A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.
A genus of gram-negative opportunistic foodborne pathogens.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.

Fluorogenic selective and differential medium for isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii. (1/79)

4-Methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside, the fluorogenic substrate of alpha-glucosidase, was used as a selective marker to develop a differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii. This bacterium showed strong fluorogenic characteristics clearly distinguishable from other microorganisms. On the basis of reducing background noise, an optimum basal medium and nitrogen source were selected. Incubation conditions were optimized.  (+info)

Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter Species. (2/79)

The phylogenetic relationships of Enterobacter sakazakii strains were investigated using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and hsp60 sequencing. Each analysis distributed E. sakazakii strains among four clusters, indicating substantial taxonomic heterogeneity. The E. sakazakii type strain 16S rDNA sequence was 97.8% similar to that of Citrobacter koseri but 97.0% similar to that of Enterobacter cloacae.  (+info)

16S rRNA gene based analysis of Enterobacter sakazakii strains from different sources and development of a PCR assay for identification. (3/79)

BACKGROUND: E. sakazakii is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen, implicated in food borne diseases causing meningitis or enteritis especially in neonates and infants. Cultural standard identification procedures for E. sakazakii include the observation of yellow pigmentation of colonies and a positive glucosidase activity. Up to now, only one PCR system based on a single available 16S rRNA gene sequence has been published for E. sakazakii identification. However, in our hands a preliminary evaluation of this system to a number of target and non-target strains showed significant specificity problems of this system. In this study full-length 16S rRNA genes of thirteen E. sakazakii strains from food, environment and human origin as well as the type strain ATCC 51329 were sequenced. Based on this sequence data a new specific PCR system for E. sakazakii was developed and evaluated. RESULTS: By phylogenetic analysis of the new full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence data obtained we could show the presence of a second phylogenetic distinct lineage within the E. sakazakii species. The newly developed 16S rRNA gene targeting PCR system allows identification of E. sakazakii strains from both lineages. The assay's ability to correctly identify different E. sakazakii isolates as well as to differentiate E. sakazakii from other closely related Enterobacteriaceae species and other microorganisms was shown on 75 target and non-target strains. CONCLUSION: By this study we are presenting a specific and reliable PCR identification system, which is able to correctly identify E. sakazakii isolates from both phylogenetic distinct lines within the E. sakazakii species. The impact of this second newly described phylogenetic line within the E. sakazakii species in view of clinical and food safety aspects need further investigation.  (+info)

Performance of media for recovering stressed cells of Enterobacter sakazakii as determined using spiral plating and ecometric techniques. (4/79)

A study was done to determine the performance of differential, selective media for supporting resuscitation and colony development by stressed cells of Enterobacter sakazakii. Cells of four strains of E. sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula were exposed to five stress conditions: heat (55 degrees C for 5 min), freezing (-20 degrees C for 24 h, thawed, frozen again at -20 degrees C for 2 h, thawed), acidic pH (3.54), alkaline pH (11.25), and desiccation in powdered infant formula (water activity, 0.25; 21 degrees C for 31 days). Control and stressed cells were spiral plated on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.1% pyruvate (TSAP, a nonselective control medium); Leuschner, Baird, Donald, and Cox (LBDC) agar (a differential, nonselective medium); Oh and Kang agar (OK); fecal coliform agar (FCA); Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI) medium; violet red bile glucose (VRBG) agar; and Enterobacteriaceae enrichment (EE) agar. With the exception of desiccation-stressed cells, suspensions of stressed cells were also plated on these media and on R&F Enterobacter sakazakii chromogenic plating (RF) medium using the ecometric technique. The order of performance of media for recovering control and heat-, freeze-, acid-, and alkaline-stressed cells by spiral plating was TSAP > LBDC > FCA > OK, VRBG > DFI > EE; the general order for recovering desiccated cells was TSAP, LBDC, FCA, OK > DFI, VRBG, EE. Using the ecometric technique, the general order of growth indices of stressed cells was TSAP, LBDC > FCA > RF, VRBG, OK > DFI, EE. The results indicate that differential, selective media vary greatly in their abilities to support resuscitation and colony formation by stressed cells of E. sakazakii. The orders of performance of media for recovering stressed cells were similar using spiral plating and ecometric techniques, but results from spiral plating should be considered more conclusive.  (+info)

