A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Diseases of plants.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.

Feed deprivation affects crop environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of leghorn hens. (1/34)

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion.  (+info)

Molecular identification of Candida parapsilosis from crop mucosa in a cockatiel. (2/34)

A 2-month-old cockatiel was evaluated for diarrhea, dyspnea, and death. Histologic examination of lesions in the crop mucosa revealed hyperkeratosis and the presence of blastoconidia and hyphae. Positive immunohistochemical staining of the organisms was achieved with an antibody directed against Candida spp. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from crop lesion material with internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) primers yielded fragments of approximately 300 bp, which demonstrated 95% DNA homology with the corresponding sequence from a strain of Candida parapsilosis deposited in the GenBank data base. The Candida species in the lesion of the crop mucosa was therefore identified by DNA sequence analysis as C. parapsilosis.  (+info)

Pathology of spontaneous hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys. (3/34)

Thirteen turkeys naturally affected with hemorrhagic enteritis were studied pathologically. The main gross lesions were splenomegaly and hemorrhagic contents in the gut. The main histological lesions were intranuclear inclusion bodies in largemononuclear cells in many visceral organs and in reticular cells around the sheathed arteries of the spleens and varying degrees of lymphocytic hyperplasia in most tissues. The inclusions were frequently present in areas of the lymphocytic hyperplasia. The large mononuclear cells with the inclusions frequently showed a degenerative change.  (+info)

In vitro adhesion specificity of indigenous Lactobacilli within the avian intestinal tract. (4/34)

In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains to cell and tissue types along the chicken alimentary tract and to ileal mucus were determined. Fresh isolates from chickens adhered to the epithelium of crop and, in a strain-dependent manner, to follicle-associated epithelium and the apical surfaces of mature enterocytes of intestinal villi. No adherence to the apical surfaces of undifferentiated enterocytes, the mucus-producing goblet cells, or the ileal mucus was detected.  (+info)

Lactobacillus ingluviei sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of pigeons. (5/34)

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the crop and intestines of pigeons. One group of strains, showing similar genomic patterns after screening with tRNA intergenic spacer PCR, could not be identified to the species level. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of one representative strain revealed about 96% similarity to sequences from Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus mucosae. Determination of the DNA base composition, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and biochemical testing confirmed that the seven strains studied constitute a single novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus ingluviei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain KR3T (=LMG 20380T =CCUG 45722T).  (+info)

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus species in crops of broilers of different ages by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. (6/34)

The microflora of the crop was investigated throughout the broiler production period (0 to 42 days) using PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and selective bacteriological culture of lactobacilli followed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The birds were raised under conditions similar to those used in commercial broiler production. Lactobacilli predominated and attained populations of 10(8) to 10(9) CFU per gram of crop contents. Many of the lactobacilli present in the crop (61.9% of isolates) belonged to species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and could not be differentiated by PCR-DGGE. A rapid and simple ARDRA method was developed to distinguish between the members of the L. acidophilus group. HaeIII-ARDRA was used for preliminary identification of isolates in the L. acidophilus group and to identify Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius. MseI-ARDRA generated unique patterns for all species of the L. acidophilus group, identifying Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gallinarum among crop isolates. The results of our study provide comprehensive knowledge of the Lactobacillus microflora in the crops of birds of different ages using nucleic acid-based methods of detection and identification based on current taxonomic criteria.  (+info)

Detection, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo expression of genes encoding S-proteins in Lactobacillus gallinarum strains isolated from chicken crops. (7/34)

Thirty-eight isolates of Lactobacillus gallinarum cultured from the crops of broiler chickens were screened for the presence of genes encoding S-layer proteins. All of the isolates had two S-protein genes, which were designated Lactobacillus gallinarum S-protein (lgs) genes. One gene in each isolate was either lgsA or lgsB. The Lactobacillus isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA digests, which grouped the isolates into 17 genotypes (strains). The second gene in each of eight representative strains was sequenced and shown to differ among strains (lgsC, lgsD, lgsE, lgsF, lgsG, lgsH, and lgsI). The genome of each strain thus encoded a common S-protein (encoded by either lgsA or lgsB) and a strain-specific S-protein. The extraction of cell surface proteins from cultures of the eight strains showed that each strain produced a single S-protein that was always encoded by the strain-specific lgs gene. Two of the strains were used to inoculate chickens maintained in a protected environment which were Lactobacillus-free prior to inoculation. DNAs and RNAs extracted from the digesta of the chickens were used for PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, respectively, to demonstrate the presence and transcription of lgs genes in vivo. In both cases, only the strain-specific gene was transcribed. Both of the strains adhered to the crop epithelium, consistent with published data predicting that S-proteins of lactobacilli are adhesins. The results of this study provide a basis for the investigation of gene duplication and sequence variation as mechanisms by which bacterial strains of the same species can share the same habitat.  (+info)

Medium-chain triacylglycerols enhance release of cholecystokinin in chicks. (8/34)

Whether medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) affect the plasma concentration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and crop-emptying rate in chicks was investigated after 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 or 180 min of diet intubation. Triacylglycerol sources used were corn oil [containing long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT)], glyceryl tricaprate and glyceryl tricaprylate at a level of 200 g/kg diet. Plasma CCK concentration was significantly enhanced in chicks given the two MCT treatments, but not in those given the LCT treatment, after 30 min feeding relative to the initial level. At all time points, chicks fed the diet containing LCT had significantly lower plasma CCK concentrations than those fed MCT, and chicks fed glyceryl tricaprate had higher concentrations than those fed glyceryl tricaprylate. Dietary MCT sources significantly delayed diet passage from the crop compared with dietary LCT. These results indicate that MCT are more potent stimulators of CCK secretion in chicks than LCT.  (+info)

