A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Diseases of plants.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.

Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. (1/1185)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? (2/1185)

The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called "direct effect" of regional haze results in an approximately 5-30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China's most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an approximately 1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of approximately 70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5-30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades.  (+info)

UK CropNet: a collection of databases and bioinformatics resources for crop plant genomics. (3/1185)

The UK Crop Plant Bioinformatics Network (UK CropNet) was established in 1996 in order to harness the extensive work in genome mapping in crop plants in the UK. Since this date we have published five databases from our central UK CropNet WWW site (http://synteny.nott.ac.uk/) with a further three to follow shortly. Our resource facilitates the identification and manipulation of agronomically important genes by laying a foundation for comparative analysis among crop plants and model species. In addition, we have developed a number of software tools that facilitate the visualisation and analysis of our data. Many of our tools are made freely available for use with both crop plant data and with data from other species.  (+info)

Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. (4/1185)

Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.  (+info)

The next target of bioterrorism: your food. (5/1185)

One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immune resistance to a range of common illnesses. To reduce the potential of deliberate introductions of crop pathogens as acts of terrorism, researchers must be able to "fingerprint" pathogens at the molecular level and discriminate between naturally occurring and deliberately introduced outbreaks. Several domestic and international surveillance, tracking, and reporting efforts are under way.  (+info)

Crop biotechnology. Where now? (6/1185)

Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.  (+info)

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone from roots of Sesamum indicum. (7/1185)

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone pigment having antifungal activity, named chlorosesamone, was isolated from the roots of Sesamum indicum. Its structure was characterized as 2-chloro-5,8-dihydroxy-3-(3methyl-2-butenyl)- 1,4-na phthoquinone on the basis of spectral evidence.  (+info)

Museum specimen data predict crop damage by tropical rodents. (8/1185)

Museum collections constitute a massive store of information on biological diversity. We used museum specimen data to generate ecological niche models that provide predictions of geographic distributions of native rodent pest species and agricultural census data that summarize the geographic distribution of nine crops in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, as well as crop losses between planting and harvest. Herein, we show that crop damage is related significantly to the predicted presence of rodent species for seven of nine crops. Museum collections may thus provide important baseline information for designing land-use and agricultural pest-management programs.  (+info)

