Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Verticillium: A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Cynara: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Sesamum: A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cajanus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Orobanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.

Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. (1/1185)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? (2/1185)

The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called "direct effect" of regional haze results in an approximately 5-30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China's most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an approximately 1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of approximately 70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5-30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades.  (+info)

UK CropNet: a collection of databases and bioinformatics resources for crop plant genomics. (3/1185)

The UK Crop Plant Bioinformatics Network (UK CropNet) was established in 1996 in order to harness the extensive work in genome mapping in crop plants in the UK. Since this date we have published five databases from our central UK CropNet WWW site (http://synteny.nott.ac.uk/) with a further three to follow shortly. Our resource facilitates the identification and manipulation of agronomically important genes by laying a foundation for comparative analysis among crop plants and model species. In addition, we have developed a number of software tools that facilitate the visualisation and analysis of our data. Many of our tools are made freely available for use with both crop plant data and with data from other species.  (+info)

Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. (4/1185)

Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.  (+info)

The next target of bioterrorism: your food. (5/1185)

One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immune resistance to a range of common illnesses. To reduce the potential of deliberate introductions of crop pathogens as acts of terrorism, researchers must be able to "fingerprint" pathogens at the molecular level and discriminate between naturally occurring and deliberately introduced outbreaks. Several domestic and international surveillance, tracking, and reporting efforts are under way.  (+info)

Crop biotechnology. Where now? (6/1185)

Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.  (+info)

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone from roots of Sesamum indicum. (7/1185)

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone pigment having antifungal activity, named chlorosesamone, was isolated from the roots of Sesamum indicum. Its structure was characterized as 2-chloro-5,8-dihydroxy-3-(3methyl-2-butenyl)- 1,4-na phthoquinone on the basis of spectral evidence.  (+info)

Museum specimen data predict crop damage by tropical rodents. (8/1185)

Museum collections constitute a massive store of information on biological diversity. We used museum specimen data to generate ecological niche models that provide predictions of geographic distributions of native rodent pest species and agricultural census data that summarize the geographic distribution of nine crops in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, as well as crop losses between planting and harvest. Herein, we show that crop damage is related significantly to the predicted presence of rodent species for seven of nine crops. Museum collections may thus provide important baseline information for designing land-use and agricultural pest-management programs.  (+info)

