Cronobacter sakazakii: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.Cronobacter: A genus of gram-negative opportunistic foodborne pathogens.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Milk, HumanLipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carnitine Acyltransferases: Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Frozen FoodsSwitzerlandInfant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.

Fluorogenic selective and differential medium for isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii. (1/79)

4-Methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside, the fluorogenic substrate of alpha-glucosidase, was used as a selective marker to develop a differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii. This bacterium showed strong fluorogenic characteristics clearly distinguishable from other microorganisms. On the basis of reducing background noise, an optimum basal medium and nitrogen source were selected. Incubation conditions were optimized.  (+info)

Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter Species. (2/79)

The phylogenetic relationships of Enterobacter sakazakii strains were investigated using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and hsp60 sequencing. Each analysis distributed E. sakazakii strains among four clusters, indicating substantial taxonomic heterogeneity. The E. sakazakii type strain 16S rDNA sequence was 97.8% similar to that of Citrobacter koseri but 97.0% similar to that of Enterobacter cloacae.  (+info)

16S rRNA gene based analysis of Enterobacter sakazakii strains from different sources and development of a PCR assay for identification. (3/79)

BACKGROUND: E. sakazakii is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen, implicated in food borne diseases causing meningitis or enteritis especially in neonates and infants. Cultural standard identification procedures for E. sakazakii include the observation of yellow pigmentation of colonies and a positive glucosidase activity. Up to now, only one PCR system based on a single available 16S rRNA gene sequence has been published for E. sakazakii identification. However, in our hands a preliminary evaluation of this system to a number of target and non-target strains showed significant specificity problems of this system. In this study full-length 16S rRNA genes of thirteen E. sakazakii strains from food, environment and human origin as well as the type strain ATCC 51329 were sequenced. Based on this sequence data a new specific PCR system for E. sakazakii was developed and evaluated. RESULTS: By phylogenetic analysis of the new full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence data obtained we could show the presence of a second phylogenetic distinct lineage within the E. sakazakii species. The newly developed 16S rRNA gene targeting PCR system allows identification of E. sakazakii strains from both lineages. The assay's ability to correctly identify different E. sakazakii isolates as well as to differentiate E. sakazakii from other closely related Enterobacteriaceae species and other microorganisms was shown on 75 target and non-target strains. CONCLUSION: By this study we are presenting a specific and reliable PCR identification system, which is able to correctly identify E. sakazakii isolates from both phylogenetic distinct lines within the E. sakazakii species. The impact of this second newly described phylogenetic line within the E. sakazakii species in view of clinical and food safety aspects need further investigation.  (+info)

Performance of media for recovering stressed cells of Enterobacter sakazakii as determined using spiral plating and ecometric techniques. (4/79)

A study was done to determine the performance of differential, selective media for supporting resuscitation and colony development by stressed cells of Enterobacter sakazakii. Cells of four strains of E. sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula were exposed to five stress conditions: heat (55 degrees C for 5 min), freezing (-20 degrees C for 24 h, thawed, frozen again at -20 degrees C for 2 h, thawed), acidic pH (3.54), alkaline pH (11.25), and desiccation in powdered infant formula (water activity, 0.25; 21 degrees C for 31 days). Control and stressed cells were spiral plated on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.1% pyruvate (TSAP, a nonselective control medium); Leuschner, Baird, Donald, and Cox (LBDC) agar (a differential, nonselective medium); Oh and Kang agar (OK); fecal coliform agar (FCA); Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI) medium; violet red bile glucose (VRBG) agar; and Enterobacteriaceae enrichment (EE) agar. With the exception of desiccation-stressed cells, suspensions of stressed cells were also plated on these media and on R&F Enterobacter sakazakii chromogenic plating (RF) medium using the ecometric technique. The order of performance of media for recovering control and heat-, freeze-, acid-, and alkaline-stressed cells by spiral plating was TSAP > LBDC > FCA > OK, VRBG > DFI > EE; the general order for recovering desiccated cells was TSAP, LBDC, FCA, OK > DFI, VRBG, EE. Using the ecometric technique, the general order of growth indices of stressed cells was TSAP, LBDC > FCA > RF, VRBG, OK > DFI, EE. The results indicate that differential, selective media vary greatly in their abilities to support resuscitation and colony formation by stressed cells of E. sakazakii. The orders of performance of media for recovering stressed cells were similar using spiral plating and ecometric techniques, but results from spiral plating should be considered more conclusive.  (+info)

Comparison of two chromogenic media and evaluation of two molecular based identification systems for Enterobacter sakazakii detection. (5/79)

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. The current FDA detection method includes two enrichment steps, the subculturing of the second enrichment broth on a selective agar (VRBG), a further subculturing of selected grown colonies on TSA and the subsequent biochemical identification of yellow-pigmented colonies by API20E. However, there is a strong need for simplified methods for isolation and identification of E. sakazakii. In this study, two chromogenic media, which allow to indicate presumptive E. sakazakii colonies by the alpha glucosidase activity, as well as a newly developed 1,6-alpha-glucosidase based conventional PCR assay and a rRNA oligonucleotide probe based commercial test system for identification of presumptive E. sakazakii were evaluated on 98 target and non-target strains. The methods were compared with respect to specificity aspects. RESULTS: A total of 75 presumptive E. sakazakii and 23 non-target strains were analysed by using chromogenic media, alpha-glucosidase based PCR assay, and the VIT assay. For most presumptive E. sakazakii strains on the chromogenic media, the PCR and VIT assay confirmed the identification. However, for a number of presumptive E. sakazakii isolates from fruit powder, the alpha-glucosidase PCR and VIT assay did not correspond to the typical E. sakazakii colonies on DFI and ESIA. Further characterization by API32E identification, phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences and ribotyping strongly suggested, that these strains did not belong to the species E. sakazakii. The newly developed alpha-glucosidase based PCR assay as well as the commercially available VIT Enterobacter sakazakii identification test showed an excellent correlation with the 16S rRNA data, and are thus well suited for identification of E. sakazakii. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that presumptive colonies on ESIA and DFI media need further species identification. Both evaluated molecular methods, the alpha-glucosidase PCR and the 16S RNA in situ hybridisation test (VIT), although based on completely different target regions and methodologies performed equally well in terms of specificity.  (+info)