Comparison of two chromogenic media and evaluation of two molecular based identification systems for Enterobacter sakazakii detection. (5/79)

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. The current FDA detection method includes two enrichment steps, the subculturing of the second enrichment broth on a selective agar (VRBG), a further subculturing of selected grown colonies on TSA and the subsequent biochemical identification of yellow-pigmented colonies by API20E. However, there is a strong need for simplified methods for isolation and identification of E. sakazakii. In this study, two chromogenic media, which allow to indicate presumptive E. sakazakii colonies by the alpha glucosidase activity, as well as a newly developed 1,6-alpha-glucosidase based conventional PCR assay and a rRNA oligonucleotide probe based commercial test system for identification of presumptive E. sakazakii were evaluated on 98 target and non-target strains. The methods were compared with respect to specificity aspects. RESULTS: A total of 75 presumptive E. sakazakii and 23 non-target strains were analysed by using chromogenic media, alpha-glucosidase based PCR assay, and the VIT assay. For most presumptive E. sakazakii strains on the chromogenic media, the PCR and VIT assay confirmed the identification. However, for a number of presumptive E. sakazakii isolates from fruit powder, the alpha-glucosidase PCR and VIT assay did not correspond to the typical E. sakazakii colonies on DFI and ESIA. Further characterization by API32E identification, phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences and ribotyping strongly suggested, that these strains did not belong to the species E. sakazakii. The newly developed alpha-glucosidase based PCR assay as well as the commercially available VIT Enterobacter sakazakii identification test showed an excellent correlation with the 16S rRNA data, and are thus well suited for identification of E. sakazakii. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that presumptive colonies on ESIA and DFI media need further species identification. Both evaluated molecular methods, the alpha-glucosidase PCR and the 16S RNA in situ hybridisation test (VIT), although based on completely different target regions and methodologies performed equally well in terms of specificity.  (+info)

Enterobacter sakazakii: an emerging pathogen in powdered infant formula. (6/79)

Enterobacter sakazakii represents a significant risk to the health of neonates. This bacterium is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. Infants aged <28 days are considered to be most at risk. Feeding with powdered infant formula (PIF) has been epidemiologically implicated in several clinical cases. Infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life, and those who are not should be provided with a suitable breast-milk substitute. PIF is not a sterile product; to reduce the risk of infection, the reconstitution of powdered formula should be undertaken by caregivers using good hygienic measures and in accordance with the product manufacturer's food safety guidelines.  (+info)

Casein-derived antimicrobial peptides generated by Lactobacillus acidophilus DPC6026. (7/79)

Three peptides produced by a Lactobacillus acidophilus DPC6026 fermentation of sodium caseinate and showing antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC 12868 and Escherichia coli DPC5063 were characterized. These peptides were all generated from bovine alpha(s1)-casein and identified as IKHQGLPQE, VLNENLLR, and SDIPNPIGSENSEK. These peptides may have bioprotective applicability and potential use in milk-based formula, which has been linked to E. sakazakii infection in neonates.  (+info)

Identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from closely related species: the use of artificial neural networks in the analysis of biochemical and 16S rDNA data. (8/79)