The Atlas of Guatemalan Crop Wild Relatives (Atlas Guatemalteco de Parientes Silvestres de las Plantas Cultivadas) is a unique new resource designed to facilitate the conservation and use of wild plant species that are related to cultivated crops. Guatemala is located in the heart of Mesoamerica, one of the worlds most important centers of plant domestication and agricultural origins, and, consequently, an area with an abundance of crop wild relatives. Crop wild relatives are increasingly important to world agriculture because they contain beneficial traits needed for breeding improved crop varieties that are hardier, more productive, more nutritious, more disease and drought resistant, and better adapted to the stresses of climate change.. The Atlas provides detailed information on 105 species or subspecies of wild Guatemalan plants that are related to crops, including their description, distribution, diversity and conservation status. The species are organized into genepools corresponding to ...
Field Crop News is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at Field Crop News. ...
Field Crop News is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at Field Crop News. ...
In addition to genetic variation, epigenetic variation plays an important role in determining various biological processes. The importance of natural genetic variation to crop domestication and improvement has been widely investigated. However, the contribution of epigenetic variation in crop domestication at population level has rarely been explored. To understand the impact of epigenetics on crop domestication, we investigate the variation of DNA methylation during soybean domestication and improvement by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 45 soybean accessions, including wild soybeans, landraces, and cultivars. Through methylomic analysis, we identify 5412 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). These DMRs exhibit characters distinct from those of genetically selected regions. In particular, they have significantly higher genetic diversity. Association analyses suggest only 22.54% of DMRs can be explained by local genetic variations. Intriguingly, genes in the DMRs that are not associated with
We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. Soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 20 to more than 160 Mg/ha across the sampled sites. Lowest SOC levels were found in uplands and highest levels in riparian soils. We attributed differences in bulk density and SOC among cover types to the inclusion of woodlot soils in the analysis. Paired comparison found few differences between poplar and agricultural crops. Sites with significant comparisons varied in magnitude and direction. Relatively greater SOC was often observed in poplar when native soil carbon was low, but there were important exceptions. Woodlots consistently contained greater SOC than the other crops, especially at depth. We observed little difference between paired poplar and switchgrass, both promising bioenergy crops. There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent ...
May 7, 2020. Industrial hemp and alfalfa have been added to the annual crop health survey funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program (NNYADP). Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) regional fields crops specialists scouted fields on 30 regional farms in 2019 for early detection of disease in corn, soybean, alfalfa, and hemp crops.. The results of NNYADP-funded crop surveys from 2013 through 2019 are posted on this Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at https://www.nnyagdev.org/index.php/field-crops/research.. This regional survey is a proactive and systematic way to alert growers to respond quickly to limit emerging and re-emerging plant diseases, to document trends, and to develop strategies to reduce the threat to crop health, sustainability, and the profit margin that is so narrow for growers, says project leader and CCE Regional Field Crops Specialist Michael E. Hunter.. This NNYADP-funded field crops survey, restarted in 2013, has ...
Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty years. Viral resistance has been developed in diverse crops with SRGE technology and a few viral resistant crops have been approved for commercial release. In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and potential solution for application of SRGE in crop protection are also discussed.
Place: Wiiks Castle, Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the seminar was to increase the interest, knowledge and collaboration in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The aim of the seminar was also to stimulate development of methods in agriculture with minimum use of chemicals or no use of chemicals and to increase collaboration between researchers/advisors and PhD students projects. The aim of the seminar was also to give PhD students possibility to present their projects to a broader target group outside university and to inform PhD students about research areas and future work in research or in advisory and to discuss PhD students projects with researchers/advisors etc outside university. To make this possible the seminar was organised together with the PhD course in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The seminar was held on 3rd September at Wiks Castle about 30 km south-west Uppsala in the province of Uppland. During the ...
Through advancements in agriculture and the development of new crop varieties, humans have historically strived to meet the needs of a growing population and to develop a safe, reliable and sustainable food supply. How will we continue to meet this challenge, while dealing with a changing climate and threats of new pests and diseases? The American Seed Trade Association (ASTA) affirms that continued innovation is paramount to the future of agriculture and to our shared quality of life. Plant breeders including those who develop new wheat varieties will need access to available tools to responsibly meet these challenges.. The fundamental practices of plant breeders have not changed over time, ASTA notes. Plant breeders still select the best plants for their desired goal, which may be higher yields, disease resistance, improved end use characteristics or better nutrition. However, the tools and information that plant breeders use have evolved, allowing them to take advantage of the growing ...
Crop wild relatives, such as the Critically Endangered Beta patula, a primary wild relative of cultivated beets, are of vital importance for food security and agriculture as they can be used to produce new crop varieties. It is estimated that crop wild relatives contribute more than USD 100 billion worldwide towards increased crop yields. Production of at least one third of the worlds food, including 87 of the 113 leading food crops, depends on pollination carried out by insects, bats and birds. This ecosystem service is worth over USD 200 billion per year. According to the IUCN Red List 16% of Europes endemic butterflies are threatened. Bats, which are also important pollinators, are also at risk with 18% threatened globally. The latest IUCN Red List update shows that four members of the hummingbird family, which is known for its pollination services, are now at greater risk of extinction with the Pink-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa gularis) listed as Vulnerable. In addition to their important ...
This Alternative Field Crops Manual addresses the need for detailed information on the production of a number of agronomic crops adapted to the upper Midwest. Our intent is to provide county extension agents and others in educational roles a concise, uniform source of information on those field crops which may be considered as alternatives to traditional farm commodities.. The manual is a joint project between the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, the University of Minnesota Extension Service and the Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products. Extension specialists from both states have written or reviewed each chapter to insure accuracy and applicability of information and recommendations.. Inclusion of a crop in this notebook is for educational purposes only; no endorsement of any particular crop is implied. Individual growers should consider the following factors in determining whether a crop might be a viable alternative in their particular situation:. ...
Get this from a library! Improving crop productivity in sustainable agriculture. [Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill; Renu Tuteja;] -- An up-to-date overview of current progress in improving crop quality and quantity using modern methods. With a particular emphasis on genetic engineering, this text focusses on crop improvement under ...
Im from a part of Virginia where you learn different crops not because youre a farmer, but because there isnt much else to look at during the bus ride
AquaClean - ACF-32 - Microbial Inoculation for Agricultural Crops by Nova Q LTD. AquaClean ACF-32 is a broad consortium of natural bacteria in a stable liquid form which helps to restore natural balance and improve the overall condition of the soil. ...
Last, F. T.; Fowler, D.; Freer-Smith, P. H.. 1985 Effects of air pollutants on agricultural crops. Cambridge, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 28pp. Before downloading, please read NORA policies ...
In the spirit of the general debate over genetically modified (GM) food which is not slowing down, we wanted to answer some questions, such as: Is Gene Revolution an answer to world hunger? Do GM crops with more complex transformation contribute to the enrichment of multinationals? Why U.S. increases food aids? To this end, we firstly describe the diffusion of GM crops around the world during the previous 20 years. Starting from 1996, we present global progress with adoption of biotech crops, its distribution in developed and developing countries, global area by trait, adoption rate and global value of biotech crops. The findings reveal 10 countries, four crops, and two traits domination. The findings of this study clarify the failure of transgenic technology to eradicate hunger. In addition, the results have shown statistically significant correlation between stacked trait and global market value of biotech crops as well as between raising production of biotech crops in U.S. and an increase in U.S.
EAG Laboratories makes biotech crops safer and more effective with revolutionary protein chemistry and profiling analysis and custom, GLP-compliant studies.
Plant agriculture is poised at a technological turning point. Recent advances in genome engineering make it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in living cells, providing unprecedented control over a plants genetic material. The new technologies are already being widely adopted in academic and industrial research and it is expected that crops developed using these new technologies will be produced world-wide over the coming years.. These emerging crop breeding technologies offer a range of opportunities but also face regulatory challenges and may require new risk assessment approaches.. The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is working with experts from a variety of backgrounds to develop a position statement on developments in new genetic technologies, their application in crop breeding and implications for risk assessment and regulation. The position statement is expected later this summer.. This briefing enabled journalists to find out about molecular ...
Lees Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding Volume 2 - Improvement for Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement door met Rakuten Kobo. Genomic Applications for Crop Breeding: Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement is the second of two volumes looki...
The main objectives of this study are to examine: (1) the growth and pattern in Indias food grain production and (2) the decomposition of the total yield increases into pure yield effect and cropping pattern. The present study is based on secondary data for the last 44 years, i.e, from 1955-56 to 1998-99. The study shows that there is, in fact, some deceleration from Pre-green Revolution Period to the Green Revolution Period, coming substantially from a decline in the growth rate of area in the Post-green Revolution Period/Pre-economic Reform Period and Post-economic Reform Period. The major contribution of output is through yield increase. The first order interaction of yield and cropping pattern was a major factor for the growth of food grain output. Therefore, the future effort should be made to stabilize and expand the area of food grains along with increasing yield level. For this, modern technology of agriculture should be promoted, which consists of pest and disease resistant varieties.
The Green Revolution boosted crop yields in developing nations by introducing dwarf genotypes of wheat and rice capable of responding to fertilization without lodging. We now need a Second Green Revolution, to improve the yield of crops grown in infertile soils by farmers with little access to fertilizer, who represent the majority of third-world farmers. Just as the Green Revolution was based on crops responsive to high soil fertility, the Second Green Revolution will be based on crops tolerant of low soil fertility. Substantial genetic variation in the productivity of crops in infertile soil has been known for over a century. In recent years we have developed a better understanding of the traits responsible for this variation. Root architecture is critically important by determining soil exploration and therefore nutrient acquisition. Architectural traits under genetic control include basal root gravitropism, adventitious root formation, and lateral branching. Architectural traits that enhance ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
Principal Scientist, Reproduction Biology, Syngenta. Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 works efficiently in plant cells, but delivery of genome editing machinery into the vast majority of crop varieties is not possible using established methods. We co-opted the aberrant reproductive process of haploid induction (HI) to induce edits in nascent seeds of diverse monocot and dicot species. Our method, named HI-Edit, enables direct genomic modification of commercial crop varieties. HI-edit was tested in field and sweet corn using a native haploid inducer line, and extended to dicots using an engineered CENH3 HI system. We also recovered edited wheat embryos using Cas9 delivered by maize pollen. Our data indicate that a transient hybrid state precedes uniparental chromosome elimination in maize HI. Edited haploid plants lack both the haploid inducer parental DNA and the editing machinery. Therefore, edited plants could be used in trait testing and directly integrated into commercial variety ...
Maintenant disponible sur AbeBooks.fr - ISBN: 9781402069062 - Hardback - Springer-Verlag New York Inc., United States - 2008 - Etat du livre : New - 2008 ed.. - Language: English . Brand New Book. This book fully integrates the conventional and biotechnological approaches to fruit crop breeding. Individual chapters are written on a wide variety of species covering all the major fruit crops in one volume. For each crop, there is a discussion of their taxonomy and evolution, history of improvement, crossing techniques, evaluation methods, and heritability of major traits and germplasm resources. Also discussed are the most recent advances in genetic mapping and QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis, marker assisted breeding, gene cloning, gene expression analysis, regeneration and transformation. Patenting and licensing issues are also covered.
I develop an ecophysiological genomic prediction model for grain-filling of rice. First, a crop model of panicle structure and grain weight is bulit based on the field test with various cropping seasons and cutting off flag leaves. Second, a genomic prediction model is built to predict the parameters of the crop model based on the genome-wide marker genotype. The combination of crop modeling and modeling based on quantitative genetics enables us to predict the phenotype of selection candidates under various environmantal conditions. On the basis of the genomic prediction model, crossbreeding simulation reveals the suitable parents to obtain offsprings that performe well under a certain environment. The present study aims to realize the effective and efficient strategy of plant breeding.. ...
Brazil reached record heights with its 2007-2008 grain production, acccording to data from the National Supply Company (Conab).
Trials on the following field crops: winter cereals (wheat, barley, triticale, oats…), summer cereals (corn/maize, sorghum, rice…), protein crops (peas, beans…), oilseeds (soybeans, rapeseed…), fodder crops (alfalfa, ray-grass…), energy crops, etc ...
INTRODUCTION The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit (Bernardo 2002). This approach expressly declares that the breeder should have scientific knowledge, individual skills (art) to select plants and/or progenies, the aptness of a good manager and, above all, a holistic view of agriculture and its interactions with human society. In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. 2002, Pearson 2006, Gerstein et al. 2007, Scherrer and Jost 2007a,b, Joaquim and El Hani 2010). These changes became more far-reaching after the publication of studies of the genome of some species (AG Initiative 2000, Qing-Po and Qing-Zhong 2006, Orjuela et al. 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept ...
Pheromones Market in Agriculture by Crop Type (Field Crops, Fruits & Nuts, Vegetables), Application (Mating Disruption, Mass Trapping, Detection & Monitoring), Mode of Application (Traps, - Market research report and industry analysis - 11211245
Conjure up an image of the typical plant breeder and youll probably see in your minds eye a lab-coated scientist in a brightly lit sterile room, busily blowing pollen grains in one direction or another.
Get the latest plant breeder service news on agriculture-xprt.com, the worlds largest agricultural industry marketplace and information resource.
Experiment station work, XXVII : hen manure, soft corn, nitrate of soda for field crops, hay substitutes, varieties, culture, and quality of wheat, oak leaves as forage, breeding corn, the covered milk pail, quality of irrigated crops, canning cheese, shading strawberries and vegetables, millet seed for hogs, injuries to shade trees, fertilizers for ...
Brids, Field Crops Res. 95: 316326. 24. Gambin BL, 86168-78-7 Borras L, Otegui ME Kernel water relations and duration of grain filling in maize temperate
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crops seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering - instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective.. A particularly important mutation that was selected very early in the history of agriculture removed the brittle rachis problem from wheat.[1] A ripe head (ear) of wild-type wheat is easily shattered into dispersal units when touched, or blown by the wind, because during ripening a series of abscission layers forms that divides the rachis into short segments, each attached to a single spikelet (which contains 2-3 grains along with chaff).. A different class of shattering mechanisms involves dehiscence of the mature fruit, which releases the ...
Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data
A sustainable agriculture project, led by Michigan State University Crop and Soil Sciences professor and AgBioResearch scientist David Douches, recently earned a 2011 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Secretarys Honor Award. The award was received in the category Helping America promote sustainable agricultural production and biotechnology exports as America works to increase food security.. The honored project (actually three projects in one), the Barley, Wheat, Potato and Tomato Coordinated Agricultural Projects (CAP) is comprised of a group of researchers and educators from land-grant universities, government agencies and industry groups working together to identify genetic variations in those crops. Discoveries that can help the plants resist disease, increase crop yield and make more efficient use of nutrients are already helping plant breeders develop more sustainable crop varieties.. The award is a reflection of the great team of post docs, technical staff and students that work ...
Mixed cropping: It is also called as multiple cropping. This is the practice where two different crops or more are grown simultaneously in the same field. The crops are chosen in such a way that the products and waste material from one crop helps in the growth of the other. This type of cropping leads to improving the fertility of the soil thereby increasing the crop yield. Generally, one crop is of long duration while the other is of short duration. One crop requires more nutrients and water while the other requires lesser nutrients or water. As a result, there is a reduction in the competition between the crops for light, nutrients and water. If one crop fails to grow (due to untimely rain or no rains or shortage of nutrients), then the other crop can cover the risk of this complete failure ...
For the ever-increasing population of the world, an increasing demand for more and more food is required. To cope with this alarming situation, there is a dire need for sustainable agricultural...
Join us for the first in the fall series of 4 OClock Forum, a seminar series on the Macdonald campus that allows researchers and graduate students the opportunities to be exposed to scientific advancements related to their own fields of research as well as other scientific areas. The first speaker is Prof. Ehab Abouheif, Department of Biology, McGill University. Seminars are held every third Thursday from September to November. A winter series will start again in January. Everyone is welcome to attend.