Enterobacter sakazakii: an emerging pathogen in powdered infant formula. (6/79)

Enterobacter sakazakii represents a significant risk to the health of neonates. This bacterium is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. Infants aged <28 days are considered to be most at risk. Feeding with powdered infant formula (PIF) has been epidemiologically implicated in several clinical cases. Infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life, and those who are not should be provided with a suitable breast-milk substitute. PIF is not a sterile product; to reduce the risk of infection, the reconstitution of powdered formula should be undertaken by caregivers using good hygienic measures and in accordance with the product manufacturer's food safety guidelines.  (+info)

Casein-derived antimicrobial peptides generated by Lactobacillus acidophilus DPC6026. (7/79)

Three peptides produced by a Lactobacillus acidophilus DPC6026 fermentation of sodium caseinate and showing antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC 12868 and Escherichia coli DPC5063 were characterized. These peptides were all generated from bovine alpha(s1)-casein and identified as IKHQGLPQE, VLNENLLR, and SDIPNPIGSENSEK. These peptides may have bioprotective applicability and potential use in milk-based formula, which has been linked to E. sakazakii infection in neonates.  (+info)

Identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from closely related species: the use of artificial neural networks in the analysis of biochemical and 16S rDNA data. (8/79)

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula and accurate identification is important in both industrial and clinical settings. Bacterial species can be difficult to accurately characterise from complex biochemical datasets and computer algorithms can potentially simplify the process. RESULTS: Artificial Neural Networks were applied to biochemical and 16S rDNA data derived from 282 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, including 189 E. sakazakii isolates, in order to identify key characteristics which could improve the identification of E. sakazakii. The models developed resulted in a predictive performance for blind (validation) data of 99.3 % correct discrimination between E. sakazakii and closely related species for both phenotypic and genotypic data. Three main regions of the partial rDNA sequence were found to be key in discriminating the species. Comparison between E. sakazakii and other strains also constitutively positive for expression of the enzyme alpha-glucosidase resulted in a predictive performance of 98.7 % for 16S rDNA sequence data and 100% for phenotypic data. CONCLUSION: The computationally based methods developed here show a remarkable ability in reducing data dimensionality and complexity, in order to eliminate noise from the system in order to facilitate the speed and reliability of a potential strain identification system. Furthermore, the approaches described are also able to provide valuable information regarding the population structure and distribution of individual species thus providing the foundations for novel assays and diagnostic tests for rapid identification of pathogens.  (+info)