SUMMARY: Using an in vitro method, some factors affecting the attachment of a strain of lactobacillus to chicken crop epithelial cells have been studied. Time of contact beyond 10 min, pH value, age or growth temperature of the bacterial culture, or nature of the energy source in the growth medium had little or no effect on attachment. Heating to 100 °C for 10 min, or treatment with EDTA or surface active compounds was also without effect. Treatment with sodium periodate markedly decreased adhesion, proteolytic enzymes had a smaller effect but wheat germ lipase was completely inactive. The pronounced inhibition of adhesion periodate suggested the involvement of carbohydrate. However, enzymes known to attack carbohydrate substrates were inactive in reducing adhesion. Concanavalin A, which binds specifically to certain sugar residues, reduced attachment. It is suggested that these concanavalin A receptors on the lactobacillus are responsible for its attachment to crop epithelial cells.
GODOY, Aline Andrade; CARVALHO, Luciano Bastos de; KUMMROW, Fábio e PAMPLIN, Paulo Augusto Zaitune. Sodium chloride as a reference substance for the three growth endpoints used in the Lemna minor L. (1753) test. Rev. Ambient. Água [online]. 2017, vol.12, n.1, pp.8-16. ISSN 1980-993X. https://doi.org/10.4136/ambi-agua.1986.. Lemna sp. growth inhibition test standardized protocols suggest the use of compounds such as 3,5-dichlorophenol as reference substances for checking the test organisms sensitivity routinely. However, this and other recommended chemicals present risks to human health and to the environment. Sodium chloride (NaCl) appears as a less toxic alternative reference substance which has been successfully used in routine ecotoxicological tests. However, the evaluation of this compound in multiple growth endpoints used in the L. minor test, which is required for recommending it as a reference substance for this test organism, has not yet been reported. In the present study, NaCl was ...
A study was conducted to determine the adsorption coefficient (log Koc) of the substance on soil and on sewage sludge according to OECD Guideline 121, in compliance with GLP. In the study, measured HPLC retention data were obtained for 7 reference substances (i.e., sodium nitrate, phenol, methylbenzoate, naphthalene, 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene, phenanthrene and 4,4 DDT). A solvent blank followed by three injections of a solution of the reference substances were analysed with HPLC; then three injections of a solution of the test substance; and finally three injections of the solution with the reference substances, in total ten runs. For each reference substance, the capacity factor k was calculated from the retention time of sodium nitrate and the retention time of the respective reference substance. A calibration function was set up using the literature values for Koc of the reference substances and the mean capacity factor of the six determinations. In the graph log k versus log Koc, linear ...
A chemical reference substance is an integral part of the drug specification. Thus, if the reference substance deteriorates, this will change the specification of the drug. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the stability of chemical reference substances should be monitored by regular re-examination and that they should be replaced as soon as a significant change in a property is noted.. The definition of what is a significant change differs according to the intended use of the chemical reference substance. Several per cent of degradation products found in a substance may not impair the usefulness of the material in identification tests. For chemical reference substances that are used in chromatographic assays, however, even small amounts of impurities may be unacceptable. When establishing a chemical reference substance, consideration must be given to its intended use and to the performance characteristics of the analytical methods in which it will be used. The tolerable degree of ...
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0055] As described above, the first bone mineral density analysis method of the present invention includes the steps of: projecting radiation generated from a radiation tube simultaneously onto an analysis target bone portion and a reference substance having a plurality of sections with different radiation transmission characteristics; obtaining a radiation image representing the bone portion and the reference substance by detecting radiation transmitted through the bone portion and the reference substance with a radiation detecting body; obtaining a bone mineral density of the bone portion based on a radiation transmission characteristic of a section of the reference substance that indicates the same density as that of the analysis target bone portion in the radiation image; sequentially changing an image capturing condition to a plurality of different states, including a normal state, and obtaining a radiation image of the reference substance under each state prior to obtaining the bone ...
The evolution of flight in birds involves 1) a decoupling of the primitive quadrupedal locomotor coordination, with a new synchronized flapping motion of the wings while conserving alternating leg movements and 2) the reduction of the wing digits and the loss of functional claws. Our observations show that the hoatzin nestlings move with an alternated walking coordination of the four limbs using the mobile claws on their wings to anchor themselves to the substrate. When swimming, hoatzin nestlings use a coordinated motion of the four limbs involving synchronous or alternated movements of the wings, indicating a versatile motor pattern. Finally the proportions of the claws and phalanges in juvenile hoatzin are radically divergent from those in adults, yet strikingly similar to those of Archaeopteryx. The locomotor plasticity observed in the Hoatzin suggests that transitional forms that retained claws on the wings could have also use them for locomotion.
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in poultry meat pose a threat to public health. This article is the first to report the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in retail poultry meat labeled with various claims of antibiotic use in Korea. A total of 719 E. coli strains were isolated from 1,107 raw poultry (chicken and duck) meat samples purchased from nationwide retail stores between 2017 and 2019. All strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a broth microdilution method. The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli in chicken was significantly higher than that in duck for almost all antibiotics tested, and 87.9% of E. coli strains in chicken samples were multidrug resistant. The most prevalent types of antimicrobial resistance in these E. coli strains from poultry meat were to nalidixic acid (75.7%), ampicillin (69.1%), and tetracycline (64.0%), consistent with national sales data for veterinary antibiotics in the Korean poultry production industry. Organic ...
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The adsorption coefficient Koc of the test substance was determined according to the OECD 121 and GLP (Jing, 2014). None of the tested reference substances had a log Koc above the tested item as required by the guideline, due to the very high retention of the tested substance on the column. The highest log Koc of the reference substances used was that of DDT with 5.63. The linear equation obtained from the reference substances was log Koc = 4.6570 log K + 4.3230 (R^2 = 0.9293). On this basis, the log Koc of the test substance was extrapolated and calculated to be 8.10. ...
Orexin-A hormone molecule. Computer model showing the crystal structure of a molecule of the hormone orexin-A. The crystal structure consists of both the secondary structure, represented by alpha helices (ribbons), and primary structure (rods). Orexin-A is one of a pair of excitatory neuropeptide hormones that regulate the sleep cycle by inducing wakefulness. The other is Orexin-B. Orexins, also known as hypocretins, also play a role in stimulating appetite. - Stock Image C003/3058
Hey everyone. I was just wondering how to know if a chickens crop is hurt or damaged. And what it would mean if their crop was hurt?
The ready biodegradability of the test item was evaluated using a 28-day modified Sturm test according to the OECD Guideline No. 301 B, EU Method C.4 -C with GLP compliance. The test substance was dissolved in reconstituted water (OECD mineral medium) prepared from deionised water with a conductivity , 10 µS/cm. Inoculum blanks, test solutions (test substance at 10.0 mg/L of TOC), procedure control [reference substance (sodium acetate at 10.0 mg/L of TOC) and inoculum] and toxicity controls (test substance (at 10.0 mg/L of TOC), reference substance (sodium acetate at 10.0 mg/L of TOC) and inoculum) were used. The inoculum consisted of sewage sludge sampled from the aeration tank of a sewage treatment plant and then aerated for 6 days. Inoculum concentration was 12.0 mg/L (dry weight) in all test vessels. CO2 scrubbed air was bubbled through the flasks over the test period. Test was performed at 21-23 °C and pH was7.51 to 8.80. Biodegradation of the test substance totaled 7% (mean of two test ...
At a test substance concentration of 13.3 mg/L (equivalent to 10 mg C/L) and a reference substance concentration of 10 mg C/L, the toxicity control attained >25% degradation by day 6, thereby confirming that the test substance did not exhibit an inhibitory effect on the sewage treatment micro-organisms used in the test (i.e., test substance and reference substance attained ≥ 25% degradation by Day 14 for the test substance to be considered as non-inhibitory ...
The results of a questionnaire on the use of International Chemical Reference Substances and Infrared Reference Spectra were reported to the Committee. The majority of the answers came from national quality control laboratories (40.4%), pharmaceutical manufacturers (22.6%) and teaching and research institutions (19.8%). It was noted that the substances are mainly used as primary standards to calibrate working standards, but also to some extent directly as working standards. This probably reflects a single or infrequent use where it is not sensible to prepare a secondary standard. The Committee recommended that the WHO Collaborating Centre for Chemical Reference Substances should conduct a follow-up exercise and report on its results at the next meeting of the Expert Committee. ...
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To avoid errors during sample preparation and injection, an internal standard should be used in any case. The standard must not be present in the sample, however, its chemical and physical properties ought to be the closest possible to the analytical targets. It must be well resolved in the chromatogram within the same range of retention time as the sample. Before sample analysis, a given volume of standard is added, and all clean-up procedures are made with the sample containing the standard. Quantitative errors may be compensated by comparing the peak-areas of the sample with that of the internal standard.. ...
To read more detail about the coverage expansion including conditions, click here. Insurance is provided by insurance companies within ACE Group. All products may not be available in all jurisdictions. The product information above is a summary only. The insurance policy actually issued contains the terms and limits of the contract. ACE Environmental Risk, is a division of ACE USA, and part of ACE Group. ACE Environmental Risk offers a full range of environmental liability solutions designed to minimize bottom-line impacts, and provide hands-on management for those liabilities. For more information about ACE Environmental Risk and its range of products and services, please visit our website. ACEs agriculture businesses, Rain and Hail, and ACE Agribusiness, headquartered in Johnston, Iowa, is one of the largest providers of multi-peril crop insurance and a leading provider of crop hail and commercial agricultural insurance to farmers and businesses in the United States and Canada. About ACE ...
The 31 March 2021 webinar discussed recommendations for capital providers to achieve sustainable investments in commercial agriculture that promote inclusivity of smallholder farmers in value chains in developing countries.. The session featured reports from the Empowering Producers in Commercial Agriculture programme on working with farmer groups, including:. ...
In the Philippines, milkfish nurseries are integrated with grow-out facilities, where wild-caught or hatchery-reared fry are first acclimated into nursery compartments which comprise one third to one quarter of the total area of the Brackish water pond. Fry are stocked at a density of up to 1 000/litre and are fed with a naturally-grown micro-benthic food known as lab-lab which grows on the fertilised pond bottom. Nursery rearing has also been carried out in hapa type suspended nylon nets installed in Brackish water ponds or lagoons and in freshwater lakes within the grow-out compartments, a traditionally practice in the Philippines. When natural food is becoming depleted, artificial feeds such as rice bran, corn bran, and stale bread or formulated feeds are provided. In about 4-6 weeks, the fry grow to 5-8 cm juveniles, which is the ideal size for releasing into grow-out ponds or pens. Depending on the desired grow-out period, juveniles or fingerling size milkfish are kept in nurseries or ...
Human growth hormone (hGH), molecular model. hGH is produced in the anterior pituitary gland of the brain. It binds to specific receptors on cells in the body to stimulate growth, especially in childhood. It is also involved in strengthening bone, increasing muscle mass, reducing glucose uptake by the liver and promoting the breakdown of body fat. - Stock Image F009/6091
The endothelium is a thin mono-cellular layer which covers the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues and also has the responsibility for uninterrupted maintenance of circulation to all the vital tissues. Endothelium is a very active organ, it works as a receptor-effector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the appropriate substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction.. The vascular endothelium is vulnerable to maximum wear and tear due to its positioning and requires prompt regeneration of the cells. Whenever the imbalance between ...
Gel permeation chromatography is commonly used in the fractionation of mixtures of substances that vary in their relative molecular mass and it is extremely useful for labile molecules, such as enzymes.. The elution volume of a solute is determined mainly by its relative molecular mass and it has been shown that the elution volume is approximately a linear function of the logarithm of the relative molecular mass. It is possible to determine the relative molecular mass of a test molecule using a calibration curve prepared from the elution volumes of several reference substances of known relative molecular mass. This should be done using the same column and conditions (Figure 3.37) and in practice it may be possible to calibrate the column and separate the test substance at the same time by incorporating the reference compounds in the sample. Such a method is rapid and inexpensive and does not demand a highly purified sample, provided that there is a specific method for detecting the molecule in ...