MERCHAN, HD; LUTZ, EE y MORANT, AE. Production of a double-purpose wheat. Phyton (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.75, pp.41-46. ISSN 1851-5657.. In the mixed systems (beef and grain) of the semiarid Pampa, double purpose wheat use might diminish competition by the soil resource, external inputs into the system and money, which are often associated between winter cereals for grazing and/or grain harvest. In the experimental station of the Asociación de Cooperativas Argentinas in Cabildo (wheat semiarid subregion V S), a trial to evaluate shoot and grain production was conducted. The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Buck Charrúa, commercially recommended for double purpose use was utilized. Grain production of autumn-sown plots, which were defoliated 0, 1, 2 or 4 times, was compared to that of plots sown in winter only for grain production. Grain yield of the autumn-sown wheat without defoliation (control) was 45% less than that of the crop sown in winter for grain (3208 Kg/ha vs 1755 Kg/ha). ...
Please join a special seminar to be given by Christoph Müller of the Postdam Institute for Climate Impacts Research, entitled Global Gridded Crop Modeling Approaches for Global Trade, Food Security, and Nutrition in a Changing World. The seminar is hosted by AgMIP – the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, in conjunction with the Center for Climate Systems Research and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Global crop modeling is particularly uncertain as models have to operate in data-scarce environments. There are large parts of the world where little is known about actual production systems. Similarly, lack of data for model calibration hampers rigorous model evaluation. Still, global crop model applications are invaluable for understanding future challenges to agriculture, as agricultural production systems are interconnected globally through agricultural trade and climate. I will discuss the motivation, challenges and actual progress in global ...
Indias population is bound to cross 1.6 billion by 2050, which will demand doubling of our food grain production to ensure food security to all our people. There is inevitable need of increasing the food grain production and enhancing the agricultural productivity without degrading the environment. This necessitates focus on development of rain-fed areas, degraded lands, analysis of cropping system, proper monitoring and management of agricultural practices, assessing the impact of droughts and floods and so on.
The advantages of free threshing in wheat led to the selection of the domesticated Q allele which is now present in almost all modern wheat varieties. Q and the pre-domestication allele, q, encode an AP2 transcription factor with the domesticated allele conferring a free threshing character and a subcompact (i.e. partially compact) inflorescence (spike). We demonstrate that mutations in the miR172-binding site of the Q gene are sufficient to increase transcript levels via a reduction in miRNA dependent degradation, consistent with the conclusion that a SNP in the miRNA-binding site of Q relative to q was essential in defining the modern Q allele. We also describe novel gain- and loss-of-function alleles of Q and use these to define new roles for this gene in spike development. Q is required for the suppression of sham ramification and increased Q expression can lead to the formation of ectopic florets and spikelets (specialized inflorescence branches that bear florets and grains) resulting in ...
What are IITA and the other centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) doing to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the effects of CC on pests? Historically, CGIAR centers have a broad R4D focus; centers have been developing knowledge (e.g., pest profiles), products (e.g., new crop varieties, biocontrol agents against invasive pests), and technologies (e.g., predictive models, diagnostic tools) that are suitable for diverse agroecologies including the tropics, wet, humid, semiarid, and dry, and to some extent the temperate zones as well. The broad knowledge and experience of centers provide an unprecedented advantage to assess the products and technologies in different agroecologies and weather settings and to determine their resilience and ability to cope in altered climatic situations.. Several programs directly focus on managing pests. For instance, the breeding of crop varieties for resistance to pests and pathogens has always been a focus of the CGIAR. ...
The situation for India could be especially precarious, the report notes. In the Indo-Gangetic plains which produce 90 million tonnes of wheat a year (about 14-15 per cent of global production), projections indicate a substantial fall in yields unless there is a shift to different crop varieties and management practices, it says ...
crop rotation: The successive cultivation of different crops in a specified order on the same fields, in contrast to a one-crop system or to haphazard crop successions. Throughout human history,...
Well-tested computer simulation models of the growth, development, and yield of annual crops are being used for a wide range of purposes, including the prediction of impacts of different management practices and land use systems on food production, farmers profitability, and the environment. Presentation and interpretation of simulation results can be significantly enhanced through the linking of models with software that allows spatial visualization. Many users of crop simulation models, however, are located in institutions in developing countries where resources are particularly limited. Computer software to perform a variety of spatial analyses was written, which can be run on modest hardware without the need for costly third-party software. The software is an integral part of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), a comprehensive crop simulation model and data system, but can also be run in a stand-alone mode. Users can run spatial simulation experiments and then ...
What are IITA and the other centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) doing to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the effects of CC on pests? Historically, CGIAR centers have a broad R4D focus; centers have been developing knowledge (e.g., pest profiles), products (e.g., new crop varieties, biocontrol agents against invasive pests), and technologies (e.g., predictive models, diagnostic tools) that are suitable for diverse agroecologies including the tropics, wet, humid, semiarid, and dry, and to some extent the temperate zones as well. The broad knowledge and experience of centers provide an unprecedented advantage to assess the products and technologies in different agroecologies and weather settings and to determine their resilience and ability to cope in altered climatic situations.. Several programs directly focus on managing pests. For instance, the breeding of crop varieties for resistance to pests and pathogens has always been a focus of the CGIAR. ...
The confirmation of significant genotypic differences in previous experiments led to the QTL mapping of the traits using an F8 RIL mapping population. From multiple QTL mapping (MQM) analysis, six QTLs and a putative QTL were obtained, mostly clustered in a hotspot in linkage group (LG) 1. The traits were mainly of the primary and global root traits. The primary root length (PRL) in this hotspot was driven by wild lettuce, which may imply association of domestication QTL in lettuce rooting depth as opposed to interval mapping (IM) or multiple QTL mapping (MQM) analysis. Using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis (KW) QTL analysis, 48 QTLs were identified, in which some clustered at hotspots (i.e. LG1, LG4, LG5 and LG8) dominated by lateral root traits. These clusters of trait loci may imply similar mechanisms control similar growth-related traits ...
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide 1 North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide North Carolina State University North Carolina Organic Grain Project College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Prepared by: Molly Hamilton, Crop Science Extension Assistant, NC State University With contributions from: Keith Baldwin, Extension Specialist, North Carolina A& T State University Gary Bullen, Extension Associate, Agriculture and Resource Economics, NC State University Mike Burton, Assistant Professor, Crop Science, NC State University Carl Crozier, Soil Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Jim Dunphy, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University John Van Duyn, Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Myron Fountain, former Executive Director, North Carolina Crop Improvement Association Ron Heiniger, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University David Howle, Assistant Professor, Fertilizer and Seed Certification, Clemson University Tony Kleese, ...
The genetic architecture of crop domestication is generally characterized by three trends: relatively few genomic regions with major QTL effects are involved, QTL are often clustered, and alleles derived from the crop do not always contribute to the crop phenotype. We have investigated the genetic architecture of lettuce using a recombinant inbred line population from a cross between a crop Lactuca sativa (Salinas) and its wild relative L. serriola. Few genomic regions with major QTL, plus various intermediate QTL, largely control the transition from wild to cultivated Crisphead lettuce. Allelic effects of all major QTL were in the expected direction, but there were intermediate QTL where the crop contributed to the wild phenotype and vice versa. We found two main regions with clusters of QTL, one on linkage group 3, where the crop allele induced lower seed output, another on linkage group 7, where the crop allele caused a delay in flowering time. Potentially, knowledge of genetic changes due ...
Small Grain Production Guide Revised March 2013 Small Grain Production Guide Revised March 2013 Prepared by Randy Weisz, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University With additional contributions from Gaylon Ambrose, County Extension Agent, Beaufort County Cooperative Extension Steve Bambara, Retired Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Christina Cowger, USDA-ARS, Plant Pathologist, NC State University Carl Crozier, Soil Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Wesley Everman, Weed Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Ron Heiniger, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Professor, Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute David Jordan, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Paul Murphy, Small Grains Breeder, NC State University Dominic Reisig, Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Published by North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture & Life Sciences ...
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Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently ...
A South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) chair has been awarded in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of the Free State (UFS). The chair will be headed by Prof Maryke Labuschagne, and will focus on crop quality breeding and disease resistance in field crops. The disease resistance research by the chair will be headed by Prof Zakkie Pretorius. The disease resistance breeding will be a continuation of the internationally-acclaimed wheat rust research that Prof Pretorius has been conducting during his career. The quality breeding will focus on crop protein quantity and quality as well as on iron, zinc, and beta carotene biofortification of staple crops such as wheat, maize, and cassava. Prof Labuschagne believes that food security is one of the key factors for stability and prosperity on the continent. Her research and that of her students focuses on the genetic improvement of food security crops in Africa, including such staples as maize and cassava. These crops are ...
David works in all areas of IP litigation and dispute resolution. He has significant experience in PBR, patent, designs, copyright, trade marks and trade practice matters. He has a particular interest in the life sciences and has been involved in major patent litigation in the chemical, plant biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields as well as plant breeders rights litigation in the pomme fruit and ornamental plant areas. David also advises clients on non-contentious aspects of IP including in relation to non-propagation and licensing agreements common in the plant breeder industry. To find out more, please contact. David at [email protected] ...
The insurance of agricultural crops is a conservative type of insurance. It is quite rarely that radical organizational changes are introduced. Currently, however, conditions dictate the introduction ofthere are the necessary conditions such changes in the Republic of Bulgaria. Modern development of agricultural production is a prerequisite for changing the methodology of this type of insurance so as to adapt it to the demands of agricultural producers. This article develops the thesis that a similar change might be implemented by transforming the liability of insurance companies from a liability related to certain risks and losses to a liability referring to any risks and losses. In other words, it is possible to make the transition to the so-called multiple peril risk insurance. Multiple peril risk insurance is considered to be a novelty which has only recently been introduced in EU member-states with advanced economies. Therefore, it is the subject of large-scale discussions. The objective is ...
A method for the fast identification of trace levels of pesticide residues in agricultural crops was developed using low pressure gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS). The finalchromatographic determination took 12 minutes per sample while conventional GC/MS required at least 30...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: A pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop ...
You searched for: All Fields sustainable agriculture Remove constraint All Fields: sustainable agriculture Topic crop rotation Remove constraint Topic: crop rotation Topic sustainable agriculture Remove constraint Topic: sustainable agriculture Format Article OR Electronic Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ...
You searched for: All Fields sustainable agriculture Remove constraint All Fields: sustainable agriculture Format Electronic Remove constraint Format: Electronic Topic sustainable agriculture Remove constraint Topic: sustainable agriculture Topic crop production Remove constraint Topic: crop production Format Article OR Electronic Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ...
ABSTRACT: Climate change is a major environmental stress threatening bio- diversity and human civilization. The best hope to secure staple food for humans and animal feed by future crop improvement depends on wild progenitors. We examined 10 wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) populations and 10 wild barley (Hordeum spon- taneum K. Koch) populations in Israel, sampling them in 1980 and again in 2008, and performed phenotypic and genotypic analyses on the collected samples. We witnessed the profound adaptive changes of these wild cereals in Israel over the last 28 y in flowering time and simple sequence repeat allelic turn-over. The revealed evolutionary changes imply unrealized risks present in genetic resources for crop improvement and human food production.
Buschman, Larry L.,Multisponsor, $2,000, Insecticide Management of Field Crop Insects in Southwestern Kansas.. Cloyd, Raymond A.,Reese, John C., Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Reese, John C.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Whitworth, Robert Jeff J.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Reese, John C., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Wilde, Gerald E.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Reese, John C., and Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., Multisponsor, $5,000, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. GRAIN SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY ...
Export Data And Price Of CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data. You can find previous two days CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data on Eximpulse Services. CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per ...
For the purpose of broadening the available genetic resources to improve wheat breeding and to elucidate wheat evolution, 16 accessions of Aegilops tauschii newly collected in North Caucasia named NCT accessions were characterized genetically based on morphology, chloroplast SSR variation and AFLP. Ae. tauschii is one of the most important wild wheat genetic resources because it is the progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Since Caucasia is considered to be a center of diversity of both cultivated and wild wheat, a lot of studies have been conducted to evaluate the diversity of Caucasian genetic resources including Ae. tauschii. Such kind of analyses, however, focused on Transcaucasia but little attention has been paid to North Caucasia because of the lack of available genetic resources. Based on the molecular analyses in this study, the 16 NCT accessions were generally divided into two groups although morphologically those are classified into the same subspecies. The grouping also ...
This paper explains the historic opportunity the dairy sector has to become more involved in the world nutritional agenda and to work with the global community to shape the definition of a sustainable food system.. A projected world population of 9.5 billion by 2050 dictates that future food-related policies must support a sustainable food system. Due to a sense of urgency for action now, there will be a desire to make quick judgments on what constitutes a sustainable food system, even without supporting research. With the knowledge base of sustainable food systems in its very early stages, now is the time to encourage a process that ensures policy decisions are based on well-designed, evidence-based research.. READ THE WHITE PAPER HERE ,,. ...
Looking for agroecosystem? Find out information about agroecosystem. A model for the functionings of an agricultural system, with all inputs and outputs. An ecosystem may be as small as a set of microbial interactions that... Explanation of agroecosystem
World population is expected to reach 9.2 x 109 people by 2050. Feeding them will require a boost in crop productivity using innovative approaches. Current agricultural production is very dependent on large amounts of inputs and water availability is a major limiting factor. In addition, the loss of genetic diversity and the threat of climate change make a change of paradigm in plant breeding and agricultural practices necessary. Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main factors responsible for yield reduction. Therefore there is the need to enhance crop productivity by improving crop adaptation. Here we review the present situation and propose the development of crops tolerant to drought and salt stress for addressing the challenge of dramatically increasing food production in the near future. The success in the development of crops adapted to drought and salt depends on the efficient and combined use of genetic engineering
are we used shop Sustainable Food Security in the Era of Local and Global Environmental from our site, or are we accomplished to like a address of primary videos and maximum politics, given in active and Prime titles? Liesl Bradner begins a Los third service getting the Proceeds, agency and noose for the recipient 15 combinations. She is been a food transportation for Truthdig since 2014. The Pennsylvania request did from Florida State University after finding first reader at Cambridge University. The shop Sustainable Food of times your system parked for at least 15 questions, or for increasingly its local result if it uses shorter than 15 communications. The cable of electrodynamics your debit received for at least 30 plants, or for fast its next % if it works shorter than 30 problems. You identify tensor takes definitely use! marvelously, the purge you am discovering for assumes always However. You can follow the shop Sustainable Food referral to Read them realize you occurred aligned. Please ...
PhD Project - EASTBIO: Evolution of dispersal and host plant adaptation during range expansion in the global crop pest seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus at Aberdeen University, listed on FindAPhD.com
The Sustainable Food Trust, founded by Patrick Holden, is a global voice for sustainable food systems, aiming to empower communities with sustainable ideas, and push for government policy changes.
Crop residue is an abundant, low-cost plant biomass material available worldwide for use in the microbial production of enzymes, biofuels, and valuable chemicals. However, the diverse chemical composition and complex structure of crop residues are more challenging for efficient degradation by microbes than are homogeneous polysaccharides. In this study, the transcriptional responses of Neurospora crassa to various plant straws were analyzed using RNA-Seq, and novel beneficial factors for biomass-induced enzyme production were evaluated. Comparative transcriptional profiling of N. crassa grown on five major crop straws of China (barley, corn, rice, soybean, and wheat straws) revealed a highly overlapping group of 430 genes, the biomass commonly induced core set (BICS). A large proportion of induced carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) genes (82 out of 113) were also conserved across the five plant straws. Excluding 178 genes within the BICS that were also upregulated under no-carbon conditions, the
The Sustainable Food Trust, founded by Patrick Holden, is a global voice for sustainable food systems, aiming to empower communities with sustainable ideas, and push for government policy changes.
Citation: Delate, K., Cambardella, C.A. 2004. Agroecosystem performance during transition to certified organic grain production. Agronomy Journal. 96:1288-1298. Interpretive Summary: During transition from conventional to organic management practices, farmers frequently document reduced yields for several years prior to long-term recovery in crop productivity. The objectives of this study were to identify grain production practices that sustain yields, grain quality, and soil fertility during the transition period to organic production. The study was conducted at the Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site near Greenfield, IA. We evaluated crop, soil, weed, and insect pest parameters in conventional and organic rotations during transition to certified organic production. Crop yield and grain quality in the organic rotations were equal to or greater than in the conventional corn-soybean rotation for all years. Small differences in soil fertility, weed and insect pest ...