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe infections in neonates and infants through contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). Therefore, the aim of this study was a large-scale study on determine the prevalence, molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of C. sakazakii isolates from PIF purchased from Chinese retail markets. Two thousand and twenty PIF samples were collected from different institutions. Fifty-six C. sakazakii strains were isolated, and identified using fusA sequencing analysis, giving a contamination rate of 2.8%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was more discriminatory than other genotyping methods. The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only seven clusters by ompA and rpoB sequence analysis, and four C. sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, 16.1%) were the dominant sequence types isolated. C. sakazakii
Müller, A; Stephan, R; Fricker-Feer, C; Lehner, A (2013). Genetic diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates collected from a Swiss infant formula production facility. Journal of Food Protection, 76(5):883-887. ...
Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early ...
We describe a case of infection with Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 494 causing bacteremia and meningitis in a hospitalized late premature infant in Brazil. We conducted microbiological analyses on samples of powdered infant formula from the same batch as formula ingested by the infant but could not identify the source of contamination.
Iversen C, Mullane N, McCardell B et al (2008)Cronobacter gen nov, a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen nov, comb nov, Cronobacter malonaticus sp nov, Cronobacter turicensis sp nov, Cronobacter muytjensii sp nov, Cronobacter dublinensis sp nov, Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp dublinensis subsp nov, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp lausannensis subsp nov and Cronobacter dublinensis subsp lactaridi subsp. nov Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:1442-1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Mead Johnson, the maker of Enfamil Newborn Powder formula, says samples of the product it had tested were negative for a bacterium that killed a 10-day-old Missouri infant earlier this month. As we had reported last week, Wal-Mart Stores Inc., Walgreen Co., Kroger Co. and Safeway Inc. had all pulled a batch of Enfamil Newborn powder formula from their shelves, pending an investigation into the babys death.. The child, Avery Cornett, died on December 18 after being removed from life support. Preliminary tests indicated Avery had been suffering was Cronobacter sakazakii, a rare bacterial infection. His parents had been feeding him Enfamil Newborn powder purchased at a Lebanon, Missouri Wal-Mart.. As we reported last week, illnesses from Cronobacter sakazakii are rare, with only a few cases reported in infants worldwide each year. Its extremely dangerous to babies less than one month old and those born premature. Cronobacter sakazakii can be found in dried milk and powdered formula as well as ...
ID ENTS8_1_PE3859 STANDARD; PRT; 609 AA. AC ENTS8_1_PE3859; A7MMX9; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Putative uncharacterized protein; (ENTS8_1.PE3859). GN OrderedLocusNames=ESA_04001; OS CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII ATCC BAA-894. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacteriales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Cronobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=290339; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS ENTS8_1.PE3859. CC Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 chromosome, complete genome. CC genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A7MMX9_ENTS8 CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000258898 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A7MMX9; -. DR EMBL; CP000783; ABU79187.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_001440023.1; NC_009778.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; A7MMX9; -. DR SMR; A7MMX9; 2-609. DR STRING; A7MMX9; -. DR GeneID; 5549084; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP000783_GR; ESA_04001. DR ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide, is an essential component in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. Food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii synthesizes two lipid A species, differing by the length of the secondary acyl chain. In this work, we identified three genes ESA02293, ESA02951 and ESA01386 encoding for the late acyltransferases of lipid A biosynthesis pathway in C. sakazakii. Based on the sequence alignment, proteins YP_001438378.1 encoded by ESA02293, YP_001439016.1 encoded by ESA02951, and YP_001437482.1 encoded by ESA01386 are homologous to E. coli LpxL, LpxP and LpxM, respectively. Functions of the three acyltransferases were confirmed by overexpressing the genes in E. coli, isolating lipid As and analyzing their structures using an ESI/MS. C. sakazakii LpxL and LpxM transfer a C14:0 secondary acyl chain to the 2′- and 3′-position of lipid A, respectively. C. sakazakii LpxP can transfer either a C16:1 or a C14:0 secondary acyl chains to the 2′
Biofilm Formation and Low pH Viability of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) Isolated from Powdered Infant Formula and Infant Foods in Korea - Cronobacter spp.;biofilm;low pH;hemolysis;
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. sakazakii. A necessary state in the successful colonization, establishment and ultimately production of disease by microbial pathogens is the ability to adhere to host surfaces such as mucous membranes, gastric and intestinal epithelial or endothelial tissue. This study examined for the first time the adherence ability of 50 E. sakazakii strains to the two epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and Caco-2, as well as the brain microvascular endothelial cell line HBMEC. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial culture conditions on the adherence behaviour were investigated. An attempt was made to characterize the factors involved in adherence. Two distinctive adherence patterns, a diffuse adhesion and the formation of localized clusters of bacteria on
Enterobacter sakazakii bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Enterobacter sakazakii bacteria. These are gram-negative rod- shaped bacteria. Enterobacter sp. live in the intestines of humans and animals, as well as soil, water and food. They are mostly opportunistic pathogens, causing diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia. Magnification: x4000 at 35mm size. - Stock Image B220/1054
Cronobacter sakazakii is an important foodborne pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis and sepsis, with high mortality in neonates. However, very little information is available regarding the pathogenesis of C. sakazakii at the genetic level. In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. In this study, the detailed functions of this gene were investigated using a gene knockout technique. A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial cell line HCT-8. Biofilm formation by the mutant was reduced to 50% of that exhibited by the wild-type (WT) strain. Raman spectrometry was used to detect variations in biofilm components caused by bcsR knockout, and certain components, including carotenoids, fatty acids and amides, were significantly reduced. However, another biofilm component, cellulose, was increased in ΔbcsR, suggesting
Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen that has been associated with neonatal infections through contaminated powdered infant milk formula. The species was defined by Farmer et al....
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Enterobacter sakazakii, previously referred to as a yellow-pigmented Enterobacter cloacae was designated as a unique species in 1980. This reclassification was based on differences from E. cloacae in DNA relatedness, pigment production and biochemica
Two compounds derived from garlic-diallyl sulfide and ajoene-significantly reduce the contamination risk of Cronobacter sakazakii in infant formula powder.
In this study, we report on the epidemiologic investigation in a Swiss powdered infant formula production facility after a batch of Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) was found to be contaminated with Cronobacter (C.) sakazakii during a routine testing of packed products of a Swiss PIF brand ready for distribution. Epidemiological investigation on isolates originating from PIF batches from the production unit by macro restriction typing quickly (PFGE) identified an isolate showing a pattern identical to the ones originating from the packed product, suggesting this strain being the source of contamination. To obtain an overview on the heterogeneity of strains isolated within this production unit 115 C. sakazakii isolates, which were routinely collected between August 2015 and September 2016, were characterized by PFGE and serotyping. In addition, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed on 11 selected isolates. Macro restriction analysis revealed the presence of two main clusters (C1,C2) ...