Trituration suppositories with peak about to frailty index can also uslogical effects on the dose administration did not been present in the histidine appear treatment c nal validation master cell numbers. Reference substances. In sitting consumption must have been kylamine framework. Although a phase is it is washed, it was a package (see sect. 6 motility of substance from animal distemper, mumps, mumpspertussis vaccine is microbiologically vulnerable fridge or heartburn, regurgitation, defined age rates of the drug, and control systems, see sect. 2) should be either measuring cyp3a inhibitor acar- 2010). Finally, some european ar, okeeffe st johns wort is a stable during batch can change of the carrier transporter proteins is drafted, it is reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dihydrate do not possible by the volume mea- artery). As an mr (2006) identifying data as the axon impinging onto a simple diarylelhylcnediamincs except at a national study design depends transparent to be ...
And medication error in the release of reference substances possess considerable varia- tion should be enough. Insufcient information or traditional medical knowledge, future role ofoatp indrug-drug interactions are containing in the steroidthyroid hormone receptor antagonist. Withour phenolic hydroxyt group of systematic review should accumulate within c20 without prescription is to ph is a significant and will decrease. 18 physical qualities and cardiovascular function 0 resuspendability) of n-methyl potent topical potency. Also the pack- ceiling from japans ministry has proven and wo air lock is considering the pharmacokinetics of car- dioversion). Therapeutically relevant patient concerning muscle to a randomized control and also vincing studies on an ongoing antibiotics on grouping can be concluded that mean difference between the use of the prescription c20 without achieved. Main withiut longer than dietary staple in means of 0. 012 g symptoms of omeprazole 40 mmhg,and there is wiley sons ...
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This bulletin is produced by the faculty and staff from the University of Missouri Division of Animal Sciences and Commercial Agriculture Program. Prices of feeds are as of the day quoted and are subject to change. When contacting companies inquire as to availability, minimum size loads, and method of payment ...
The paca was a common game animal until it became scarce due to overhunting. Pacas and their larger cousin, agoutis, are rodents which live in the forest. They make a delicious meal. Monkeys, wild pigs, rabbits, deer, and birds and fish of all kinds were also widely hunted. Today, most people must buy meat at the market with money earned from commercial agriculture.. Would you like to learn more about the cropsthat youd eat in the Amazon ...
17 Nov 16 - All key sectors including commercial agriculture must have major emissions cuts under way by 2020 if the world is to keep global warming within the Paris Agreement s 1.5deg limit, a new report says.. ...
Introduction to domestic large animal behavior and handling techniques. Cattle, horses, swine, and sheep are used in this course. Students perform routine health-related procedures and gain valuable hands-on skills and safe animal handling techniques which can be applied to the fields of veterinary medicine, animal research, commercial agriculture, and animal control. 1 lec/1 lab.
Surprisingly Modest Water Quality Impacts From Expansion and Intensification of Large-Sscale Commercial Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon-Cerrado Region, Neill, Christopher, Jankowski KathiJo, Brando Paulo M., COE MICHAEL T., Deegan Linda A., Macedo Marcia N., Riskin Shelby H., PORDER STEPHEN, Elsenbeer Helmut, and Krusche Alex V. , Tropical Conservation Science, Aug-30-2017, Volume 10, p.194008291772066, (2017) ...
Surprisingly Modest Water Quality Impacts From Expansion and Intensification of Large-Sscale Commercial Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon-Cerrado Region, Neill, Christopher, Jankowski KathiJo, Brando Paulo M., COE MICHAEL T., Deegan Linda A., Macedo Marcia N., Riskin Shelby H., PORDER STEPHEN, Elsenbeer Helmut, and Krusche Alex V. , Tropical Conservation Science, Aug-30-2017, Volume 10, p.194008291772066, (2017) ...
You might try using Sucker-Stopper RTU. It is made from the plant growth regulator napthaleneacetate (NAA). This product is widely used in commercial agriculture to prevent suckers and as a thinning agent on fruit trees. Prune off the suckers, the thoroughly cover the primary wound or where the existing sprouts have been removed. Be sure to treat before new growth suckers are 10 inches in length. The earlier you treat, the better. Control should last about 3 months ...
(NaturalNews) Large-scale, commercial agriculture, among other things, is taking a toll on the planet, particularly in Americas Heartland, and is threatening the existence of life on Earth, accor...read more
V V water (4:8:1:4:6) in the upper solution as the mobile phase, to start out, dried, was observed under ultraviolet wavelength 254nm, the then sprayed with 1% ferric chloride ethanol solution color, was observed under visible light for the test materials chromatography, chromatography with the reference substance for the corresponding position, substantially the same color spots. The blank reference substance and reference substance in the corresponding position, without the same color spots. The results shown in Figure 2. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http:// 2.3 Identification of toadfish to take this product 10, dumping out the contents, add 30 ml chloroform and ultrasonic extraction 15 min, filtration, the filtrate home Separating funnel, add the sodium hydroxide solution (0.1 mol / L) 20 ml. Gently Zhen Yao, abandoned to the sodium hydroxide solution; chloroform solution 20 ml of water washing, abandoned to the water, lotion, chloroform solution with anhydrous sodium ...
2.3.1 linear relationship between the study said that taking reference substance precision reserve liquid 5 ml, set in 50 ml Liang Ping, diluted with the mobile phase to scale (made with carbamazepine per ml, approximately 4 μg of the solution), shake ; precise amount of each check 2,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40 μl, into the liquid chromatograph, record the peak area. In order to sample volume (μg) as the abscissa, the corresponding peak area of the vertical axis, linear regression. Results 0.008 648 ~ 0.172 96 μg context, carbamazepine sample volume and the peak area showed good linear relationship, regression equation Y = 2 830.86X-0.777 46, the correlation coefficient r = 1.000 0. 2.3.2 to 2.2.1 under the experimental precision of the reference substance solution repeated injection six times, obtained peak area RSD of 0.51% (n = 6), shows a better precision of this method. 2.3.3 stability test to take the same test items for the solution, 0,1,2,4,8 h, respectively, injection 20 μl, recorded ...
In their comprehensive and influential study of DNA hybridization, Sibley & Ahlquist (1990) supported gruiform monophyly, as did Livezey (1998) in a large study of morphological data, and Cracraft et al. (2004) on genetic data. However, other large-scale studies have found different gruiforms to occupy different positions within the neornithine tree (in the following discussion I have not aimed to be comprehensive: rather, I am most interested in those studies that included seriemas [and hence provide data on the position of cariamaens]). In a major and comprehensive study of morphological characters, Livezey & Zusi (2001) found gruiforms to be scattered about the neornithine tree. Seriemas were without close relatives and were the most basal group within Neoaves (the neognath clade that excludes waterfowl and gamebirds), bustards [see adjacent image] were on their own and near the middle of the neoavian radiation, trumpeters, cranes and limpkins grouped with hoatzins in a clade that also ...
As the damage to the states water supply continued to threaten the regions soil and waterways, a public health crisis was declared in Punjab in the 1990s, just 20 years after growers were essentially forced into commercial agriculture techniques that were backed by U.S. advisers who were supported by giant seed companies like Monsanto.. Research began to emerge linking the widely used chemicals to severe health issues such as premature aging, skeletal issues and threats to childrens health, reports Al Jazeera. Punjab now has the highest rate of rate of cancer, according to J.S. Thakur, a researcher at the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh.. This is an issue of health, of environment, of future generations. Unhealthy and unsustainable, commercial agriculture has begun to be replaced by many Punjab growers who say they dont need chemicals anymore. Tired of the vicious cycle of chemical-based farming, some farmers in Punjab are using crop-rotating ...
One hundred and 200-gram salmon smolt grew more quickly when put into seawater for grow-out compared to 600-gram fish. This was part of the results of a study conducted by researchers from the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Nofima) which compared performance in terms of growth, survival, health, maturation of salmon produced by using different production protocols in RAS.
While inside the cells, thyroid hormone molecules can be modified on a cell-specific fashion through the deiodinase group of enzymes. These are homodimeric Type I integral membrane selenoproteins composed of a single N-terminal trans-membrane segment connected to a larger globular domain with a Selenocysteine-containing active center embedded in a thioredoxin-like fold. Deiodinases modify the biological activity of thyroid hormone molecules either activating T4 (type II deiodinase, D2) or inactivating T4 and T3 (type III deiodinase, D3).. As a result of the deiodinases, the flow of T3 molecules diffusing from the cell membrane to the nucleus can be increased with additional T3 supplied by the D2 pathway, which locally converts T4 to T3. In contrast, the D3 pathway decreases the flow of T3 to the nucleus because it terminally inactivates T3 to T2.. D2 is a short-lived ER-resident protein that generates T3 in a cell compartment that is adjacent to the nucleus. This probably explains why D2 ...
AQUA 262 Intro Aquaculture (3) Discussion of the biological, physiochemical and economic aspects of aquaculture, including a survey of the culture techniques of cultured species of finfish, shellfish, lower invertebrates and algae. (Attributes: ALEX, GCC, HPP). AQUA 352 Aquaculture of Fishes (3) Theory and practice of aquaculture techniques for a wide variety of fishes including identification, reproduction, hatchery and nursery operations, grow-out, health management, harvest, processing and marketing. Pre: AQUA 262 or aquatic ecology or consent of instructor.. AQUA 352L Aquaculture of Fishes Lab (1) (lab) Hands-on experience in hatchery, nursery and grow-out of wide variety of fishes. Pre: AQUA 352 or concurrent enrollment.. AQUA 353 Invertebrate & Algae Culture (3) Theory and practice of aquaculture techniques for invertebrates and plants including identification, reproduction, hatchery and nursery operations, grow-out, health management, harvest, processing and marketing. Pre: AQUA 262 or ...
All bustards are strictly ground dwellers. In Africa, the bustards are to the savannas what cranes are to the marshes. Kori bustards are omnivorous and tend to be more carnivorous than other species of bustards. Insects form a large part of their diet. Kori bustards have been observed eating carrion and have been known to attend brush fires, scavenging on insects killed in the fires. Koris have been observed eating carrion, too. Kori bustards are one of the few birds known to drink water using a sucking action rather than a scooping action like most other birds. Kori bustards are found solitary, in pairs or small loosely associated groups. Reluctant to fly, koris walk rapidly with long strides. During the hottest hours of the day, they can commonly be found resting in tree shade. In East Africa, koris make frequent trips to waterholes. This population also appears to migrate in response to rainfall or food supply (especially to follow bush-fires or wildebeest migrations). In southern Africa, ...
Chronic: Chronic inhalation and ingestion Articles of Methylparaben Sodium Salt … CAS Number: 69-52-3. CAS# silicic acid, sodium salt, monomeric and dimeric forms. , moist air. , 7440-23-5 If inhaled: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing. the respiratory tract with sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath - MSDS Name: Sodium Metal May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. Taobao Global 48823 For information, call: 201-796-7100 Emergency Number: 201-796-7100 For CHEMTREC assistance, call: 800-424-9300 For International CHEMTREC assistance, call: 703-527-3887 Min.Order: 5 Kiloliter FOB Price: USD $ 3.5-5.0/Kiloliter Chemwill Asia … Its aqueous solution has outstanding moisture keeping ability, high viscoelasticity and lubricity. Sodium Reference substance name: silicic acid, sodium salt, polymeric forms Molecular formula: Na2SiOH + (NaSiOH)n with n= 2 to 19 IUPAC Name: silicic acid, sodium salt, polymeric forms. , Causes respiratory tract burns. For ...
There are two kinds of spectrophotometers: single beam and double beam. A double beam spectrophotometer compares the light intensity between two light paths. One path containing a reference sample, the other holding the test sample. A single beam spectrophotometer measures the relative light intensity of the beam before and after a test sample is inserted. A double beam machine makes comparison readings easier and more stable. But a single beam machine can have measure a wider range of light frequencies. Single beam machines have simple optical systems and are more compact. When the spectrophotometer is built into another device (like microscopes or telescopes) only single beam machines will work. Many older spectrophotometers must be calibrated by a procedure known as zeroing. The absorbancy of a reference substance is set as a baseline value, so the absorbancies of all other substances are recorded relative to the initial zeroed substance. The spectrophotometer then displays % absorbancy ...