Field Crop News" is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at "Field Crop News". ...
We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. Soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 20 to more than 160 Mg/ha across the sampled sites. Lowest SOC levels were found in uplands and highest levels in riparian soils. We attributed differences in bulk density and SOC among cover types to the inclusion of woodlot soils in the analysis. Paired comparison found few differences between poplar and agricultural crops. Sites with significant comparisons varied in magnitude and direction. Relatively greater SOC was often observed in poplar when native soil carbon was low, but there were important exceptions. Woodlots consistently contained greater SOC than the other crops, especially at depth. We observed little difference between paired poplar and switchgrass, both promising bioenergy crops. There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent ...
Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty years. Viral resistance has been developed in diverse crops with SRGE technology and a few viral resistant crops have been approved for commercial release. In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and potential solution for application of SRGE in crop protection are also discussed.
Place: Wiiks Castle, Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the seminar was to increase the interest, knowledge and collaboration in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The aim of the seminar was also to stimulate development of methods in agriculture with minimum use of chemicals or no use of chemicals and to increase collaboration between researchers/advisors and PhD students projects. The aim of the seminar was also to give PhD students possibility to present their projects to a broader target group outside university and to inform PhD students about research areas and future work in research or in advisory and to discuss PhD students projects with researchers/advisors etc outside university. To make this possible the seminar was organised together with the PhD course in the area of "Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops". The seminar was held on 3rd September at Wiks Castle about 30 km south-west Uppsala in the province of Uppland. During the ...
Crop wild relatives, such as the Critically Endangered Beta patula, a primary wild relative of cultivated beets, are of vital importance for food security and agriculture as they can be used to produce new crop varieties. It is estimated that crop wild relatives contribute more than USD 100 billion worldwide towards increased crop yields. Production of at least one third of the worlds food, including 87 of the 113 leading food crops, depends on pollination carried out by insects, bats and birds. This ecosystem service is worth over USD 200 billion per year. According to the IUCN Red List 16% of Europes endemic butterflies are threatened. Bats, which are also important pollinators, are also at risk with 18% threatened globally. The latest IUCN Red List update shows that four members of the hummingbird family, which is known for its pollination services, are now at greater risk of extinction with the Pink-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa gularis) listed as Vulnerable. In addition to their important ...
This Alternative Field Crops Manual addresses the need for detailed information on the production of a number of agronomic crops adapted to the upper Midwest. Our intent is to provide county extension agents and others in educational roles a concise, uniform source of information on those field crops which may be considered as alternatives to traditional farm commodities.. The manual is a joint project between the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, the University of Minnesota Extension Service and the Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products. Extension specialists from both states have written or reviewed each chapter to insure accuracy and applicability of information and recommendations.. Inclusion of a crop in this notebook is for educational purposes only; no endorsement of any particular crop is implied. Individual growers should consider the following factors in determining whether a crop might be a viable alternative in their particular situation:. ...
Get this from a library! Improving crop productivity in sustainable agriculture. [Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill; Renu Tuteja;] -- An up-to-date overview of current progress in improving crop quality and quantity using modern methods. With a particular emphasis on genetic engineering, this text focusses on crop improvement under ...
AquaClean - ACF-32 - Microbial Inoculation for Agricultural Crops by Nova Q LTD. AquaClean ACF-32 is a broad consortium of natural bacteria in a stable liquid form which helps to restore natural balance and improve the overall condition of the soil. ...
Last, F. T.; Fowler, D.; Freer-Smith, P. H.. 1985 Effects of air pollutants on agricultural crops. Cambridge, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 28pp. Before downloading, please read NORA policies ...
EAG Laboratories makes biotech crops safer and more effective with revolutionary protein chemistry and profiling analysis and custom, GLP-compliant studies.
Plant agriculture is poised at a technological turning point. Recent advances in genome engineering make it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in living cells, providing unprecedented control over a plants genetic material. The new technologies are already being widely adopted in academic and industrial research and it is expected that crops developed using these new technologies will be produced world-wide over the coming years.. These emerging crop breeding technologies offer a range of opportunities but also face regulatory challenges and may require new risk assessment approaches.. The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is working with experts from a variety of backgrounds to develop a position statement on developments in new genetic technologies, their application in crop breeding and implications for risk assessment and regulation. The position statement is expected later this summer.. This briefing enabled journalists to find out about molecular ...
Lees Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding Volume 2 - Improvement for Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement door met Rakuten Kobo. Genomic Applications for Crop Breeding: Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement is the second of two volumes looki...
The main objectives of this study are to examine: (1) the growth and pattern in Indias food grain production and (2) the decomposition of the total yield increases into pure yield effect and cropping pattern. The present study is based on secondary data for the last 44 years, i.e, from 1955-56 to 1998-99. The study shows that there is, in fact, some deceleration from Pre-green Revolution Period to the Green Revolution Period, coming substantially from a decline in the growth rate of area in the Post-green Revolution Period/Pre-economic Reform Period and Post-economic Reform Period. The major contribution of output is through yield increase. The first order interaction of yield and cropping pattern was a major factor for the growth of food grain output. Therefore, the future effort should be made to stabilize and expand the area of food grains along with increasing yield level. For this, modern technology of agriculture should be promoted, which consists of pest and disease resistant varieties.
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
Principal Scientist, Reproduction Biology, Syngenta. Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 works efficiently in plant cells, but delivery of genome editing machinery into the vast majority of crop varieties is not possible using established methods. We co-opted the aberrant reproductive process of haploid induction (HI) to induce edits in nascent seeds of diverse monocot and dicot species. Our method, named "HI-Edit", enables direct genomic modification of commercial crop varieties. HI-edit was tested in field and sweet corn using a native haploid inducer line, and extended to dicots using an engineered CENH3 HI system. We also recovered edited wheat embryos using Cas9 delivered by maize pollen. Our data indicate that a transient hybrid state precedes uniparental chromosome elimination in maize HI. Edited haploid plants lack both the haploid inducer parental DNA and the editing machinery. Therefore, edited plants could be used in trait testing and directly integrated into commercial variety ...
Maintenant disponible sur AbeBooks.fr - ISBN: 9781402069062 - Hardback - Springer-Verlag New York Inc., United States - 2008 - Etat du livre : New - 2008 ed.. - Language: English . Brand New Book. This book fully integrates the conventional and biotechnological approaches to fruit crop breeding. Individual chapters are written on a wide variety of species covering all the major fruit crops in one volume. For each crop, there is a discussion of their taxonomy and evolution, history of improvement, crossing techniques, evaluation methods, and heritability of major traits and germplasm resources. Also discussed are the most recent advances in genetic mapping and QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis, marker assisted breeding, gene cloning, gene expression analysis, regeneration and transformation. Patenting and licensing issues are also covered.
I develop an ecophysiological genomic prediction model for grain-filling of rice. First, a crop model of panicle structure and grain weight is bulit based on the field test with various cropping seasons and cutting off flag leaves. Second, a genomic prediction model is built to predict the parameters of the crop model based on the genome-wide marker genotype. The combination of crop modeling and modeling based on quantitative genetics enables us to predict the phenotype of selection candidates under various environmantal conditions. On the basis of the genomic prediction model, crossbreeding simulation reveals the suitable parents to obtain offsprings that performe well under a certain environment. The present study aims to realize the effective and efficient strategy of plant breeding.. ...
INTRODUCTION The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit (Bernardo 2002). This approach expressly declares that the breeder should have scientific knowledge, individual skills (art) to select plants and/or progenies, the aptness of a good manager and, above all, a holistic view of agriculture and its interactions with human society. In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. 2002, Pearson 2006, Gerstein et al. 2007, Scherrer and Jost 2007a,b, Joaquim and El Hani 2010). These changes became more far-reaching after the publication of studies of the genome of some species (AG Initiative 2000, Qing-Po and Qing-Zhong 2006, Orjuela et al. 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept ...
Conjure up an image of the typical plant breeder and youll probably see in your minds eye a lab-coated scientist in a brightly lit sterile room, busily blowing pollen grains in one direction or another.
Get the latest plant breeder service news on agriculture-xprt.com, the worlds largest agricultural industry marketplace and information resource.
Brids, Field Crops Res. 95: 316326. 24. Gambin BL, 86168-78-7 Borras L, Otegui ME Kernel water relations and duration of grain filling in maize temperate
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crops seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering - instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective.. A particularly important mutation that was selected very early in the history of agriculture removed the "brittle rachis" problem from wheat.[1] A ripe head ("ear") of wild-type wheat is easily shattered into dispersal units when touched, or blown by the wind, because during ripening a series of abscission layers forms that divides the rachis into short segments, each attached to a single spikelet (which contains 2-3 grains along with chaff).. A different class of shattering mechanisms involves dehiscence of the mature fruit, which releases the ...
Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data
A sustainable agriculture project, led by Michigan State University Crop and Soil Sciences professor and AgBioResearch scientist David Douches, recently earned a 2011 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Secretarys Honor Award. The award was received in the category "Helping America promote sustainable agricultural production and biotechnology exports as America works to increase food security.". The honored project (actually three projects in one), the "Barley, Wheat, Potato and Tomato Coordinated Agricultural Projects (CAP)" is comprised of a group of researchers and educators from land-grant universities, government agencies and industry groups working together to identify genetic variations in those crops. Discoveries that can help the plants resist disease, increase crop yield and make more efficient use of nutrients are already helping plant breeders develop more sustainable crop varieties.. "The award is a reflection of the great team of post docs, technical staff and students that work ...
Mixed cropping: It is also called as multiple cropping. This is the practice where two different crops or more are grown simultaneously in the same field. The crops are chosen in such a way that the products and waste material from one crop helps in the growth of the other. This type of cropping leads to improving the fertility of the soil thereby increasing the crop yield. Generally, one crop is of long duration while the other is of short duration. One crop requires more nutrients and water while the other requires lesser nutrients or water. As a result, there is a reduction in the competition between the crops for light, nutrients and water. If one crop fails to grow (due to untimely rain or no rains or shortage of nutrients), then the other crop can cover the risk of this complete failure ...