Małgorzata Czerwicka , Kinga Marszewska , Stephen J. Forsythe , Anna Bychowska , Alicja Mazgajczyk , Halina Dziadziuszko , Karolina Ossowska , Piotr Stepnowski , Zbigniew Kaczyński ...
ID A0A0K2P7K9_9ENTR Unreviewed; 206 AA. AC A0A0K2P7K9; DT 11-NOV-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-NOV-2015, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 12. DE RecName: Full=Superoxide dismutase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}; DE EC=1.15.1.1 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}; GN ORFNames=AFK67_00920 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ALB68754.1}; OS Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. dublinensis LMG 23823. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Cronobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=1159554 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ALB68754.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=LMG 23823 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559}; RA Noorani M.; RL Submitted (JUL-2015) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=LMG 23823 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559}; RA Descombes P., Baert L., Ngom-Bru C., Barretto C.; RT "Cronobacter ...
The European Food Safety Authoritys (EFSA) Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel) published today an opinion relating to microbiological risks in infant and follow-on formulae. The Panel concluded that Salmonella and Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) are the micro-organisms of greatest concern. In order to minimise exposure among high risk infants, experts advised that where breast-milk substitutes are utilised, it is preferable to choose commercial sterile liquid formulae.
The European Food Safety Authoritys (EFSA) Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel) published today an opinion relating to microbiological risks in infant and follow-on formulae. The Panel concluded that Salmonella and Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) are the micro-organisms of greatest concern. In order to minimise exposure among high risk infants, experts advised that where breast-milk substitutes are utilised, it is preferable to choose commercial sterile liquid formulae. Infant and follow-on formulae containing low levels of these micro-organisms do not appear to cause illness in healthy infants and young children. Nevertheless due to the potential for multiplication of these micro-organisms during the preparation and holding time prior to consumption of the reconstituted formula, contamination of powdered infant formula is a considerable risk factor. Compliance with high standard processing conditions and appropriate hygienic measures are of highest importance. The BIOHAZ ...
Drawn from samples parallel to those being tested by public health officials and following the same methodology, the new testing did not detect any presence of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii), the company stated.. These new results reaffirm the testing conducted before the batch was made available to retailers and consumers. Based on both sets of tests, Mead Johnson can say with confidence that Enfamil Premium Newborn formula, like every infant formula the company produces, is safe, the company said. All Mead Johnson infant formulas undergo more than 2,300 quality tests and checks to ensure that they meet or exceed all standards set by regulatory bodies, including the World Health Organization and the U.S. FDA.. The company undertook the retesting due to confusion in the marketplace - both Supervalu and Walmart removed that product from their shelves following news reports of an infants death. That infant had been fed the Enfamil product, however there has been no connection made ...
SMA HA Hypoallergenic Infant Milk formula is specifically for babies who are allergic to cow s milk and helps to promote healthy muscle, bone development.
The global infant milk market is segmented into form such as powders, concentrated liquids and ready to use. Among these segments, ready to use infant milk segment is expected to occupy top position in overall infant milk market during the forecast period. Increasing number of employed woman and rising disposable income are some of the factors which are anticipated to propel the growth of the ready to use infant milk market during the forecast period. Further, high product penetration and wide product portfolio of infant milks in developed markets such as U.S. is expected to increase over the forecast period.. Global infant milk market is expected to flourish at a significant CAGR of 10.3% during the forecast period. Factors such as increasing infant health concerns, growth in number of working mothers and continuous enhancement in infant milk formula is anticipated to drive the market of infant milk during the forecast period. Moreover, the global infant milk market is expected to garner ...
Kimberly Pagel. The World Health Organization, or WHO, recommends infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life; however, most infants in the United States rely on infant formula for some portion of their nutrition. It is estimated 1 million infants in the United States are fed formula from birth, and this amount almost triples for infants who are 3 months old.. Infant formula comes in three common forms: powder, liquid concentrate and ready-to-feed.. Powder formula is the least expensive, must be mixed with water before feeding and is the most widely used variety.. In using powdered infant formula, it is very important to know it is not sterile. This means it may occasionally contain pathogens that can cause serious illnesses. Many studies were conducted by the Food and Drug Administration, and the two most commonly found bacteria in powdered infant formula were Cronobacter, formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii, and salmonella.. Even though the FDA takes steps to ensure ...
OTTAWA — Loblaw Companies Ltd, is recalling its President’s Choice brand Lower Iron milk-based powdered infant formula due to possible contamination by Cronobacter bacteria.
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We are currently offering locally sourced baby milk formulae(from Australia), packed from powdered form into a 400g/900 gram tin, which is manufactured under the s...
Protein type and/or heat treatment pre- or post-homogenisation can affect the physical stability of infant formulations during manufacture. Previous research has described the use of α-lactalbumin...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; Enterobacteriaceae; Cronobacter; Cronobacter ...
Anti-TNF alpha antibodies were among the first approved antibody drugs and now belongs to the best-selling drugs. Today, several companies are developing biosimilars to those drugs which will increase the access of medications and potentially reduce health care costs. There is a great demand for pharmacokinetic assays for anti-TNF-alpha drugs and the bridging assay format is a potential tool, mostly due to its high serum tolerance. This project at Gyros Protein Technologies AB aimed to investigate the properties of the solid phase on the Gyrolab and to utilize this to optimize the bridging assay to be used as a pharmacokinetic assay for a human antibody in the presence of serum. The solid phase was optimized by incorporating three reagents with increasing molecular weight and examining the column profiles generated. Furthermore, the capture reagent was titrated with b-BSA to avoid cross-binding of both arms of the antibody to the capture reagent. Since the background was relatively high, further ...
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ALBANY, NY - JUNE, 2015 - Infant formulas and baby food products are specially designed for infants and toddlers. These products are easy to consume and provide for the nutritional needs of babies. Baby food products come in a wide variety such as dried food, prepared food, infant milk formula, growing-up milk formula, and follow-on milk formula. Infant formulas and baby food are considered to be nutritional supplements for breast milk.. The Global Baby Food and Infant Formula market to grow at a CAGR of 7.69 percent over the period 2014-2019. The Global Baby Food and Infant Formula market can be segmented into two categories: Baby Food and Infant Formula. Global Baby Food and Infant Formula Market 2014-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers Europe, Americas, and the MEA and APAC regions; it also covers the Global Baby Food and Infant Formula market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also ...