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula and accurate identification is important in both industrial and clinical settings. Bacterial species can be difficult to accurately characterise from complex biochemical datasets and computer algorithms can potentially simplify the process. RESULTS: Artificial Neural Networks were applied to biochemical and 16S rDNA data derived from 282 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, including 189 E. sakazakii isolates, in order to identify key characteristics which could improve the identification of E. sakazakii. The models developed resulted in a predictive performance for blind (validation) data of 99.3 % correct discrimination between E. sakazakii and closely related species for both phenotypic and genotypic data. Three main regions of the partial rDNA sequence were found to be key in discriminating the species. Comparison between E. sakazakii and other strains also constitutively positive for expression of the enzyme alpha-glucosidase resulted in a predictive performance of 98.7 % for 16S rDNA sequence data and 100% for phenotypic data. CONCLUSION: The computationally based methods developed here show a remarkable ability in reducing data dimensionality and complexity, in order to eliminate noise from the system in order to facilitate the speed and reliability of a potential strain identification system. Furthermore, the approaches described are also able to provide valuable information regarding the population structure and distribution of individual species thus providing the foundations for novel assays and diagnostic tests for rapid identification of pathogens.  (+info)

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe infections in neonates and infants through contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). Therefore, the aim of this study was a large-scale study on determine the prevalence, molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of C. sakazakii isolates from PIF purchased from Chinese retail markets. Two thousand and twenty PIF samples were collected from different institutions. Fifty-six C. sakazakii strains were isolated, and identified using fusA sequencing analysis, giving a contamination rate of 2.8%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was more discriminatory than other genotyping methods. The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only seven clusters by ompA and rpoB sequence analysis, and four C. sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, 16.1%) were the dominant sequence types isolated. C. sakazakii
The mechanical transmission of pathogenic bacteria by synanthropic filth flies is widely recognized. While many studies report the fate and the temporospatial distribution of ingested foodborne bacteria by filth flies, there is little evidence about the transmission dynamics of ingested foodborne bacteria by adult house flies (Musca domestica) to their progeny. In this study, we fed parental house fly adults with food contaminated with low, medium, and high concentrations of Salmonella enterica, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes and evaluated the probability of transmission of these pathogens to house fly eggs and the surface and the alimentary canal of their first filial (F1) generation adults. All foodborne pathogens were present in samples containing pooled house fly eggs. The probability of transmission was higher after parental house flies ingested food containing medium bacterial loads. Cronobacter sakazakii was 16, 6, and 3 times more likely to be
CDC reports on a case of cronobacter sakazakii infection caused by consumption of extrinsically contaminated expressed human milk.
Müller, A; Stephan, R; Fricker-Feer, C; Lehner, A (2013). Genetic diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates collected from a Swiss infant formula production facility. Journal of Food Protection, 76(5):883-887. ...
Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early ...
We describe a case of infection with Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 494 causing bacteremia and meningitis in a hospitalized late premature infant in Brazil. We conducted microbiological analyses on samples of powdered infant formula from the same batch as formula ingested by the infant but could not identify the source of contamination.
Iversen C, Mullane N, McCardell B et al (2008)Cronobacter gen nov, a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen nov, comb nov, Cronobacter malonaticus sp nov, Cronobacter turicensis sp nov, Cronobacter muytjensii sp nov, Cronobacter dublinensis sp nov, Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp dublinensis subsp nov, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp lausannensis subsp nov and Cronobacter dublinensis subsp lactaridi subsp. nov Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:1442-1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that may cause serious infections. Infant formulas are frequently reported as the source of infections caused by C. sakazakii. In spite of all of the taken precautions, there are recently published studies related to the isolation of C. sakazakii in formula and small children foods. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in cereal based infant formulas and complementary foods sold in the markets of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). We also aimed to determine the infection risk in these products. This research was carried out between May - December 2017 with the cereal-based continuing formulas and small child complementary foods of the brands offered for sale at T. R. N. C. In a total of 265 samples, including 36 varieties of cereal-based infant formula and 17 varieties of cereal-based infants and small children foods were analysed. Analysis of samples were carried out according to; ISO / TS 22964: 2006 method. C. ...