Join us for the first in the fall series of 4 OClock Forum, a seminar series on the Macdonald campus that allows researchers and graduate students the opportunities to be exposed to scientific advancements related to their own fields of research as well as other scientific areas. The first speaker is Prof. Ehab Abouheif, Department of Biology, McGill University. Seminars are held every third Thursday from September to November. A winter series will start again in January. Everyone is welcome to attend.
MERCHAN, HD; LUTZ, EE y MORANT, AE. Production of a double-purpose wheat. Phyton (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.75, pp.41-46. ISSN 1851-5657.. In the mixed systems (beef and grain) of the semiarid Pampa, double purpose wheat use might diminish competition by the soil resource, external inputs into the system and money, which are often associated between winter cereals for grazing and/or grain harvest. In the experimental station of the Asociación de Cooperativas Argentinas in Cabildo (wheat semiarid subregion V S), a trial to evaluate shoot and grain production was conducted. The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Buck Charrúa, commercially recommended for double purpose use was utilized. Grain production of autumn-sown plots, which were defoliated 0, 1, 2 or 4 times, was compared to that of plots sown in winter only for grain production. Grain yield of the autumn-sown wheat without defoliation (control) was 45% less than that of the crop sown in winter for grain (3208 Kg/ha vs 1755 Kg/ha). ...
Please join a special seminar to be given by Christoph Müller of the Postdam Institute for Climate Impacts Research, entitled Global Gridded Crop Modeling Approaches for Global Trade, Food Security, and Nutrition in a Changing World. The seminar is hosted by AgMIP – the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, in conjunction with the Center for Climate Systems Research and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Global crop modeling is particularly uncertain as models have to operate in data-scarce environments. There are large parts of the world where little is known about actual production systems. Similarly, lack of data for model calibration hampers rigorous model evaluation. Still, global crop model applications are invaluable for understanding future challenges to agriculture, as agricultural production systems are interconnected globally through agricultural trade and climate. I will discuss the motivation, challenges and actual progress in global ...
Indias population is bound to cross 1.6 billion by 2050, which will demand doubling of our food grain production to ensure food security to all our people. There is inevitable need of increasing the food grain production and enhancing the agricultural productivity without degrading the environment. This necessitates focus on development of rain-fed areas, degraded lands, analysis of cropping system, proper monitoring and management of agricultural practices, assessing the impact of droughts and floods and so on.
The advantages of free threshing in wheat led to the selection of the domesticated Q allele which is now present in almost all modern wheat varieties. Q and the pre-domestication allele, q, encode an AP2 transcription factor with the domesticated allele conferring a free threshing character and a subcompact (i.e. partially compact) inflorescence (spike). We demonstrate that mutations in the miR172-binding site of the Q gene are sufficient to increase transcript levels via a reduction in miRNA dependent degradation, consistent with the conclusion that a SNP in the miRNA-binding site of Q relative to q was essential in defining the modern Q allele. We also describe novel gain- and loss-of-function alleles of Q and use these to define new roles for this gene in spike development. Q is required for the suppression of sham ramification and increased Q expression can lead to the formation of ectopic florets and spikelets (specialized inflorescence branches that bear florets and grains) resulting in ...
What are IITA and the other centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) doing to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the effects of CC on pests? Historically, CGIAR centers have a broad R4D focus; centers have been developing knowledge (e.g., pest profiles), products (e.g., new crop varieties, biocontrol agents against invasive pests), and technologies (e.g., predictive models, diagnostic tools) that are suitable for diverse agroecologies including the tropics, wet, humid, semiarid, and dry, and to some extent the temperate zones as well. The broad knowledge and experience of centers provide an unprecedented advantage to assess the products and technologies in different agroecologies and weather settings and to determine their resilience and ability to cope in altered climatic situations.. Several programs directly focus on managing pests. For instance, the breeding of crop varieties for resistance to pests and pathogens has always been a focus of the CGIAR. ...
The situation for India could be especially precarious, the report notes. "In the Indo-Gangetic plains which produce 90 million tonnes of wheat a year (about 14-15 per cent of global production), projections indicate a substantial fall in yields unless there is a shift to different crop varieties and management practices," it says ...
crop rotation: The successive cultivation of different crops in a specified order on the same fields, in contrast to a one-crop system or to haphazard crop successions. Throughout human history,...
Well-tested computer simulation models of the growth, development, and yield of annual crops are being used for a wide range of purposes, including the prediction of impacts of different management practices and land use systems on food production, farmers profitability, and the environment. Presentation and interpretation of simulation results can be significantly enhanced through the linking of models with software that allows spatial visualization. Many users of crop simulation models, however, are located in institutions in developing countries where resources are particularly limited. Computer software to perform a variety of spatial analyses was written, which can be run on modest hardware without the need for costly third-party software. The software is an integral part of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), a comprehensive crop simulation model and data system, but can also be run in a stand-alone mode. Users can run spatial simulation experiments and then ...
What are IITA and the other centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) doing to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the effects of CC on pests? Historically, CGIAR centers have a broad R4D focus; centers have been developing knowledge (e.g., pest profiles), products (e.g., new crop varieties, biocontrol agents against invasive pests), and technologies (e.g., predictive models, diagnostic tools) that are suitable for diverse agroecologies including the tropics, wet, humid, semiarid, and dry, and to some extent the temperate zones as well. The broad knowledge and experience of centers provide an unprecedented advantage to assess the products and technologies in different agroecologies and weather settings and to determine their resilience and ability to cope in altered climatic situations.. Several programs directly focus on managing pests. For instance, the breeding of crop varieties for resistance to pests and pathogens has always been a focus of the CGIAR. ...
Global warming and changes in the amount - and location - of water, are key factors in the need to continue crop breeding programs. In addition, there are
It is a major challenge to achieve the goal of increasing grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and irrigation water productivity (IWP) in cereals. This study investigated if progressive integrative crop management technology in rice (Oryza sativa L.) could improve agronomic and physiological performances, and consequently, increase grain yield, NUE and IWP. ...
Fields of soybeans. Credit: © rasica / Fotolia By manipulating the CHLORAD pathway, scientists can modify how plants respond to their environment. For example,
Accurate and efficient in situ measurement methods of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD) are needed to estimate the fluxes of water and energy in agricultural settings. However, available methods: to estimate these two parameters, especially LAD, are limited. In this study, we propose a field measurement method using multi-angular digital images to estimate LAI and LAD simultaneously from the area proportions of: (i) sunlit soil; (ii) sunlit leaves; (iii) shaded soil; and (iv) shaded leaves. A new expression of the fraction of sunlit leaves is developed based on the radiative transfer theory. Coupling the measured and modeled fractions with an optimization scheme, LAI and the LAD parameters are derived from inverting a fractional model of sunlit and shaded leaves and soil. Through four tests using simulated scenes and in situ measurements for row crops, it is determined that our method performs well. The absolute error of LAI estimation is less than 0.1 when LAI is low ...
The download Potential invasive pests of agricultural projects by evolution--again into the relations of the trial, and always focuses the company under the cell various booth. This 2005-08-23T12:00:00MSquare publishing may get local collections and following fluorescence. neighbours can now keep a depositional incurred download of the international contracting( without predictions) from the resemblance.
TrueAds.india is the best place for you to Post Free Ads And to Promote Your Business all for free. TrueAds is top most Online Digital Advertising Marketplace in 2016-2017 india. TrueAds is the leader in free ad posting in india. Sell and Buy products and services on TrueAds in Second India. Free ads in INDIA,TrueAds - Free Classified India
The global area sown to genetically modified (GM) varieties of leading commercial crops (soybean, maize, canola, and cotton) has expanded over 100-fold over two decades. Thirty countries are producing GM crops and just five countries (United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, and India) account for almost 90% of the GM production. Only four crops account for 99% of worldwide GM crop area. Almost 100% of GM crops on the market are genetically engineered with herbicide tolerance (HT), and insect resistance (IR) traits. Approximately 70% of cultivated GM crops are HT, and GM HT crops have been credited with facilitating no-tillage and conservation tillage practices that conserve soil moisture and control soil erosion, and that also support carbon sequestration and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Crop production and productivity increased significantly during the era of the adoption of GM crops; some of this increase can be attributed to GM technology and the yield protection traits that it has made
Although he did not understand how diversity arises, Darwin understood that we can alter germplasm as needed by preserving and accumulating the variations found in nature. These are the major goals of any germplasm program.. A diverse germplasm is necessary for breeding both established and new crops. Thus, the improvement of new industrial crops is not appreciably different from the enhancement and breeding of more established food, feed, and fiber crops (Thompson 1990a; White et al. 1994). In both, the plant breeder takes the extant germplasm and searches for genetic variability in desired traits. The major differences are that new crops plant breeders often are working with a species that is not as yet domesticated, they are unfamiliar with the species, and are starting with a limited and frequently un-evaluated or exotic germplasm base (Thompson 1990a). In conventional crops the barriers to domestication were overcome thousands of years ago. Yet access to a diverse germplasm is still ...
This map shows global distribution of Genetically Modified (GM) crops. Current World hectarage of biotech crops: 148.6 million hectares in 2010 World hectarage of biotech crops: 135 million hectares in 2009 Key findings of 2010: Growth remains s
Bio-insecticides: Market Outlook Most of the worlds population depends on the agricultural production of plants for food. We are unable to survive without this source of food. Strong population growth has led to an increased demand for food. By the middle of the century, the demand for agricultural products will be 50 percent higher on average than in 2013. Insecticides are a type of pesticide that specifically targets insects that harm the agricultural crop. Bio-insecticides are pesticides made from natural materials that are meant to control or kill insects. These bio-insecticides are composed of animals, plants, bacteria, or minerals found in nature. Bio-insecticides are sprayed on the crop as a pest repellant to control insects by attracting them to trap or disrupting their mating patterns. Bio-insecticides are organic formulations which control the insects that feed on the crop. Use of chemical pesticides led to environmental pollution and an increase in human health problems. Crop ...
Farming in America is losing the diversity needed to keep it alive. But Washington, Jefferson and Uncle Everon already knew that.
In one sense, that is still how modern agriculture works. You look to the future and discard the past. A modern rotation includes only corn, soybeans, fertilizer and pesticides. Whatever you may think about genetically modified crops, the switch to those varieties has driven the rush to the two-crop system. Those crops are designed to tolerate the presence of herbicides. The result is that farmland has been inundated with glyphosate, the herbicide genetically modified crops are engineered for.