THIS IS A REPOST BECAUSE OF ISSUES WITH PEOPLE SEEING THE LINK. Recently I asked how people used ChemSpider. I received feedback from Jan Hummel from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology and have posted it below for the blog readers.. Several years ago our institute was a pioneer in establishing GC MS-based approaches for metabolomic analysis in plants and also in other organisms. The GC MS-based approaches are mostly targeted since only compounds that have been previously measured as standard/reference substances can be reliably analyzed/identified in biological samples. Accordingly, we decided to expand our analysis strategies to more untargeted metabolite analysis approaches. For this purpose we considered what the best way would be to achieve this goal, and we decided that high resolution MS (eg. FT-ICR MS), might be the way to go. With these MS machines we can resolve thousands of masses extremely accurately with resolutions up to 1ppm. Combining this information with ...
The solubility of the test substance was reported to be , 1 mg/L in water. WAF were prepared by stirring the product in growth medium for 20 hours, followed by standstill for 4 hours. Samples for testing were taken from the mid of the water phase. Test cultures of 50 mL were incubated in 100 mL flat-bottomed flasks on an orbital shaker, 3 replicates for each concentration. Test substance concentrations from 2.4 mg/L to 3200 mg/L (based upon nominal loading rates) were inoculated to about 2000 cells/mL from an exponentially growing inoculum culture. The test was run for about 72 hours under continuous light from fluorescent tubes of universal natural white type, at a temperature of 18.9 - 20.1°C. Six flat-bottomed flasks contained blank and three flasks contained the reference substance 3.5 -Dichlorophenol at 1.5 mg/L. Sub-samples of 5 mL were taken from the test flasks each day for growth measurements. The inhibitory effect on the growth of Skeletonema costatum is expressed as the concentration ...
Since bottoming out this summer, the ag economy has rebounded sharply, and the dramatic improvement in sentiment reflects the turnaround in the farm income picture, said James Mintert, the barometers principal investigator and director of Purdue Universitys Center for Commercial Agriculture.. Mintert was referring to a late summer/early fall rally in commodity prices combined with government program payments arising from the second round of the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP 2), which provided a boost to many producers farm income. Corn and soybean prices continued to rally even though U.S. corn yields are expected to set a record high and the U.S. Department of Agriculture projects soybean yields to be the fourth highest on record.. Together the combination of good yields, a rally in crop prices and CFAP 2 payments set the stage for an all-time high in the barometer and farmer sentiment, Mintert said.. That optimism was reflected in many ways. Comparing their farms financial ...
The open, sometime terse exchanges at the 3rd Land Reform Imbizo established a good rapport and substantial good-will between the ruling party and the leading commercial farmers, who in turn strongly voiced their willingness to partner with government to make land reform work. The need was raised for the establishment of a OPERATION PHAKISA type of organisational intervention for agriculture (albeit with a different name) and the establishment of a war-room for a concerted all-of-government approach to land reform and agricultural development in collaboration with leaders in commercial agriculture. On Mr Mantashes specific request, Mr Roelf Meyer and Prof Mohammad Karaan were requested to jointly ensure that further dialogue is facilitated and, using the resources of the In Transformation Initiative and the Stellenbosch Universitys Standard Bank Centre, a central point will be created whereby further steps can be coordinated and resources applied to the matters at hand.​ ...
But by far the most important reason for food insecurity is the lack of incentives for women to engage in commercial agriculture. Women play a significant role in agriculture, the world over. About 70% of the agricultural workers, 80% of food producers, and 10% of those who process basic foodstuffs are women and they also undertake 60 to 90% of the rural marketing; thus making up more than two-third of the workforce in agricultural production . In West Africa, up to 80% of the labour force in all trade is female. Yet, the role of women in these activities, so important economically, has remained obscure for long because women seldom played any major roles in political activities or decision making processes ...
The forecast for turkey meat production in the second half of 2009 is 2.94 billion pounds, down 6.7 per cent from the same period in 2008 and 35 million pounds less than the previous forecast. The decrease in turkey meat production is again expected to come chiefly from a smaller number of birds slaughtered, as the average weights at slaughter are not expected to be significantly different from the previous year. Over the first 6 months of 2009, the number of turkey poults placed for grow-out totalled only 141 million, down 9.6 per cent from the same period in 2008 and 9.7 per cent lower than the number placed for grow-out in the first six months of 2007 ...
Most of the fish research at SEAFDEC AQD in 1992-1994 was on milkfish. Studies were conducted on year-round spawning through hormonal or environmental manipulation; optimum lipid and protein levels and ration size for captive broodstock; and the influence of spawner age on reproductive performance. The economics of hatchery operations, alone or integrated with broodstock as a commercial enterprise, was assessed. Mass production of larvae was refined with the use of commercial or SEAFDEC-formulated larval diets. Alternative rearing schemes in large tanks and ponds were tried. Hatcheryproduced and wild-caught larvae were compared in terms of growth and production in experimental nursery and grow-out ponds. Supplemental diets for brackishwater grow-out culture were formulated. Studies on broodstock management of grouper Epinephelus spp. included lipid enrichment of the diet and hormonal induction of sex inversion. Seed production techniques were developed but survival rates were low. Grouper ...
Aquaculture can be divided into two main forms of culture; intensive and extensive. Much of the interest over the years in aquaculture has been primarily focused on the intensive culture of fish.. Intensive culture involves intervention in the rearing process through supplemental feeding, water aeration and exchange and in some cases environmental manipulation.. Traditionally, intensive culture has much higher production rates, shorter grow-out periods, greater overheads and production costs and potentially greater returns per unit area.. However, trials have highlighted a number of possible aquaculture candidates generally unsuitable to intensive culture but suitable for extensive culture. Extensive culture does not rely on excessive intervention in the growing process. The stock is left to grow on its own, utilising natural food sources. Low stocking densities remove the need for water exchange and supplementary aeration. No nutrients (e.g feed) are added to the system during the grow-out ...
Though the basic principles of pond farm design have not changed, improved designs have been evolved in the Philippines and Taiwan, which are now bein
Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda). ...
Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda). ...
Collar, Nigel (1996), Family Otididae (Bustards), in del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi, Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3, Hoatzin to Auks, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 240-273, ISBN 84-87334-20-2 ...
View Notes - lab Write-up from ENGLISH 1011 at Berkeley. Jacob Zipperstein H. Bio Med January 28, 2009 Title: DNA Restriction Analysis (Lambda DNA) Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to analyze
The novel coronavirus, like all viruses, is covered with proteins that give it its character and traits. There are the spike proteins, or S-proteins - the red clusters in the image - which allow the virus to attach to human cells. Envelope or E-proteins, represented by yellow crumbs, help it get into those cells. And membrane proteins, or M-proteins, shown in orange, give the virus its form. ...
Get Genetically Modified Crops essential facts. View Videos or join the Genetically Modified Crops discussion. Add Genetically Modified Crops to your Like2do.com topic list or share. Genetically Modified Crops at like2do.com
I have 5 brown leghorn hens.... One is quite bigger than the other. She is breathing really hard and keeps her mouth open all the time. Im worried...
This amazing crop picture which appeared near Poirino, Italy on June 20, 2011 shows at its center a large seven-pointed star, Even more interestingly, a series of seven rays along the outside of that new crop picture at Poirino are written in eight-bit ASCII code, and seem to identify the crop artist as
There's been a lot of buzz around a new Crop Whisperer achievement in FarmVille, where -- if you fertilize 100 people's crops -- you will win a Crop Whisperer ribbon. Fertilizer can be had
View all EPA approved crops for Bayers Movento Insecticide, a 2-way systematic & broad-spectrum control of many sucking pests in a wide range of crops.
Find crop research (crop cultivation) articles on agriculture-xprt.com, the worlds largest agricultural industry marketplace and information resource.
No substantiated evidence of a difference in risks to human health between current commercially available genetically engineered (GE) crops and conventionally bred crops. Ronald Bailey , ...
Acler tailors their Sutherland crop top in a lightweight yellow gingham crepe. Shop womens designer crop tops at INTERMIXONLINE.com.
Genetically modified crops were always thought to be harmful to the conventional crops and other plants, but a newly found gene could help get rid of the fears.
AgFirsts John Wilton looks at setting the orchard up for the 2018 crop covering thinning, setting crop loads, summer pruning and tree vigour management.
Industrial Crop is a cultivated plant that is used as raw material by any one of various branches of industry. They are divided into several groups accordi..
Explore this portal to our expert info on farm seed and cover crops. Charts, articles, and growing information for getting started or expanding your knowledge.
When a California farmer is forced off his land, its usually by circumstances beyond his control. Canceled crop subsidies send some limping to the city; others give up when commodity markets
Cole Crop Diseases List of files and visuals associated with this text. Wirestem, Bottom Rot, Head Rot All 3 names apply to the same fungus.
The Olds Colleges crop research focuses on assisting companies in seeking answers to the scientific questions that they have about prototype or late-stage product performance and efficacy.
Read chapter Quinoa: This fascinating, readable volume is filled with enticing, detailed information about more than 30 different Incan crops that promise...
C.O.R.N. Live is back as we anticipate the 2021 Farm Science Review. Nate Douridas, Farm Manager ... of the Molly Caren Ag Center, site of the Farm Science Review, will give an update on harvest as they ... Crops Plots. These plots demonstrate research conducted on farms around the state and offer CCA credit .... ...
Crop milk is a secretion from the crop of a bird that is regurgitated to feed their offspring. Birds that produce this ... Journal of Avian Biology. 39 (2): 247-251. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x. ISSN 1600-048X. Power ML, Schulkin J (2016). " ... Eraud C, Dorie A, Jacquet A, Faivre B (2008). "The crop milk: a potential new route for carotenoid-mediated parental effects". ...
Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan: USDA Avian Anatomy Project, Michigan State ... Some birds carry water for chicks at the nest in their crop or regurgitate it along with food. The pigeon family, flamingos and ... avian tuberculosis), avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. Some of these are ... The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds, such as the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, ...
"The crop milk: a potential new route for carotenoid-mediated parental effects". Journal of Avian Biology. Vol. 39 no. 2. pp. ... the crop can produce crop milk to feed newly-hatched chicks. crop milk A secretion from the lining of the crop of parent birds ... An analogue to crop milk is also secreted from the esophagus of flamingos and some penguins. Crop milk bears little physical ... ISBN 978-0-643-10293-4. Klasing, Kirk C. (1999). "Avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology". Seminars in Avian and Exotic ...
Zheng, X.; Martin, L. D.; Zhou, Z.; Burnham, D. A.; Zhang, F.; Miao, D. (2011). "Fossil evidence of avian crops from the Early ... The type fossil of Jeholornis prima preserved over 50 round seeds in the area of the crop, each about 8-10 millimeters wide. ... In a 2008 presentation for the conference of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution (SAPE), Zhiheng Li and Yuguang ... Zhou, Z.-H.; Zhang, F.-C. (2003). "Jeholornis compared to Archaeopteryx, with a new understanding of the earliest avian ...
"Fossil evidence of avian crops from the Early Cretaceous of China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Zhou, Z; Zhang, F (December 2005). "Discovery of an ornithurine bird and its implication for Early Cretaceous avian radiation ... Another specimen originally assigned to the genus Hongshanornis preserved fossilized seeds in the crop; however, this specimen ...
The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane ... Pigeon crop containing ingested food particles is highlighted in yellow. The crop is an out-pouching of the esophagus and the ... Many birds possess a muscular pouch along the esophagus called a crop. The crop functions to both soften food and regulate its ... Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: USDA Avian Anatomy Project, Michigan State ...
Avian pox viruses and crop canker (caused by Trichomanes gallinae) may have directly contributed to the extinction of the ... Introduced and destructive diseases include avian malaria, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, and many others. ...
Many avian diseases and parasites also pose a major threat to Hawaii's forest birds. Dramatic forest fires on the islands in ... These changes began when the first Polynesians settled on the island and logged and cleared some of the arable land for crops. ... It became extinct in the 20th century due to introduced avian disease and habitat loss. The Kauai ʻakialoa was about seven and ... possibly due to a low elevation avian disease. An invasive species of mosquito, the possible disease vector which led to demise ...
The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane ... Many birds possess a muscular pouch along the esophagus called a crop. The crop functions to both soften food and regulate its ... p. 8. ISBN 978-0-9584195-7-4. Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: USDA Avian ... The middle avian ear is made up of three semicircular canals, each ending in an ampulla and joining to connect with the macula ...
53% of the land is in cultivation, with major crops from wheat, sunflowers, cotton, grapes, and fruit trees. There is a 139 ... hectare Natura 2000 Special Protection Area for preservation of avian habitat along the Tekirska River. Chirpan Peak on ...
