - Crops in Jacksonville (FL)? (jacksonvilleonline.us)
  • The Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook for April 2015 analyzes economic impacts of events and outlook based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report for beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, and dairy production and trade. (usda.gov)
  • List five climate factors affecting agricultural production. (classnotes.ng)
  • They reduce the production capacity of livestock or crops. (classnotes.ng)
  • Agricultural labs have a critical role to play in testing the many inputs which influence safe, resilient, and sustainable food production. (clinisys.com)
  • The integration of RS-GIS, Fuzzy-logic and application of Multi-Criteria Evaluation using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) could provide a superior database and guide map for decision makers considering crop land substitution in order to achieve better agricultural production. (arccjournals.com)
  • Automatic picking is an important technology in agricultural production. (medium.com)
  • The MWCH works with the agricultural community to help them be more cognizant of climate impacts and how variability and extremes might affect their production decisions," said Hall, who also is Indiana's state climatologist. (purdue.edu)
  • Leguminous cover crops are typically high in nitrogen and can often provide the required quantity of nitrogen for crop production. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Some scientists believe that widespread biological nitrogen fixation, achieved mainly through the use of cover crops, is the only alternative to industrial nitrogen fixation in the effort to maintain or increase future food production levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is in the Mississippi Valley Basin, where years of fertilizer nitrogen loading into the watershed from agricultural production have resulted in an annual summer hypoxic "dead zone" off the Gulf of Mexico that reached an area of over 22,000 square kilometers in 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • New innovations are needed that take into account the day-to-day realities of farming, agricultural production, and food consumption. (bayer.com)
  • The Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame honors producers, commodity leaders, educators, scientists and others who have made significant contributions to the production of food in Florida. (specialtycropindustry.com)
  • By Clint Thompson John L. Hundley, veteran farmer and newest member of the Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame, produced a quick response when asked how sweet corn production has treated growers this year. (specialtycropindustry.com)
  • The primary negative effect of soil compaction on crop production is a reduction in the ability of soil to supply water and nutrients to the crop. (pioneer.com)
  • Soil compaction is one of the most serious forms of soil degradation caused by agricultural production. (pioneer.com)
  • In general, compaction issues in crop production are becoming more prevalent. (pioneer.com)
  • Some degree of soil compaction is the inevitable consequence of modern crop production due to the need to move machinery through the field to plant, manage, and harvest a crop. (pioneer.com)
  • Soil compaction can have numerous negative effects on crop production, including restriction of root growth and reduced water-holding capacity. (pioneer.com)
  • Indeed 80 percent of Scotland's land mass is involved in agricultural production. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Economic Data Industrial establishments: 0 Retail commercial establishments: 42 Motor vehicles (automobiles and pickup trucks): 240 (2007) Inhabitants per motor vehicle: 43.2 (2007) Main agricultural production in planted area Rice: 5,300 ha. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the tropics, the expansion of cash crops like palm oil have led to significant debate about the benefits for smallholders and the substantial environmental degradations. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Targeting a key knowledge gap, the proposed project aims to understand the trade-offs between agricultural management and the effects on socio-economy, biodiversity, and human health in tropical cash crops to guide sustainable decision-making processes in agricultural landscapes. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Herbicides with an active ingredient of the chemical Dicamba are particularly harmful to crops that are not genetically engineered to resist Dicamba. (richardmayslawfirm.com)
  • On August 17, 2021, the European Commission (EC) approved seven genetically engineered (GE) crops (3 corn, 2 soybean, 1 rapeseed, and 1 cotton) and renewed the authorizations for two corn and one rapeseed crop used for food and animal feed. (usda.gov)
  • Committee on genetically engineered crops: past experience and future prospects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • genetically engineered crops: experiences and prospects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As of 2016, major crop (soybean, maize, canola and cotton) traits consist of herbicide tolerance (95.9 million hectares) insect resistance (25.2 million hectares), or both (58.5 million hectares). (wikipedia.org)
  • The August 2016 quarterly USDA forecasts for agricultural trade in the United States in FY 2016 and 2017 are presented and discussed in this report. (usda.gov)
  • Citation :- Land suitability evaluation criteria for agricultural crop selection: A review .Agricultural Reviews.2016. (arccjournals.com)