The very structure of the agricultural system, as it stands now, is designed to return the greatest profit possible, not to the farmers but to the producers of the chemicals they use and the seeds they plant. And because those chemicals depend on fossil energy, the entire system is inherently unsustainable. What farmers used to return to the soil in the form of labor and
This paper suggests a new approach to econometrically estimate parameters of multi-level Constant Elasticity of Transformation (CET) functional forms which are widely used in developing Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. An illustrative CET functional form is estimated using the proposed method based on historical data taken from the U.S. economy for the time period of 1996-210 to evaluate the performance of the new method. The proposed estimation process may be used to improve the existing cropland frontier used in GTAP-BIO model. Currently, the cropland frontier in GTAP-BIO model supplies land to different crops using a simple one-level CET function due to the lack of empirically estimated more flexible functional forms. The proposed method provides an opportunity to estimate more flexible multi-level CET functional forms according to available historical data. This will help to change the land supply side of the GTAP-BIO model based on historical observations. Li, Liang; Taheripour, Farzad;
Topic Wild relatives The Global Crop Trust has launched a worldwide search for the wild relatives of important food crops. They hope to create a library of these tough wild genes to give plant breeders something to work with as changing weather patterns make current seed varieties less viable. With as many as…
Citation: Clement, S.L., Elberson, L.R., Bosque-Perez, N.A., Schotzko, D.J., 2005. Detrimental and neutral effects of wild barley--neotyphodium fungal endophyte associations on insect survival. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. V. 114. P. 119-125. Interpretive Summary: There are several major insect pests of wheat and barley crops in the United States, including the Hessian fly, Russian wheat aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and rose grass aphid. Farmers in some parts of the United States use resistant varieties developed by plant breeders and entomologists to protect their wheat crops from Hessian fly and Russian wheat aphid attack. When insect-resistant varieties are unavailable, farmers often use insecticides to control insect pests. This paper reports the result of USDA-ARS research to locate new sources of insect pest resistance in plant and microbial genetic resources stored in seed banks of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, thereby determining the potential for giving growers ...
New research that tracked carbons movement in US crop production found that regional carbon sinks and sources are created because agricultural crops are consumed far away from where theyre grown.
Original issues were scanned as 400 dpi 8-bit greyscale tiffs on an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner with Adobe Photoshop CS2. Color pages were scanned as 400 dpi 24-bit color tiffs on the same machine. Using Adobe Acrobat XI Pro, the tiffs were converted to pdfs and OCRed, then uploaded into CONTENTdm ...
18 July 1997 Oilseed crops may prove a real tonicBy Alan BarkerIF development work on a Yorkshire farm proves successful UK arable farmers could soon be
Modeling diseases transmitted by food first requires the ability to model food and food production. Certainly livestock or crops can be represented by a Population Model, as can the food itself. The rate at which animals reproduce can be express modeled with existing birth rate and death rate properties. Crop growth rates might be based on climate data plugins. Food itself (meat, barley) can also be represented by a Population Model, using new parameter or representing spoilage or expiration by a death rate. As abstract populations, both food and food sources are continuous variables that be represented as STEM Integration Decorators. However, to support modeling food production it is also necessary to model the transformation of livestock and living agricultural products into food. To support this in the most general way possible STEM provides a new kind of decorators called a Transformation Decorator with the following properties: ...
Modeling diseases transmitted by food first requires the ability to model food and food production. Certainly livestock or crops can be represented by a Population Model, as can the food itself. The rate at which animals reproduce can be express modeled with existing birth rate and death rate properties. Crop growth rates might be based on climate data plugins. Food itself (meat, barley) can also be represented by a Population Model, using new parameter or representing spoilage or expiration by a death rate. As abstract populations, both food and food sources are continuous variables that be represented as STEM Integration Decorators. However, to support modeling food production it is also necessary to model the transformation of livestock and living agricultural products into food. To support this in the most general way possible STEM provides a new kind of decorators called a Transformation Decorator with the following properties: ...
In autumn 2017, farmers in Germany sowed winter grain on 5.16 million hectares of land. The Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) reports that the area cultivated with winter grain for the 2018 harvest is 120,900 hectares smaller (-2%) than the relevant area in 2017.. ...
The amount of water contained in the top few centimeters of soil is small on a global scale, but it is critical for agriculture analysts trying to monitor commodity production and humanitarian need.
6) When properly matured, husk and weigh the ears from each row separately under exactly uniform conditions. If the progeny of a certain ear yields more maize than does either row from another ear, it may be assumed that the former has the superior hereditary force and that the greater yield was not the result of environment, as, for example, better soil.. (7) For next years breeding plat, select twenty-five ears from the progeny of a few of the best ears, say the best five ears. It would probably not be safe to select all the ears from the progeny of the best ear, as that would lead to very close breeding. It will also be desirable to arrange for as much crossing as possible between ears of unlike parentage. Select the best of what is left from the breeding plat for the field crop. The breeding plat is to be continued indefinitely.. 266. Field Selection.-The usual method of obtaining seed is to select ears from the regular field crop. There are three methods:. (1) Selection of ears from the ...
6) When properly matured, husk and weigh the ears from each row separately under exactly uniform conditions. If the progeny of a certain ear yields more maize than does either row from another ear, it may be assumed that the former has the superior hereditary force and that the greater yield was not the result of environment, as, for example, better soil.. (7) For next years breeding plat, select twenty-five ears from the progeny of a few of the best ears, say the best five ears. It would probably not be safe to select all the ears from the progeny of the best ear, as that would lead to very close breeding. It will also be desirable to arrange for as much crossing as possible between ears of unlike parentage. Select the best of what is left from the breeding plat for the field crop. The breeding plat is to be continued indefinitely.. 266. Field Selection.-The usual method of obtaining seed is to select ears from the regular field crop. There are three methods:. (1) Selection of ears from the ...
Improved Agronomic Practices and Input Use Efficiency for Potato Production under Changing Climate: Improved Practices for Potato Production: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1715-3.ch005: In the emerging global economic order in which agricultural crop production is witnessing a rapid transition to agricultural commodity production, potato is
Synopsis: 30% of wheat acres have had N applied. Yellow/brown/dead(?) wheat in low areas or on heavy soils from twice normal April rainfall. Few acres of corn
Updated September 2016). State Departments of Agriculture play a critical role in safeguarding agriculture from plant pests, diseases, and invasive species, which significantly impact agricultural crops, public and private lands, and natural habitats. NASDA supports enhanced federal-state collaboration and cooperation in program delivery to facilitate timely prevention, identification, control, and where appropriate, eradication of injurious plant pests and diseases impacting U.S. agricultural production, food security, environmental and public health, and international trade. ...
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Session II: "Vulnerability of Agriculture and Ecosystems to Climate Change," 10:30 a.m.-noon Tuesday, Sept. 19. Presentation title: "More than Taking the Heat". Abstract: The CO2 concentration in the Earths atmosphere, the main driver of global warming, has been rising at an accelerating rate now increasing at an average annual rate of ,2.1 μmol mol-1. Despite global and regional importance few studies have evaluated the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on crop photosynthetic physiology, agronomic traits or biomass and seed yield - and no previous work has been done to evaluate the impact of elevated CO2 and temperature under open field conditions. That C4 photosynthesis has a warmer temperature optimum than C3 crops has led to prediction that warming will have less impact on crops like maize compared to C3 crops grown within a region. However, recent modeling and time series studies do not fully support this projection. We have ...
NewsWithViews.com. Whenever large agribusiness or their political representatives come up with a new farm strategy to save local farmers, watch out. It seems that more small farmers suffer while agribusiness prospers. The latest proposal is a bill before Iowa legislators that would prevent local jurisdictions from creating identity preservation zones. Using identity preservation (IP), farmers keep crop varieties separate from others to meet purity requirements of their buyers. Iowa farmers, for example, may earn an extra $8.50 � $15.50 per bushel for organic soybeans. Non-GM beans bring in about $0.50 more than GM varieties, and non-GM food grade raise that to $2.00. Several specialty varieties comprise the approximately 5 percent of total US corn acreage that is IP, including an extractable starch corn grown for Japanese breweries by 60 southeast Iowa farmers. While low commodity corn and soybean prices contributed to the 22 percent reduction of Iowa�s mid-size farms between 1997 and 2002, ...
BT11 (X4334CBR, X4734CBR), environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops and plants, genetically modified crops and plants, transgenic crops and plants, regulation, GM crop database
Bt11 x MIR162 x GA21, environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops and plants, genetically modified crops and plants, transgenic crops and plants, regulation, GM crop database
Get Genetically Modified Crops essential facts. View Videos or join the Genetically Modified Crops discussion. Add Genetically Modified Crops to your Like2do.com topic list or share. Genetically Modified Crops at like2do.com
Africas top plant breeders are working to fight malnutrition and poverty across the continent through improving traditional crops.. An article in African Farming explains the work being done by the African Orphan Crops Consortium to map and make public the genomes of 101 indigenous African foods. These orphan crops are so named because they have largely been ignored by science and seed companies as they are not traded internationally like commodities such as rice, corn and wheat.. Despite this, many of these crops "are crucial to African livelihood and nutrition," says the article.. The consortium was launched in 2012 as a collaboration between the University of California Davis, Mars Inc., a wide range of researchers, industry groups and policymakers. Read more…. ...
Wheat yield increase has been stagnate for a decade because genetic gains cant compensate for environmental factors. Gene sequencing can improve crop productivity.
Citation: Mutschler, M.A., Wintermantel, W.M. 2006. Reducing virus associated crop loss through resistance to insect vectors. Natural Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Viruses. G. Loebenstein and J.P. Carr (eds.)241-260. Interpretive Summary: Control of pests and diseases is a major challenge to agricultural production. As insect resistant crops are developed, the question arises as to whether effective insect resistance could be a component in an integrated strategy for control of insect transmitted viruses. The viability of this option depends on the virus, vector, and host plant targeted, the interactions of these organisms, the type of pest resistance available, and how the resistance impacts these interactions. Pest resistance mechanisms that require the pest to feed I order to ingest a toxin or induce the control mechanism are unlikely to reduce the transmission of rapidly acquired and/or transmitted viruses. The most effective pest resistance systems and virus/vector/crop combinations ...
Objectives: To train the ESRs in advanced bioinformatics and statistics. The WP will lead to identification of ATR7 homologues and co-expressed genes in other species; identification of stress-related genes commonly regulated in different crop species; identification of metabolic stress signatures and specific metabolites altered in abundance during different stresses ...
Key Points Historic rainfall over the past year has impacted the nitrate form of N applied (really all mobile nutrients) and in many cases may have been moved out of the soil system. To further complicate the issue, sulfur has also shown up to be a potential barrier in area crop fields. Calculating additional nitrogen (N) is important to ensure adequate N for this seasons crop.
OARDC is a premier institution committed to safe, healthy, and affordable food and agricultural products; sustainable food and agricultural systems; strong rural and urban communities; stewardship of natural resources and the environment; keeping Ohio positioned favorably in a global economy.. ...
Plants play an important role as producers of sugar and carbohydrates. Scientists from the University of W rzburg are conducting research in this area - with the long-term goal of influencing sugar levels in agricultural crop plants.
This course examines crop improvement through advances in resource use efficiency and modern crop improvement and breeding techniques.
DuPont Crop Protection works hard to understand the needs of growers as they rise to the challenge of feeding a growing world. We use inclusive thinking to create answers in insect, weed and disease control that help growers improve the quality and yield of their crops, and the productivity and sustainability of their farming operations.
in 1886. The Centre consists of two independent research sites: Agassiz and Summerland. It is also associated with a satellite location-the Clearbrook sub-station, located 50 kilometres away in Abbotsford, British Columbia.. The scientific research of the Agassiz Research and Development Centre addresses national agricultural priorities in the areas of horticultural and field crop production and protection. These priorities include helping to adapt and remain competitive in domestic and global markets. The research mainly focuses on peri-urban agriculture, which seeks to improve understanding of the flows, interactions and impacts of agriculture systems within densely populated regions. ...