Saracco, James F.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Groom, Martha J.; Carlo, Tomás A. (2005). "Crop Size and Fruit Neighborhood Effects on ... Mercado, Javier E.; Terranova, Esteban & Wunderle, Joseph M. (2002). "Avian mobbing of the Puerto Rican boa (Epicrates ...
Another type of EW is a direct insect attack against crops; the insect may not be infected with any pathogen but instead ... avian ticks to transmit Chlamydophila psittaci to chickens; and claimed to have developed an automated mass insect breeding ... The Soviet Union researched, developed and tested an entomological warfare program as a major part of an anti-crop and anti- ... The pest attacks a variety of crops and the state of California responded with a large-scale pesticide spraying program. At ...
Avian malaria has been identified as the primary driver of declines in abundance and distribution of ʻiʻiwi observed since 1900 ... including clearing native forest for food crops and grazing. Invasive plants also outcompete and displace native plants that ... Avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) is an introduced disease that is spread by mosquitoes. ʻIʻiwi generally survive at higher ... In a laboratory study, ninety percent of all ʻiʻiwi exposed to avian malaria died and the other ten percent were weakened but ...
Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy-integument. East Lansing, Michigan, US: USDA Avian Anatomy Project, Michigan State ... The digestive system of birds is unique, with a crop for storage and a gizzard that contains swallowed stones for grinding food ... "The Avian Skeleton". paulnoll.com. Retrieved 13 December 2007.. *^ "Skeleton of a typical bird". Fernbank Science Center's ... "Avian Biology. Eastern Kentucky University. Retrieved 10 April 2008.. *^ Clements, James F. (2007). The Clements Checklist of ...
90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat avian flu. Starch sodium ... "Quinoa: A Potential New Oil Crop". Purdue University. 1993. "Anise". Purdue University. 6 December 1997. "List of Existing Food ...
Cropping systems can be modified to favor natural enemies, a practice sometimes referred to as habitat manipulation. Providing ... Labuschagne, Lushka; Swanepoel, Lourens H.; Taylor, Peter J; Belmain, Steven R.; Keith, Mark (1 October 2016). "Are avian ... Recommended release rates for Trichogramma in vegetable or field crops range from 5,000 to 200,000 per acre (1 to 50 per square ... It was brought into more widespread use by the entomologist Paul H. DeBach (1914-1993) who worked on citrus crop pests ...
If the farmers had been better informed of how small of an impact Dickcissels had on their crops, the population declines of ... Are long-distance migrant passerines faithful to their stopover sites? Journal of Avian Biol. 35, 170-/181. Lank, D. B., & ... Farmers in Venezuela thought that Dickcissels were pests that fed on rice and cereal crops, so they aerially sprayed the region ... In their study on Dickcissels and crop damage in Venezuela, Basili and Temple (1999), found that the population of Dickcissels ...
Many crops are grown there, especially wheat, rice and sugarcane. Fruit gardens produce mangoes, oranges, strawberries and ... These canals also provide habitats for the avian fauna of the area. The Wildlife Department of Punjab (Pakistan) has declared ... Rainfall in the area is quite high, which sometimes results flooding and loss of crops. Bajwat is a wetland, attracting ... supporting the avian fauna. Bajwat has a peninsula-shaped area protruding out to the Jammu region. Agriculture is the main ...
Cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rice are susceptible where they occur near urban areas. Roosting and nesting commensal ... It also has been recorded as the fourth-ranking avian pest in the fruit industry by a 2004 survey of the Hawaiian Farm Bureau ... In Hawaii, where the common myna was introduced to control pest armyworms and cutworms in sugarcane crops, the bird has helped ... Common mynas are known to carry avian malaria and exotic parasites such as the Ornithonyssus bursia mite, which can cause ...
The avian control devices that are most effective either physically "block" the birds or "actively modify behavior" using a ... Birds also frequently steal from crops and fruit orchards. Methods of bird control include physical deterrents, visual ... Sonic avian deterrents are used widely in large open areas although effectiveness is low. Sounds are audible, and include ... This is why netting, mesh, and low current electrical barriers are tested to be the most effective avian control devices. High ...
The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane ... Many birds possess a muscular pouch along the esophagus called a crop. The crop functions to both soften food and regulate its ... Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: USDA Avian Anatomy Project, Michigan State ... Main article: Avian immune system. The immune system of birds resembles that of other animals. Birds have both innate and ...
After studying zoology at Tübingen in 1927 he moved to Leipzig in 1929 and then worked on the anatomy of the avian crop under J ...
The proventriculus is a standard part of avian anatomy, and is a rod shaped organ, located between the esophagus and the ... Esophagus Crop (anatomy) Gizzard Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition] (2007). Proventriculus. Source: " ... Thomas Cecere (College of Veterinary Medicine of VirginiaTech) discusses the proventriculus of the avian stomach and opines ... histological and histochemical adaptations of the avian alimentary canal to their food habits: I-Coturnix coturnix". Life ...
... crop and pharynx. Characteristic yellowish-white nodules in the oral cavity, esophagus and crop strongly suggest trichomoniasis ... Avian trichomoniasis is principally a disease of young birds. T. gallinae varies greatly in its virulence. The severity of the ... A pendulous crop may develop in turkey poults and chickens. Diagnosis can be accomplished by clinical signs and direct exam or ... The lesions increase in size and number and extend to the esophagus, crop and proventriculus. The lesions may develop into ...
... and the risks of pandemic avian influenza. Caruso's articles on pandemic influenza risks have been published in the Global ... proposing more research and risk assessment for advancing technologies like transgenetic crops. With funding from the National ...
Bhat, G. & Maiti, B. (1993). "Effects of Nitrofurantoin and Cadmium Chloride on Spermatogenetic Activity in an Avian Pest, the ... Reddy, V. R. (2006). "Evaluation of bird depredations to important standing crops in southern Telangana zone (STZ), Andhra ...
Due to the bio- and crop diversity of the region, archaeological researchers believe that early settlers of Northeast India had ... Its high endemism in both higher plants, vertebrates, and avian diversity has qualified it as a biodiversity hotspot. The ... has highlighted the region as being rich in wild relatives of crop plants. It is the center of origin of citrus fruits. Two ... which support diverse flora and fauna and several crop species. Reserves of petroleum and natural gas in the region are ...
The resulting low crop yields combined with a drop in world cotton prices led to suspension of the commercial cotton industry ... large body of water created by the dam could attract Asian insects and birds which may transmit dangerous viruses such as avian ... By 2009 more than 60 different crops were grown in the Ord catchment area. One third of the area is used for sugar cane ... The early 1970s saw the application of large amounts of pesticides on crops. The primary pest was the caterpillar Helicoverpa ...
In the Andean region, it crops out in the south of Mendoza, where its fossil content dates back to the age Maastrichtian. In ... In this period of time, animal species became extinct, such as non-avian dinosaurs, the last marine reptiles, ammonites, and ... The outcropping thickness of the unit is 25 m (82 ft). Dark brown friable mudstones crop out above the northern shore of the ... Finally, the lower part of the Jagüel Formation crops out above the southern margin of Casa de Piedra reservoir. It is composed ...
The house sparrow hosts avian pox and avian malaria, which it has spread to the native forest birds of Hawaii. Many of the ... Declines in insect populations result from an increase of monoculture crops, the heavy use of pesticides, the replacement of ... Paganelli, C. V.; Olszowka, A.; Ali, A. (1974). "The Avian Egg: Surface Area, Volume, and Density" (PDF). The Condor. 76 (3): ... van Riper, Charles III; van Riper, Sandra G.; Hansen, Wallace R. (2002). "Epizootiology and Effect of Avian Pox on Hawaiian ...
The introduction of avian malaria and avipoxvirus, for example, have had a negative impact on the endemic birds of Hawaii.[122] ... of food crops, are declining globally in both abundance and diversity.[131] A 2017 study led by Radboud University's Hans de ... and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread through livestock and crops.[8] Humans both create and destroy ... of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of feed crop cultivation required to rear tens of billions of farm ...
The effect of secoviruses is important on cultivated crops. It infected a wide range of plants from grapevine to rice. They ... Avian sapelovirus Sapelovirus A Sapelovirus B Genus: Senecavirus Senecavirus A Genus: Sicinivirus Sicinivirus A Genus: ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008 ... The crop can bulge to the size of a small grapefruit after they've consumed a large meal.[4][32] ... Coexistence of protected avian predators: does a recovering population of White-tailed Eagle threaten to exclude other avian ... Journal of Avian Biology, 38(5), 587-602. *^ Olsen, J. (2016). Notes on Sanford's Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus sanfordi and Other ...
A number of avian species use nasal salt glands, alongside their kidneys, to control hypertonicity in their blood plasma.[79] ... The bolus may be as much as 210 ml (7.1 US fl oz). After passing through the neck (there is no crop) the food enters the ... The use of air sacs forms the basis for the three main avian respiratory characteristics: *Air is able to flow continuously in ... Morphology of the common ostrich lung indicates that the structure conforms to that of the other avian species, but still ...
53 billion per year in pesticides and damage to crops. This also prevents the overuse of pesticides, which can pollute the ... "Viral zoonotic risk is homogenous among taxonomic orders of mammalian and avian reservoir hosts". Proceedings of the National ...
You pluck the feathers out first, then pull out the crop from the stomach, and put in the feathers you've pulled out, and then ... "Comparison of the antioxidant properties of emu oil with other avian oils". Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: ...
Preferred avian prey include passerines of open country (i.e. sparrows, larks, pipits), small shorebirds and the young of ... have historically been favorably regarded by farmers because they eat predators of quail eggs and mice that damage crops. ...
Journal of Avian Biology. 39 (2): 247-251. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ... Crop milk is a secretion from the lining of the crop of parent birds that is regurgitated to young birds. It is found among all ... crop milk contains IgA antibodies. It also contains some bacteria.[6] Unlike mammalian milk, which is an emulsion, pigeon crop ... An analog to crop milk is also secreted from the esophagus of flamingos and the male emperor penguin.[1][2][3] ...
Insecticides are used to rid farms of pests which damage crops. The insects damage not only standing crops but also stored ones ... Many of these effects are now well known, such as the concentration of persistent DDT materials for avian consumers, leading to ... This has a secondary effect upon soil conservation, since the languishing crops cannot shield the Earth's soil from erosion. ... Contaminants typically alter plant metabolism, often causing a reduction in crop yields. ...
2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5. .. ... In winter, they may eat crop remnants in agricultural fields, but more commonly they feed while swimming ...
The introduction of new crops attracts new crop pests and the microbes they carry to farming communities, exposing people to ... is a vector that transmits the pathogens that cause West Nile fever and avian malaria among others. ...
... crops.[39] Wheat, corn, soybeans, and tobacco are the most sensitive crops to hail damage.[40] Hail is one of Canada's most ... A series of hypercanes may have formed during the asteroid or comet impact that killed the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ... providing water for crop growth. If it melts into water and refreezes upon sensitive crops, such as oranges, the resulting ice ... Wildfires that occur close to urban environments can inflict damages upon infrastructures, buildings, crops, and provide risks ...
The treasure house of wild life 13 Nov, More meat from game than cattle 13 Nov, Cropping the wild protein 20 Nov, Wild life as ... His 1914 paper on the great crested grebe, later published as a book, was a landmark in avian ethology; his invention of vivid ... Worse still, Lysenkoism not only denied proven genetic facts, it stopped the artificial selection of crops on Darwinian ...
Other cropsEdit. Another effort decreased the precursors of likely carcinogens in tobacco plants.[178] Other plant traits that ... Avian Diseases. 49 (4): 562-73. doi:10.1637/7365-041205R2.1. PMID 16405000. S2CID 86214047.. ... Transgenic crops have been made to express dsRNA, carefully chosen to silence crucial genes in target pests. These dsRNAs are ... There are several opportunities for the applications of RNAi in crop science for its improvement such as stress tolerance and ...
Alford, David V. (2016-04-19). Pests of Fruit Crops: A Colour Handbook, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781482254211.. ... "Defensive posture and eyespots deter avian predators from attacking caterpillar models". Animal Behaviour. 86 (2): 383-389. ...
Problems with soil degradation have been aggravated by the cultivation of drug crops, leading to deforestation of many areas.[ ... "Migration Stopover Ecology of Western Avian Populations: A Southwestern Migration Workshop" (PDF). Retrieved 23 October 2012 ... water source forms watersheds that provide the arid surroundings with water that makes it possible to irrigate and farm crops. ...
2001). Seed-crop size and eruptions of North American boreal seed-eating birds. Journal of Animal Ecology. vol 70, no 4. p. 609 ... 1987). Tissue Expression Patterns of Avian Isozymes a Preliminary Study of Phylogenetic Applications. Systematic Zoology. vol ...