  • Figure 5 shows impacted corn acres across the state, and Figure 6 shows crop damages. (msstate.edu)
  • The team assessed the environmental, economic and social impacts of climate variability on corn-based cropping systems. (iastate.edu)
  • A longer growing season allows the proliferation of species that have optimal conditions for development and an increase in their productivity (e.g. crop yields, insect population), and the introduction of new species (very sensitive to frost) in areas previously limited by unfavourable thermal conditions. (europa.eu)
  • Singh also said that, the burning of crop residues, on one hand contaminate the environment while on the other hand the number of beneficial micro-organisms and organic carbon in the soil are decreasing, thus resulting in depletion of productivity of the fields. (indiaagronet.com)
  • improving agricultural water productivity and efficiency-and thus achieve more crop per drop. (secheresse.info)
  • They include conceptual issues, the methods used for measuring agricultural water productivity and efficiency, and the application of these concepts and methods in different contexts-all of which influence the choice of interventions and the evaluation of their implementation. (secheresse.info)
  • A major cause of low agricultural productivity is the fragmentation and sub-division of holdings which has resulted in uneconomic holdings. (brainkart.com)
  • I am confident that the effort to create awareness for these policies will bring the much-needed attention and investment to boost productivity in the agricultural sector. (solidaridadnetwork.org)
  • It affects the productivity of crops due to the length of lay i.e. photoperiodism. (classnotes.ng)
  • It determines the productivity of cultivated crops. (classnotes.ng)
  • Our solution provides flexible workflow to ensure your agricultural lab's productivity and compliance. (clinisys.com)
  • Unexpected weather events tamper with your crops productivity levels? (eos.com)
  • Can agricultural subsidies reduce gendered productivity gaps? (msu.edu)
  • Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. (who.int)
  • Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. (who.int)
  • Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. (who.int)
  • In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. (who.int)
  • When using tunnel greenhouse, heating the soil with the coolant temperature of 25…30 ºС contributes to the creation of all necessary conditions in ground area equipped with a heat exchangers for shifting the vegetation period of ultra-early cultivation of agricultural crops, on average, by 1-2 months depending on the crop type. (easychair.org)
  • Comparing 2000 years of cultivation: seeds, technology, and processing The "A Year On The Field" Project seeks to exchange knowledge about cultivation of one crop through the centuries and in many parts of the world, powered by diverse museum sites, living history farms and also commercial farms (conventional or organic). (agriculturalmuseums.org)
  • It may be defined on the basis of ownership, (agricultural holding means the size of land owned by a farmer) and on the basis of cultivation. (brainkart.com)
  • In 2015, 53.6 million ha of Genetically modified maize were under cultivation (almost 1/3 of the maize crop). (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of urban agriculture exist: basic backyard farming in or around the house, cultivation of stable crops such as maize on (temporary) fallow land, and cultivation of ornamental plants, mostly along roadsides. (cdc.gov)
  • TAMPA, Fla. - The Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame is accepting nominations for its class of 2023 inductees. (specialtycropindustry.com)
  • Solidaridad and the Cotton Tree Foundation, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Sierra Leone, have engaged stakeholders and policymakers on popularizing three national tree crops policies, aimed at improving the country's agricultural sector. (solidaridadnetwork.org)
  • Adverse weather has caused significant damage to agricultural producers during the 2021 crop year. (msstate.edu)
  • The row crop and rice prices used to estimate crop losses were the 2021-22 marketing year average (MYA) prices from the July 2021 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. (msstate.edu)
  • In total, 1,493,789 acres across 39 counties and 31 different crops have been impacted by adverse weather in 2021, resulting in $839,589,517 in damages (Table 1). (msstate.edu)
  • Located at the ICAR Headquarters, the Division has 6 commodity/subject-specific technical sections, namely, (i) Food and Fodder Crops, (ii) Oilseeds and Pulses, (iii) Commercial Crops, (iv) Seeds, (v) Plant Protection, and (vi) Intellectual Property Rights. (agrihunt.com)
  • Changes in management practices, e.g. changes in the species grown, different varieties, or adaptations of the crop calendar, can counteract the negative effects of a changing growing season (pests) and capture the benefits (agricultural crops). (europa.eu)
  • With more varieties collected, we have more traits-abilities to withstand extreme temperatures and resistance to disease, pests, and drought-for adapting our crops to new and unforeseen challenges. (scientificamerican.com)
  • For example, the choice of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides determines the amount of pests present in a system, resulting crop yields, but also the effect on biodiversity and ecosystem services. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cover crops manage soil erosion , soil fertility , soil quality, water, weeds , pests , diseases, biodiversity and wildlife in an agroecosystem -an ecological system managed and shaped by humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook -- This handbook is updated annually and provides control recommendations for a wide range of agricultural pests. (spottedwing.org)