Digital News Report - The Kimberly-Clark company announced a limited recall of Kotex Natural Balance Security Unscented Tampons Regular Absorbency because the material that was used to make the product could have been contaminated with Enterobacter sakazakii bacteria. The recalled tampons could cause women to become ill or suffer from a vaginal infection or urinary tract infection if used. Women with weakened immune systems are at a higher risk for infection.. There are only two product SKU numbers are being recalled. The last five digits of the SKU number 15063 (18-count packaging), and 15068 (36-count packaging). The tampons were the Kotex Natural Balance Security Unscented Tampons Regular Absorbency sold between October 29, 2011 and November 2, 2011. They were sent to Walmart stores in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas. Some Frys stores in Arizona and some Smiths stores in Utah and Arizona have sold the recalled tampons. Stores have been notified and have pulled the ...
Gerber Good Start Soothe Infant Milk Based Formula Powder Canister at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Gerber Good Start Soothe Infant Milk Based Formula Powder Canister
Similac Expert Care Neosure Ready to Feed Infant Formula - Get the lowest price on Similac Expert Care Neosure Ready to Feed Infant Formula, online at AllegroMedical.com.
Enfamil PREMIUM Infant formula is clinically proven* to improve brain and eye development in babies up to 12 months. And it also provides the nutrients...
0066]Reference herein to "microorganism" means any prokaryotic organism (e.g. bacteria) or lower eukaryotic organism (e.g. algae, fungi, protozoa). The preferred microorganisms of the present invention are members of the Enterobacteriaceae group of bacteria. The Enterobacteriaceae group comprises, but is not limited to, Enterobacter (e.g. Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter cowanii, Enterobacter dissolvens, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterobacter intermedins, Enterobacter kobei, Enterobacter nimipressuralis, Enterobacter pyrinus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter sp. `MS 412`, Enterobacter sp. 16-31, Enterobacter sp. 2002-2301161, Enterobacter sp. 22, Enterobacter sp. 253a, Enterobacter sp. 3-45, Enterobacter sp. 76996, Enterobacter sp. B2/69, Enterobacter sp. B24a, Enterobacter sp. B24b, Enterobacter sp. B41, Enterobacter sp. B509, Enterobacter sp. B5R5, ...
We conducted a randomized double-blind trial of a cows milk infant formula with increased iron fortification in order to confirm its safety and to measure its effects on iron status and immune function. A group of full-term, well nourished and healt
the mounting toxic milk scandal of recent weeks, in which three infants have died and thousands have fallen ill with kidney stones or other illnesses after consuming several brands of infant milk formula found to have been contaminated with melamine (I noticed in another dispatch that news of the tainted milk was known before the Olympics began on August 8th, but was suppressed by the Party because of the Games. The warning to the world came from a New Zealand diplomat only after the Games were over, who learned of the health hazard from an investor in Chinas milk export business. How many children suffered needlessly from a heartless attempt to conceal vital information from consumers in and outside China by its media, all of which is tightly controlled by the Party? Unnecessary kidney ailments have now affected more than 54,000 children ...
- Infant milk powder: 0-6months, 6-12months, 12-36months - Made in Australia - CNCA Accreditation Please get in touch for more information: info @ alpha-global .c...
Bellamys Organic has been hit hard by recent changes to infant formula imports into China with its shares dropping by 40 per cent late last week.
Calories in Infant formula, PBM PRODUCTS, ULTRA BRIGHT BEGINNINGS, liquid concentrate, not reconstituted (formerly WYETH-AYERST). Calobonga Calorie Counter
Calories in Infant formula, PBM PRODUCTS, store brand, liquid concentrate, not reconstituted (formerly WYETH-AYERST). Calobonga Calorie Counter
There are certain guidelines to follow if you are bottle feeding your newborn. This eMedTV resource provides a feeding chart for parents using infant formula and explains how to easily calculate the amount per feeding for your baby.
Selective media enable faster results and visual confirmation for the detection, identification, and enumeration of microorganisms
References:. Cronobacter Infection. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/cronobacter/index.html. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. (2007). Codex Alimentarius: Standard for Infant Formula and Formulas for Special Medical Purposes Intended for Infants.. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Labeling of Infant Formula: Guidance for Industry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.. Guidance for Industry: Frequently Asked Questions about FDAs Regulation of Infant Formula. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/infantformula/ucm056524.htm#q2. Infant Formula, 21 C.F.R § 107.100 (2018). Jasani B, Simmer K, Patole SK, Rao SC. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD000376. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000376.pub4. Lönnerdal, B. (2014). Infant formula and infant ...
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As of November 28th 2014, 117 microbiological methods in the food industry including 3 antibiotic detection methods are certified NF VALIDATION. All the microbiological methods are validated according to the NF EN ISO 16140 standard protocol requirements.. During its meeting held on November 27thand 28th 2014, the NF VALIDATION "Technical Board - Food Microbiology" approved by vote:. - The validation of a new method: ESIA One Day (bioMérieux) for detection of Cronobacter spp in infant formulas (liquids and powders), milk powders and dehydrated complements of infant formulas, matrices used in the composition of infant formulas (liquids and powders) and soy milk, environmental samples from milk powders and infant formulas industries.. - The validation renewal of the following methods: 3M Petrifilm High Sensitivity Coliform Count Plate (3M Health Care), chromeID Coli Agar at 37°C (bioMérieux), chromeID Coli Agar at 44°C(bioMérieux), chromeID Coli Agar for coliforms at 37°C (bioMérieux), ...
Dr. Wallach points out that pet foods developed by the vetrinary community contains more essential nutrients than our Infant Formulas
Chinese infant formula producer Feihe International has reported mixed results for its third quarter of 2011, with its operating profit more than quadrupling but tax costs hitting its bottom line. related to Baby food, Dairy, Emerging markets, Financials,
Commodity futures news: Baby Food and Infant Formula Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2017 - 2022, updated 2017-11-29 04:14:49. Watch for more news articles, provided throughout the day courtesy of TradingCharts
A New Zealand man will serve eight and a half years in prison for sending letters saying he would poison Fonterra and Federated Farmers infant formula unless
For years, Abbott Laboratories, a major nutritional products company, has been selling Similac baby formula products laced with Genetically Modified (GM) ingredients. The shareholders of Abbott are considering removing GMOs from Similac baby formula.
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
Baby food is any soft food (other than breastmilk or infant formula) that is made specifically for babies between the ages of four to six months and two years. Infant formula is a processed food for babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding. There are two types of infant formula: powder (need to be mixed with water) or liquid (can be consumed with or without adding water).. The global baby food and infant formula market to grow at a CAGR of 8.77% during the period 2017-2021. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global baby food and infant formula market for 2017-2021. To calculate the market size, the report presents a detailed picture of the market by way of study, synthesis, and summation of data from multiple sources.. Click to get sample PDF with TOC: http://www.researchmoz.us/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=1059703. The market is divided into the following segments based on geography: ...