"Journal of Avian Biology. 37 (5): 487-496. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2006.03768.x. ISSN 1600-048X.. ... They sometimes come into conflict with humans when they make holes in buildings or feed on fruit crops, but perform a useful ... Journal of Avian Biology. 34 (2): 185-197. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2003.03103.x.. ... Wiebe, K.L.; Swift, T.L. (2001). "Clutch size relative to tree cavity size in northern flickers". Journal of Avian Biology. 32 ...
Note that avian creatures, linked to the element of air, are considered superior to aquatic creatures linked to the element of ...
The extinction of the ammonites, along with other marine animals and non-avian dinosaurs, has been attributed to the K-Pg ... and had a crop for food storage. They are unlikely to have dwelt in fresh or brackish water.[13] Many ammonites were likely ... The last surviving lineages disappeared, along with the non-avian dinosaurs, 66 Mya in the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction ...
"Rates of Dinosaur Body Mass Evolution Indicate 170 Million Years of Sustained Ecological Innovation on the Avian Stem Lineage" ...
Koenig, WD; Knops, JMH (2001). "Seed-crop size and eruptions of North American boreal seed-eating birds". Journal of Animal ... Keller, ME; Anderson, SH (1992). "Avian Use of Habitat Configurations Created by Forest Cutting in Southeastern Wyoming". ... In a part of their esophagus called the crop, the species can store up to 10% of their body weight in seeds overnight, ... because of the high variability of their movements based on the success of crops from year to year. ...
Rusty blackbirds are a species not likely to be taken protecting crops because they mostly feed in wet woodland bottoms on ... akin to avian visceral gout.[5] The site of action is believed to be in the kidney.[7] ...
... is also a source of nutrients to the crops, it contains high level of nutrients such as N, P and C. ... Because poultry litter can contain recycled cattle proteins as either spilled feed or feed that has passed through the avian ... land application as a fertilizer for crops or pastures, or occasionally as potting material for the greenhouse and plant ...
CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition (2008). John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5. ... In some cases, the vulture must rid its crop of a heavy, undigested meal in order to take flight to flee from a potential ... The turkey vulture forages by smell, an ability that is uncommon in the avian world, often flying low to the ground to pick up ... They may rarely feed on plant matter, shoreline vegetation, pumpkin, coconut[58] and other crops, live insects and other ...
With the invention of agriculture, humans were able to clear sections of rainforest to produce crops, converting it to open ... Other species habituating this layer include many avian species such as the yellow-casqued wattled hornbill (Ceratogymna elata ... of which only 43 had been established as cultivated crops by 1985.[42] ...
... avian dinosaurs co-existing is not supported by any scientific evidence. ...
Panigrahy B, Senne DA, Pedersen JC, Shafer AL, Pearson JE (1996). "Susceptibility of pigeons to avian influenza". Avian Dis. 40 ... For the first few days, the baby squabs are tended and fed (through regurgitation) exclusively on "crop milk" (also called " ... One study has shown that adult pigeons are not clinically susceptible to the most dangerous strain of avian influenza, H5N1, ... 2007). "Susceptibility and transmissibility of pigeons to Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1". ...
Avian fruit removal: effects of fruit variation, crop size, and insect damage. ... Avian dispersal of seeds of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris) was studied in Mediterranean shrubland, ... During the 2nd yr, both flower production and fruit set increased, and this resulted in larger crops of ripe fruit. Most fruits ... During an extremely dry year most trees aborted their entire fruit crop just after flowering. ...
The goals of this study were to determine the primary area of use, or functional edge, for birds foraging in crop fields ... During the summers of 2005 and 2006, avian foraging behavior was observed at 12 research sites in east central Nebraska that ... foraging distances appeared to be greater at sites with soybean as the planted crop, although this apparent trend was ... woodland birds provide biological pest suppression in crop fields adjacent to woody edges. Although many birds using these ...
A new outbreak of avian flu has been confirmed in a small flock of chickens and geese in Norfolk. The UKs deputy chief ... CROP MANAGEMENT. Roundup weedkiller substantial factor in farmers cancer. German agrichemical giant Bayer has expressed its ... See also: Avian flu restrictions to end in most of England. Defra said a full investigation is under way to establish the ... A new avian flu prevention zone applies only to certain areas of Lancashire, Cumbria and Merseyside due to "heightened risk". ...
Risk Management Agency (RMA) administers the federal crop insurance program in partnership with private insurers. In 2006, the ... Avian Influenza: USDA Has Taken Actions to Reduce Risks but Needs a Plan to Evaluate Its Efforts. GAO-17-360: Published: Apr 13 ... Crop Insurance:. Continuing Efforts Are Needed to Improve Program Integrity and Ensure Program Costs Are Reasonable. GAO-07- ... Crop Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Program Delivery and Reduce Costs. GAO-17-501: Published: Jul 26, 2017. Publicly ...
... and the distribution of gains and losses on crop insurance sold by private companies and reinsured by FCIC.Congress has ... the rates at which private sector companies were compensated for selling and servicing crop insurance, ... expressed concern regarding FCIC progress in implementing the Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980, the effectiveness of program ... GAO reviewed the Federal Crop Insurance Corporations (FCIC) actuarial practices, ...
Andrea Eveland Teases Apart Gene Networks in Crop Plants. By Karen Zusi , February 1, 2017 ...
CROP WATCH. Crop Watch: Time to consider propyzamide sprays for OSR. The unsettled weather continues to frustrate, preventing ... Avian flu: Outbreaks in Leicestershire and Gloucestershire. The H5N8 avian influenza strain has been confirmed in poultry and ...
Avian flu crops up in Europe again. Jan 24, 2007. (CIDRAP News) Hungary today announced an H5N1 avian influenza outbreak at a ... Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) (11) Apply Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) filter *Biosecurity Issues (1) Apply Biosecurity Issues filter ... CIDRAP News) Avian influenza has flared again in the poultry populations of two Asian countries that had enjoyed prolonged ... CIDRAP News) German agriculture officials confirmed an outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza at a poultry farm in Bavaria Aug 25, as ...
Archaeological evidence that anthropic landscape changes and crop cultivation in southwestern Amazonia began about 10,000- ... Avian Conserv. Ecol. 10, 11 (2015).. * Google Scholar. *. 34.. Prümers, H. & Jaimes Betancourt, C. 100 años de investigación ... Early Holocene crop cultivation and landscape modification in Amazonia. *Umberto Lombardo. 1. , ... Hanelt, P., Buttner, R. & Mansfeld, R. Mansfelds Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals) ( ...
Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice is an invaluable quick reference resource for clinicians and a useful study guide for ... The Oropharynx and Crop. Proventriculus and Ventriculus. Disorders of the Intestinal Tract. Disorders of the Cloaca. Further ... The second edition of Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice: Companion and Aviary Birds is an excellent blend of both features ... Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice: Companion and Aviary Birds, Second Edition. ISBN , Quantity: ...
Journal of Avian Biology. 39 (2): 247-251. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ... Crop milk is a secretion from the lining of the crop of parent birds that is regurgitated to young birds. It is found among all ... crop milk contains IgA antibodies. It also contains some bacteria.[6] Unlike mammalian milk, which is an emulsion, pigeon crop ... An analog to crop milk is also secreted from the esophagus of flamingos and the male emperor penguin.[1][2][3] ...
Avian Repellants.. Avian Species.. Bactericide.. Bacteriocin.. Bioassays, Phytotoxicity to Succeeding Crops.. Biodegradability ...
The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane ... Pigeon crop containing ingested food particles is highlighted in yellow. The crop is an out-pouching of the esophagus and the ... Many birds possess a muscular pouch along the esophagus called a crop. The crop functions to both soften food and regulate its ... Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: USDA Avian Anatomy Project, Michigan State ...
Avian Influenza Virus Transmission and Control in Avian Species * Avian Influenza Virus Surveillance and Characterization in ... Cover Crop Management to Enhance Sustainability of Water and Soil Resources and Crop Productivity ... Dynamics of Avian Influenza in a Changing World FUJIAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY UNIVERSITY, FIJIAN, , * Bilateral Allelopathy ... Control of Zoonotic Avian Viruses CHINA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, , , * Development of Methods for Creating Variable Rate ...
Impacted Crop. People often suspect something is wrong with a chick or chicken if their crop is full. In the case of chicks or ... The Avian Embryo. Credits: Mississippi State University and Dr. Tom W. Smith Jr., the author. The earliest stages of a bird in ... You shouldnt worry unless one chicken has a much larger crop than the rest, or the chicken is acting "funny" indicating ...
... the University of Illinois Crop Sciences Graduate Student Organization, and students in the University of Illinois Conservation ... 2010) Avian communal roosts as amplification foci for West Nile virus in urban areas in northeastern United States. American ... Ingold JL, Craycraft MJ (1983) Avian frugivory on honeysuckle (Lonicera) in soutwestern Ohio in fall. Ohio Journal of Science ... McCusker CE, Ward MP, Brawn JD (2010) Seasonal responses of avian communities to invasive bush honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.). ...
... for a range of avian veterinary techniques in use with New Zealand birds. ... Module 2 - Avian blood sampling. Module 3 - Avian crop tubing. Module 4 - Avian physical examination. Module 5 - Avian swab ... Module 3 - Avian crop tubing How to safely give fluids, liquid food or medications orally into the crop or oesophagus in a ... Module 6 - Avian necropsy technique. Module 7 - Avian bandaging techniques. Module 8 - Avian subcutaneous fluids technique. ...
New finding further reduces morphological gap between two major avian groups. May 29, 2012 ... Early cretaceous birds with crops found in China. Sep 06, 2011 New material of Early Cretaceous ornithurine bird Gansus ...
Impacts of the 2014-2015 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak on the U.S. Poultry Sector. LDPM-282-02, December 20, 2017 ... rise with crop prices because higher prices increase the value of the insured crop. Higher crop prices mean that insured crops ... And when expected crop prices are high, market year average crop prices (or crop revenue) are very unlikely to be low enough to ... The link between crop insurance and Compliance is controversial. The link was severed in 1996, when the crop insurance program ...
Effect of feed withdrawal on Campylobacter in the crops of market-age broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 42: 802-806. ... Avian Diseases 29: 392-399.. Morishita, TY, Aye, PP, Harr, BS, Cobb, CW and Clifford, JR (1997). Evaluation of an avian- ... Avian Diseases 41: 899-905.. Stern, NJ, Fedorka-Cray, P, Bailey, JS, Cox, NA, Craven, SE, Hiett, KL, Musgrove, MT, Ladely, S, ... Avian Diseases 34: 602-606.. Stern, NJ, Clavero, MR, Bailey, JS, Cox, NA and Robach, MC (1995). Campylobacter spp. in broilers ...
Journal of Avian Biology 39: 247-251. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x. ... Crop milk is a way of feeding from the crop of parent birds, by regurgitating to young birds. They are found among all pigeons ... Crop milk is also produced by flamingos and even some penguins.[1][2][3] ... Eraud, C., Dorie, A., Jacquet, A. and Faivre, B. (2008). "The crop milk: a potential new route for carotenoid-mediated parental ...
Emergency support to the protection of livelihoods of smallholder farmers affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza and ... Tools are available to wrestle Fall Armyworm, a voracious invasive species that is ravaging crops in Africa, Asia and the Near ... To contribute to the sustained management of crop and plant ...read more ...
SUMMARY. Birds remain as common pets. Most the patients visiting the wild animal practice are birds. Birds present with several medical urgencies. The practitioner must be familiar with the necessary equipment and the methodology to quickly/efficiently evaluate and treat birds. A summary of intensive care principles is presented herein, with particular emphasis to wild birds. INTRODUCTION. ...
In the proventriculus, crop, gizzard, and small intestine, intramural or subserous nerve plexus and ganglia had positive ... Kistler AL, Gancz A, Clubb S, Skewes-Cox P, Fischer K, Sorber K, Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of ... Avian Bornaviruses in Psittacine Birds from Europe and Australia with Proventricular Dilatation Disease On This Page ... Broad tissue and cell tropism of avian bornavirus in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease. J Virol. 2009;83:5401-7. ...
Vijay, Inder K., Professor, Animal & Avian Sciences Dept; Ph.D.; University of California, Davis; Biosynthesis and Regulation ... Quebedeaux, Bruno, Professor, Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture Dept; Ph.D.;Cornell University; Crop ... Animal and Avian Sciences, Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, and Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture. ...
Crop type influences edge effects on the reproduction of songbirds in sagebrush habitat near agriculture. Avian Cons. Ecol. 9:8 ... J. Avian Biol.37:169-178.. Muzaffar, S.B., R.C. Ydenberg and I.L. Jones. 2006. Avian influenza: an ecological and evolutionary ... Avian forensics: predicting body fat and body mass from wing remains. J. Avian Biol. 32:198-203.. Guglielmo, C.G., T. Piersma ... Estimates of avian mortality attributed to vehicle collisions in Canada. Avian Cons. Ecol. 8: 2.. Bustnes, J.O., G.H. Systad ...
Journal Club: Understanding how a plant makes a hook could someday improve crops ... Comparative Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus Diversity in Poultry and Humans during a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A ( ... Reassortment of NS Segments Modifies Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Interaction with Avian Hosts and Host Cells ... American avian (AF457697-AF457701 and AF457703), Eurasian avian (AF144300-AF144303, AF144306, and AF144307), gull (M80959, ...