The fact that 30 per cent of Australias cropping land does not retain water and produces only 10 per cent of the nations broad-acre crops could be about to change.
Sclerotinia is one of the most devastating and cosmopolitan soil borne plant pathogen that infects more than 500 species of plants worldwide including field crops, fruit crops, ornamentals, trees, shr
The UK plant breeding industry adds over £1bn of additional value to the economy and must receive adequate funding, according to the British Society of Plant Breeders.
Quote: Originally Posted by Brite Then Pick a different crop. We grow great corn out here (Ohio) and never water it. You got that right i cant figure
Since the introduction of biologicals, the industry has witnessed tremendous advancements with one of the major contributors being the use of increased intelligence and intensity when it comes to strain selection.. Previously, wild strains were commercialized with little emphasis on refinement. At that time, the overall scientific knowledge about these strains and their potential was relatively unknown; however, today we have many more tools at our disposal. This enables a much greater understanding of biologicals and their capacity for improving plant performance as well as some of the potential pitfalls, such as inconsistent performance. Taking this into account, companies have stepped up their selection procedures. Todays products are more consistent and target specific plant performance traits, such as drought resistance or a pathogen resistance.. Several companies market biological products, containing different types of organisms, for agricultural crops. The largest group of biological ...
c) Genetics of agricultural crops (excluding genetic engineering) is included in Groups 0703 Crop and Pasture Production and 0706 Horticultural Production ...
This project will help to transfer the expertise from advanced EU laboratories to young researchers and PhD students from our Institute by the organisation of conferences, workshops, seminars and lectures, and visits of top European scientists to share their knowledge as well as study visits of the BIO-TALENT team members and peer learning. The objects of research will comprise the main agricultural crops in Poland and central Europe, such as legumes, cereals, grasses and oilseeds. ...
The use of genetically engineered corn and soybeans in the United States for more than a decade has had little impact on crop yields despite claims that they could ease looming food shortages, a study released on Tuesday ...
Breeding strategies in nursery plants is lagging behind most of the agricultural crops while molecular methods have been adopted last decade. Identifi..
Recently announced was the expected 2005 arrival of an ethanol fuelled Saab 9-5. Apparently because ethanol is derived from renewable agricultural crops (which are carbon dioxide absorbing), this will equal out any CO2 emissions whilst driving the car.
I have often thought of the potential Jamaica has for meaningful development. This idea has consistently been echoed by various commentaries. Ever since my awareness of current affairs, I have always heard references to Jamaicas potential for tourism, agricultural crops, reggae music, etc. This has led me to think about why we have not been able to realize this "much talked about" potential and why we always seem to be on the brink of a breakthrough but never attaining it. There is no denying that Jamaica is truly blessed with natural resources and a resilient people and could easily be first class in areas of natural competitive advantage ...
Plant disease is new to the curriculum. This is a simple and easy starter to encourage students to understand the impact that plant disease has both on the worlds poorest farmers and on consumers in the UK.
Affiliation:高知大学,その他部局等,名誉教授, Research Field:Crop science/Weed science,作物学,Crop production science,作物,Environmental dynamic analysis, Keywords:国際研究者交流,水稲,デンプン,サゴヤシ,収量,Rice,窒素追肥,大穂品種,インドネシア,作期, # of Research Projects:16, # of Research Products:133
Outcrossing, the unintentional breeding of a domestic crop with a related plant, is considered by the USDAs Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) during review of new plant varieties. The agency ensures that herbicide-tolerant or pest-resistant plants do not become plant pests themselves by out-crossing to weedy relatives. Plant breeders take care to release only new varieties with low or negligible risk of transferring genes to weedy relatives. They also assure that methods are available to manage any weeds that might acquire new genes by outcrossing.. Like traditionally bred plants, genetically modified plants cannot transfer traits to unrelated species in nature. For cases in which weedy relatives exist, APHIS assesses the risk and impact of potential gene transfers. If there is high potential for a new plant variety to outcross with a weedy relative and if transfer of the new trait to the weed could be problematic, APHIS has the authority to halt field trials or further ...
Farmers all over the world face the challenge of producing more with less. Our microbial crop production solutions help you rise to the challenge.
We are committed to being the leading provider of agricultural inputs in each of our markets. Learn more about Crop Production Services here.
Plants have evolved various ways to resist infection or attack by pests, and pests often evolve ways to get around a plants resistance. This back and forth evolutionary battle generally means that a given crop species includes a range of resistant and susceptible types. In the 1960s, plant breeders found wheat plants with resistance to…
As part of the FAIR PLAY campaign on farm-saved seed, the British Society of Plant Breeders (BSPB) is reminding growers that using farm-saved seed of eligible varieties in cover crop mixtures is subject to the same seed regulations and FSS rules as harvested crops.. Interest in the use of cover crops among arable farmers has increased recently in response to CAP greening requirements and as research has demonstrated the rotational benefits of cover crops for soil quality, reduced nutrient losses, and improved weed and disease management. ...
Americas dinner table has been quintessentially defined by the corn-fed, seven-ounce steak, served with steamed baby carrots. While the dish may be savory, the agricultural practices involved in its creation have not been so kind to the soil, sapping it of vital nutrients. That needs to change, according to Dan Barber, chef and co-owner of the Blue Hill restaurant in Greenwich Village, New York City. Barber says it...
A nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan would produce airborne debris that would poison distant crop fields with radioactive material and curb worldwide precipitation and heat levels, disrupting global agriculture and potentially causing the starvation of more than 1 billion people, according to an independent analysis issued on Tuesday.. ...
Transgenic crops are currently being cultivated on a commercial scale in many countries. The area devoted to transgenic pest resistant varieties worldwide reached 13 million hectares in 2001. These varieties offer valuable benefits but also pose potential risks. Assessments of their impact on the environment are conducted before they are approved for commercial use, as required by the regulatory biosafety frameworks. In this review, we discuss the potential ecological consequences of the commercial use in agriculture of genetically modified insect resistant crops. We also discuss the impacts caused by the change in agricultural practices, and attempt to identify gaps and possible opportunities for research, considering this new technological tool. We based our analysis and comments on the current knowledge of the risks and benefits of these genetically modified insect resistant crops, within the context of traditional insect management strategies ...
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
Extreme heat stress during the crop reproductive period can be critical for crop productivity. Projected changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are expected to negatively impact crop yields and global food production. This study applies the global crop model PEGASUS to quantify, for the first time at the global scale, impacts of extreme heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soybean yields resulting from 72 climate change scenarios for the 21st century. Our results project maize to face progressively worse impacts under a range of RCPs but spring wheat and soybean to improve globally through to the 2080s due to CO2 fertilization effects, even though parts of the tropic and sub-tropic regions could face substantial yield declines. We find extreme heat stress at anthesis (HSA) by the 2080s (relative to the 1980s) under RCP 8.5, taking into account CO2 fertilization effects, could double global losses of maize yield (ΔY = −12.8 ± 6.7% versus − 7.0 ± 5.3% without ...
... Published by QYResearch at researchbeam.com . Global Crop Protection Chemicals Industry 2015 Deep Market Research Report is a research report by Key Manufacturers, Applications, Developments and Trends with covering regions China, US, Europe & Japan
ALEXANDRIA - The LSU AgCenter will host a field day at its Dean Lee Research Station Aug. 26.. Known as the Rapides Parish/Dean Lee Crop Field Day, this third annual event is slated to start at 3 p.m. Aug. 26 at the research station south of Alexandria.. The field day will feature two concurrent tours of fields where LSU AgCenter research is being conducted - one focusing on cotton research and the other on feed grain studies.. Presentations on cotton defoliation by LSU AgCenter cotton specialist Dr. Sandy Stewart and on feed grain variety developments and the soybean verification program by feed grain specialist Dr. David Lanclos will be included on both tours.. In addition, the cotton tour will include talks on plant population and Pix research by Stewart and graduate student Jonathan Siebert, on cotton varieties and late-season insect management by Stewart and LSU AgCenter entomologist Dr. Ralph Bagwell and on cotton weed control with herbicides and their development by research station ...
Potato late blight, caused by the destructive Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a major threat to global food security [2]. All late blight resistance genes identified to date belong to the coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat class of intracellular immune receptors. However, virulent races of the pathogen quickly evolved to evade recognition by these cytoplasmic immune receptors [3]. Here we demonstrate that the receptor-like protein ELR (elicitin response) from the wild potato Solanum microdontum mediates extracellular recognition of the elicitin domain, a molecular pattern that is conserved in Phytophthora species. ELR associates with the immune co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 and mediates broad-spectrum recognition of elicitin proteins from several Phytophthora species, including four diverse elicitins from P. infestans. Transfer of ELR into cultivated potato resulted in enhanced resistance to P. infestans. Pyramiding cell surface pattern recognition receptors with ...
List of Tables and Figures Figure Global Food Service Market Size (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2013-2018) Table Global Food Service Revenue (Million USD) Comparison by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Global Food Service Market Share by Regions (2013-2018) Figure United States Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Europe Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure China Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Japan Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Southeast Asia Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure India Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Table Global Food Service Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (%) Comparison by Product (2013-2018) Figure Global Food Service Revenue Market Share by Type in 2017 Figure Conventional ...
Weed control in smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa is labour intensive or costly. Many researchers have therefore advocated for the use of cover crops in weed management as an affordable alternative for smallholders. Cover crops may be grown in rotations to suppress weeds and reduce the reliance on herbicides. The use of cover crops creates microenvironments that are either conducive or inhibitive to the emergence of certain weed species. A study, initiated in 2008 in contrasting soils at four different locations of Zimbabwe, investigated the effect of maize (Zea mays L.)-cover crop rotations on the emergence of weeds that showed dominance in those soils. Weed assessments were however, carried out from 2011 to 2014. The weed species Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Commelina benghalensis L., and Richardia scabra L. showed dominance in all four locations with weed densities as high as 500 plants m−2 being recorded for R. scabra L. in a sandy soil. Maize-cover crop rotations resulted in ...
Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation.
Looking for online definition of Manihot esculenta in the Medical Dictionary? Manihot esculenta explanation free. What is Manihot esculenta? Meaning of Manihot esculenta medical term. What does Manihot esculenta mean?
7 Agricultural production systems *7.1 Crop cultivation systems *7.1.1 Crop statistics ... Crop statistics[edit]. See also: List of most important agricultural crops worldwide ... Agricultural science[edit]. Main article: Agricultural science. Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of ... See also: List of most important agricultural crops worldwide. Largest countries by agricultural output according to IMF and ...
The fruit crop is little affected but the leaves fall early and growth is slowed the following year. The other host is any of ... "US Agricultural Research Service Note". Ars.usda.gov. Retrieved 2009-12-06. Foderaro, Lisa W. (2003-10-16). "New York Times". ... As a crop, the blackcurrant suffers from several pests and diseases. The most serious disease is reversion, caused by a virus ... It is winterhardy, but cold weather at flowering time during the spring reduces the size of the crop. Bunches of small, glossy ...
"Studies in Crop Variation. I. An examination of the yield of dressed grain from Broadbalk" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural ... different levels of urea application in a crop, or different levels of antibiotic action on several different bacterial species ...
Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the Needs of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops". Food and ... Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience Future Prospects (2016). Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences ... Food and Nutrition Information Center, National Agricultural Library. December 2010.. - a collection of resources on the topic ... 2017). "The allergenicity of genetically modified foods from genetically engineered crops: A narrative and systematic review". ...
Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the Needs of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops". Food and ... Evans, Brent and Lupescu, Mihai (15 July 2012) Canada - Agricultural Biotechnology Annual - 2012 GAIN (Global Agricultural ... "AgBioForum 5(4): Agricultural Biotechnology Development and Policy in China".. *^ a b "TNAU Agritech Portal :: Bio Technology". ... Overall finding on purported adverse effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis of detailed ...
Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the Needs of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops". Food and ... Genetically modified crops ("GM crops", or "biotech crops") are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ... of the world's crop lands were planted with GM crops in 2010.[55] As of 2011, 11 different transgenic crops were grown ... GM crops also provide a number of ecological benefits, if not used in excess.[80] However, opponents have objected to GM crops ...
"Fuel production potential of several agricultural crops". Advances in New Crops: 260-263.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... "Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa. 2. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. ... Martin, Franklin W. (1982). "Okra, Potential Multiple-Purpose Crop for the Temperate Zones and Tropics". Economic Botany. 36 (3 ...
Wild boars damage crops, spread disease, and prey upon livestock. Invertebrates[edit]. Further information: Insect bites and ... Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 82(1): 73 pp. *Hockings, F.D, 2014,"Pests, Diseases and Beneficials", CSIRO ... A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also ... Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling ...
"Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Retrieved January 16, 2006.. ... International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural ... Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on ... In fact, it has a precise meaning in botany: it is the term for a distinct population of a crop, usually commercial and ...
"Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Retrieved 31 January 2008.. ... International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences, 5(1): 85-88. *^ a b Wery, J., Deschamps, M., & Leger-Cresson, N ... ciceris, present in most of the major pulse crop-growing areas and causing regular yield damages between 10 and 15%.[38] ... Agricultural yield for chickpea is often based on genetic and phenotypic variability which has recently been influenced by ...
"Crops processed". FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011 ... "Wine Report" (PDF). USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2015. Croatian wines on Wine on VI ... and hot summers with enough rain to make it a major agricultural area. Wine-growing is concentrated in the hilly areas ...
Geman, Helyette (2014-12-29). Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water and Infrastructure. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ... Today, some people and groups[citation needed] advocate using field crop fibre or agricultural residues instead of wood fibre ... Agricultural-based paper does not come from tree farms. Some agricultural residue pulps take less time to cook than wood pulps ... See also: Tree-free paper, Fibre crop, and Cotton paper. Non-wood pulp made from rags, or from linters (short fibers discarded ...
Agricultural crops grown in soil treated with a preplant herbicide include tomatoes, corn, soybeans and strawberries. Soil ... Quastel was tasked by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) to discover methods for improving crop yield. By analyzing soil ... Crop safety, for selective herbicides, is the relative absence of damage or stress to the crop. Most selective herbicides cause ... "USDA Agricultural Research Service. May 5, 2010.. *^ "Campaign launched to halt Welsh river pesticide rise". BBC. 16 April 2015 ...
These plant materials come from agricultural non food crops. Therefore, the use of biopolymers would create a sustainable ... Biomass comes from crops such as sugar beet, potatoes or wheat: when used to produce biopolymers, these are classified as non ... this is because the CO2 released when they degrade can be reabsorbed by crops grown to replace them: this makes them close to ...
"Agricultural Research magazine. US Department of Agriculture: Agriculture Research Service.. *^ H. J. Klee; M. B. Hayford; K. A ... "GM Crop Database: Event 1345-4". International Life Sciences Institute.. *^ Marcia Wood (July 1995). "Bioengineered Tomatoes ... They partnered with a company in Canada called New Energy Farms to grow a large crop of blue tomatoes, from which to create ... In:Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding: Volume 1", Biotic Stress, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 241-265, doi:10.1002/ ...
... with whom he carried on for more than half a century on experiments in raising crops at the Institute of Arable Crops Research. ... Moore, Geoff (2001). Soilguide - A handbook for understanding and managing agricultural soils (PDF). Perth, Western Australia: ... Commercial fertilizers increase crop yields [1]. Accessed 9 April 2012. *^ Vance, Carroll P; Uhde-Stone & Allan (2003). " ... A maize crop yielding 6-9 tonnes of grain per hectare (2.5 acres) requires 31-50 kilograms (68-110 lb) of phosphate fertilizer ...
The Department of Plant Production consisted of five branches: agricultural economics, horticulture, field crops, plant ... Department of Agricultural Economics. Department of Prevention. Department of Crops. Department of Soil. Department of ... Department of Agricultural Engineering. Department of Aquaculture. Department of Animal Production. Department of Food Science ... The main aims of the Faculty of Agriculture represent in preparing highly qualified agricultural engineers in different ...
... is also a wage commodity for workers in the cash crop or non-agricultural sectors. Rice is vital for the nutrition of much ... Rao, G.S.L.H.V. Prasad (2008). "Weather and Crops". Agricultural Meteorology. New Delhi-110001: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd ... On line collection of salt tolerance data of agricultural crops obtained from measurements in farmers' fields [1] International ... In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened. Sustainable pest ...
"Cover Crops: Adaptation and Use of Cover Crops". www.omafra.gov.on.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-02. Oelke, E., Oplinger, E., Bahri, H ... Ontario Ministry of Agricultural Food and Affairs. (May, 2009). Soil Management: Building a Healthy Soil. SeCan. (2010). About ... As long as the AC Hazlet fall rye crop receives an adequate 4-6 week growth period before cold temperatures arise, the crop ... When compared to other cover crops, rye is superior in all characteristics associated with cover crops The AC Hazlet rye ...
... s are the most valuable agricultural export of the United States.[128] Approximately 85% of the world's soybean crop is ... "Soybeans, Production/Crops/World for 2014". Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division ( ... American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meetings. Research in Agricultural & Applied Economics, University of ... which in turn requires huge tracts of land to grow feed crops for livestock. Around 80% of the global soybean crop is used to ...
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural: total: 2.64 km³/yr (25%/14%/61%) per capita: 305.8 m³/yr (2005) ... where the land is suitable for crops such as coffee and cacao. The northern lowlands are drained by wide, slow-moving rivers, ... Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber ... The land is among the most fertile in Bolivia, but poor transport has hindered its agricultural development. The government ...
Agricultural importance remains to be accessed. Typically thrips feeding alone on soybean plants does not cause economic damage ... Presently no other agronomic crops are known hosts for SVNV. Symptoms associated with SVNV infection begin with vein clearing ... Land Grant universities' extension (agricultural extension) websites should be monitored for new developments in management as ...
On crops such as peas and alfalfa, A. pisum is considered among the aphid species or major agronomical importance. Yields can ... University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station. pp. 138-154. "Acyrthosiphon pisum". AphID. Retrieved 19 March 2013. It ... Davis, John (1915). The pea aphis with relation to forage crops (276 ed.). US Department of Agriculture. Folsom, Justus W. ( ... It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa ...
Much of Central Java is a fertile agricultural region. The primary food crop is wet rice. An elaborate irrigation network of ... Other crops, also mostly grown in lowland areas on small peasant landholdings, are corn (maize), cassava, peanuts (groundnuts ... Several of these cash crops at a time are usually grown on large family estates. Livestock, especially water buffalo, is raised ... as cash crops such as indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice. ...
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):. total: 1.63 km3/yr (25%/72%/3%). per capita: 308.9 m3/yr (2005) ... permanent crops: 0.01%. other: 92.59% (2012). Irrigated land: 685.8 km² (2010). Total renewable water resources: 110 km3 (2011) ... agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations ...
Agricultural Sciences in China. 8: 83-90. doi:10.1016/S1671-2927(09)60012-2. Carrington, Damien (13 June 2012) GM crops good ... The U.S. GM cotton crop was 4.0 million hectares in 2011 the second largest area in the world, the Chinese GM cotton crop was ... of the Australian cotton crop was GM in 2009 making Australia the country with the fifth largest GM cotton crop in the world. ... Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn. Cotton is naturally a ...
One group bred and raised water buffalo while others cultivated crops such as rice, barley, wheat and pearl millet; they also ... have proposed historical and genetic links between the Marsh Arabs and the ancient Sumerians based on shared agricultural ...
... is a typical agricultural town. Traditional crops are cereals. But lately some farmers try other crops such as grape, ...
... posted by Jason Kottke Jun 09, 2016 ... From the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, a map showing where the worlds most used crops originated. Potatoes ...
Commercial Truck Crops for Shipment. United States. Agricultural Marketing Service. Snippet view - 1931. ... Commercial Truck Crops for Shipment. United States. Agricultural Marketing Service. Snippet view - 1940. ... Commercial Truck Crops for Shipment. United States. Agricultural Marketing Service. Snippet view - 1937. ... cantaloups CARROTS CAULIFLOWER celery Colorado commercial early Commercial Truck Crops Contd crates crops for 1942 Crops for ...
... and in the growing of hydroponic crops. Seeds of field crops are classified in the same industry as crops grown for other ... Major Group 01: Agricultural Production Crops. This major group includes establishments (e.g., farms, orchards, greenhouses, ... Industry Group 019: General Farms, Primarily Crop *0191 General Farms, Primarily Crop ... 0139 Field Crops, Except Cash Grains, Not Elsewhere Classified. Industry Group 016: Vegetables And Melons *0161 Vegetables and ...
Specialty Crop Multi-State Program The Specialty Crop Multi-State Program (SCMP) offers grants to solely enhance the ... 01/31 USDA Launches MARS, Delivering Market Data to Agricultural Producers Around the Globe Faster and Easier ... Participating States must express their interest to the Agricultural Marketing Service within the deadline provided by the most ... multi-state projects that address the following regional or national level specialty crop issues: food safety; plant pests and ...
Eligible crops include all cultivated plants and their products produced in the United States except wheat, feed grains, ... The Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) program provides funding to U.S. organizations for projects that address ... that clearly demonstrate how their projects will overcome trade barriers and retain or expand market access for specialty crops ... sanitary, phytosanitary and technical barriers that prohibit or threaten the export of U.S. specialty crops. Eligible ...
Field Crop Products. At BNSF, being part of the global supply chain doesnt just mean moving the crops immediately after ... Agricultural Products Rates and Prices. Ag Products has several rate publications, most of which are available on-line and ... Agricultural Products Agricultural Products Overview Agriculture. * Field Crops * Field Crop Products Chemicals, Fertilizers & ...
A comprehensive resource for understanding the complexities of agricultural finance Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, ... 2.3 Volatility in Agricultural Markets 27. 2.3.1 Volatility of the price level versus return in agricultural commodity markets ... 4.10 Volatility Smile in Agricultural Commodity Markets 86. 4.10.1 W here is the liquidity in agricultural commodity option ... shipping as a key component of agricultural trade; and the major agricultural shipping routes and the costs. The book:. *Offers ...
Agricultural,Entomology,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. Man...Wiley is pleased to announce the publication of the ... Handbook of Agricultural Entomology. ...Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. Man...Wiley is ... Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. Many crop pests and plant diseases they transmit have been ...
Field crops include annual crops (cereals, pulses, tubers, vegetables), fodder, ornamental, and industrial crops. ... The Dynamic Contribution of New Crops to the Agricultural Economy: Is it Predictable?. Stephan R.P. Halloy*. *METHODOLOGY * ... The dynamic contribution Of new crops to the agricultural economy: Is it predictable? p. 53 59. In: J. Janick (ed.), ... The number of crop species in New Zealand has increased over time and seems to be reaching an asymptote while crop diversity ( ...
3 D Crop production and agricultural soils 2019 This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure ... 3.D Crop production and agricultural soils 2019.pdf - PDF document, 977 KB (1000479 bytes) ... 3.D Crop production and agricultural soils 2019.pdf - PDF document, 977 KB (1000479 bytes) ... www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/4-agriculture/3-d-crop-production-and ...
Crop InsuranceFarm BillFinance and CreditFood SafetyLocal Food SystemsSpecialty CropsUSDA ... On June 21, the National Agricultural Law Center will provide a webinar titled, Crop Insurance and Southern Agriculture: What ... BankruptcyCrop InsuranceFarm BillFinance and CreditRural DevelopmentSpecialty Crops ... AnnouncementAquacultureCrop InsuranceEPALeasesRenewable EnergyRight to FarmSpecialty Crops ...
... Rosemarie W. Hammond and Robert A. Owens. United ... Viroids: New and Continuing Risks for Horticultural and Agricultural Crops. Oniine. APSnet Features. doi: 10.1094/APSnetFeature ... Have there been certain changes in agricultural/greenhouse practices (e.g., growing multiple crops that may be symptomless ... PSTVd has been reported to be associated with a new disease of glasshouse tomato and Capsicum crops in New Zealand (Crop & Food ...