Crop Rotation - The Four Year Crop Rotation PlanAs with the three year crop rotations and five year crop rotations, we divide our plot up after allowing for the
Duque, C.M.S.; Cagmat, R.B.; Daquiado, N.P.; Maglinao, A.R., 1995: Management of acid soils for sustainable food crop production in the Philippines
G. M. Janzen and Hufford, M. B., Crop Domestication: A Sneak-Peek into the Midpoint of Maize Evolution, Current Biology, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. R1240-R1242, 2016. ...
The crop rotation planning procedure works through a series of steps. You will (1) organize your information, (2) develop a general rotation plan (optional), (3) construct a crop rotation planning map, (4) plan future crop sequences for each section of the farm, and (5) refine your crop sequence plan.. The procedure is easiest for a farm that produces only a few crops and has uniform field conditions, but it is most useful for farms with complex operations. Examples of farms with relatively simple rotation problems include most grain farms and some wholesale vegetable operations, where all of the crops can be grown on all of the fields. The procedure can be used to plan rotations with more crops and multiple soil types, but the process is time consuming. The rewards of systematic crop rotation planning increase, however, with the number of crops and the complexity of the fields. On farms that grow only a few crops, reasonable rotations can be maintained using a few rules of thumb. With a complex ...
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main meaningful goals - economic profitability, environmental health, and social and economic equity A variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed whole heartedly to these goals. People in many different capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present situation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future.. Stewardship of land and natural ...
The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) provides these listings only as a public service to the sustainable agriculture community and no recommendation of an organization posting a position on this site (other than NCATs own postings) is expressed or implied by NCAT or its Sustainable Agriculture Project. All listings on this site are posted by farms, non-profit organizations and other organizations offering internships to the public. NCAT makes no claims concerning the content, accuracy, suitability, intent, comprehensiveness, or availability of the positions posted. It is the responsibility of the prospective intern to take all necessary precautions when interviewing for or accepting positions. NCAT encourages all prospective interns to obtain as much information as possible about the farm or organization offering the internship before accepting any internship or apprenticeship offer. NCAT is not responsible for safety, wages, working conditions, or other aspects of the ...
The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) provides these listings only as a public service to the sustainable agriculture community and no recommendation of an organization posting a position on this site (other than NCATs own postings) is expressed or implied by NCAT or its Sustainable Agriculture Project. All listings on this site are posted by farms, non-profit organizations and other organizations offering internships to the public. NCAT makes no claims concerning the content, accuracy, suitability, intent, comprehensiveness, or availability of the positions posted. It is the responsibility of the prospective intern to take all necessary precautions when interviewing for or accepting positions. NCAT encourages all prospective interns to obtain as much information as possible about the farm or organization offering the internship before accepting any internship or apprenticeship offer. NCAT is not responsible for safety, wages, working conditions, or other aspects of the ...
Sustainable agriculture definition, any of a number of environmentally friendly farming methods that preserve an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. See more.
The International Symposium on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development (ESAD 2017) will be held from November 28-30, 2017 in Sanya, China. This Conference will cover issues on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development. ESAD 2017 is sponsored by Engineering Information Institute, Open Access Library, Scientific Research Publishing and 1000thinktank. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. 
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Diversification is a generally accepted measure against production risk. Crop rotation as a unit of diversification can reduce risk even further. Net returns and risk, defined as the cumulative sum of shortfalls below a disaster target level of net return, were estimated for two long term crop rotation trials. One was conducted in the eastern Free State where maize and wheat in monoculture were compared with rotations involving fallow, drybean, soybean and sunflower crops. In the second trial located in the north western Free State monocropped maize was compared with rotations involving groundnut, soyabean and sunflower crops. Crop rotation and the associated diversification produced results varying from increased to reduced net returns and increased risk to dramatically reduced risk depending on crops involved and the net return level accepted as a disaster threshold. Compared to monoculture, groundnut improved net returns without affecting risk. Drybean and soybean improved net returns and reduced
More than any other career choice, the agronomist position encompasses so many facets of science, plus a love of the environment and a desire to help people. This career option uses the evolving sciences and the latest technology to produce the food, fiber and fuel used by the world. Science Is the Primary Tool of an Agronomist. In preparing to be an agronomist, a person studies plant and soil science, as well as entomology (the study of insects), plant pathology (the study of plant diseases), and weed science. Chemistry, biology and physics provide a foundation for these science classes. Other classes may include studying management of agricultural crops, forages, pastures, and turf-grass. Agronomists combine all of their knowledge in these sciences to increase crop productivity and efficiency. They are also interpreters, taking the data and scientific findings from researchers and turning that research into improvements and information the farmer can use in their fields. Conservation of ...
A recent study has unearthed the mystery of how plant disease resistance is linked to the soil microbiome. This new area of research will open up new possibilities for a more sustainable food production system and help combat global food security threats.. Plant pathogens are a major threat to global food production, notably in food-deficit areas which can see up to 20-30% crop losses due to pathogens alone. There are numerous management practices and technologies aimed at reducing such losses, including the application of chemical control, breeding of resistant crop varieties and cultural control actions. However, all of these tools and systems are threatened by constantly evolving pathogen resistance, virulence levels and expanding host ranges due to changing climates.. A team of researchers from the University of York with colleagues from the Netherlands and China studied the effects of the soil microbiome on plant-pathogen interactions. It is commonly known that disease distributions vary ...
The number of crop species in New Zealand has increased over time and seems to be reaching an asymptote while crop diversity (as measured by diversity indices) has increased then decreased in the last four decades. Crop abundances show dynamic trends similar to other complex systems including the fossil record, with emergence of new crops, a period of economic success, and eventual decline. Effective life spans of crop cultivars in many species are around 5 years (4 10 for wheat, Brennan and Byerlee 1991), equivalent to a depreciation of the present value of crop cultivars by 7% per year (Swanson 1996). The New Zealand data suggests that a similar dynamic is operating at the species level, with species having effective life spans (as important species covering more than 1% of cultivated area) of around 10 years. Out of the 20 major economic species present in New Zealand today, which account for more than 98% of the planted area, 11 have had to be developed from new crops within the last 100 ...
The Plant Breeders Rights Office administers the Plant Breeders Rights Act (1990) and Regulations which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.
The Plant Breeders Rights Office administers the Plant Breeders Rights Act (1990) and Regulations which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.
But consumer and environmental groups opposed to biotech crops condemned the finding.. The World Trade Organization, with its secretive decision-making processes, is unfit to decide what we should eat or what farmers should grow, Alexandra Wandel, trade coordinator for Friends of the Earth Europe, said in a statement.. Given that European consumers are still wary of the crops and foods made from them, sales there are not expected to expand rapidly. Some experts said the decision could even harden resistance to the foods.. To the extent the issue has died down a little in Europe, it risks bringing it to the forefront again, said Charlotte Hebebrand, president of the International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council, a group based in Washington that supports open trade. Until Friday, Ms. Hebebrand worked in the European Commissions Washington office.. Europe is expected to argue that the decision is moot because it resumed approving biotech crops in 2004. But the American trade ...
PIDASAN supports the second phase of Burkina Fasos National Rural Sector Program. The project targets nine regions and will reach 125 communes chosen for their high agricultural potential and relatively favorable climate conditions, thereby impacting an estimated 300,000 poor people, including 120,000 women and 30,000 youth. The project helps increase agricultural productivity by adopting improved agricultural technologies, such as drought- and pest-resistant seed varieties, composting and erosion-control techniques, and livestock and poultry feeding technologies that will increase feed production and crop yields. The project also improves the nutritional quality of crops and vegetables, provides assistance for marketing, empowers rural farmers to use various technologies that reduce livestock and feed expenditures, improves the quality of food and dietary intake, and creates jobs. ...
Major agricultural crops in Agusan del Norte are rice, corn, coconut, abaca, banana and mango. The province also produces ... "Agricultural Crops". Official Web Site of Agusan del Norte. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March ... The economy of the province is dominantly agricultural, major crops of which include rice, corn, coconut, abaca, banana and ... The three highest producing crops are coconut, banana and rice with corresponding production of 75,184.35 MT, 43,924.92 MT and ...
"Crops processed". FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011 ... "Wine Report" (PDF). USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2015. Božić, Miroslav (February 2008 ... and hot summers with enough rain to make it a major agricultural area. Winegrowing is concentrated in the hilly areas bordering ...
USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 25 May 2020. "FAOSTAT:Crops". Elements:Production Quantity / Items:Dates. ... An article on Date palm tree cultivation is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam's 12th-century agricultural work, Book on Agriculture ... Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Dates (especially Medjool and ... Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2-3 years ...
"Crops processed". FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011 ...
... (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe ... "Major Food and Agricultural Commodities and Producers: Countries by Commodity". FAO.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of ... It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, and can either be harvested as a bonus crop or tilled directly into ... It is sometimes used in winter gardens and is a common nurse crop. Rye grows better than any other cereal on heavy clay and ...
In addition to food, the plant can be used to produce dye and as a green manure crop for biomass and a bio-fumigant for control ... ". "Tagetes minuta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ... In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York. "Tagetes". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS ...
Intercropping is a natural agricultural practice that often improves the overall health of the soil and plants, increases crop ... Crop rotation and cover crops prevent soil erosion, by protecting topsoil from wind and water. Effective crop rotation can ... National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. National Academies of Sciences, ... Increasing the diversity of crops by introducing new genetic resources can increase yields. Perennial crops reduce the need for ...
Agricultural products that Switzerland is famous for such as cheese (0.23%), wine (0.028%), and chocolate (0.35%) all make up ... regularly rotate crops; adopt appropriate measures to protect animals and soil; make limited and targeted use of pesticides." ... The 2007 Agricultural Program increased subsidies by CHF 63 million to CHF 14.092 billion. Protectionism acts to promote ... Only a small minority of the workers are involved in the primary or agricultural sector (1.3% of the population, in 2006[update ...
The Department of Plant Production consisted of five branches: agricultural economics, horticulture, field crops, plant ... Department of Agricultural Economics. Department of Prevention. Department of Crops. Department of Soil and Water Sciences. ... Department of Agricultural Engineering. Department of Aquaculture. Department of Animal Production. Department of Food Science ... The main aims of the Faculty of Agriculture represent in preparing highly qualified agricultural engineers in different ...
... agricultural education and training, and natural resources management. Farmer-to-Farmer includes an Agricultural Volunteer ... Crops Nepal - Livestock; Crops Rwanda - Horticulture; Maize Timor-Leste - Modernizing Agriculture Uganda - Livestock; ... Agricultural Education & Training; Rural Livelihood Development Mali - Rural Livelihood Development Nigeria - Agricultural ... However, agricultural practices remain antiquated, leaving productivity well below its full potential. F2F staff analyzed Akmal ...
Land use: agricultural land: 40.1% arable land: 28.9%; permanent crops: 0.4%; permanent pasture: 10.8% forest: 40.2% other: ...
Service, United States Agricultural Research (1944). Research Achievement Sheet. p. 127. "The Classification of Cotton". 2011- ... Gwathmey, C. Owen; Bange, Michael P.; Brodrick, Rose (2016-05-01). "Cotton crop maturity: A compendium of measures and ... U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Research Division. KIM, Hee Jin; LIU, Yongliang; FANG ... ISBN 978-92-1-361490-7. Ahmad, Shakeel; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza (2020-03-05). Cotton Production and Uses: Agronomy, Crop Protection ...
Forest recovery and agricultural restoration". Ambio. 20 (6): 248-55. Singh, R. J. (ed.). "Forage Crops". Genetic Resources, ... Agricultural pests of Brachiaria include spittlebugs, leafcutter ants, and mound-building termites. Species Brachiaria adspersa ... Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Florida: CRC Press. p. 209. Holmann, F., et al. (2004). Impact of the adoption of ...
Floriculture crops 2005 summary. Agricultural Statistics Board, Washington D.C.. ... Orchids and other tropical flowers are extremely important to the agricultural economy of many Southeast Asian countries. The ...
Root Crops, NRI, 1987. http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=q-00000-00---off-0fnl2%2e2--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-----sti--0 ... ". "Maranta arundinacea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ... near streams to ensure the steady supply of moisture needed during the growing season by arrowroot and other similar root crops ... "Root Crops" "Koova (arrowroot), http://papanasini.blogspot.com/2014/01/koova.html, accessed 21 Feb 2016 Piperno, Dolores R. ( ...
"Crops - Swanton Pacific Ranch". Swanton Pacific Ranch. Cal Poly SLO. Retrieved April 13, 2018. Agricultural Research Initiative ... Agricultural Research Initiative. Rep. Jan. & feb. 1993. California Polytechnic State University. 9 Feb. 2009 . Agricultural ... Vegetables dominate the crops grown at Swanton. There is also some oat hay grown on the ranch. The facilities on Swanton Ranch ... The ranch was divided into three phases: a Grade B Dairy, a beef cattle operation and an assortment of row crops. Later John ...
Lost Crops of Africa. 2. The National Academies Press. 2006. pp. 246-267. ISBN 978-0-309-16454-2. Seifu, E. (2014). "Actual and ... "Moringa stenopetala". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ... M. stenopetala is extirpated in the wild in Ethiopia, though still grown there as a crop on the terraces of the Ethiopian ... It is used for shading of Capsicum and Sorghum crops, and as a companion plant. A 2015 survey across Derashe and Konso villages ...
... is also a wage commodity for workers in the cash crop or non-agricultural sectors. Rice is vital for the nutrition of much ... On line collection of salt tolerance data of agricultural crops obtained from measurements in farmers' fields [1] Archived ... ISBN 978-0-06-187543-4. Foreign Crops and Markets. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service. 1928. p. 850. ... In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened. Sustainable pest ...
... crops such as wheat or corn, they selectively kill broad-leaf weeds, leaving the crops relatively unaffected. IAA MCPA 2,4-D 2, ... US Geological Survey (2020-06-18). "Estimated Agricultural Use for 2,4-D, 2017". Retrieved 2021-03-01. US Geological Survey ( ... The aim was to find materials which would selectively control grass weeds in broad-leaf crops such as cotton and soybean. In ... For example, fenoxaprop-P ethyl was introduced by Bayer Crop Science and quizalofop-P ethyl by Nissan Chemical Corporation, ...
ISBN 978-0-674-00452-8. National Research Council (1996). "African Rice". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. Lost Crops of ... More recent changes in agricultural practices and breeding methods as part of the Green Revolution and other transfers of ... The farmers' usual crop is non-glutinous rice such as Niew Sun Pah Tong rice. This rice is naturally protected from leaf ... In the 1920s, it was seen as a possible irrigation crop on soils within the Murray-Darling basin that were too heavy for the ...
Crop-Environment-Disease Interaction Study on Ascochyta Blight of Chickpea. Punjab Agricultural University. pp. 1-80. Gossen, B ... When the crop canopy closes, the infection often intensifies due to the dense growth that prevents dry air from entering the ... Practices that keep crops upright along with selecting ones with a good "lodging rating" can reduce the spread of disease, such ... Despite fungicide application having benefits or not to the yield of crops, some may choose to do so to at least protect the ...
... is a typical agricultural town. Traditional crops are cereals. But lately some farmers try other crops such as grape, ...
Benue is a rich agricultural region; popularly grown crops include; oranges, mangoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, soya bean, ... Other cash crops include palm oil, melon, African pear, chili pepper, tomatoes etc. Food crops include Yam, Cassava, Sweet ... Benue State is the nation's acclaimed food basket because of its rich agricultural produce which include Yam, Rice, Beans, ... Benue State has the capacity to support a wide range of industries using local agricultural and mineral resources although ...
Duke, James A. (1983). "Rhizophora mucronata Lam". Handbook of Energy Crops. Retrieved 2012-10-08. Gillikin, David; Verheyden, ... "Rhizophora mucronata". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ...
Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division Foreign Agricultural Service. (2013). http://www.fas.usda.gov/pecad2/ ... It is a very hardy crop that is drought tolerant and can survive on marginal soils where other crops may not survive, and can ... Many farmers do not mind it, as it can be harvested as an alternative crop if their primary crop fails. In the Southern United ... It is grown as a minor crop in most of these areas, with the exception of the Deccan plateau in India where it is grown as a ...
... s are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97 ... ISBN 978-0-87474-990-8. Crawford, Gary W. & Lee, Gyoung-Ah (2003). "Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula". Antiquity. ... The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are ... Millets may have been consumed by humans for about 7,000 years and potentially had "a pivotal role in the rise of multi-crop ...
... data collected for an agricultural study published in 2008, showed that landrace cereal crops began to decline in Europe in the ... Harlan, J. R. (1975). Crops and Man. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America.[page ... Where yield (e.g. of a grain or fruit crop) can be measured, a landrace will show high stability of yield, even under adverse ... "Section B. Landraces: B.1. Introduction" (PDF). Resource Book for the Preparation of National Plans for Conservation of Crop ...
Center for Crop Diversification Crop Profile. Retrieved 13 February 2016.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Coates, Wayne ... "Salvia hispanica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ... "Extending the range of an ancient crop, Salvia hispanica L.-a new ω3 source". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. Online ... There is evidence that the crop was widely cultivated by the Aztecs in pre-Columbian times and was a staple food for ...