Mead Johnson, the maker of Enfamil Newborn Powder formula, says samples of the product it had tested were negative for a bacterium that killed a 10-day-old Missouri infant earlier this month. As we had reported last week, Wal-Mart Stores Inc., Walgreen Co., Kroger Co. and Safeway Inc. had all pulled a batch of Enfamil Newborn powder formula from their shelves, pending an investigation into the babys death.. The child, Avery Cornett, died on December 18 after being removed from life support. Preliminary tests indicated Avery had been suffering was Cronobacter sakazakii, a rare bacterial infection. His parents had been feeding him Enfamil Newborn powder purchased at a Lebanon, Missouri Wal-Mart.. As we reported last week, illnesses from Cronobacter sakazakii are rare, with only a few cases reported in infants worldwide each year. Its extremely dangerous to babies less than one month old and those born premature. Cronobacter sakazakii can be found in dried milk and powdered formula as well as ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enterobacter sakazakii enhances epithelial cell injury by inducing apoptosis in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. AU - Hunter, Catherine J.. AU - Singamsetty, Vijay K.. AU - Chokshi, Nikunj K.. AU - Boyle, Patricia. AU - Camerini, Victoria. AU - Grishin, Anatoly V.. AU - Upperman, Jeffrey S.. AU - Ford, Henri R.. AU - Prasadarao, Nemani V.. PY - 2008/8/15. Y1 - 2008/8/15. N2 - Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory intestinal disorder that affects 2%-5% of all premature infants. Enterobacter sakazakii, a common contaminant of milk-based powdered infant formula, has been implicated as a causative agent of sepsis, meningitis, and NEC in newborn infants, with high mortality rates. However, the role played by E. sakazakii in the pathogenesis of NEC is, to date, not known. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that E. sakazakii can induce clinical and histological NEC in newborn rats. E. sakazakii was found to bind to enterocytes in rat pups at the tips of villi ...
ID ENTS8_1_PE3859 STANDARD; PRT; 609 AA. AC ENTS8_1_PE3859; A7MMX9; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Putative uncharacterized protein; (ENTS8_1.PE3859). GN OrderedLocusNames=ESA_04001; OS CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII ATCC BAA-894. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacteriales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Cronobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=290339; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS ENTS8_1.PE3859. CC Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 chromosome, complete genome. CC genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A7MMX9_ENTS8 CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000258898 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A7MMX9; -. DR EMBL; CP000783; ABU79187.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_001440023.1; NC_009778.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; A7MMX9; -. DR SMR; A7MMX9; 2-609. DR STRING; A7MMX9; -. DR GeneID; 5549084; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP000783_GR; ESA_04001. DR ...
The control and detection of foodborne pathogens is a major problem in public health. Therefore, the development of rapid and economical diagnostic method along the food chain has become a priority. Among the available methodologies, those based on the detection of nucleic acids provide certain advantages such as high sensitivity speed, selectivity, and the ability to simultaneously detect multiple microorganisms. However, the amount of pathogen DNA present in a food is minimal, so these methods must incorporate an amplification stage that achieves the proper amount for their detection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the common technique, although this method has the requirement of thermocycling. In this master project two enzymatic reactions that enable the amplification of DNA under isothermal conditions have been studied. The work focuses on the comparison of conventional PCR with two isothermal amplification methods ‐recombinase polymerase (RPA) and multiple displacement ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide, is an essential component in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. Food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii synthesizes two lipid A species, differing by the length of the secondary acyl chain. In this work, we identified three genes ESA02293, ESA02951 and ESA01386 encoding for the late acyltransferases of lipid A biosynthesis pathway in C. sakazakii. Based on the sequence alignment, proteins YP_001438378.1 encoded by ESA02293, YP_001439016.1 encoded by ESA02951, and YP_001437482.1 encoded by ESA01386 are homologous to E. coli LpxL, LpxP and LpxM, respectively. Functions of the three acyltransferases were confirmed by overexpressing the genes in E. coli, isolating lipid As and analyzing their structures using an ESI/MS. C. sakazakii LpxL and LpxM transfer a C14:0 secondary acyl chain to the 2′- and 3′-position of lipid A, respectively. C. sakazakii LpxP can transfer either a C16:1 or a C14:0 secondary acyl chains to the 2′