... focused on evaluating the role of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in promoting plant growth in both native and nonnative crop ... 4. Recent studies highlighting the role of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in agricultural crops. Rice is a major staple crop ... Nitrogen-Fixation by Endophytic Bacteria in Agricultural Crops: Recent Advances. By Akshit Puri, Kiran Preet Padda and Chris P ... 117] hypothesized that strain P2b-2R could provide similar benefits to angiosperms, specifically agricultural crop species, by ...
Its designed to help crop producers, agricultural consultants, extension educators, and other agricultural professionals in ... Nebraska identify and manage plant diseases, a major yield limiting factor for many Nebraska crops. The ... Its designed to help crop producers, agricultural consultants, extension educators, and other agricultural professionals in ... Cowpea Bacterial Wilt ― An Old Disease in a New Crop October 9, 2018 As growers in western Nebraska look at new pulse crops to ...
Agricultural residues and energy crops are potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for use in biorefineries to produce biofuels ... Agricultural residues are readily available after crop harvest, while energy crops, which are usually perennial, are currently ... Feedstock logistics for agricultural residues and energy crops. Feedstock supply system logistics for agricultural residues and ... Feedstock Logistics for Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops: Moving Biomass from the Field to Biorefinery Gate. FABE-660.4 ...
... the outlook for ethanol sales and mills may once again skew toward the biofuel and away from sugar as the new cane crop ... the outlook for ethanol sales and mills may once again skew toward the biofuel and away from sugar as the new cane crop ...
Assessing the impact of past trends on agricultural crop yields will help project the impact of future trends on yields during ... Most of the increase in agricultural production over the last century is the result of yield increases rather than agricultural ... impact of crop production climate adaptation strategies currently taking place such as where crops are grown and how crops are ... there will be great pressure to expand the worlds agricultural land area. Expanding the agricultural land area may ...
Plant Health Progress, an online journal of the American Phytopathological Society with content appropriate for all plant health practitioners.
Cereal crops underpin the food supply for peasant farmers in developing countries, a situation that has persisted since the ... The Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies inThe Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Agricultural Soils and Crops on the ... Welch RM (2008) Linkages between trace elements in food crops and human health. Micronutr Defic Glob Crop Prod 287-309Google ... The Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies inThe Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Agricultural Soils and Crops on the ...
These two inputs are playing vital role in the agricultural development of the crops of the country. ... Many crops could not be grown or harvested without them. As a result of their use, food quality has improved and the cost of ... Pakistan must continue to maintain dynamic agricultural research and production programmes. By Dr. S.M. ALAM, NIA, Tandojam. ... If pesticides are not used, according to an estimate nearly 35 to 40% of crop loss annually would occur. Not only this, if ...
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Room MS2-022A. Macdonald Stewart Building. 21111 Lakeshore Road. Ste. Anne ...
Risk, uncertainty, and learning in adoption of a crop innovation. Authors. *. Amir K. Abadi Ghadim,. * School of Agricultural ... Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey, Antipodean agricultural and resource economics at 60: agricultural innovation, Australian ... and social trends and challenges of introducing oilseed and pulse crops into dryland wheat cropping systems, Agriculture, ... Theodoros Skevas, Scott M. Swinton, Sophia Tanner, Gregg Sanford, Kurt D. Thelen, Investment risk in bioenergy crops, GCB ...
... Paired comparison found few differences between poplar and agricultural crops. Sites with significant comparisons varied in ... There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent agricultural soils when considered for stand ages up to 12 ...
... built an innovative handheld sensor that gives plant scientists and farmers a more precise way of measuring the health of crops ... Agricultural intelligence: Sensor gives farmers more accurate read on plant health, provides valuable crop data. Watch $_ ... The robot system may look like a spider transformer: It travels between crop rows, with each leg equipped with a sensor, waving ... "Due to multiple technical reasons, the sensors prediction quality is much more accurate than any other types of crop imaging ...
Agricultural Biotechnology. Biotechnology is the use of living organisms microbes, plants, or animals to provide useful new ... As a result, most commercial crops bear little resemblance to their early relatives. Current maize varieties are so changed ... Using traditional plant breeding techniques, humans have altered the genetic composition of almost every crop by only planting ...
  • From the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, a map showing where the world's most used crops originated . (kottke.org)
  • Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water, and Infrastructure is a pioneering book that offers a comprehensive resource for understanding the worldwide agriculture markets, from spikes in agricultural commodity prices to trading strategies, and the agribusiness industry generally to the challenges of feeding the planet in particular. (wiley.com)
  • Written by one of the world's leading entomologists, Handbook of Agricultural Entomology is a landmark publication for students and practitioners of entomology applied to agriculture and horticulture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The diversification of agriculture and the development of new crops are closely related. (purdue.edu)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/4-agriculture/3-d-crop-production-and or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • On June 21, the National Agricultural Law Center will provide a webinar titled, Crop Insurance and Southern Agriculture: What You Need. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • Yet, the necessary agriculture and forestry by which such needs are uniquely met are probably better appreciated in the Third World, whose people are closest to the consequences of agricultural and forestry shortcomings. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Edmonton, Alberta, June 30, 2010 Innovotech Inc. (TSX-V: IOT), a pioneer in the field of biofilm product development, has secured funding in excess of $900,000 from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to facilitate the commercialization of Agress, its unique, environmentally friendly seed treatment and plant spray designed to protect crops against both bacterial and fungal infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The two year, repayable funding, administered in Alberta through the Agriculture and Food Council, will focus on field trials to expand the potential applications of Agress from pulse crops (dry beans, dry peas, lentils, chickpeas) and soybeans to high value horticultural crops such as tomatoes, peppers, and potatoes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The U.S. Senate Agriculture Subcommittee on Nutrition, Agricultural Research and Specialty Crops is one of five subcommittees of the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two decades ago, many agricultural scientists rightfully saw the emerging recombinant DNA technology as a potent tool in enhancing crop productivity and food quality while promoting sustainable agriculture. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this symposium, the effects and impacts of the proposed shift to crop insurance as the primary tool for risk management in agriculture will be examined and assessed. (aaea.org)
  • Is Crop Insurance Relevant as a Safety Net for Southern Agriculture? (aaea.org)
  • He has recently worked on several projects including a project from the National Institute for Food and Agriculture entitled "Assisting Organic Dairy Producers to Meet the Demands of New and Emerging Milk Markets" and a Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) project on "Reducing Fuel and Fertilizer in Corn Silage Using No-till and Cover Crops. (nas-sites.org)
  • Modern agriculture, as practiced in the U.S. and some other countries, often involves separation of forage crop production and animal (meat) production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • While government subsidies, aid programs, and private charities do support agriculture economically, most agricultural income in much of the world ultimately comes from the private consumer or taxpayer. (oregonstate.edu)
  • From the 1871 creation of the Bureau of Agriculture , the first incarnation of the Department of Agriculture , the gathering and publication of crop reports have been a primary responsibility of this entity . (oclc.org)
  • Technological advancements in agriculture such as use of precision agriculture concepts in crop & soil management are the key drivers for the soil amendment products. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Furthermore, increased use of crop protection chemicals in agriculture is projected to drive the agricultural adjuvant market in North America. (marketresearch.com)
  • One of the members of the Champlain Valley Crop, Soil & Pasture team was a guest blogger on the Women's Agriculture Network (WAgN) blog. (uvm.edu)
  • Badarinath KVS, Chand Kiran TR (2006) Agriculture crop residue burning in the Indo-gangetic plains: a study using IRSP6 WiFS satellite data. (springerprofessional.de)
  • The Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Board of Directors and Manager, FCIC, to consider the potential for obtaining actual crop yield data and using such data to establish homogeneous risk groups and the proper relationships among each group's yields and risk rates. (gao.gov)
  • The Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Board of Directors and Manager, FCIC, to give increased attention to completing actuarial reports depicting crop year 1980 and 1981 insurance experiences in order that the review and updating of the FCIC crop insurance programs might be expedited. (gao.gov)
  • The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over one third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the percentages of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the past several centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • To practice agriculture means to use natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three features of modern agriculture-control of crops and their genetics, of soil fertility via chemical fertilization and irrigation, and of pests (weeds, insects, and pathogens) via chemical pesticides-are the hallmarks of the green revolution. (pnas.org)
  • Historically, cropping systems have been designed to maximise yield, but modern agriculture is increasingly concerned with promoting environmental sustainability in cropping systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • improve unfavourable or to maintain good soil conditions for cropping. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Under such conditions the soil is depleted and it takes more nitrogen every season to obtain the same crop. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • They depend on factors such as soil characteristics cultivation practices, quality and quantity of irrigation water, ground water table, crop rotations and managerial capacity of the farmer. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. (usda.gov)
  • In addition to soil carbon storage potential, it is therefore important to consider opportunities offered by long-term sequestration of carbon in solid wood products and carbon-offset through production of bioenergy crops. (usda.gov)
  • Because of the wide variations in soils, the fertilizer applications suggested must be adjusted to the soil upon which the crop is to be grown. (mo.gov)
  • This updated and thoroughly revised second edition provides in-depth coverage of the impact of environmental conditions and management on crops, resource requirements for productivity and effects on soil resources. (cambridge.org)
  • Important new sections include ideotype concepts in respiration and partitioning, spatial variability in soil management, energy and labor requirements for bioenergy crops, and irrigation and world food supply. (cambridge.org)
  • In summary, these results showed that organic fertilizers can increase the persistence of Salmonella in soil and that soil type and plant species play a crucial role in the interactions between human pathogens and crop plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station, Malheur Experiment Station Annual Report 2012, Department of Crop and Soil Science Ext/CrS 144. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The demand for soil conditioners is projected to grow due to the need for enhanced nutrient management in soil, for better crop yield. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The soil conditioners are used on various crop types such as grains & cereals, oilseeds & pulses, and fruits & vegetables. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The cereals & grains segment is projected to be the fastest growing segment in the soil conditioners market, owing to shallow root system of these crops. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Moreover, hydrogels are insoluble crosslinked hydrophilic polymers with special water-absorbent characteristics, used as soil conditioners for various agricultural and industrial applications. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Kirsten works for UVM Extension as an Agronomy Outreach Professional for the Champlain Valley Crop, Soil & Pasture Team. (uvm.edu)
  • When the crop residue is burnt the existing minerals present in the soil get destroyed which adversely hampers the cultivation of the next crop. (springerprofessional.de)
  • The original article in PDF format\r\n\r\nAs food prices escalate throughout the world, scientists say it is time for Malaysia to pay more attention to soil and crop research. (aarsb.com.my)
  • Soil is tilled to change its structure, to kill weeds, and to manage crop residues. (britannica.com)
  • A sustained management of soils for both pH and nutrients is required to maintain the soil fertility levels and ensure economic agricultural production. (ufl.edu)
  • In order to keep the soil in the 6.0-6.5 pH range, which is best for most crops, farmers have been asked to apply lime to the soils routinely. (ufl.edu)
  • Liming materials not calibrated for agricultural use, such as basic slag, slaked builder's lime, and unlabeled lime by-products, can change the soil pH too much or too little. (ufl.edu)
  • Several agricultural commodities are intensively managed for soil pH, nutrients, and water on most of the soils found in Florida. (ufl.edu)
  • So, the soil and crop management options available will be specific to the soils, crops produced, the ecosystem, the local BMPs implemented, and economics. (ufl.edu)