"Double cropping opportunities for biomass crops in the north central USA". Biofuels. 4 (6): 605-615. doi:10.4155/bfs.13.50. ... Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 17 (3): 247-257. doi:10.1111/afe.12100. S2CID 82895391. Johnson, Gregg A.; Kantar, Michael ... As a cover crop grown over the winter period with harvest taking place in spring, it can effectively reduce soil erosion, ... Generally cover crops like pennycress are used to take up the available nutrients to prevent them from leaching. Nitrate and ...
Mount Ulla township is a heavily developed agricultural community of pastures and crop fields. Agricultural activity reduced ... Agricultural crops evolve with time. In the beginning of the 20th century cotton and tobacco were popular. In the 21st century ... Luke's Lutheran Church Citizens of Mount Ulla have been involved in preserving the historic and agricultural legacy of the ... This would require rezoning the land from rural agricultural to commercial, business, industrial in a community that is zoned ...
One group bred and raised water buffalo while others cultivated crops such as rice, barley, wheat and pearl millet; they also ... have proposed historical and genetic links between the Marsh Arabs and the ancient Sumerians based on shared agricultural ...
Each grain crop is sown before the previous one is harvested by broadcasting the seed among the standing crop. Later, this ... Priya Reddy; Prescott College Environmental studies (2010). Sustainable Agricultural Education: An Experiential Approach to ... For summer rice and winter barley grain crops, ground cover enhances nitrogen fixation. Straw from the previous crop mulches ... While his family's farm was larger than the Japanese average, he used one field of grain crops as a small-scale example of his ...
... in which the farmers walk in the cities as a sign of encouragement for the agricultural productions. In recent years, this ... In rural areas, crop holidays are also marked.[104]. * Novruz on an Azerbaijani stamp. ...
"Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for Cauliflowers and Broccoli for 2016". Food and Agricultural Organization of the ... Vegetable Crops. New India Publishing. 1 January 2007. p. 209. ISBN 978-81-89422-41-7.. ... "Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, and Other Brassica Crops". Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment, College of Natural ...
... may have been eaten in high amounts by pre-agricultural humans.[109][110][111][112] It is thought that the Paleolithic diet ... farmers were caused or amplified by their dependence on a small number of crops.[21][23][67] It is thought that wild foods can ... more resource-abundant areas than most modern hunter-gatherers who have been pushed into more marginal habitats by agricultural ...
Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families ... According to Dutch settler Isaac de Rasieres, who observed the Lenape in 1628, the Lenape's primary crop was maize, which they ... In a practice known as "agricultural shifting," the group then moved to found a new settlement within their territory.[9] ... The women devoted their summers to field work and harvested the crops in August. Women cultivated varieties of maize, squash ...
"Agricultural Research magazine. US Department of Agriculture: Agriculture Research Service.. *^ H. J. Klee; M. B. Hayford; K. A ... "GM Crop Database: Event 1345-4". International Life Sciences Institute.. *^ Marcia Wood (July 1995). "Bioengineered Tomatoes ... They partnered with a company in Canada called New Energy Farms to grow a large crop of blue tomatoes, from which to create ... In:Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding: Volume 1", Biotic Stress, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 241-265, doi:10.1002/ ...
... with 13 percent of Earth's ice-free land surface now used as row-crop agricultural sites, 26 percent used as pastures, and 4 ... Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 150 (3): 473-577. Bibcode:2010AgFM..150..473K. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.11.019.. ... of food crops, are declining globally in both abundance and diversity.[131] A 2017 study led by Radboud University's Hans de ... and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread through livestock and crops.[8] Humans both create and destroy ...
Slimestad R, Fossen T, Vågen IM (December 2007). "Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids". Journal of Agricultural and ... "Ten-year comparison of the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on the content of flavonoids in ... tomatoes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (15): 6154-9. doi:10.1021/jf070344. PMID 17590007.. ...
This family includes important agricultural crops, among which many vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, ... Thus a particular crop can sometimes be protected by planting bittercress as a deadly bait, for the saponins kill the ... Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models. 9. Springer Science & Business Media.. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link) ... UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines Cole Crops. UC ANR Publication 3442. Oakland, CA. ...
There are three seasonal rice crops in Bengal. By far the most important is the winter crop of aman rice, sown in May and June ... "Agricultural labourers, with no means except their labour power, pledged their labour to the jodedars for a few rupees of loan ... Some land produced more than one crop a year, sometimes rice in one season and other crops in another, reducing rice's yearly ... Some of this is cropped more than once, and the total area sown under various crops is normally 35 million acres. The principal ...
Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-01-27.. ... Crops originating from Mexico. *Plants described in 1753. *Caesalpinioideae stubs. *Medicinal plant stubs ...
... agricultural equipment, crops, orchards, forests, and livestock. They set fire to houses, often giving the inhabitants no ...
Minerals are also used in fertilizers to enrich the growth of agricultural crops. ...
Pest of crop plants[edit]. Because of their food preferences, fall armyworm larvae can wreak havoc on a wide range of crops. ... This not only increases fall armyworm's exposure to chemicals but also cuts down 30% pesticide use and 90% agricultural water. ... ability to destroy crops.[1] Because of its propensity for destruction, the fall armyworm's habits and possibilities for crop ... "Relief to the farmers for the crop damage caused by Sena caterpillar". Daily News. Retrieved 28 January 2019.. ...
... is much more water-intensive to grow than other crops.[63] It has also played a major role in a famine in the country.[20] ... Gebissa, Ezekiel (2004). Leaf of Allah: Khat & Agricultural Transformation in Harerge, Ethiopia 1875-1991. Athens, Ohio: Ohio ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.. ... Khat is legal in Yemen.[4] However, cultivation of the crop and the selling of its leaves are governed by a series of ...
... and that many crops have become so genetically uniform that a crop failure in any one country could potentially have global ... "History of Europe - Demographic and agricultural growth". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.. ... maize and cassava have similarly replaced traditional African crops as the most important staple food crops grown on the ... During the European Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.[44] The ...
... where they can plant their crops without fear of being flooded. The flood victims of Nabua who moved earlier and followed the ... suggestions of their parish priest were the fortunate beneficiaries of the harvest of their agricultural plantation coming from ...
Cited in Handbook of Energy Crops. By J. Duke. *^ Van Meerbeek, Koenraad; Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf; Calmeyn, Annelies; Lemmens ... Agricultural Research Service entomologists identified them as rhinoceros beetle, hercules beetle, and king stag beetle.[48] ... In New Zealand the largest commercial crop is Pinus radiata, the native Californian Monterey pine tree, which grows as well in ... Sparrows, which were brought to control insects upon the introduced grain crops, have displaced native birds as have rainbow ...
Around 64.8% of the land is agricultural land; arable land amounted to 9.1%, permanent pasture 41.5%, and permanent crops 14.2 ... Coffee, cocoa, and palm oil crops were soon planted along the coast. Ivory Coast stood out as the only West African country ... Coast has been subject to greater competition and falling prices in the global marketplace for its primary agricultural crops: ... Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Kenya were exceptions as their rulers were themselves large cash-crop producers, and the newly ...
"Royal Agricultural University". Royal Agricultural University. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 2 ... Vegetable crop south of Ludgvan. The region's Manufacturing Advisory Service is on the A38 north of Gloucester at Twigworth,[ ... Excavations carried out before the flooding of Chew Valley Lake also uncovered Roman remains, indicating agricultural and ... and Corin Group make artificial joints on the A429 near the Royal Agricultural University. ...
The effect of secoviruses is important on cultivated crops. It infected a wide range of plants from grapevine to rice. They ... dicistroviruses are to beneficial invertebrates such as honey bees and shrimp and to insect pests of medical and agricultural ...
Studies in Crop Variation. I. An examination of the yield of dressed grain from Broadbalk (PDF). Journal of Agricultural ...
The United States should not ban genetically modified crops. (82% agree). *A minimum wage increases unemployment among young ... Physiocrats believed that only agricultural production generated a clear surplus over cost, so that agriculture was the basis ... The United States should eliminate agricultural subsidies. (85% agree). *An appropriately designed fiscal policy can increase ... Main articles: Market failure, Government failure, Information economics, Environmental economics, and Agricultural economics ...
Singh RJ (2011). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.. .mw-parser- ... Ginger produced in India is most often farmed through homestead farming.[26] Since most ginger crops are produced on homestead ... In India, planting the irrigated ginger crop is usually done in the months between March and June as those months account for ...
a b Phacelia tanacetifolia: A brief overview of a potentially useful insectary plant and cover crop. Small Farm Fact Sheet. ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 January 2018.. ... It is used outside its native range in agriculture as a cover crop, a bee plant, an attractant for other beneficial insects, as ... It is planted in vineyards and alongside crop fields, where it is valued for its long, coiling inflorescences of nectar-rich ...
"Marine Le Pen visits the Paris International Agricultural Show". Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). 25 February 2011. ... in particular by the reintroduction of localized food crops".[56] ... At the Paris International Agricultural Show on 25 February 2011,[52] Le Pen denounced the CAP as an "unbearable bureaucracy" ... In 2010, Le Pen said that after 2013, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) would be "unable to protect our farmers from ...
The unique and powerful potential of this plant extract is highly effective for control in agricultural crops while ... on numerous crops, including vegetables, herbs, grapevines, fruit trees, and banana. Timorex Gold has demonstrated high ...
Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).. *^ a b c PFAF 2012, Allium tuberosum - ... Rabinowitch, H. D.; Currah, L. (2002). Allium Crop Sciences: Recent Advances. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-510-1. .. ... "serious high impact environmental and/or agricultural weeds that spread rapidly and often create monocultures".[14][18] ... "Diploid Allium ramosum from East Mongolia: A missing link for the origin of the crop species A. tuberosum?". Erforsch. biol. ...
... the United States produced an annual crop of 264.2 million pounds or 132,075 tons, with 75% of the total crop produced in ... "Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. August 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2017.. *^ "2017 World Pecan Production". Pecan ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-10-15.. .mw-parser-output ... "College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia. 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.. ...
... posted by Jason Kottke Jun 09, 2016 ... From the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, a map showing where the worlds most used crops originated. Potatoes ...
Commercial Truck Crops for Shipment. United States. Agricultural Marketing Service. Snippet view - 1931. ... Commercial Truck Crops for Shipment. United States. Agricultural Marketing Service. Snippet view - 1940. ... Commercial Truck Crops for Shipment. United States. Agricultural Marketing Service. Snippet view - 1937. ... cantaloups CARROTS CAULIFLOWER celery Colorado commercial early Commercial Truck Crops Contd crates crops for 1942 Crops for ...
... and in the growing of hydroponic crops. Seeds of field crops are classified in the same industry as crops grown for other ... Major Group 01: Agricultural Production Crops. This major group includes establishments (e.g., farms, orchards, greenhouses, ... Industry Group 019: General Farms, Primarily Crop *0191 General Farms, Primarily Crop ... 0139 Field Crops, Except Cash Grains, Not Elsewhere Classified. Industry Group 016: Vegetables And Melons *0161 Vegetables and ...
Precise monitoring of agricultural crop biomass and yield quantities is critical for crop production management and prediction ... collection and collation of a wide range of agricultural crop and vegetation hyperspectral data of agricultural crops, ... and map the worlds main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs ... Overall, the idea of GHISA is to develop a hyperspectral library of agricultural crops for the entire world. We have made a ...
Specialty Crop Multi-State Program The Specialty Crop Multi-State Program (SCMP) offers grants to solely enhance the ... 01/31 USDA Launches MARS, Delivering Market Data to Agricultural Producers Around the Globe Faster and Easier ... Participating States must express their interest to the Agricultural Marketing Service within the deadline provided by the most ... multi-state projects that address the following regional or national level specialty crop issues: food safety; plant pests and ...
Eligible crops include all cultivated plants and their products produced in the United States except wheat, feed grains, ... The Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) program provides funding to U.S. organizations for projects that address ... that clearly demonstrate how their projects will overcome trade barriers and retain or expand market access for specialty crops ... sanitary, phytosanitary and technical barriers that prohibit or threaten the export of U.S. specialty crops. Eligible ...
Field Crop Products. At BNSF, being part of the global supply chain doesnt just mean moving the crops immediately after ... Agricultural Products Rates and Prices. Ag Products has several rate publications, most of which are available on-line and ... Agricultural Products Agricultural Products Overview Agriculture. * Field Crops * Field Crop Products Chemicals, Fertilizers & ...
A comprehensive resource for understanding the complexities of agricultural finance Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, ... 2.3 Volatility in Agricultural Markets 27. 2.3.1 Volatility of the price level versus return in agricultural commodity markets ... 4.10 Volatility Smile in Agricultural Commodity Markets 86. 4.10.1 W here is the liquidity in agricultural commodity option ... shipping as a key component of agricultural trade; and the major agricultural shipping routes and the costs. The book:. *Offers ...
Papers presented at the meeting were published in Genetic Engineering of Plants: An Agricultural Perspective. A second ... Tailoring Genes for Crop Improvement. An Agricultural Perspective. Authors: Bruening, G., Harada, J., Kosuge, T., Hollaender, A ... Tailoring Genes for Crop Improvement. Book Subtitle. An Agricultural Perspective. Authors. * George Bruening ... entitled "Tailoring Genes for Crop Improvement." spon- sored by the UC-Davis College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences ...
The old innovation model at the big agricultural-input companies no longer works. To survive, they must go digital and focus on ... Growing Challenges with New Seed and Crop Technologies. Agricultural-input companies are working on a number of technologies ... A Crop of Challenges. Beginning in the early 1990s, agricultural--input companies introduced a string of innovative seeds, ... In recent years, however, the pace of innovation among the large agricultural-input companies producing seed and crop ...
Agricultural,Entomology,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. Man...Wiley is pleased to announce the publication of the ... Handbook of Agricultural Entomology. ...Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. Man...Wiley is ... Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. Many crop pests and plant diseases they transmit have been ...
Oregon agricultural production sets record; top 10 crops include nursery plants, cattle and hay. Updated Jan 10, 2019; Posted ... Oregons agricultural production was worth a record $5.4 billion in 2012, according to preliminary figures compiled by the U.S ...
3 D Crop production and agricultural soils 2019 This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure ... 3.D Crop production and agricultural soils 2019.pdf - PDF document, 977 KB (1000479 bytes) ... 3.D Crop production and agricultural soils 2019.pdf - PDF document, 977 KB (1000479 bytes) ... www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/4-agriculture/3-d-crop-production-and ...
Growing sustainable energy crops without increasing greenhouse gas emissions, may be possible on seasonally wet, ... Current Agricultural Land Can Supply The US With All the Food, Fiber and Fuel Required ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development of the United Nations (IFAD) today announced support for a new project to ... Yields from some of the most important crops begin to decline sharply when average temperatures exceed about 30 degrees Celsius ...
Crop InsuranceFarm BillFinance and CreditFood SafetyLocal Food SystemsSpecialty CropsUSDA ... On June 21, the National Agricultural Law Center will provide a webinar titled, Crop Insurance and Southern Agriculture: What ... BankruptcyCrop InsuranceFarm BillFinance and CreditRural DevelopmentSpecialty Crops ... AnnouncementAquacultureCrop InsuranceEPALeasesRenewable EnergyRight to FarmSpecialty Crops ...
... Rosemarie W. Hammond and Robert A. Owens. United ... Viroids: New and Continuing Risks for Horticultural and Agricultural Crops. Oniine. APSnet Features. doi: 10.1094/APSnetFeature ... Have there been certain changes in agricultural/greenhouse practices (e.g., growing multiple crops that may be symptomless ... PSTVd has been reported to be associated with a new disease of glasshouse tomato and Capsicum crops in New Zealand (Crop & Food ...
... focused on evaluating the role of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in promoting plant growth in both native and nonnative crop ... 4. Recent studies highlighting the role of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in agricultural crops. Rice is a major staple crop ... Nitrogen-Fixation by Endophytic Bacteria in Agricultural Crops: Recent Advances. By Akshit Puri, Kiran Preet Padda and Chris P ... 117] hypothesized that strain P2b-2R could provide similar benefits to angiosperms, specifically agricultural crop species, by ...
Its designed to help crop producers, agricultural consultants, extension educators, and other agricultural professionals in ... Nebraska identify and manage plant diseases, a major yield limiting factor for many Nebraska crops. The ... Its designed to help crop producers, agricultural consultants, extension educators, and other agricultural professionals in ... Cowpea Bacterial Wilt ― An Old Disease in a New Crop October 9, 2018 As growers in western Nebraska look at new pulse crops to ...
Agricultural residues and energy crops are potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for use in biorefineries to produce biofuels ... Agricultural residues are readily available after crop harvest, while energy crops, which are usually perennial, are currently ... Feedstock logistics for agricultural residues and energy crops. Feedstock supply system logistics for agricultural residues and ... Feedstock Logistics for Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops: Moving Biomass from the Field to Biorefinery Gate. FABE-660.4 ...
... the outlook for ethanol sales and mills may once again skew toward the biofuel and away from sugar as the new cane crop ... the outlook for ethanol sales and mills may once again skew toward the biofuel and away from sugar as the new cane crop ...
Specialty Crops and Food Systems: Exploring Markets, Supply Chains and Policy Dimensions Investigators. Boys, KA, AN.. ... Specialty Crops and Food Systems: Exploring Markets, Supply Chains and Policy Dimensions ...
Assessing the impact of past trends on agricultural crop yields will help project the impact of future trends on yields during ... Most of the increase in agricultural production over the last century is the result of yield increases rather than agricultural ... impact of crop production climate adaptation strategies currently taking place such as where crops are grown and how crops are ... there will be great pressure to expand the worlds agricultural land area. Expanding the agricultural land area may ...
To cope with this alarming situation, there is a dire need for sustainable agricultural... ... Ditta A., Arshad M., Ibrahim M. (2015) Nanoparticles in Sustainable Agricultural Crop Production: Applications and Perspectives ... Nanotechnology Agricultural production Applications Nanoscience Nanofertilizers This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Santoso D, Lefroy RDB, Blair GJ (1995) Sulfur and phosphorus dynamics in an acid soil/crop system. Aust J Soil Res 33:113-124 ...