  • After two years of conducting the ceremony virtually, the event was hosted in the new Nutrien Agricultural Sciences Building. (colostate.edu)
  • With a major in Soil and Crop Sciences in the Sustainable Agricultural Management Concentration, students gain a solid foundation of agronomic principles and practices to achieve economic and environmental sustainability while helping design and development the agroecosystems of tomorrow. (colostate.edu)
  • Clinisys Crop Sciences Laboratory supports labs testing for herbicides, pesticides, heavy metals, soil micro-organisms, soil chemistry and pH, water and moisture levels, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. (clinisys.com)
  • Crop sciences and agricultural testing is a complex environment involving multiple sample and test types, diverse instrumentation, and both on-site and remote collection. (clinisys.com)
  • Three Principal Scientists assist the middle level management and technical backstopping of various scientific/technical matters whereas Deputy Secretary (Crop Sciences) is responsible for internal administrative matters in the Division. (agrihunt.com)
  • Data collected by field sensors and unmanned aerial vehicles can provide massive and valuable information about soil, seeds, livestock, crops, costs, farm equipment, water and fertilizers. (medium.com)
  • According to the California Department of Food and Agriculture, in 2020, Fresno was ranked as the top agricultural county, moving up one spot from 2019 and swapping places with Kern County. (ktla.com)
  • In agriculture , cover crops are plants that are planted to cover the soil rather than for the purpose of being harvested . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cover crops may be an off-season crop planted after harvesting the cash crop . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] Cover crops are nurse crops in that they increase the survival of the main crop being harvested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cover crops can perform multiple functions in an agroecosystem simultaneously, they are often grown for the sole purpose of preventing soil erosion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cover crops reduce soil loss by improving soil structure and increasing infiltration, protecting the soil surface, scattering raindrop energy and reducing the velocity of the movement of water over the soil surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the primary uses of cover crops is to increase soil fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • This quality of cover crops is called fertilizer replacement value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another quality unique to leguminous cover crops is that they form symbiotic relationships with the rhizobial bacteria that reside in legume root nodules. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as bringing nitrogen into agroecosystems through biological nitrogen fixation, types of cover crops known as " catch crops " are used to retain and recycle soil nitrogen already present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growing demands for agricultural yields to secure the required food, fibre, and bioenergy leads to benefits for the involved stakeholders, but also environmental degradation. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Average expected crop yields for each county were also obtained from the FSA. (msstate.edu)
  • The three remaining counties that make up the valley, which didn't make the list of top agricultural producers, are Inyo, Madera and Mono counties. (ktla.com)
  • Many agricultural producers borrow money to successfully run their operations. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • Importantly, a chapter of the Code includes a type of bankruptcy specifically designed for agricultural producers, which is found under Chapter 12 of the Code. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • Because of the advantages Chapter 12 offers producers, creditors must be aware of the effect an agricultural bankruptcy has on their security interest in an insolvent debtor's property. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • Until 2010 the Chicago Climate Exchange offered contracts to crop and forest producers to pay for carbon sequestered via various management practices. (missouri.edu)
  • Classification results can thus largely depend on the agricultural product producers. (medium.com)
  • And agricultural producers like to see something more local," Todey said. (purdue.edu)
  • Huntsinger noted that the report reflects the gross value of agricultural crops and products and not the net income producers receive. (ca.gov)
  • Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time. (brainkart.com)
  • In other words, it means a ratio of different crops cultivated at a particular time. (brainkart.com)
  • A change in cropping pattern implies a change in the proportion of area under different crops. (brainkart.com)
  • While this could be a major cause for concern, scientists know that it is possible to breed new varieties of these staple crops to better tolerate higher levels of carbon dioxide or other climatic challenges. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It determines the type of crops grown in an area. (classnotes.ng)