Representatives from 130 countries attending the World Health Organizations annual food safety meeting this week will discuss setting a global limit on how much melamine is allowed in food and animal feed. Melamine contamination in milk products was been blamed for the sickening of nearly 300,000 babies and the deaths of at least six infants in China in 2008.. Melamine is an attractive adulterant because boosts nitrogen content,. making dairy products show artificially high protein levels in quality. assurance tests.. Two executives were executed for their involvement in the 2008 Chinese melamine milk scandal, and Chinese authorities have arrested many milk producers who were selling melamine-tainted milk.. In January, Chinese officials shut down a milk processor in Shanghai after melamine was found in its dairy products.. WHO said Thursday that a new melamine limit may be set to 2.5 milligrams per kilogram with certain exceptions. The threshold for infant milk formula would be set at 1 ...
An autopsy did not reveal any indication of foul play. The child was born four months premature, and investigators are looking to see if congenital or developments defects played a role in the infants death. They are also taking the recent infant milk contamination investigation into consideration. ...
Overdose Deaths Involving Prescription Opioids Among Medicaid Enrollees--Washington, 2004-2007 -- Perceived Insufficient Rest or Sleep Among Adults--United States, 2008 -- Cronobacter Species Isolation in Two Infants--New Mexico, 2008 -- Announcement: National Epilepsy Awareness Month--November 2009 -- Announcement: Drowsy Driving Prevention Week--November 2-8, 2009 -- Announcement: World Pneumonia Day--November 2, 2009 -- QuickStats: Average Life Expectancy at Birth, by Race and Sex--United States, 2000, 2006, and 2007 -- Notifiable Diseases/Deaths in Selected Cities Weekly Information ...
Gerber Good Start Gentle Milk Based Infant Formula Powder with Iron at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Gerber Good Start Gentle Milk Based Infant Formula Powder with Iron
Earths Best Organic Infant Formula with Iron Details Earths Best Organic Infant Formula with Omega-3 DHA & Omega-6 ARA fatty acids is made from organic milk produced from cows not given added growth hormones or antibiotics.
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, SENSITIVE (LACTOSE FREE) ready-to-feed, with ARA and DHA (formerly ROSS) Food Facts and Analysis. Nutrition data for Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, SENSITIVE (LACTOSE FREE) ready-to-feed, with ARA and DHA (formerly ROSS)
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
How much of Zinc, Zn is present in Infant formula, GERBER, GOOD START 2 SOY, with iron, powder in details, quantity how high or low Zinc, Zn nutrient content it has.
SummaryBaby food is any soft, easily consumed food, other than breastmilk or infant formula, which is - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
Objective : To determine whether the duration of breast-feeding is affected by the contents of the hospital discharge package. Design : A randomized clinical trial with 2 experimental interventions a discharge package containing a manual breast pump only and a discharge package containing a commercially prepared infant formula and a manual...
Infant formula, CARNATION FOLLOW-UP, with iron, liquid concentrate, not reconstituted - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
Infant formula, CARNATION, ALSOY, with iron, ready-to-feed - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
V06C - Infant formulas. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system from Drugs-about.com includes all drugs classified in groups at five different levels.
CHINA - The demand for infant formula containing SN-2 palmitate - an ingredient that mimics the fatty acid profile in human milk - has soared over the past decade and will continue to grow, according to Advanced Lipids.. Advanced Lipids is a joint venture established by Enzymotec, a leading biotech company specializing in lipid-based bio-functional ingredients, and AAK, a global producer and supplier of speciality vegetable fats and oils for the infant formula industry.. Advanced Lipids markets and sells INFAT, a SN-2 palmitate fat ingredient that allows formula manufacturers to offer many benefits that are closer to mothers milk.. The company is celebrating its tenth anniversary this year, since it began in 2007, when Advanced Lipids was founded, incorporating five infant formula brands INFAT.. INFAT was clinically proven in several studies done both in Israel and China to increase fat and calcium absorption, improve bone matrix quality, improve stool consistency, and have a positive effect on ...
mixes to reduce reflux. Reflux is a common cause of vomiting in newborn babies - because of the lower gastroesophageal sphincter insufficiency, especially in premature babies and babies with neurological disorders.Vomiting usually occurs at the end of feeding, and in particular, with "kinking" of the child.Types range from small vomiting regurgitation immediately after a meal to a large, sometimes reactive, vomiting, occasionally streaked with blood.Naturally gradual improvement and often a complete cessation of the disease by the end of the first year of life in healthy children) were pre-enriched rice starch.They are generally only needed for children with reflux, which do not gain weight; Industrially manufactured infant formula, diluted with water which are discharged as a liquid or powder, "ready to eat".Manufacturers of infant milk produce milk, corresponding to mature breast milk, and is often a "substitute for breast milk."WHO has established a very strict criterion of the International ...
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Comprehensive nutrition resource for Enfamil Lactofree Lipil Infant Formula W/iron, Powder. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Enfamil Lactofree Lipil Infant Formula W/iron, Powder. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
Protein hydrolysate infant formula for first 12 months.TITLE: Enfamil Hypoallergenic Infant Formula, Iron Fortified, Powder - 16oz For Babys First 12...
Comprehensive nutrition resource for Infant Formula, Low Iron, Prepared. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Infant Formula, Low Iron, Prepared. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, ISOMIL, with iron, ready-to-feed (formerly ROSS) Food Facts and Analysis. Nutrition data for Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, ISOMIL, with iron, ready-to-feed (formerly ROSS)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency occurring in neonates. An acute inflammatory disease with a multifactorial and controversial etiology, the condition is characterized by variable damage to the intestinal tract ranging from mucosal injury to full-thickness necrosis and perforat...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency occurring in neonates. An acute inflammatory disease with a multifactorial and controversial etiology, the condition is characterized by variable damage to the intestinal tract ranging from mucosal injury to full-thickness necrosis and perforat...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disorder that affects approximately 10% of premature infants. Its mortality remains high (15-30%), and its caus...
Learn more about Necrotizing Enterocolitis at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Buy Anmum NeoPro2 Infant Formula - Bulk online and save! Bulk Case: Contains 6 x Cans of Anmum NeoPro2 Anmum NeoPro2 For Growing Babies (6-12 months) Follow-on formula is suitable for formula fed infants f...
Detailed nutritional values of Infant formula, PBM PRODUCTS, store brand, soy, ready-to-feed (formerly WYETH-AYERST). Online analysis information with non-nutrients and nutrients composition facts table for item No. 03939 found in category Baby Foods. Data contents chart for nutritionists. Food details for INF FORMULA,PBM PRODUCTS,STORE BRAND,SOY,RTF in different kinds of quantities, amounts or measurements.
New mothers in Rhode Island will no longer leave the hospital with a free goody bag of infant formula. To encourage breastfeeding, the states seven birthing hospitals stopped formula giveaways this fall, making it the first state to end the widespread practice
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Gerber Good Start Gentle Non-GMO Powder Infant Formula, Stage 2, 27.8 Ounce (Pack of 4) The protein levels in breastmilk change over the first year to support
Know nutrition and calorie facts in 100gms of Infant formula, NESTLE, GOOD START SUPREME, with iron, powder. Includes - total fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
The Organic Foods Production Act, passed by Congress in 1990, explicitly bans synthetic preservatives in organic food, including infant formula.