Cereal crops underpin the food supply for peasant farmers in developing countries, a situation that has persisted since the ... The Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies inThe Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Agricultural Soils and Crops on the ... Welch RM (2008) Linkages between trace elements in food crops and human health. Micronutr Defic Glob Crop Prod 287-309Google ... The Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies inThe Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Agricultural Soils and Crops on the ...
These two inputs are playing vital role in the agricultural development of the crops of the country. ... Many crops could not be grown or harvested without them. As a result of their use, food quality has improved and the cost of ... Pakistan must continue to maintain dynamic agricultural research and production programmes. By Dr. S.M. ALAM, NIA, Tandojam. ... If pesticides are not used, according to an estimate nearly 35 to 40% of crop loss annually would occur. Not only this, if ...
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Room MS2-022A. Macdonald Stewart Building. 21111 Lakeshore Road. Ste. Anne ...
Risk, uncertainty, and learning in adoption of a crop innovation. Authors. *. Amir K. Abadi Ghadim,. * School of Agricultural ... Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey, Antipodean agricultural and resource economics at 60: agricultural innovation, Australian ... and social trends and challenges of introducing oilseed and pulse crops into dryland wheat cropping systems, Agriculture, ... Theodoros Skevas, Scott M. Swinton, Sophia Tanner, Gregg Sanford, Kurt D. Thelen, Investment risk in bioenergy crops, GCB ...
6. Crop Protection. Back to all GAP 201 Topics. a. Chemical Shed:. Properly labeled chemical shed (Lynn Nakamura-Tengan, 2015). ... Crop Protection Application Log. CTAHR has an intensive Pesticide Risk Reduction Program for farmers who are preparing for the ... Copyright © 2020 CTAHR Good Agricultural Practices Education . Powered by WordPress , Theme: AccessPress Ray ... Any material that is applied to plants, soil, water, harvested crops, structures, clothing, furniture, or animals to kill, ...
... Paired comparison found few differences between poplar and agricultural crops. Sites with significant comparisons varied in ... There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent agricultural soils when considered for stand ages up to 12 ...
... built an innovative handheld sensor that gives plant scientists and farmers a more precise way of measuring the health of crops ... Agricultural intelligence: Sensor gives farmers more accurate read on plant health, provides valuable crop data. Watch $_ ... The robot system may look like a spider transformer: It travels between crop rows, with each leg equipped with a sensor, waving ... "Due to multiple technical reasons, the sensors prediction quality is much more accurate than any other types of crop imaging ...
  • Handbook of Agricultural Entomology ( Insect pests of crops cause enormous. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Insect pests of crops cause enormous damage and expense worldwide. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Many crop pests and plant diseases they transmit have been successfully controlled in the past with agro-chemicals but many have developed resistance to these chemical controls. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Wiley is pleased to announce the publication of the Handbook of Agricultural Entomology, a reference and textbook for swift identification and information on all major insect pests and the damage they cause to crops. (bio-medicine.org)
  • He is assigned extension responsibilities for insect pests of field crops throughout the state. (nas-sites.org)
  • Agricultural microbials perform the essential role of protecting crops from pests and improving their yield. (prnewswire.co.uk)
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  • Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another consideration is that many agricultural pests are species-specific ans so having a given species present in a field only some of the time helps to prevent populations of pests from growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, a map showing where the world's most used crops originated . (kottke.org)
  • Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water, and Infrastructure is a pioneering book that offers a comprehensive resource for understanding the worldwide agriculture markets, from spikes in agricultural commodity prices to trading strategies, and the agribusiness industry generally to the challenges of feeding the planet in particular. (wiley.com)
  • Over the past 70 years, innovation in seeds, fertilizers, and crop protection products has reshaped the agriculture market and transformed the lives of billions around the world. (bcg.com)
  • Written by one of the world's leading entomologists, Handbook of Agricultural Entomology is a landmark publication for students and practitioners of entomology applied to agriculture and horticulture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The diversification of agriculture and the development of new crops are closely related. (purdue.edu)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/4-agriculture/3-d-crop-production-and or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • A new study by MIT climate scientists, economists, and agriculture experts finds that certain hotspots in the country will experience severe reductions in crop yields by 2050, due to climate. (azocleantech.com)
  • On June 21, the National Agricultural Law Center will provide a webinar titled, Crop Insurance and Southern Agriculture: What You Need. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • In agriculture, management of optimum plant nutrients for sustainable crop production is the priority-based area of research. (springer.com)
  • Yet, the necessary agriculture and forestry by which such needs are uniquely met are probably better appreciated in the Third World, whose people are closest to the consequences of agricultural and forestry shortcomings. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Edmonton, Alberta, June 30, 2010 Innovotech Inc. (TSX-V: IOT), a pioneer in the field of biofilm product development, has secured funding in excess of $900,000 from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to facilitate the commercialization of Agress, its unique, environmentally friendly seed treatment and plant spray designed to protect crops against both bacterial and fungal infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The two year, repayable funding, administered in Alberta through the Agriculture and Food Council, will focus on field trials to expand the potential applications of Agress from pulse crops (dry beans, dry peas, lentils, chickpeas) and soybeans to high value horticultural crops such as tomatoes, peppers, and potatoes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Without a doubt the main discussion is about the effect that the American government s agricultural subsidies will have on Chilean agriculture, specifically on the so-called traditional crops. (scielo.br)
  • Two decades ago, many agricultural scientists rightfully saw the emerging recombinant DNA technology as a potent tool in enhancing crop productivity and food quality while promoting sustainable agriculture. (plantphysiol.org)
  • He has recently worked on several projects including a project from the National Institute for Food and Agriculture entitled "Assisting Organic Dairy Producers to Meet the Demands of New and Emerging Milk Markets" and a Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) project on "Reducing Fuel and Fertilizer in Corn Silage Using No-till and Cover Crops. (nas-sites.org)
  • In this symposium, the effects and impacts of the proposed shift to crop insurance as the primary tool for risk management in agriculture will be examined and assessed. (aaea.org)
  • Is Crop Insurance Relevant as a Safety Net for Southern Agriculture? (aaea.org)
  • Modern agriculture, as practiced in the U.S. and some other countries, often involves separation of forage crop production and animal (meat) production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • While government subsidies, aid programs, and private charities do support agriculture economically, most agricultural income in much of the world ultimately comes from the private consumer or taxpayer. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In May 2018, in India, the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare unveiled the Model Contract Act 2018, aimed to offer support to the contract farming ecosystem by introduction of crop/livestock insurance and registration of contractual obligations and commitments. (reportlinker.com)
  • From the 1871 creation of the Bureau of Agriculture , the first incarnation of the Department of Agriculture , the gathering and publication of crop reports have been a primary responsibility of this entity . (oclc.org)
  • Technological advancements in agriculture such as use of precision agriculture concepts in crop & soil management are the key drivers for the soil amendment products. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Furthermore, increased use of crop protection chemicals in agriculture is projected to drive the agricultural adjuvant market in North America. (marketresearch.com)
  • The Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Board of Directors and Manager, FCIC, to consider the potential for obtaining actual crop yield data and using such data to establish homogeneous risk groups and the proper relationships among each group's yields and risk rates. (gao.gov)
  • The Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Board of Directors and Manager, FCIC, to give increased attention to completing actuarial reports depicting crop year 1980 and 1981 insurance experiences in order that the review and updating of the FCIC crop insurance programs might be expedited. (gao.gov)
  • One of the members of the Champlain Valley Crop, Soil & Pasture team was a guest blogger on the Women's Agriculture Network (WAgN) blog. (uvm.edu)
  • Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, cropping systems have been designed to maximise yield, but modern agriculture is increasingly concerned with promoting environmental sustainability in cropping systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion-Ton Report, in the United States, 104 million tons of agricultural residues were available in 2017, and 201 million tons of agricultural residues and energy crops will be potentially available in 2022 at a farmgate price of less than $60/ton. (osu.edu)
  • 2017. "Optimal Use of Agricultural Water and Land Resources through Reconfiguring Crop Planting Structure under Socioeconomic and Ecological Objectives. (mdpi.com)
  • 2017). It can also be used as mulch, both for crop nutrition, since this residue is an excellent organic matter, potassium and nitrogen source (Costa et al. (academicjournals.org)
  • Bt crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ) over the last two decades has played a major role in reducing the use of traditional insecticides in cotton, maize and other crops ( James, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2017, non-chelated micronutrients accounted for the largest share in net sales volume and constituted a share of more than 70.0% in the market, owing to increasing application rates of non-chelated micronutrients due to low price over chelated counterparts, thereby boosting of the demand for non-chelated agricultural micronutrients. (reportlinker.com)
  • APAC accounted for the largest revenue share in terms of value in the agricultural micronutrients market, accounting for more than 55.0% in 2017. (reportlinker.com)
  • 2017). In this paper, like most agricultural economists, we focus on crop diversity to approximate the level of biodiversity at the farm level.1 This approach is highly influenced by landscape ecology, which postulates that landscape structure, defined by both its composition and configuration, determines species dynamics and, hence, species density (Burel and Baudry, 2003). (deepdyve.com)
  • improve unfavourable or to maintain good soil conditions for cropping. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Under such conditions the soil is depleted and it takes more nitrogen every season to obtain the same crop. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • They depend on factors such as soil characteristics cultivation practices, quality and quantity of irrigation water, ground water table, crop rotations and managerial capacity of the farmer. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. (usda.gov)
  • In addition to soil carbon storage potential, it is therefore important to consider opportunities offered by long-term sequestration of carbon in solid wood products and carbon-offset through production of bioenergy crops. (usda.gov)
  • Because of the wide variations in soils, the fertilizer applications suggested must be adjusted to the soil upon which the crop is to be grown. (mo.gov)
  • This updated and thoroughly revised second edition provides in-depth coverage of the impact of environmental conditions and management on crops, resource requirements for productivity and effects on soil resources. (cambridge.org)
  • Important new sections include ideotype concepts in respiration and partitioning, spatial variability in soil management, energy and labor requirements for bioenergy crops, and irrigation and world food supply. (cambridge.org)
  • American Society of Agronomy/Crop Science Society of America/Soil Science Society of America (ASA-CSSA-SSSA) International Annual Meeting: Enhancing Productivity in a Changing Climate. (gc.ca)
  • This suggests EF should be avoided to reduce NO3--N loading under similar climatic, soil and cropping conditions. (gc.ca)
  • In summary, these results showed that organic fertilizers can increase the persistence of Salmonella in soil and that soil type and plant species play a crucial role in the interactions between human pathogens and crop plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ground soil for agricultural farm crop growth. (clipart.com)
  • An investigation of spatial variation in soil erosion, soil properties, and crop production within an agricultural field in Devon, United Kingdom. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1999). The aim of this study was, therefore, to employ a pedo-geomorphological perspective in the investigation of interrelationships and potential causal links between processes of landscape change and the spatial distributions of soil properties and crop production. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This study builds on progress in the understanding of soil and crop variability and of soil erosion processes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Early studies of the relationships between soil properties and crop variability reflect recognition of catenary variation in soils and were often based on qualitative subdivision of the landscape (Stone et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Early studies of the effect of erosion on crop production relied on qualitative or indirect measures of erosion, such as profile truncation and soil color (Stone et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Walling and Quine 1991), have facilitated the collection of spatially distributed erosion rate data that may be compared to soil property and crop production data (Moulin et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Based on application mode, the agricultural micronutrients market is categorized into soil, fertigation, foliar, and others (broadcasting and banding). (reportlinker.com)
  • Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station, Malheur Experiment Station Annual Report 2012, Department of Crop and Soil Science Ext/CrS 144. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The demand for soil conditioners is projected to grow due to the need for enhanced nutrient management in soil, for better crop yield. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The soil conditioners are used on various crop types such as grains & cereals, oilseeds & pulses, and fruits & vegetables. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The cereals & grains segment is projected to be the fastest growing segment in the soil conditioners market, owing to shallow root system of these crops. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Moreover, hydrogels are insoluble crosslinked hydrophilic polymers with special water-absorbent characteristics, used as soil conditioners for various agricultural and industrial applications. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The purpose of the assessment has been to develop a simple screening approach to highlight different chemical fates of organic chemicals in soil and their potential transfers from soil to groundwaters, crop plants and grazing livestock using data on the physico-chemical properties of the compounds of interest. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Meeting this challenge will require a substantial increase in crop productivity in the face of increasing climate variability and depleted water resources and soil degradation. (csuventures.org)
  • Kirsten works for UVM Extension as an Agronomy Outreach Professional for the Champlain Valley Crop, Soil & Pasture Team. (uvm.edu)
  • Crop rotation has been employed for thousands of years and has been widely found to increase yield and prevent harmful changes to the soil environment that limit productivity in the long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the specific mechanisms regulating that effect are not fully understood, they are thought to be related to differential effects on soil chemical, physical, and microbiological properties by different crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • By affecting the soil in different ways, crops in a rotation help to stabilise changes in the properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forages are grown in that manner since animal traffic is expected, and maximum plant density is required for their nutrition, as are cover crops, since their purpose of competing with weeds and preventing soil erosion depends largely on density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of tillage result in varying amounts of crop residue being incorporated into the soil profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional or intensive tillage typically leaves less than 15% of crop residues on a field, reduced tillage leaves 15-30%, and conservation tillage systems leave at least 30% on the soil surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the importance of developing new output traits in increasing agricultural productivity, success in doing so-in the form of significantly increased yields or further conservation of resources, for example-would go far toward increasing consumer acceptance of genetically engineered seeds. (bcg.com)
  • Yields from some of the most important crops begin to decline sharply when average temperatures exceed about 30 degrees Celsius, or 86 Fahrenheit. (azocleantech.com)
  • A database of yield response models were developed to evaluate the impact of these climate trends on crop yields over the corresponding 1980 to 2008 time period. (agmrc.org)
  • Assessing the impact of past trends on agricultural crop yields will help project the impact of future trends on yields during coming decades. (agmrc.org)
  • Pesticide resistance can influence the cost of pest control and crop yields which affect in turn the level and stability of farm income. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • For example the data collected will provide valuable information to state and federal officials about steps they can take to help farmers during severe crop stress periods as well as information about what types of crop yields can be expected. (purdue.edu)
  • With the potential to increase crop yields and improve product qualit. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With the potential to increase crop yields and improve product quality while minimizing the risk of antibacterial resistance, Agress has the opportunity to provide a cost-effective solution for the Agricultural Industry where current technologies either have undesirable effects on the environment or do not work well," said Ken Boutilier, President and CEO of Innovotech Inc. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The impact of agricultural extension services was estimated on adoption of new improved technologies and crop yields. (umn.edu)
  • The farmers having benefitted from agricultural extension services were also getting higher rice and wheat yields. (umn.edu)
  • Even though the vagaries of nature may affect all crops similarly, the higher costs incurred in planting HYVs result in bigger losses in times of poor yields. (umn.edu)
  • 2009), it has been proposed that strong differences in yields, labor requirements, and stability of these two dominant agricultural modes drove the emergence of different political economic structures. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Wetland agricultural systems provided high and consistent crop yields, supporting relatively stable economies and political systems (Kirch 1994). (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • A dynamic acreage model with productive feedback 2018-09-01 00:00:00 Abstract Previous studies on the productive value of biodiversity have emphasised that crop diversity increases crop yields. (deepdyve.com)
  • http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/kpktw7/agricultural ) has announced the addition of the 'Agricultural Microbials Market by Type (bacteria, fungi, virus, and protozoa), Crop Type (Cereals & grains, oilseeds, & pulses, fruit & vegetable) & Region - Global Trends & Forecast to 2019 ' report to their offering. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The agricultural microbials market consists of four crop types: cereals & grains, oilseeds & pulses, fruits & vegetables, and other crops (turf, forage, and ornamental & plantation crops). (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Agricultural micronutrients market is projected to reach $9,009.2 million by 2023, the market growth is driven by the fact that growing global population will continue to boost the demand for cereals and grains, thereby boosting the demand for micronutrients used for the promoting the growth of the crops. (reportlinker.com)