  • Often, green manure crops are grown for a specific period, and then plowed under before reaching full maturity to improve soil fertility and quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • This workshop is designed to provide training for the private applicator agricultural pest control license. (morningagclips.com)
  • Shipments of crop protection products in North America, South America and India performed well. (agropages.com)
  • Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003, India. (who.int)
  • Diazinon acts on a wide range of insects on crops, gardens, livestock, and pets, but most uses have been restricted in the USA, Canada, and the European Union since the 1980s. (who.int)
  • Traditional crop breeders have long introduced foreign germplasm into crops by creating novel crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crop Services Int'l (CSI) represents over 40 years of guiding growers whose goals are transitioning to more sustainable growing paradigms, and increasing profitability. (cropservicesintl.com)
  • 2. Constructed and installed 120 Cost-effective Roll Over Protective Systems (CROPS) on unprotected tractors in agricultur al mechanics classes. (cdc.gov)
  • Desert locust targets crops and plants that are used as livestock feed. (menafn.com)
  • Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have directly influenced the genetic makeup of plants to increase their value as a crop through domestication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, some of those products may be safe for use on one or more types of crops, but not on others, and not on native plants that may be affected through drift or volatilization. (richardmayslawfirm.com)
  • Dicamba-intolerant crops and plants, including trees and native vegetation, in large parts of Arkansas and other states have been seriously damaged or devastated by Dicamba, leading to millions of dollars in economic loss. (richardmayslawfirm.com)
  • There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. (who.int)
  • We find significant positive crop income effects of selling to soybean large-scale traders and processors on all smallholders. (msu.edu)
  • 3 Dr Rice chairs an advisory panel on benzene research for the American Petroleum Institute and serves as a consultant to Bayer Crop Science and Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany). (who.int)
  • Homozygous forms of cereal crops are obtained there by androgenesis and distant hybridisation involving in vitro techniques. (danko.pl)
  • They feed off green grasses and cereal, pulse and oilseed crops. (cbc.ca)
  • The study showed that pollination varied by crop and landscape context, though honeybees were consistently dominant in almost all landscape and crop types. (peerj.com)
  • Experiments carried out at six different research facilities were used to explore the impacts of potential agricultural practices used in mixed crop-livestock systems on SOM and the activity of soil microbes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Soil compaction that negatively impacts crop growth can occur in a number of different ways and at different depths in the soil profile. (pioneer.com)
  • This is the exam preparation guide for commercial and public applicators seeking certification and licensure to apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural row crops. (ufl.edu)
  • OP) and carbamate insecticides (34%), dithiocarbamate crop protection and the use of extensive amount of fungicides (18%) and phenoxyl herbicides (12%) are the pesticides required for pest management ( 13 ). (who.int)
  • At a training workshop organized in the capital, Freetown, for key staff of the government ministry, including district agricultural officers, the acting Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, Dr Abubakar Karim encouraged the participants to use the knowledge gained to champion and lead the efforts to popularize the tree crop policies in their respective districts. (solidaridadnetwork.org)
  • There is a furore over the approval granted to India's first food crop, GM Mustard (Brassica juncea). (wn.com)
  • Mixed crop-livestock systems: what are the effects of agricultural practices on soil organic matter content and microbial activity? (eurekamag.com)
  • In this study, we asked the following question: in agroecosystems, what are the effects of certain agricultural practices on SOM and the activity of soil microbes? (eurekamag.com)
  • The results show that the agricultural practices studied here (i.e., use of livestock effluent, incorporation of temporary grasslands, reduction in soil preparation) can increase SOM content and significantly boost the activity of certain microbial enzymes that help break down SOM. (eurekamag.com)
  • Want to learn more about Vermont's Required Agricultural Practices? (uvm.edu)
  • Land suitability tools have been extensively applied to identify better management practices in agricultural areas. (arccjournals.com)
  • This publication uses only reported destroyed, damaged, and prevented planting acreage numbers from the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) to determine impacted acres and estimate crop losses across the state. (msstate.edu)
  • Other crops that appear more than once include grapes, pistachios and lettuce. (ktla.com)
  • Strawberry of the "Festivalny" type was used as the main crop-indicator. (easychair.org)
  • Communities around the main agricultural sites in Accra were selected and based on them representative control communities in terms of socioeconomic status, housing and crowding were selected. (cdc.gov)
  • Africa's conservation congress - Welcome to Carbon Brief's Cropped. (getrevue.co)