If ever there were proof that breast-feeding is a political issue, consider what appears to be a most unusual association between presidential candidate Mitt Romney and the right of new moms in Massachusetts not to be influenced by free hospital giveaways of infant formula, which serve to discourage...
Scientists suspect that the insecticide cyromazine may be responsible for the presence of melamine, a toxic constituent of plastics and other materials, in infant formulas.
The fallout from a report questioning Nestlés approach to marketing infant formula continued as the reports authors urged the firm to provide
Eight new International Standards specifying methods for testing vitamins and other micronutrients in infant formula will help ensure their nutrient content conforms to their declaration.
The main characteristic of the disease is enterocolitis: types and classification. The causes of enterocolitis. How does enterocolitis manifest in children and
Rising demand for infant formulas enriched with whey protein hydrolysates is anticipated to fuel revenue growth of the infant formula segment over the forecast period. In 2015, the infant formula segment was valued at over US$ 1,900 Mn and was estimated to exceed US$ 2,000 Mn by the end of 2016. The infant formula segment is projected to register a CAGR of 6.6% in terms of revenue during the forecast period. This segment is projected to account for an incremental value of more than US$ 1,500 Mn between 2016 and 2024.. Request For Sample Report: http://www.mrrse.com/sample/2963. Rising ratio of working mothers is likely to boost the infant formula segment of the global protein hydrolysate ingredients market. Global Protein hydrolysate plays an important role in infant formula products due to its high nutritional quality that is vital for the infants overall growth. Many infants cannot digest cows milk; however, infant formulas, which consist of whey protein not only help infants in digestion ...
We have shown that the majority of formula-fed infants are not given a whey-based infant formula for the duration of the first year of life. Use of a whey-based infant formula steadily dropped throughout the first year of life, with 40% of formula-fed infants already on a non whey-based infant formula at 2 months of age.. No overall paternal or infant characteristic appeared to influence the use of a whey-based infant formula throughout the first 12 months. How mothers were feeding their infant at discharge from the maternity hospital was the only characteristic associated with the type of infant formula used at both 2 and 6 months. Infants that were exclusively breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity hospital were more likely to be placed on a follow-on formula at 6 months and growing-up milk at 12 months compared to infants that left the maternity hospital either breastfeeding with infant formula or exclusively formula-fed. In comparison infants that left the maternity hospital receiving ...
2009). "Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with ... The Cronobacter genus is composed of 7 species. Before 2007, the single species name Enterobacter sakazakii was applied to ... The Cronobacter MLST was initially applied to distinguish between C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus because 16S rDNA sequencing ... Joseph and Forsythe (2011). "Association of Cronobacter sakazakii ST4 with neonatal infections". Emerging Infectious Diseases. ...
"The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome ... Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Species: Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Yersinia phage phiR8-01 Yersinia phage phi80-18 ...
Another genus may be formed by the phages Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227, Yersinia phages ϕR8-01 and ϕ80-18 ... "The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome ...
Cronobacter, formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is a group of bacteria that can be found in the environment. The germs ... Anybody can get sick from Cronobacter, but the infection occurs most often in infants. Cronobacter infections are rare, but ... Cronobacter infections can be prevented by: Breastfeeding. This is one of the best things that can do for the infant's health, ... Cronobacter can also cause diarrhea and urinary tract infections in people of all ages. The infection can be serious for older ...
... has been shown to be critical to the entry of Cronobacter sakazakii across the intestinal epithelium as well as ... "Cronobacter spp. (previously Enterobacter sakazakii) invade and translocate across both cultured human intestinal epithelial ...
... and other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii. Microbiology154,3659-3667 (2008). 18. ... Enterobacter sakazakii: a new species of "Enterobacteriaceae" isolated from clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.30,569- ...
Cronobacter sakazakii is a food borne pathogen causing meningitis in neonates and was shown to bind fibronectin via OmpA and ... Nair MK, Venkitanarayanan K, Silbart LK, Kim KS (May 2009). "Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Cronobacter sakazakii binds ...
... due to infection with Cronobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms that can be introduced to PIF during its production. ... Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Between ... 1958 and 2006, there have been several dozen reported cases of E. sakazakii infection worldwide. The WHO believes that such ...
... such as Citrobacter koseri and Cronobacter sakazakii for example. Ultrasounds are useful for early imaging to determine ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... The type species of the genus Cronobacter is Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. The genome of one strain of Cronobacter sakazakii ... n. Cronobacter, a rod that can cause illness in neonates. Cronobacter sakazakii (sak.a.zaki.ī. N.L. gen. n. sakazakii, of ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... LPSN Cronobacter muytjensii at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Cronobacter muytjensii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "The taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii: proposal of a new genus Cronobacter gen. nov. ...
... and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov ... Cronobacter malonaticus, formerly considered a subspecies of Cronobacter sakazakii, is a bacterium. Its type strain is CDC 1058 ... nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. ... "Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with clinical ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... 2008). "Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter ... Cronobacter sakazakii, which before 2007 was named Enterobacter sakazakii, is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped, ...
Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663more » bp. • It encodes 545 proteins ... Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages ... We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage ...
Methane metabolism - Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
CDC reports on a case of cronobacter sakazakii infection caused by consumption of extrinsically contaminated expressed human ... CDC reports on a case of cronobacter sakazakii infection caused by consumption of extrinsically contaminated expressed human ... C. sakazakii can cause sepsis and severe meningitis, particularly among infants (1). Cronobacter infections have been traced to ... Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in powdered follow-up formulae [meeting report]. Rome, Italy: United Nations, Food ...
Food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii synthesizes two lipid A species, differing by the length of the secondary acyl chain ... C. sakazakii LpxL and LpxM transfer a C14:0 secondary acyl chain to the 2′- and 3′-position of lipid A, respectively. C. ... sakazakii LpxP can transfer either a C16:1 or a C14:0 secondary acyl chains to the 2′-position of lipid A. ... sakazakii. Based on the sequence alignment, proteins YP_001438378.1 encoded by ESA02293, YP_001439016.1 encoded by ESA02951, ...
... sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, ... sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, ... The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only seven clusters by ompA and rpoB ... The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only 7 clusters by ompA and rpoB ...
Müller, A; Stephan, R; Fricker-Feer, C; Lehner, A (2013). Genetic diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates collected from a ... Genetic diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates collected from a Swiss infant formula production facility ...