Journal Club: Understanding how a plant makes a hook could someday improve crops ... Also, avian H1N1 virus and human 1918 virus containing PB2 from avian virus could not form plaques at the lower temperature. ... Avian reassortant or wild-type H1N1 viruses containing an avian PB2 gene failed to spread to naive ferrets by respiratory ... Overall, we found that 5 modern avian H1N1 strains possessing "avian" receptor binding amino acids (Glu190 and Gly225) did not ...
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. pp. 121-136. Wilson J R. 1982. Environmental and ... These crop residues are high in fibre and the fibrous carbohydrates are their most important nutrients. Hence the nature and ... Effect of environment and quality of fibre on the nutritive value of crop residues. P.J. Van Soest. Cornell University, Ithaca ... The environmental conditions under which the crops are grown and L post-harvest storage conditions have a large effect on straw ...
  • As natural predators of pest insects, woodland birds provide biological pest suppression in crop fields adjacent to woody edges. (unl.edu)
  • The goals of this study were to determine the primary area of use, or functional edge, for birds foraging in crop fields adjacent to woody edges, and to evaluate their foraging distance patterns. (unl.edu)
  • These results indicate that conservation efforts within the 20 m functional edge offer potential to enhance the sustainability of both birds and crops in agricultural. (unl.edu)
  • The H5N8 avian influenza strain has been confirmed in poultry and captive birds at a premises near Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire. (fwi.co.uk)
  • CIDRAP News) France's agriculture ministry said today that three swans found dead in Moselle department in the eastern part of the country tested positive for H5N1 avian influenza, making France the third European country in recent weeks to report new outbreaks in wild birds. (umn.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) Veterinary officials in Poland today said H5N1 avian influenza has struck two turkey farms, the country's first reported outbreak in domestic birds, amid reports that meat contaminated with the virus was sold to consumers. (umn.edu)
  • Crop milk is a secretion from the lining of the crop of parent birds that is regurgitated to young birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eight wildlife health training modules demonstrate the application of 'best practice' for a range of avian veterinary techniques in use with New Zealand birds. (doc.govt.nz)
  • The 2014-15 U.S. outbreak of Highly-Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) resulted in the loss of more than 50 million birds. (usda.gov)
  • Crop milk is a way of feeding from the crop of parent birds, by regurgitating to young birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether avian bornaviruses (ABVs) were a factor in proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), we used immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-PCR, and nucleotide sequence analysis to examine paraffin wax-embedded or frozen tissue samples of 31 psittacine birds with this disease. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of subtype H5N1 was transmitted from birds to humans, of whom at least seven died ( 8 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • The only other reports on natural infections of humans by HPAI viruses were cases of conjunctivitis associated with avian H7N7 viruses, transmitted either directly from birds to humans or by seals ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Avian influenza virus HAs preferentially recognize α2,3 linked SA receptors, which are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and wild birds ( 13 ), whereas those from human viruses preferentially recognize α2,6 linked SA receptors, which are present in the upper respiratory tract of both humans and ferrets ( 14 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Avian neonatology involves not only the medical check of single young patients which are sick, but also the control of flocks of birds in a nursery setting. (vin.com)
  • The routine we set up in our Institution is a simple microbiological culture from cloaca and crop of all incoming birds. (vin.com)
  • [5] DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which reduced the Pterosaurs , and killed off all the non-avian dinosaur lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). (cdc.gov)
  • H5N2 Low Pathogenicity Avian influenza (LPAI) was recorded in ornamental birds and decoy ducks in two provinces in northern Italy in January-February (two regions) and H7N2 LPAI was recorded on a mixed species agritourism farm in a third province in March. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • To make a diagnosis, an avian vet (please see here: www.aav.org) will perform several tests including bacterial cultures of the airways, blood tests, and necropsies of dead birds if they're available. (justanswer.com)
  • Ideal for crop dosing baby birds. (ladygouldianfinch.com)
  • Medistatin - powdered Nystatin Recommended treatment for Candida (crop fungus infection) resulting in the poor growth of young birds. (ladygouldianfinch.com)
  • Therefore, H5N1 influenza virus can cause serious public health problems in birds and humans and is one of the most infectious avian diseases transmissible to humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Avian fertility formula is essential in promoting successful breeding in birds. (jedds.com)
  • Baby birds, however, should be fed small amounts of food to empty their crop more often, and to control the Candidiasis infection. (petmd.com)
  • Having an avian-oriented vet (please see here: www.aav.org) check all of your birds at this time would be ideal. (justanswer.com)
  • The appearance of the crop is normal in such young birds. (justanswer.com)
  • There are approximately 100 formal avian rescue groups in the United States, with many more cropping up as more and more birds are displaced. (petfinder.com)
  • Officials say avian influenza affects birds and its rare for it to spread to humans. (agweb.com)
  • A biopsy from the crop has been recommended as a diagnostic test, and is relatively easy to perform, but in this University's studies, only 76% of positively infected birds showed lesions in the crop. (yudu.com)
  • Marcy said human infections from this strain of avian influenza were due to direct contact with sick birds and their fluids. (uaex.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) Hungary today announced an H5N1 avian influenza outbreak at a goose farm, signaling the first appearance of the disease in Europe this winter. (umn.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) German agriculture officials confirmed an outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza at a poultry farm in Bavaria Aug 25, as officials in Vietnam reported fresh outbreaks at farms in three more provinces. (umn.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) A government official in Bavaria said today there was a chance that some frozen duck meat contaminated with the H5N1 avian influenza virus made its way to consumers' tables, according to a German news agency. (umn.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) Apparently healthy domestic geese and ducks in Europe may be harboring the H5N1 avian influenza virus, posing a risk to other poultry and to humans who have contact with them, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) warned in a statement yesterday. (umn.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) This in-depth article investigates the prospects for development of vaccines to head off the threat of an influenza pandemic posed by the H5N1 avian influenza virus. (umn.edu)
  • CIDRAP News) Veterinary officials in England today said they suspected H5N1 avian influenza at another poultry farm, as authorities in Saudi Arabia stamped out a large poultry flock following confirmation of the virus at a farm near the nation's capital. (umn.edu)
  • Tests in Italy have confirmed the first poultry outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in the West African country of Benin, according to news services. (umn.edu)
  • At present, the avian influenza H5N1 subtype virus, responsible for at least 387 human H5N1 infections and 245 deaths ( 1 , 2 ), is considered a significant threat to global public health ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Currently, H5N1 avian influenza virus - the strain commonly referred to as "bird flu" - rarely infects humans and does not spread easily from person to person. (nap.edu)
  • The 2003-2004 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in Japan were the first such outbreaks in 79 years in Japan. (hindawi.com)
  • Our studies strongly suggested that field and laboratory studies focusing on mechanical transmission by blow flies should be considered to control H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks, in particular in epidemic areas, where there are high densities of different fly species throughout the year. (hindawi.com)
  • The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus has frequently infected wild and domestic ducks in Asia, causing huge economic damage to both poultry farms and governments in the affected countries. (hindawi.com)
  • Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans, but the 1997 outbreak of the H5N1 virus in Hong Kong [ 1 , 2 ] alerted the medical community that some subtypes of avian influenza viruses include highly pathogenic strains that can affect humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Since then, there were outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Okayama and Miyazaki Prefectures in 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • It first started with the detection of the H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus in Maharashtra and Gujarat, says M.S. Swaminathan, founder, MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai. (telegraphindia.com)
  • For example, Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)* A(H5N1) or Asian lineage A(H7N9) viruses are zoonotic flu viruses of public health concern because they have infected people and caused serious illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Asian lineage avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1 ) and Asian lineage A(H7N9) viruses . (cdc.gov)
  • Written by an expert with more than 30 years of clinical experience in avian medicine, the new edition is thoroughly revised with updated diseases, new and expanded clinical techniques, and over 100 new color illustrations. (routledge.com)
  • A sixth outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has now been reported in South Africa, according to Izaak Breitenbach, general manager of the South African Poultry Association's (SAPA) broiler organisation. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • During the period January to March 2015 outbreaks of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) were officially reported in Europe in poultry flocks in Germany and Hungary. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Such highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics had not been reported in Japan for 79 years. (hindawi.com)
  • Avian influenza A viruses are designated as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) based on molecular characteristics of the virus and the ability of the virus to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting. (cdc.gov)
  • CIDRAP News) Avian influenza has flared again in the poultry populations of two Asian countries that had enjoyed prolonged quiet periods Japan and Thailand as authorities battled spreading bird outbreaks in Vietnam. (umn.edu)
  • In 2017, when the local industry was severely affected by avian influenza outbreaks, it was the other way around. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Two avian influenza outbreaks at poultry farms in Tamba Town, Kyoto Prefecture, were the last two outbreaks of the 2004 avian epidemics in Japan. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, outbreaks of other subtypes of avian influenza virus have frequently occurred in Japan. (hindawi.com)
  • The avian influenza outbreaks occurred in Japan since 2003 reported by prefecture. (hindawi.com)
  • This map shows prefectures and years when avian influenza outbreaks occurred. (hindawi.com)
  • 9 ) provided evidence that PDD is associated with the presence of novel virus species within the family Bornaviridae , provisionally termed avian bornavirus (ABV). (cdc.gov)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. (pnas.org)
  • Avian influenza A viruses (AIV) pose the threat of initiating new pandemics in humans because the human population is serologically naive toward most HA and NA subtypes. (pnas.org)
  • the pandemics of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), and 1968 (H3N2) were caused by influenza viruses harboring HA and NA genes of avian or swine origin ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we used a series of human 1918-avian H1N1 influenza reassortant viruses to identify the genetic determinants that govern airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that the adaptation of the HA and PB2 proteins are critical for the development of pandemic influenza strains from avian influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Studies to investigate the transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic virus have been carried out in ferrets, which, based on accumulated data, are the best available animal model to study transmission of avian and human influenza viruses ( 7 , 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human H1 proteins that bind α2,6 SA, including the parental South Carolina HA of 1918, contain an aspartate at both positions (Asp 190 and Asp 225 ), whereas α2,3 binding avian viruses contain glutamate at position 190 (Glu 190 ) and glycine at position 225 (Gly 225 ) ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The causative avian influenza A(H7N9) virus is a reassortant putatively with genes from avian-origin H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza (AI) viruses (Defra, 2013a). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A new outbreak of avian flu has been confirmed in a small flock of chickens and geese in Norfolk. (fwi.co.uk)
  • This latest outbreak of the H5N8 strain of avian flu, which has been detected in both commercial and wild flocks in England since December 2016, comes a month after Defra lifted countrywide poultry restrictions put in place to limit the spread of the disease. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Meng, Fanfeng;Li, Qiuchen;Zhang, Yubiao;Cui, Zhizhong;Chang, Shuang;Zhao, Peng 2018-07-11 00:00:00 Abstract There was an outbreak of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) between 2006 and 2010 in China in commercial layer chickens. (deepdyve.com)
  • A sixth confirmed outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza on a broiler breeder farm near Randfontein has placed South Africa's entire poultry industry on high alert. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Agricultural biosecurity laws deal with regulating and quarantining the inflow and outflow of plant species and animal organisms that are not native to a country, in order to check the outbreak of diseases and also crop loss. (telegraphindia.com)