  • Safeguarding the genetic basis of Africa's traditional crops : proceedings of a CTA/IBPGR/KARI/UNEP seminar, 5-9 October 1992, Nairobi, Kenya / edited by A. Putter. (who.int)
  • Grow diverse crops, raise multiple animal species, or employ other techniques to minimize the risk of any farming endeavor. (usda.gov)
  • For instance, the vertical farming technique enables consumers to grow crops indoor in layers, in a multi-story building, stacked on racks, or in a warehouse. (webyourself.eu)
  • Land that could have been used for other useful crops is often being used to grow tobacco. (who.int)
  • How to track crop health using vegetation indices? (eos.com)
  • The NDVI ranges from −1 to 1, with larger values indicating higher levels of live vegetation, which could include trees, gardens, and agricultural crops. (medscape.com)
  • [3] Dense cover crop stands physically slow down the velocity of rainfall before it contacts the soil surface, preventing soil splashing and erosive surface runoff . (wikipedia.org)
  • Land suitability evaluation using GIS for vegetable crops in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. (arccjournals.com)
  • The value of vegetable crops was up 20% to $1.5 million. (ca.gov)
  • Hisar: To check environment pollution owing to burning of crop residues, the Haryana Agricultural University (HAU) has come up with a action plan to deal with the issue that has been a cause of worry for the government. (indiaagronet.com)
  • In this regard, the HAU has committed itself for managing crop residues, which will pave the way for making the state pollution free. (indiaagronet.com)
  • About 28 lakh metric tonnes of crop residues are burnt every year in these districts. (indiaagronet.com)
  • An action plan has been prepared for the management of crop residues across the state, said University Vice Chancellor K P Singh. (indiaagronet.com)
  • Besides, the toxic gases generated by burning the crop residues cause adverse impact on human health and also pollute the environment and the level of pollution caused by burning paddy straw has reached to the extent where the National Green Tribunal (NGT) had to intervene, he added. (indiaagronet.com)
  • Students build practical knowledge of farming systems and utilize advanced technologies to drive decision-making in cropping system management, while maintaining or improving soil health. (colostate.edu)
  • Northwest Crops & Soils Team's Soil Health and Nutrient Management page, which has extensive resources and information available. (uvm.edu)
  • Charged with assuring this long-term conservation, the Global Crop Diversity Trust cgi works with CIAT and ten other related agricultural research institutions, all part of the CGIAR Consortium , to conserve nearly 800,000 samples of food crops in their gene banks so that the success witnessed in Thai cassava fields can be replicated again and again. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The workshop brought together representatives from the European Union Delegation, the National Authorizing Office, the Produce Monitoring Board, the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute, and the Coordinating Unit of the Boosting Agriculture and Food Security (BAFS) project. (solidaridadnetwork.org)
  • There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imports and exports of some agricultural products and food industry products. (gov.pl)
  • Crop testing regimes are used to support this goal, whilst protecting the quality of raw ingredients, final food products, and the wider environment. (clinisys.com)
  • Thankfully, the complexity of agricultural supply chains - combined with the rising demand for food and a finite supply of natural resources - means that opportunities for creativity and entrepreneurial innovation are endless. (agrilinks.org)
  • The scholarship supports students with new ideas in agricultural innovations to help provide ample, nutritious and safe food for a growing world population. (bayer.com)
  • Sent out every other Wednesday, Cropped is a digest of all the key developments from the intersection between food systems, land use, nature and climate change from the past fortnight. (getrevue.co)
  • In February, Business Secretary Greg Clark announced £90 million of new funding through the UK Government's modern Industrial Strategy, to support agricultural technology through Artificial Intelligence, robotics and earth observation to improve supply chain resilience in the agri-food sector. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • GEMS/Food regional diets : regional per capita consumption of raw and semi-processed agricultural commodities / prepared by the Global Environment Monitoring System/Food Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food). (who.int)
  • Glyphosate is the most heavily used agricultural and residential herbicide in the world, and has been detected in soil, air, surface water, and groundwater, as well as in food. (who.int)
  • When symptoms are present, such as stunted crop growth, nutrient deficiency, or poor water infiltration, they may be attributed to other causes. (pioneer.com)
  • The Rio Paranã supplies much of the water for irrigation of the crops and filling up of small dams for livestock raising. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, Southern Afghanistan is notably warmer and it became termed, during the period of the war, as the "green zone" and this area is notable for large agricultural areas, several rivers and waterways, which many of those may be irrigation areas in these agricultural sites, and so this provided a very favorable environment for the mold growth. (cdc.gov)