  • The soil pH in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) (muck soils) has been increasing for many years and is now around 7.0 or higher. (ufl.edu)
  • The soils are drained each year to cultivate crops, which causes oxidation of the soil carbon and consequently the subsidence of soils. (ufl.edu)
  • Crop rotation has been employed for thousands of years, and has been widely found to increase yield and prevent harmful changes to the soil environment that limit productivity in the long-term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are not fully understood, it is thought to be related to differential effects on soil chemical, physical, and microbiological properties by different crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • By affecting the soil in different ways, crops in a rotation help to stabilise changes in these properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forages are grown in this manner, since animal traffic is expected and maximum plant density is required for their nutrition, as are cover crops, since their purpose of competing with weeds and preventing soil erosion depends largely on density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of tillage result in varying amounts of crop residue being incorporated into the soil profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional or intensive tillage typically leaves less than 15% of crop residues on a field, reduced tillage leaves 15-30%, and conservation tillage systems leave at least 30% on the soil surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion-Ton Report, in the United States, 104 million tons of agricultural residues were available in 2017, and 201 million tons of agricultural residues and energy crops will be potentially available in 2022 at a farmgate price of less than $60/ton. (osu.edu)
  • 2017. "Optimal Use of Agricultural Water and Land Resources through Reconfiguring Crop Planting Structure under Socioeconomic and Ecological Objectives. (mdpi.com)
  • 2017). It can also be used as mulch, both for crop nutrition, since this residue is an excellent organic matter, potassium and nitrogen source (Costa et al. (academicjournals.org)
  • 2017). In this paper, like most agricultural economists, we focus on crop diversity to approximate the level of biodiversity at the farm level.1 This approach is highly influenced by landscape ecology, which postulates that landscape structure, defined by both its composition and configuration, determines species dynamics and, hence, species density (Burel and Baudry, 2003). (deepdyve.com)
  • The November 2016 quarterly USDA forecasts for agricultural trade in the United States in FY 2017 are presented and discussed in this report. (usda.gov)
  • Rick conducts educational programing and research on a wide variety of topics, including organic dairy production, no-till corn silage production, cover crops, and organic grain production. (nas-sites.org)
  • Sugars and starches-found in crops like corn, sugarcane, and beets-can be fermented to make biofuels, such as ethanol, butanol, or methanol, to power vehicles. (nrdc.org)
  • Based on state-level pesticide use data, the crops with the highest densities in the study, corn and soybeans, had the highest proportion of acres treated with pesticides in six states. (foodexposed.org)
  • The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's (USDA) Risk Management Agency (RMA) administers the federal crop insurance program in partnership with private insurers. (gao.gov)
  • This testimony is based on GAO's 2005 report, Crop Insurance: Actions Needed to Reduce Program's Vulnerability to Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, as well as new analyses this Committee requested on underwriting gains and administrative and operating expenses USDA paid companies. (gao.gov)
  • And to make sure everything gets done right, many producers and handlers rely on trusted resources from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). (usda.gov)
  • Despite its relatively small size and location in Memphis, Tennessee, the Agricultural Marketing Service, Standardization & Engineering Division (S&E) within the USDA Cotton & Tobacco Program (C&T) plays a giant role in both the U.S. and international cotton marketing systems. (usda.gov)
  • As growers in western Nebraska look at new pulse crops to integrate into their rotations, a UNL plant pathologist works to identify possible disease threats. (unl.edu)
  • There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent agricultural soils when considered for stand ages up to 12 years. (usda.gov)
  • Species in the remaining areas are divided by the government census into three major functional groups or guilds: field crops, forestry, and orchards. (purdue.edu)
  • Go to the field with UNL Plant Pathologists Tamra Jackson-Ziems and Loren Giesler as they show you what to watch for to correctly identify and manage Nebraska crop diseases. (unl.edu)
  • Timelapse stack of straw crop agricultural field landscape sky clouds. (videohive.net)
  • 13. The crop residue spreader of claim 9, wherein the first adjusting mechanism is further operable for moving the flow guide in fore and aft directions relative to the discharge opening to enable adjusting a pattern of crop residuedistribution over a field. (patentgenius.com)
  • Most of the field crop acreage is located in the eastern part of the state, and Dr. Reisig is housed two hours east of campus at the Vernon James Research and Extension Center. (nas-sites.org)
  • A system and method for creating 3-dimensional agricultural field scene maps are disclosed comprising producing a pair of images using a stereo camera and creating a disparity images based on the pair of images, the disparity image being a 3-dimensional representation of the stereo images. (google.com)
  • Coordinate arrays can be produced from the disparity image and the coordinate arrays can be used to render a 3-dimensional local map of the agricultural field scene. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates generally to the field of agricultural mapping systems. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to systems and methods for detecting crop rows in an agricultural field scene. (google.com)
  • Remote sensing techniques have been used to generate geographical and spatial information related to an agricultural field. (google.com)
  • Biotechnology's next quest, to provide field crops with value-enhanced qualities for end- users -- output traits -- is underway. (intekom.com)
  • The term cropping system refers to the crops, crop sequences and management techniques used on a particular agricultural field over a period of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • As previously noted, the worldwide demand for meat has increased in recent decades and this demand has stimulated higher production of forage crops. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Lands used to produce forage crops are sometimes not suitable for food crop production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It is definitely a book to recommend to serious students of crop science and of managed ecosystems. (cambridge.org)
  • The largest impacts would be on freshwater and marine ecosystems, which would be greatly eutrophied by high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus release from agricultural fields. (pnas.org)
  • Because of aerial redistribution of various forms of nitrogen, agricultural intensification also would eutrophy many natural terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, insights are sought in the parallels between natural and agricultural ecosystems, but no easy answers are uncovered. (pnas.org)
  • Current agricultural practices involve deliberately maintaining ecosystems in a highly simplified, disturbed, and nutrient-rich state. (pnas.org)
  • A clear and deep understanding of phenologies and intensities will require us to develop a temporal (e.g., this figure) and spectral knowledge base of each crop in different agro-ecosystems of the world leading to mapping distinct classes within a crop, which in turn will lead to accurate assessments of green water use (rainfed croplands) and blue water use (irrigated croplands). (usgs.gov)
  • Recent outbreaks of diseases caused by viroids suggest that either current control measures are inadequate or that growers may be unaware of the risks that viroid infection pose to their crops. (apsnet.org)
  • DuPont Crop Protection uses inclusive thinking to create answers in insect, weed and disease control that help growers. (dupont.com)
  • The Rio Paranã supplies much of the water for irrigation of the crops and filling up of small dams for livestock raising. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last section is called 'agricultural techniques and the health of crops, and deals with the results obtained through the process of stimulating protein synthesis. (ideaa.eu)
  • Therefore, we compile literatures on the productivity of crop diversity and acreage choices (e.g. (deepdyve.com)
  • This article is from the 2019 Nebraska Crop Management Conference Proceedings. (unl.edu)
  • SAO PAULO, Feb 21 (Reuters) - Rising gasoline prices in Brazil and improved economic prospects in 2019 are boosting the outlook for ethanol sales and mills may once again skew toward the biofuel and away from sugar as the new cane crop approaches. (reuters.com)
  • a timely update of a foundational text for college or graduate curricula providing comprehensive treatment of ecological principles and concepts central to achieving global food security and to conducting the environmental accounting critical to sustaining productivity through judicious natural resource management … an essential desk reference for practising systems agronomists, agro-ecologists, and agricultural economists and biological engineers pursuing biophysical life cycle analyses. (cambridge.org)
  • Figure 4) in order to: (a) establish improved models of crop biophysical and biochemical quantities, (b) increase crop classification accuracies, and (c) produce accurate crop and water productivity models. (usgs.gov)
  • We observed little difference between paired poplar and switchgrass, both promising bioenergy crops. (usda.gov)
  • Simply put, some believe that land used to produce animal feed should instead be used to produce food (e.g. grain crops) suitable for direct human consumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It has been estimated that over 100 million tons of the grain crops produced in the U.S. are fed directly to animals. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The liability continues to the moment of the full collection of the harvest, but not later than the time, which is usual for the specified area and for the newly created permanent crops, the liability is annual. (mussalains.com)
  • Area of permanent crops: 1,112 ha. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulated experience and knowledge of decades of crop improvement combined with expert judgment, science-based reasoning and empirical research has led to scientists' confidence that GM crops may pose no new or heightened risks that could not be identified or mitigated, and that any unforeseen hazard will be negligible, manageable, or preventable. (plantphysiol.org)
  • His research program is focused on the biology and ecology of Heliothines, especially in relation to Bt crops. (nas-sites.org)
  • The NIOSH Division of Safety Research and Protective Technology Branch has developed a cost-effective rollover protective structures (CROPS) as an alternative to installing commercially available ROPS, which are hard to find, or as an option for older wheeled agricultural tractors for which ROPS are not commercially available. (cdc.gov)
  • Francis Chaboussou was an agronomist at the French National Institute of Agricultural Research. (ideaa.eu)
  • The types of agricultural adjuvants include activator (surfactants, oil adjuvants, and ammonium fertilizers) and utility (compatibility agents, buffers/acidifiers, antifoam agents, water conditioners, and drift control agents). (marketresearch.com)
  • The differences observed across these systems are diverse, and there is still considerable debate concerning their relative economic and environmental impact, but a number of widely-reported benefits have led to a major shift towards reduced tillage in modern cropping systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The flow distributor of claim 1, wherein the crop residue flow surface has an upwardly and sidewardly outwardly facing concave shape so as to be capable of guiding a flow of crop residue discharged downwardly from the discharge openingupwardly and sidewardly outwardly therefrom. (patentgenius.com)
  • 11. The crop residue spreader of claim 10, wherein the first adjusting mechanism is further operable for moving the second end portion upwardly and downwardly relative to the discharge opening. (patentgenius.com)
  • 12. The crop residue spreader of claim 9, wherein the flow guide has a curved shape which is concave in the upward direction. (patentgenius.com)
  • 14. The crop residue spreader of claim 9, wherein the actuator is remotely controllable for moving the flow guide such that points along the aft edge will move at different rates in relation to the back plate for varying the oblique angle. (patentgenius.com)
  • Crop residue burning is one among the many sources of air pollution. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Burning of crop residue also contributes indirectly to the increased ozone pollution. (springerprofessional.de)
  • The Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) program provides funding to U.S. organizations for projects that address sanitary, phytosanitary and technical barriers that prohibit or threaten the export of U.S. specialty crops. (usda.gov)
  • FAS reviews the proposals and awards funds on a competitive basis to applicants that clearly demonstrate how their projects will overcome trade barriers and retain or expand market access for specialty crops. (usda.gov)
  • The importance of the railroad lines in the shipping of farm products is also highlighted by this agricultural map . (oclc.org)
  • The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels , and raw materials . (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) is a monthly report providing a global look at the markets for key agricultural products. (usda.gov)
  • Results were not substantially different when using alternative exposure categories or when analyzing specific crop types, with the exception of a higher risk related to exposure to citrus orchards and olive groves in Southern Italy, though based on few exposed subjects (N = 89 and 8, respectively). (rti.org)
  • The Trust supports the work of agricultural and applied economists by funding programs and initiatives designed to advance the profession. (aaea.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of using conilon and arabica coffee straw as mulch on the emergence and development of three crops ( Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativu, Solanum lycopersicum ) and three natural plants ( Eupatorium maximilianii , Amaranthus hybridus and Bidens pilosa ). (academicjournals.org)
  • There was little evidence of any dose-response relation between crop proximity and ALS risk, and using long-term residence instead of current residence did not substantially change our estimates. (rti.org)
  • Some of the nutrients contained in these dead tissues are made available to crops during decomposition, reducing the need for fertiliser inputs. (wikipedia.org)