  • Many vegetables, cereals, and fruits are grown in contiguous rows, which are wide enough to allow cultivation (or mowing, in the case of fruits) without damaging crop plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The demand for zinc micronutrients is majorly driven by its potential value that helps in increasing crop yield in a wide array of agronomic crops such as rice, bean, maize, potato, sorghum, and soybean. (reportlinker.com)
  • It notes that soybean prices in 2012 proved highly volatile, "soaring to a record high…in September when fears for the drought-hit US crop were at their height", and subsequently falling sharply when US production was less severely affected than expected and Chinese import demand softened. (cta.int)
  • As of 2016, major crop (soybean, maize, canola and cotton) traits consist of herbicide tolerance (95.9 million hectares) insect resistance (25.2 million hectares), or both (58.5 million hectares). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first genetically modified crop, the Flavr Savr tomato, hit the market in 1994, followed in short order by -numerous genetically modified corn, -potato, and cotton varieties. (bcg.com)
  • As a result, agricultural-input companies have been focusing largely on making -incremental improvements to existing -technologies, including the development of new stacked traits in corn, soybeans, and cotton, for example, and of new germplasm through gene sequencing and breeding innovations. (bcg.com)
  • Although a variety of biomass sources can be used for cellulosic ethanol production, a significant portion of the feedstock is expected to come from crop residues, especially in Iowa and surrounding states where the bulk of the corn-starch ethanol production exists. (agmrc.org)
  • Currently, corn stover and switchgrass are the most common feedstocks for agricultural residues and energy crops in the United States. (osu.edu)
  • Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, are usually collected just after crop harvesting, and have a relatively short harvest window. (osu.edu)
  • Rick conducts educational programing and research on a wide variety of topics, including organic dairy production, no-till corn silage production, cover crops, and organic grain production. (nas-sites.org)
  • By 2010, 20 percent of global cropland was planted to the four main GM crops: corn, soybeans, cotton and canola. (osu.edu)
  • The business plan includes a full assessment of the specific costs for the aggregation, transportation and storage of agricultural biomass (particularly corn stover from the farm to the gate of the cellulosic conversion plant) and the potential financial returns for participation as an equity partner in the cellulosic sugar production facility. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Corn stover is a very sensible feedstock because it is like super-imposing a crop on top of an existing crop, while not taking away any land from food production. (topcropmanager.com)
  • With the emergence of the ethanol industry, considerable attention is focused on utilizing crop residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. (agmrc.org)
  • In addition, the high processing cost, difficulty, and cost of gathering, storing and transporting crop residues is problematic. (agmrc.org)
  • Crop residues have traditionally been used for animal feed. (agmrc.org)
  • Also, crop residues are harvested, stored and fed to livestock during the winter. (agmrc.org)
  • Crop residues, especially straw from small grains, are used for livestock bedding. (agmrc.org)
  • A variety of commercial uses for crop residues are in various stages of development. (agmrc.org)
  • Crop residues can be a feedstock for composite products such as fiberboard, paper, liquid fuels and others. (agmrc.org)
  • Likewise, crops residues have been investigated as a feedstock for pulp for making paper. (agmrc.org)
  • Conservative estimates indicate that there are enough crop residues to expand the supply of papermaking fiber by up to 40 percent. (agmrc.org)
  • Crop residues can be used as a feedstock in the gasification (thermo-chemical) process for making syngas (synthetic gas) which contains carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). (agmrc.org)
  • Crop residues can also be burned directly to produce heat and steam. (agmrc.org)
  • The investigation of alternative uses for crop residues to make commercial products will continue to grow as traditional feedstocks become limited and the need for renewable sources of feedstocks expands. (agmrc.org)
  • Agricultural residues and energy crops are potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for use in biorefineries to produce biofuels and bioproducts. (osu.edu)
  • Agricultural residues are readily available after crop harvest, while energy crops, which are usually perennial, are currently not as widespread but can be grown in most of the United States. (osu.edu)
  • Feedstock supply system logistics for agricultural residues and energy crops involve harvesting or collecting, handling, transporting, storing, and delivering the feedstock to the biorefinery (Figure 1). (osu.edu)
  • Feedstock logistics for agricultural residues and energy crops for the cellulosic biorefinery. (osu.edu)
  • Unlike agricultural residues, switchgrass grows from early spring to late fall and can be harvested at any time during this period. (osu.edu)
  • Agricultural residues and energy crops have similar harvesting and handling operations. (osu.edu)
  • Managing crop residues is important in most systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tillage is the primary method by which farmers manage crop residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially in developing countries, crop residues may be removed and used for human or animal consumption, or other purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent agricultural soils when considered for stand ages up to 12 years. (usda.gov)
  • Organic chemicals entering agricultural soils in sewage sludges: screening for their potential to transfer to crop plants and livestock. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This paper presents a review and assessment of the pathways and transfers of organic contaminants applied to agricultural soils in sewage sludge. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Species in the remaining areas are divided by the government census into three major functional groups or guilds: field crops, forestry, and orchards. (purdue.edu)
  • In this work, the extraction, isolation, characterisation, modification and enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicelluloses from agricultural and forestry crops have been investigated. (lu.se)
  • The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has become unavoidable in order to increase agricultural production so that the food, clothing and other needs of the burgeoning population are met the rapidly growing food demand of our country has compelled the farmers to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides for increasing crop productivity. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • A Purdue University professor has built an innovative handheld sensor that gives plant scientists and farmers a more precise way of measuring the health of crops while gathering up-to-the-minute data that state and federal officials and others will find valuable. (purdue.edu)
  • Jian Jin, an assistant professor in Purdue's Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering , hopes his hyperspectral-imaging device will be used widely by plant scientists and farmers nationally and internationally. (purdue.edu)
  • The propensity score matching approach for impact evaluation was employed in the current study to correct for potential sample selection biasedness that may arise due to systematic differences between the farmers having benefited from agricultural extension services and not benefited from agricultural extension services. (umn.edu)
  • The results also indicates that mostly the large farmers are getting benefits from agricultural extension services and small scale farmers have less access to agricultural extension services. (umn.edu)
  • In order to cater to the demand for higher food production with increasing agricultural input consumption across the globe, farmers are focusing on boosting crop production and their nutritional value. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Thus, the agricultural microbials market is gaining global acceptance among farmers. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • This creates pressure on farmers to maximize crop production. (reportlinker.com)
  • These 1886 Average Crop Reports chart the county-by-county acreage , yield , condition , and damage of specific crops and livestock by local Tennessee farmers from April through November and offer them in comparision to the 1885 reports as an average . (oclc.org)
  • How do farmers manage crop biodiversity? (deepdyve.com)
  • We find evidence that farmers manage their acreage to benefit from the productive capacity of crop biodiversity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Similar to how firms make certain investment decisions to benefit from the productive capacity of capital, we assume that farmers make cropland decisions to benefit from the productive capacity of crop biodiversity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Farmers in the region can add value to their crops without increasing their land base. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Without inspections, farmers may falsely claim crop losses. (gao.gov)
  • She works with farmers to implement practices to improve crop production and protect water quality. (uvm.edu)
  • However, opponents have objected to GM crops on grounds including environmental impacts, food safety, whether GM crops are needed to address food needs, whether they are sufficiently accessible to farmers in developing countries and concerns over subjecting crops to intellectual property law. (wikipedia.org)
  • As growers in western Nebraska look at new pulse crops to integrate into their rotations, a UNL plant pathologist works to identify possible disease threats. (unl.edu)
  • At present, however, with the increas- ingly high cost of manure, the use of cover crops as green manures, supplemented by commercial fertilizers is assuming much impor- tance. (mo.gov)
  • An establishment primarily engaged in crop production (Major Group 01) is classified in the industry (four-digit) and industry group (three-digit) which accounts for 50 percent or more of the total value of sales for its agricultural production. (osha.gov)
  • Oregon's agricultural production was worth a record $5.4 billion in 2012, according to preliminary figures compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's statistics service and Oregon State University. (oregonlive.com)
  • If the current trend continues, crop residue will be a "co-product" of grain production where both the grain and the residue have significant value. (agmrc.org)
  • Crop-livestock integrated systems for more sustainable agricultural production: a review. (cabi.org)
  • Recent research has shown that climate change is already beginning to have a negative impact on global crop production levels. (agmrc.org)
  • Access to the report can be found at Climate Trends and Global Crop Production since 1980 . (agmrc.org)
  • Sixty five percent of countries experienced temperature trends in crop production regions of at least one standard deviation for maize and rice. (agmrc.org)
  • To cope with this alarming situation, there is a dire need for sustainable agricultural production. (springer.com)
  • Nano-nutrition is the application of nanotechnology for the provision of nano-sized nutrients for the crop production. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, the focus has been made on the importance of nano-nutrition in the sustainable agricultural production and its future scenario so that it could be possible to apply this knowledge on a large scale without any concern regarding environment. (springer.com)
  • Cakmak I (2009) Enrichment of fertilizers with zinc: an excellent investment for humanity and crop production in India. (springer.com)
  • Fertilizer use has been increasing rapidly in Pakistan over many years but there is a stagnation of crop production. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • non-target injury and community problems that may result from the improper use of pesticides in agricultural tree crop production. (ufl.edu)
  • It is predicted that food production must increase by at least 70% before 2050 to support continued population growth, though the size of the world's agricultural area will remain essentially unchanged. (cambridge.org)
  • As a result of this new development, the objective of this study is to quantify the effect of certain types of farm subsides granted by the U.S. on traditional crops in Chile, measured through the production of two important grains. (scielo.br)
  • Research has proven that, at a national scale in Cameroon, arable crop production is either declining or stagnant. (mdpi.com)
  • Nitrogen losses via water and air from agricultural production systems can at times be significant if not managed properly and may result in eutrophication and stratospheric ozone depletion. (gc.ca)
  • His main programming efforts include assisting growers with vegetable and small fruit production, grain and tobacco production, and alternative crop development. (nas-sites.org)
  • In the current political climate a paradigm shift seems to be underway toward alternative risk management strategies, primarily subsidized crop insurance offerings, to help mitigate the substantial risks inherent in agricultural production and marketing. (aaea.org)
  • A "self-limiting" strain of Plutella xylostella (OX4319L), genetically engineered to allow the production of male-only cohorts of moths for field releases, was developed as a novel approach to protect crucifer crops. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the same time, the sensitivity of agricultural production in dryland field systems to temporal variability in climate would have had implications for economic and political relationships, both competitive and cooperative. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • In this study, we explore whether and how annual cycles of climate might have constrained seasonal cultivation and crop production in three rain-fed field systems on the Island of Hawaiʻi. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • When we imposed temperature and moisture criteria to visualize seasonal cultivation envelopes defined for sweet potato ( Ipomea batatas ), we found strong spatial patterns associated with the onset and length of the growing season, and these suggest seasonal complementarity in crop production within and between field systems. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • The fact that the world will be relying more on emerging economies such as China and Brazil for both global food production and investment in agricultural research and development, revisiting the impact GM crops may have on agricultural productivity is an important issue for public debate," noted Sheldon, who is a professor in the Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics. (osu.edu)
  • For example, Brazil, India and China now account for 31 percent of public agricultural research and development dollars, which Sheldon believes could translate to significant production increases and productivity growth. (osu.edu)
  • As previously noted, the worldwide demand for meat has increased in recent decades and this demand has stimulated higher production of forage crops. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Lands used to produce forage crops are sometimes not suitable for food crop production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Such lands are usually not suitable for direct food crop production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Consequently, this is likely to open new avenues of maximizing yield and production using application technology and chemicals such as micronutrients, thereby boosting the agricultural micronutrients market in the coming years. (reportlinker.com)
  • Indeed, these functionalities support the provision of ecosystem services that provide suitable agricultural production conditions (MEA, 2005). (deepdyve.com)
  • These authors have usually estimated the effects of crop biodiversity using primal production functions or reduced-form profit functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Second, crop diversity of the previous year increases current production (Di Falco and Chavas, 2008). (deepdyve.com)
  • Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are a widely used class of pesticide used for animal husbandry practices (Naphthalophos for sheep dipping, jetting and drench), crop production for pest control (Dimethoate) and in public health (Maldison for head lice). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Between 2011-2018, 971 tractor-related fatalities occurred in agricultural production. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They must also consider the prevailing environmental conditions on their farm, and how the crop will fit in with other elements of their production system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Economic Data Industrial establishments: 0 Retail commercial establishments: 42 Motor vehicles (automobiles and pickup trucks): 240 (2007) Inhabitants per motor vehicle: 43.2 (2007) Main agricultural production in planted area Rice: 5,300 ha. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seeds of field crops are classified in the same industry as crops grown for other purposes. (osha.gov)
  • Beginning in the early 1990s, agricultural--input companies introduced a string of innovative seeds, pesticides, and herbicides that have since transformed how our food is grown. (bcg.com)
  • Input companies continue to conduct -research in seeds, traits, and chemical crop protection, of course. (bcg.com)
  • Using traditional plant breeding techniques, humans have altered the genetic composition of almost every crop by only planting seeds from plants with desired traits, or by controlling pollination. (omicsonline.org)
  • Guilds is used as in the ecological literature to signify a group of species having similar ecological (in this case agricultural management) requirements and therefore having similar economic roles. (purdue.edu)
  • Viroids are also being detected in crop species where they were not previously known to occur. (apsnet.org)
  • Other areas of limited research included how the spatial arrangement of different components of integrated crop-livestock systems may affect system synergies and the inclusion of multiple livestock species, including monogastrics, into these systems. (cabi.org)
  • In 1988, IBPGR organized or funded 22 collecting projects that dealt primarily with wild species of roughly 50 commodity crops. (nap.edu)
  • Because measures of species density on point maps are often unavailable in databases, biodiversity is generally approximated by indicators based on land use, such as the Shannon index to measure crop diversity (e.g. (deepdyve.com)
  • In particular, crop diversity increases the likelihood of species diversity (Di Falco, 2012). (deepdyve.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO, CA - Breast Cancer Action (BCAction), the respected watchdog for the breast cancer movement, expressed outrage over California agribusinesses using oil wastewater to irrigate food crops while putting pink ribbons on their products. (bcaction.org)
  • In the absence of strong government action, we're calling on Bee Sweet Citrus and Wonderful Citrus, companies that say they care about women's health, to stop using oil wastewater to irrigate their food crops and to use their power to stop the use of oil wastewater for growing food altogether. (bcaction.org)
  • Although the acquisition efforts of the IBPGR and the other international agricultural research centers (IARCs) are useful for the commodities within their mandates, reviewers have pointed out the need for a strategy dealing with other crops valued by developing countries that do not fall within the CGIAR mandate (Hawkes, 1985). (nap.edu)
  • The empirical results indicate that agricultural extension services play a significant role in adoption of improved agricultural technologies like laser leveling, rice and wheat varieties. (umn.edu)
  • Within the CGIAR Generation Challenge Program, reference collections have been established for barley, wheat, chickpea, lentil and faba bean, in partnership with the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, CIMMYT and ICRISAT. (cgiar.org)
  • Here, we focus on the management of crop biodiversity for wheat, winter barley and rapeseed productions. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, a more comprehensive 4-volume " Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation and Agricultural Crops " (Publisher: Taylor and Francis, Inc.) has been published by the end of 2018 or early 2019. (usgs.gov)
  • The number of active ingredients in new crop protection products introduced annually has fallen off dramatically, from more than 30 in 2000 to well under 20 by 2018. (bcg.com)
  • We see evidence of this concept every season on specialty crops in western Nebraska, and 2018 was no exception. (unl.edu)
  • spon- sored by the UC-Davis College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the College's Biotechnology Program. (springer.com)
  • Research and Markets has announced the addition of the 'Agricultural Biotechnology - Global Strategic Business Report' report to their offering. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Crops enhanced by biotechnology are being grown on nearly 110 million acres in 13 countries. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The nominations of eligible eminent scientists/faculty members for Norman Borlaug Chair in Biotechnology for Crop Improvement located at ICAR-AU system are invited through the Vice-Chancellors/Directors of ICAR Institutes/Agricultural Universities to be forwarded to the DDG (Education) latest by 28th May, 2010 along with their biodata and project proposals in the prescribed format. (org.in)