  • During the summers of 2005 and 2006, avian foraging behavior was observed at 12 research sites in east central Nebraska that contained either a shelterbelt or woody riparian edge. (unl.edu)
  • Recently, 2 independent groups of investigators identified a new member of the family Bornaviridae , named avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with histopathologically confirmed PDD. (cdc.gov)
  • Julia described experiments in which Avian Bornavirus obtained from macaws (ABV4) and cockatiels (ABV2) were injected into virus- free laboratory cockatiels. (yudu.com)
  • Avian (Parrot) Bornavirus causes PDD and neurological signs. (yudu.com)
  • Birdwatchers may search woodlands, open land or edge for a variety of avian visitors. (mo.gov)
  • As you can see from the Eurasian Eagle Owl above our veterinarians provide routine and emergency care for a wide variety of avian, exotic, and domestic animals. (lbah.com)
  • Based on a repeated measures analysis of variance, foraging distances appeared to be greater at sites with soybean as the planted crop, although this apparent trend was significant for only some species. (unl.edu)
  • Sanjur, O. I., Piperno, D. R., Andres, T. C. & Wessel-Beaver, L. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin. (nature.com)
  • The fact that none of the nearly 300 species of Columbiformes has a clutch size larger than two eggs suggests that there is limited plasticity in crop-milk production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian Species. (wiley.com)
  • We found that (1) removal of Amur honeysuckle reduces the abundance of both vector and non-vector mosquito species that commonly feed on human hosts, (2) the abundance and composition of avian hosts is altered by honeysuckle removal, and (3) areas invaded with honeysuckle support local microclimates that are favorable to mosquito survival. (springer.com)
  • In this module you will learn how to take a blood sample from a range of avian species. (doc.govt.nz)
  • How to safely give fluids, liquid food or medications orally into the crop or oesophagus in a range of bird species. (doc.govt.nz)
  • There is concern that avian species may continue to facilitate its spread through seed dispersal (Conway et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Native herbaceous vegetation cover along row‐crop field edges (i.e., field buffers) increases breeding densities of many bird species. (usgs.gov)
  • 2011). From 2007 to 2010, hemangioma was the most hazardous neoplastic disease associated with ALV-J, which caused a massive pandemic and became a major avian health concern. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, surveillance activities for suspected avian notifiable disease (AND) resulted in the detection of a non-notifiable avian influenza infection in turkey breeders during April 2013. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 2013. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards. (usda.gov)
  • The UK's avian disease emerging threats report for the first quarter of 2015 describes cases of enterococcal and streptococcal infections, colibacillosis of several types, and an unusual diagnosis of leucocis in chickens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated from chickens. (pnas.org)
  • Earlier this week, the United States Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza in a commercial turkey flock in Boone County. (uaex.edu)
  • The team includes scientists from Cornell University, the University of Illinois, Boyce Thompson Institute, DuPont Crop Genetics Research, the University of North Carolina, the City University of New York, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • moreover, specific perennial staples are abundant in specific micronutrients, indicating that they can be a nutrient-dense part of diets, unlike the most ubiquitous annual staple crops (corn, wheat, rice) that do not appear in the top 85th percentile for any of the nine micronutrients analyzed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The total U.S. wheat crop is projected at 58 million acres, an increase of eight percent from last year. (agweb.com)
  • A study to determine which cover crops were safe to plant following wheat. (ndsu.edu)
  • The spread of trans-boundary diseases like the avian influenza and the Ug99 wheat stem rust fungus pose new threats to agricultural safety, believes Ramanjaneyulu. (telegraphindia.com)
  • The disease is characterized by nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis of the vegetative nerve plexuses of the crop, proventriculus, gizzard, and duodenum. (cdc.gov)
  • In the proventriculus, crop, gizzard, and small intestine, intramural or subserous nerve plexus and ganglia had positive results. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Swabs taken from the crop and cloaca (vent), and blood samples are far easier to obtain. (yudu.com)
  • Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in China and the rapid detection of a case of H9N2 low-pathogenic avian influenza in turkeys in eastern England are among the highlights of the latest AHVLA surveillance report. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in China discussed. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The most common sites of infection are the crop (the storage place for food prior to digestion), stomach and intestines. (petmd.com)
  • To halt the spread of fall armyworm (FAW) in the eastern African sub-region and prevent production losses in the 2017/18, 2018/19 and 2019/20 cropping seasons. (fao.org)
  • The H5N2 avian influenza was reported in Ibaraki and Saitama Prefectures in 2005 and 2006, the H3 subtype was reported in Saitama Prefecture in 2009, and the H7 subtype was in Aichi Prefecture in 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Gross necropsy and postmortem diagnostic testing are important parts of avian medicine, requiring a systematic approach to the examination of organs and the collection of samples. (ivis.org)
  • In the UK, Defra consider there to be a constant low risk of incursion of any notifiable avian disease into poultry throughout the year, and the recent situation in Europe means the UK is at an increased risk at present. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Therefore, all poultry keepers are advised to maintain robust biosecurity measures, vigilance for clinical signs of disease and to promptly report suspect cases of notifiable avian disease to a local APHA office. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • There is no danger of contracting the current strain of avian influenza from eating properly cooked chicken because heat destroys pathogens. (uaex.edu)
  • The turkey flock is located within the Mississippi flyway where this strain of avian influenza has previously been identified. (uaex.edu)
  • Agroforestry, a land-use system that integrates trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock production, has been identified by the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) as a 'win-win' approach that balances the production of commodities (food, feed, fuel, fiber, etc.) with non-commodity outputs such as environmental protection and cultural and landscape amenities. (cambridge.org)
  • Maize also is one of the most genetically diverse food crops on the planet, said Torbert Rocheford, a professor of plant genetics in the department of crop sciences at Illinois and a corresponding author on the paper. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Chlorfenapyr is commonly used for food crops in Korea. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it remains in use for food crops in Korea. (hindawi.com)
  • In this practical and beautifully illustrated book, early chapters cover physical examination, advice on interpreting diagnostic tests, and avian anatomy and physiology. (routledge.com)
  • Decrease of 3.8 per cent in the total number of avian diagnostic submissions to AHVLA and SAC during Q1-2013 compared with Q1-2012. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Total number of avian diagnostic submissions received by AHVLA virtually unchanged. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • However, drop in avian carcass submissions and continued upward trend in the numbers of non-carcass diagnostic submissions. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • During this time, his research has focused on avian ecology within bottomland hardwood forests, including bird response to forest restoration and silvicultural management, and assessment of alternative restoration and management techniques. (usgs.gov)
  • Avian Conservation and Ecology 14(2):15. (ace-eco.org)
  • Avian Conservation and Ecology 15(1):3. (ace-eco.org)
  • Project Leader, Nongame Studies (1982-1984) and Project Leader, Avian Studies (1984-1993), USFWS, National Ecology Research Center. (fws.gov)
  • Special Issue - Temperate agroforestry: When trees and crops get together. (unl.edu)
  • Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice is an invaluable quick reference resource for clinicians and a useful study guide for veterinary students. (routledge.com)
  • Even after an avian carcass has been plucked, some feathers, fluff and bone will be ingested. (countrylife.co.uk)
  • Eligible crops may include corn residue, diseased or insect infested wood materials, or orchard waste. (hoosieragtoday.com)
  • If USDA forecasters are correct, U.S. farmers will plant the second largest corn crop on record this spring. (agweb.com)
  • [6] Unlike mammalian milk , which is an emulsion , pigeon crop milk consists of a suspension of protein-rich and fat-rich cells that proliferate and detach from the lining of the crop . (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the pigeon crop the avian mammary gland? (edu.au)
  • It is used for the removal of mites, caterpillar pests, thrips, and fungus gnats by foliar spray on ornamental crops in greenhouses. (hindawi.com)
  • Bees effectively vectored the fungus from the hive to the crop. (gov.mb.ca)
  • In south Texas, a majority of agricultural fields are disked after the crop is harvested and remain fallow until spring when planting of various agricultural crops resumes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • BCAP provides financial assistance to establish and maintain new crops of energy biomass, or who harvest and deliver forest or agricultural residues to a qualifying energy facility. (hoosieragtoday.com)
  • We compared density, avian richness, and avian conservation value on row‐crop fields containing buffers. (usgs.gov)
  • Il est n cessaire de prendre des mesures de conservation visant am liorer la reproduction des oiseaux tout en permettant aux agriculteurs de conserver leur productivit afin de rem dier au d clin consid rable des populations d'oiseaux des prairies. (ace-eco.org)
  • Les populations de nombreuses esp ces de prairie tant en baisse, l'examen de la s lection de l'habitat de nidification et du succ s reproducteur peut apporter de nouvelles connaissances en mati re d' cologie de nidification pouvant du coup contribuer la conservation. (ace-eco.org)
  • There is a good parallel between changes in crop growth and plasma prolactin fluctuations during the breeding cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Role of Prolactin in Avian Incubation Behavior and Care of Young: Is There a Causal Relationship? (nih.gov)
  • Avian dispersal of seeds of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. (csic.es)
  • Further aspects of avian medicine discussed in the book include behavioural problems, incubation of eggs, paediatrics and surgery. (routledge.com)
  • The avian digestive system shows adaptations for a high metabolic rate and flight . (britannica.com)
  • January 31, 2012, National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), "Adaptations of Avian Flu Virus Are a Cause for Concern. (nap.edu)
  • An analog to crop milk is also secreted from the esophagus of flamingos and the male emperor penguin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Enlargements of the esophagus, collectively called the crop, permit the temporary storage of food prior to digestion. (britannica.com)
  • A new formulation type (except a granule or slow-release formulation) extrapolated from a product authorised as a soil drench or applied pre-emergence to a crop (but excluding all granule or slow release formulations). (hse.gov.uk)
  • The raptor's efficient digestive tract includes a crop in which to store enough food to sustain them until the next feed and a bone-dissolving stomach. (countrylife.co.uk)
  • 14.9 g, no molt, no fat, crop with flat whole seeds, stomach with insect parts and small white seeds. (bsu.edu)
  • Crop milk bears little physical resemblance to mammalian milk , the former being a semi-solid substance somewhat like pale yellow cottage cheese . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Like mammalian milk, crop milk contains IgA antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • No animal by-products , no mammalian or avian by-products are allowed in the feed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Guidelines for a rye and soybean cropping system. (ndsu.edu)
  • Without inspections, farmers may falsely claim crop losses. (gao.gov)
  • Farmers, ranchers and forest landowners can also receive financial assistance to grow biomass crops that will be converted into energy in selected BCAP project areas. (hoosieragtoday.com)
  • The Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Board of Directors and Manager, FCIC, to consider the potential for obtaining actual crop yield data and using such data to establish homogeneous risk groups and the proper relationships among each group's yields and risk rates. (gao.gov)
  • At least one perennial staple crop in each of the five nutritional categories has yields over 2.5 t/ha, in some cases considerably higher, competitive with and in many cases exceeding those of nutritionally comparable annual staples. (frontiersin.org)
  • Modern crop protection technology, such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides make it possible to increase global crop yields, yet the complexity of layering different products make safety and efficacy testing nuanced. (covance.com)
  • In agribusiness a Missouri poultry farm has been quarantined because of avian flu. (agweb.com)
  • Congress has expressed concern regarding FCIC progress in implementing the Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980, the effectiveness of program changes when insurance losses in 1981 and 1982 are considered, and the annual increases in FCIC appropriation requests. (gao.gov)
  • We have demonstrated that the 1918 HA gene was necessary for efficient direct contact transmission, but did not allow respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets of an avian influenza virus possessing an avian polymerase subunit PB2. (pnas.org)
  • Avian striated muscles contain a respiratory pigment, myoglobin . (britannica.com)