Enterobacter sakazakii) Isolated from Powdered Infant Formula and Infant Foods in Korea - Cronobacter spp.;biofilm;low pH; ... Biofilm Formation and Low pH Viability of Cronobacter spp. ( ... Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... The taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii: proposal of a new genus Cronobacter gen. nov. and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii ...
CC Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 chromosome, complete genome. CC genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A7MMX9_ENTS8 CC -!- ... CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII ATCC BAA-894. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacteriales; OC Enterobacteriaceae ... Cronobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=290339; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS ENTS8_1 ...
... and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen nov, comb nov, Cronobacter malonaticus sp nov, Cronobacter turicensis sp nov, ... Cronobacter dublinensis subsp dublinensis subsp nov, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp lausannensis subsp nov and Cronobacter ... Cronobacter muytjensii sp nov, Cronobacter dublinensis sp nov, Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, ... FAO/WHO (2008) Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in follow-up formula: Meeting report. Microbiological Risk Assessment ...
Cronobacter sakazakii can be found in dried milk and powdered formula as well as naturally in the environment and in plants ... As we reported last week, illnesses from Cronobacter sakazakii are rare, with only a few cases reported in infants worldwide ... Preliminary tests indicated Avery had been suffering was Cronobacter sakazakii, a rare bacterial infection. His parents had ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... 2008). "Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter ... Cronobacter sakazakii, which before 2007 was named Enterobacter sakazakii, is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped, ...
... sakazakii remain applicable for the Cronobacter genus. The reclassification of E. sakazakii to the new genus Cronobacter will ... Cronobacter, gen. nov., within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The new species are presently Cronobacter sakazakii; C. ... The name Cronobacter was appropriately derived from Greek mythology. E. sakazakii constitutes a microbiological hazard in the ... The Naming Of Cronobacter Sakazakii. By Andy Weisbecker on September 27, 2009. ...
Genomic DNA from Cronobacter sakazakii strain 2001-10-01 TypeStrain=False Application: ... nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter ... Enterobacter sakazakii Farmer et al. Strain Designations Genomic DNA from Cronobacter sakazakii strain 2001-10-01 [ATCC® BAA- ... Cronobacter sakazakii (Farmer et al.) Iversen et al. (ATCC® BAA-894D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Cronobacter ...
... the Indiana State Department of Health was notified of a case of Cronobacter sakazakii meningitis in an infant who had been fed ... the Indiana State Department of Health was notified of a case of Cronobacter sakazakii meningitis in an infant who had been fed ... Notes from the Field: Cronobacter sakazakii Meningitis in a Full-Term Neonate Fed Exclusively with Breast Milk - Indiana, 2018 ... In January 2018, the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) was notified of a case of Cronobacter sakazakii meningitis in a ...
... of Cronobacter sakazakii, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, rod prokaryote (bacterium). Cronobacter sakazakii belongs to the ... of Cronobacter sakazakii, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, rod prokaryote (bacterium). Cronobacter sakazakii belongs to the ... Cronobacter) within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Cronobacter sakazakii has been linked to incidence of infant meningitis and ... For many years it was classified as Enterobacter sakazakii (also known as Enterobacter cloacae), but recent molecular typing ...
Cronobacter sakazakii (strain ATCC BAA-894) (Enterobacter sakazakii)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database ... tr,A7MQ23,A7MQ23_CROS8 FHA domain-containing protein OS=Cronobacter sakazakii (strain ATCC BAA-894) OX=290339 GN=ESA_03928 PE=4 ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Enterobacteriaceae › Cronobacter › ...
In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion ... In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion ... A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial ... A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial ...
MilliporeSigma offers innovative rapid testing solutions for the detection of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter sakazakii ( ... Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) Infection. Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) is a pathogenic bacterium within ... MilliporeSigma offers a selection of products for the enrichment, and isolation Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.). It ... Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation agar,. 44±1°, 24 h. Enterobacter sakazakii agar (R&F agar) 36±1°,. 18-24 h. ...
Cronobacter Sakazakii Databases, Genetic Enterobacteriaceae Infections Female Genes, Bacterial Humans Infant Infant, Newborn ... We report a case of meningitis in a neonate in China, which was caused by a novel multidrug-resistant Cronobacter sakazakii ... A 7-loci (3,036 nt) multilocus sequence typing scheme was applied to 41 clinical isolates of Cronobacter sakazakii. Half (20/41 ... We describe a case of infection with Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 494 causing bacteremia and meningitis in a ...
Cronobacter sakazakiiis a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes life- threatening infantile infections, such as ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter ... There have been over 230 C . sakazakii STs identified and 11% of ~ 1606 C. sakazakii strains stored within the Cronobacter ... Nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. Nov., comb ...
Draft genomes of Cronobacter sakazakii strains isolated from dried spices bring unique insights into the diversity of plant- ... Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes life- threatening infantile infections, such as ... Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes life- threatening infantile infections, such as ... Draft genomes of Cronobacter sakazakii strains isolated from dried spices bring unique insights into the diversity of plant- ...
Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov. [type strain ATCC 29544(T) (=NCTC 11467(T))]; Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov. [ ... Cronobacter gen. nov. [E.] sakazakii was first defined in 1980, however recent polyphasic taxonomic analysis has determined ... type strain CDC 1058-77(T) (=LMG 23826(T)=DSM 18702(T))]; Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov. [type strain z3032(T) (=LMG 23827(T)= ... DSM 18703(T))]; Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov. [type strain ATCC 51329(T) (=CIP 103581(T))]; Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov ...
  • Except for the EMM isolate with the earliest collection date, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of all EMM and clinical C. sakazakii isolates were indistinguishable. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was a large-scale study on determine the prevalence, molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of C. sakazakii isolates from PIF purchased from Chinese retail markets. (frontiersin.org)
  • The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only seven clusters by ompA and rpoB sequence analysis, and four C. sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). (osti.gov)
  • In conclusion, this large-scale study revealed the prevalence and characteristics of C. sakazakii from PIF in Chinese retail markets, demonstrating a potential risk for neonates and infants, and provide a guided to effective control the contamination of C. sakazakii in production process. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. sakazakii serotype O2 (34/56, 60.7%) was the primary serotype, along with o mpA 6 and rpoB 1 as the main allele profiles, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the source of contamination in this case is unknown, a breast pump kit became contaminated with C. sakazakii and was not adequately cleaned or sanitized, leading to contamination of the milk expressed with this kit on several days. (cdc.gov)
  • C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, 16.1%) were the dominant sequence types isolated. (frontiersin.org)
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