  • This article is from the 2019 Nebraska Crop Management Conference Proceedings. (unl.edu)
  • SAO PAULO, Feb 21 (Reuters) - Rising gasoline prices in Brazil and improved economic prospects in 2019 are boosting the outlook for ethanol sales and mills may once again skew toward the biofuel and away from sugar as the new cane crop approaches. (reuters.com)
  • The October 2019 Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products. (usda.gov)
  • MOFRP improved existing methods through taking ecological services of crop cultivation into account. (mdpi.com)
  • Optimal plans of crop cultivation reconfiguration were generated for sustaining local development under economic, ecological and social objectives as well as physical restraints in water and land resources. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper we show that a state run crop insurance programme may play a major role in the farmer's ability to take risks and allocate more land to cultivation of HYVs. (umn.edu)
  • Map , in combination with the written statistical information , reflecting crop yield , acres under cultivation , and crop value . (oclc.org)
  • In 2015, 53.6 million ha of GM maize were under cultivation (almost 1/3 of the maize crop). (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth in cultivated area of functional crop groups. (purdue.edu)
  • Research on endophytic diazotrophic bacteria has come a long way, and in this chapter, we have briefly discussed the mechanisms of biological nitrogen fixation and methods to quantify the fixed nitrogen along with reviewing recent studies focused on evaluating the role of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in promoting plant growth in both native and nonnative crop hosts. (intechopen.com)
  • The new edition of Crop Ecology, by Connor, Loomis, and Cassman, retains the strengths of the earlier edition, namely, insightful analysis of the key principles that explain crop resource use and growth, based on extensive use of peer-reviewed data, averaging more than one graph or table per page. (cambridge.org)
  • Growth in agricultural productivity has important implications for food security and food prices. (osu.edu)
  • Public concern over the safety of GM crops has impacted growth in the industry. (osu.edu)
  • The high growth potential in emerging markets and untapped regions and growth in demand for bio-based adjuvants provide new growth opportunities for the players in the agricultural adjuvants market. (marketresearch.com)
  • Controlling root structure and function in the context of crop productivity is the last frontier in our understanding of plant growth regulation. (csuventures.org)
  • While the power of genetics and molecular biology have revealed many important insights on root development in model plants under defined growth conditions, progress in applying these findings to crop plants in the field have been exceedingly limited. (csuventures.org)
  • In evaluating whether a given crop will be planted, a farmer must consider its profitability, adaptability to changing conditions, resistance to disease, and requirement for specific technologies during growth or harvesting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrated crop-livestock systems have been proposed as a method to sustainably intensify agricultural systems. (cabi.org)
  • I reviewed over 116 different research and review articles focused on integrated crop-livestock systems and based on their focus, divided them into one of the three different aspects of sustainability: environmental, economic, or social. (cabi.org)
  • Most of the 116 articles focused on environmental (77) or economic (72) aspects of integrated crop-livestock systems, with 42 articles having both environmental and economic aspects. (cabi.org)
  • Of the 32 articles focused on social issues, there were 17 articles that included both environmental and social aspects and 13 articles that evaluated both economic and social aspects of integrated crop-livestock systems. (cabi.org)
  • Only nine articles evaluated all three aspects of sustainability in crop-livestock systems. (cabi.org)
  • Most social articles focused on potential adoption strategies, but there was little information about the impact that integrated crop-livestock systems have on the social fabric of communities. (cabi.org)
  • The feeding of relatively large amounts of grain crops (some grown locally, some imported) to livestock also occurs in other parts of the world including Mexico, Egypt, and Western Europe. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The Rio Paranã supplies much of the water for irrigation of the crops and filling up of small dams for livestock raising. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact the addition of manure, supplemented by commercial fertilizers in many cases, has been considered the ideal method of fertilizing vegetable crops. (mo.gov)
  • The types of agricultural adjuvants include activator (surfactants, oil adjuvants, and ammonium fertilizers) and utility (compatibility agents, buffers/acidifiers, antifoam agents, water conditioners, and drift control agents). (marketresearch.com)
  • Overall, global agricultural productivity has more than doubled. (bcg.com)
  • The International Fund for Agricultural Development of the United Nations (IFAD) today announced support for a new project to boost agricultural productivity, improve food and nutrition security and. (azocleantech.com)
  • The development of resistance in insects against pesticides poses a severe threat to agricultural productivity. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • a timely update of a foundational text for college or graduate curricula providing comprehensive treatment of ecological principles and concepts central to achieving global food security and to conducting the environmental accounting critical to sustaining productivity through judicious natural resource management … an essential desk reference for practising systems agronomists, agro-ecologists, and agricultural economists and biological engineers pursuing biophysical life cycle analyses. (cambridge.org)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - With recent food price spikes impacting global food security and a growing reliance on emerging economies to produce our world's agricultural supplies, encouraging greater discussion on the impact that genetically modified (GM) crops have had on agricultural productivity is important, recently said Ian Sheldon , the Andersons Professor of International Trade in Ohio State's College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences. (osu.edu)
  • This adoption of first-generation GM crops has not only had a positive impact on productivity, but there have been associated impacts on prices and land use, Sheldon said. (osu.edu)
  • Therefore, we compile literatures on the productivity of crop diversity and acreage choices (e.g. (deepdyve.com)
  • In August 2016, BCAction and its members joined with 350,000 concerned people who wrote to California Governor Jerry Brown urging him to end the use of oil wastewater for crop irrigation. (bcaction.org)
  • The agricultural adjuvants market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 5.8% from 2016 and reach USD 3.51 billion by 2021. (marketresearch.com)
  • April 6, 2016 - Cellulosic Sugar Producers Cooperative, an Ontario-based farmer's cooperative, confirms that it has entered into a memorandum of understanding with Comet Biorefining to collaborate on the development of a sustainable agricultural biomass supply chain in southwestern Ontario. (topcropmanager.com)
  • The Cooperative Board of Directors has approved the jointly developed business plan for the agricultural biomass to sugar value chain in southwestern Ontario and is now engaged in completing its regulatory requirements to complete an equity raise anticipated to occur in the third quarter of 2016. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Many crops could not be grown or harvested without them. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Modification of the health-promoting value of potato tubers field grown under drought stress: emphasis on dietary antioxidant and glycoaloid contents in five native andean cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(2):599-609. (academicjournals.org)
  • Monocropping (or continuous monoculture) is a system in which the same crop is grown in the same area for a number of growing seasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organisation of individual plants in a field is also variable and typically depends on the crop being grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is definitely a book to recommend to serious students of crop science and of managed ecosystems. (cambridge.org)
  • This document explains the licensing and regulation of persons who apply pesticides to agricultural tree crops in Florida, as regulated by the Florida Pesticide Law (Chapter 487) and administered by the Florida Department of Consumer Services. (ufl.edu)
  • All persons who apply or supervise the application of restricted-use pesticides to agricultural tree crops must have a pesticide applicator license issued by the Bureau of Licensing and Enforcement. (ufl.edu)
  • The Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control category is regulated by the Florida Pesticide Law (Chapter 487) . (ufl.edu)
  • Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • If agricultural-input companies are to help meet the growing demand for food and remain competitive with new digitally driven businesses that are entering the field, they must break out of their traditional innovation models and get their product development efforts back on track fast. (bcg.com)
  • Go to the field with UNL Plant Pathologists Tamra Jackson-Ziems and Loren Giesler as they show you what to watch for to correctly identify and manage Nebraska crop diseases. (unl.edu)
  • Timelapse stack of straw crop agricultural field landscape sky clouds. (videohive.net)
  • 13. The crop residue spreader of claim 9, wherein the first adjusting mechanism is further operable for moving the flow guide in fore and aft directions relative to the discharge opening to enable adjusting a pattern of crop residuedistribution over a field. (patentgenius.com)
  • Most of the field crop acreage is located in the eastern part of the state, and Dr. Reisig is housed two hours east of campus at the Vernon James Research and Extension Center. (nas-sites.org)
  • We report results of the first open-field release of a non-irradiated, genetically engineered self-limiting strain of an agricultural pest insect. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wooden phalluses are used in agricultural fields as a scarecrow when the crops start sprouting, and also as a fertility symbol, as seen here in a buckwheat field in the Chokhor Valley. (masterfile.com)
  • A system and method for creating 3-dimensional agricultural field scene maps are disclosed comprising producing a pair of images using a stereo camera and creating a disparity images based on the pair of images, the disparity image being a 3-dimensional representation of the stereo images. (google.com)
  • Coordinate arrays can be produced from the disparity image and the coordinate arrays can be used to render a 3-dimensional local map of the agricultural field scene. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates generally to the field of agricultural mapping systems. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to systems and methods for detecting crop rows in an agricultural field scene. (google.com)
  • Remote sensing techniques have been used to generate geographical and spatial information related to an agricultural field. (google.com)
  • Researchers at Colorado State University have developed an automated system for sampling root systems from agricultural research plots in the field to systematically discover phenotypes relevant to crop breeding or genetics. (csuventures.org)
  • The term cropping system refers to the crops, crop sequences and management techniques used on a particular agricultural field over a period of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This webpage showcases the key research advances made in hyperspectral remote sensing of agricultural crops and vegetation over the last 50 years. (usgs.gov)
  • The primary focus is on the seminal research conducted over the last 20 years by this group using hyperspectral data of agricultural crops and vegetation, gathered from around the world, from various platforms: ground-based, platform-mounted, drone or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based, airborne, and spaceborne. (usgs.gov)
  • The secondary focus is on the compendium of the hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops research conducted by a large community of global researchers over the last 50 years. (usgs.gov)
  • Despite the scientific complexity of these efforts, agricultural-input companies continue to research ways to boost yield through genetically engineered and native output traits. (bcg.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Agricultural Chemistry, Fertilization and Crop Protection. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Agricultural Chemistry, Fertilization and Crop Protection are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • Several centers of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)-most notably the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR)-have been active in conserving and managing the genetic resources of plants. (nap.edu)
  • this has been done chiefly in partnership with national governments, regional organizations, and the IARCs (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 1985). (nap.edu)
  • Much of this early excitement and expectation was met with successive breakthroughs in scientific research on plant gene transfer methods, identification of valuable genes, and the eventual performance of transgenic crops. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Accumulated experience and knowledge of decades of crop improvement combined with expert judgment, science-based reasoning and empirical research has led to scientists' confidence that GM crops may pose no new or heightened risks that could not be identified or mitigated, and that any unforeseen hazard will be negligible, manageable, or preventable. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56(11):1159-1168. (academicjournals.org)
  • His research program is focused on the biology and ecology of Heliothines, especially in relation to Bt crops. (nas-sites.org)
  • Not only would international trade be a good thing for global food security but investments in research and development in the agricultural sector can have a significant impact as well," Sheldon said. (osu.edu)
  • As Sheldon noted, agricultural economists Julian Alston and Philip Pardey report in a recent article that public expenditure on agricultural research and development in developed economies has dropped from 56 percent in 1960 to 48 percent in 2009. (osu.edu)
  • Meanwhile, developing economies have increased their public expenditure on agricultural research and development. (osu.edu)
  • The Trust supports the work of agricultural and applied economists by funding programs and initiatives designed to advance the profession. (aaea.org)
  • We observed little difference between paired poplar and switchgrass, both promising bioenergy crops. (usda.gov)
  • These are the four largest commodity crops and represent roughly 75 percent of the calories that humans directly or indirectly consume. (agmrc.org)
  • He is currently an Extension Professor with the University of Maine and a Certified Crop Adviser through the American Society of Agronomy. (nas-sites.org)
  • Nitrous oxide losses over the study period were low and variable in magnitude, with only 1 yr producing a significant loss under S tillage (included incorporation of the legume crop). (gc.ca)
  • The differences observed across these systems are diverse, and there is still considerable debate concerning their relative economic and environmental impact, but a number of widely reported benefits have led to a major shift towards reduced tillage in modern cropping systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) program provides funding to U.S. organizations for projects that address sanitary, phytosanitary and technical barriers that prohibit or threaten the export of U.S. specialty crops. (usda.gov)
  • FAS reviews the proposals and awards funds on a competitive basis to applicants that clearly demonstrate how their projects will overcome trade barriers and retain or expand market access for specialty crops. (usda.gov)
  • Perspectives on new crops and new uses. (purdue.edu)
  • Food ingredients produced from biotech crops are found in thousands of food products consumed worldwide. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The high demand for the product is driven by increasing demand for processed and non-processed food, which in turn, is boosting the adoption of micronutrients used in growing different types of crops. (reportlinker.com)
  • The main factors driving the agricultural adjuvants market in this region are increasing farm expenditure, increased adoption of precision farming and decreasing arable land. (marketresearch.com)
  • These two inputs are playing vital role in the agricultural development of the crops of the country. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Some of the nutrients contained in these dead tissues are made available to crops during decomposition, reducing the need for fertiliser inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special Purpose Funds allow donors to support a particular award/scholarship each year in the name of a prominent agricultural or applied economist. (aaea.org)
  • Modern varieties of agricultural crops, commonly referred to as high yielding varieties (HYVs), are being increasingly looked upon as a major source of the additional foodgrain required to attain self-sufficiency in a number of Third World countries. (umn.edu)
  • Simply put, some believe that land used to produce animal feed should instead be used to produce food (e.g. grain crops) suitable for direct human consumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It has been estimated that over 100 million tons of the grain crops produced in the U.S. are fed directly to animals. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Few authors have emphasised the productive value of biodiversity for crop farms (see Di Falco, 2012 for a review). (deepdyve.com)
  • Many modern farms are made up of a number of fields, which can be cultivated separately and thus can be used in a crop rotation sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are very excited at the prospects of establishing the first commercial scale agricultural biomass to cellulosic sugar value chain in Canada," says Dr. Murray McLaughlin, BIC Executive Director. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Background and Objective: The residual pesticides in agricultural crop have a negative impact on human health and lead to an increase in various diseases such as cancer. (sid.ir)
  • To fill this worker safety void, NIOSH engineers developed cost-effective rollover protective structures (CROPS) that can be built onto a tractor after market. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in two Italian populations to assess the extent to which residence in the vicinity of agricultural crops associated with the application of neurotoxic pesticides is a risk factor for ALS, using crop acreage in proximity to the residence as an index of exposure. (rti.org)
  • Bouis HE, Welch RM (2010) Biofortification-a sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global South. (springer.com)
  • Crop residue, traditionally considered as "trash" or agricultural waste, is increasingly being viewed as a valuable resource. (agmrc.org)
  • The emergence of crop residue as a valuable resource has evolved to the point where there are competing uses for it. (agmrc.org)
  • 4. The flow distributor of claim 1, wherein the crop residue flow surface has an upwardly and sidewardly outwardly facing concave shape so as to be capable of guiding a flow of crop residue discharged downwardly from the discharge openingupwardly and sidewardly outwardly therefrom. (patentgenius.com)
  • 11. The crop residue spreader of claim 10, wherein the first adjusting mechanism is further operable for moving the second end portion upwardly and downwardly relative to the discharge opening. (patentgenius.com)
  • 12. The crop residue spreader of claim 9, wherein the flow guide has a curved shape which is concave in the upward direction. (patentgenius.com)
  • 14. The crop residue spreader of claim 9, wherein the actuator is remotely controllable for moving the flow guide such that points along the aft edge will move at different rates in relation to the back plate for varying the oblique angle. (patentgenius.com)
  • Certified agricultural tree crop pest control applicators may be licensed as either public applicators or commercial applicators. (ufl.edu)
  • These examinations are a Core examination and an Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control category examination. (ufl.edu)
  • The Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control examination may be taken at a UF/IFAS Extension Office that offers category examinations. (ufl.edu)
  • Manuals and study materials for Core and Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control applicators who will be taking exams may be obtained from the UF/IFAS Extension Bookstore by calling 1-800-226-1764 or on-line at http://www.ifasbooks.ufl.edu/ . (ufl.edu)
  • The content of the Agricultural Tree Crop exam is based upon the manual Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control (Figure 2). (ufl.edu)
  • To recertify, applicators may take the examinations again or attend training and obtain 8 continuing education units (CEUs) approved for the Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control category and 4 CEUs approved for the Core category. (ufl.edu)
  • Core CEUs can not be used to meet the required Agricultural Tree Crop Pest Control CEUs. (ufl.edu)
  • The rise and fall of crop diversity (Halloy 1994). (purdue.edu)
  • 2011). Of course, crop diversity is only an indirect indicator and does not reflect the complexity of the notion of biodiversity. (deepdyve.com)
  • First, crop diversity increases the mean yield and reduces the variance yield. (deepdyve.com)