Biofilm Formation and Low pH Viability of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) Isolated from Powdered Infant Formula and Infant Foods in Korea - Cronobacter spp.;biofilm;low pH;hemolysis;
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. sakazakii. A necessary state in the successful colonization, establishment and ultimately production of disease by microbial pathogens is the ability to adhere to host surfaces such as mucous membranes, gastric and intestinal epithelial or endothelial tissue. This study examined for the first time the adherence ability of 50 E. sakazakii strains to the two epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and Caco-2, as well as the brain microvascular endothelial cell line HBMEC. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial culture conditions on the adherence behaviour were investigated. An attempt was made to characterize the factors involved in adherence. Two distinctive adherence patterns, a diffuse adhesion and the formation of localized clusters of bacteria on
Enterobacter sakazakii bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Enterobacter sakazakii bacteria. These are gram-negative rod- shaped bacteria. Enterobacter sp. live in the intestines of humans and animals, as well as soil, water and food. They are mostly opportunistic pathogens, causing diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia. Magnification: x4000 at 35mm size. - Stock Image B220/1054
Jakarta (Citra Indonesia): Untuk melindungi kesehatan anak- anak, tidak mengkonsumsi susu terkontaminasi Enterobacter sakazakii, pemerintah diminta segera mempublikasikan merek- merek susu tersebut.. Publikasikan. Inikan era transparansi. Ini sangat penting agar anak-anak bangsa kita tidak meminum susu itu. Bagi yang meminum susu itu supaya diperiksa di rumah sakit. Dari pada penyakit mereka makin parah, tegas David ML Tobing, Jumat (4/2/2011 ) di Kantor Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak, Jalan TB Simatupang, Jakarta Timur.. Menurutnya, pemerintah dalam hal ini Kementerian Kesehatan RI dan Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) dan Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) wajib mengumumkan merek-merek susu yang telah terkontaminasi Enterobacter Sakazakii hasil penelitian Sri Estuningsih dari IPB.. Itu wajib. Dan pemerintah bertugas melindungi kesehatan masyarakat. Kalau bukan pemerintah, siapa lagi yang melindungi rakyat, pungkasnya.. Sebelumnya David mendaftarkan gugatan Perbuatan Melawan Hukum ...
Forsythe, S.J., Dickins, B. and Jolley, K.A. (2014) Cronobacter, the Emergent Bacterial Pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii Comes of Age; MLST and Whole Genome Sequence Analysis. BMC Genomics, 15, Article No. 1121.
Cronobacter sakazakii is an important foodborne pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis and sepsis, with high mortality in neonates. However, very little information is available regarding the pathogenesis of C. sakazakii at the genetic level. In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. In this study, the detailed functions of this gene were investigated using a gene knockout technique. A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial cell line HCT-8. Biofilm formation by the mutant was reduced to 50% of that exhibited by the wild-type (WT) strain. Raman spectrometry was used to detect variations in biofilm components caused by bcsR knockout, and certain components, including carotenoids, fatty acids and amides, were significantly reduced. However, another biofilm component, cellulose, was increased in ΔbcsR, suggesting
Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen that has been associated with neonatal infections through contaminated powdered infant milk formula. The species was defined by Farmer et al....
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Enterobacter sakazakii, previously referred to as a yellow-pigmented Enterobacter cloacae was designated as a unique species in 1980. This reclassification was based on differences from E. cloacae in DNA relatedness, pigment production and biochemica
Two compounds derived from garlic-diallyl sulfide and ajoene-significantly reduce the contamination risk of Cronobacter sakazakii in infant formula powder.
In Argentina, conventional culture methods for the isolation of diarrheal bacteria continue to be the most widely used form of diagnosis in many clinical laboratories. In this work we validated 11 in-house real-time polymerasechain reactions (PCRs) assays for the specific and rapid detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, E. coli O157, Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Vibrio cholera and Clostridium difficile. The sensitivity of the assays was less than 100 CFU/ml for all the studied pathogens; selectivity and specificity were 100% in all cases and robustness was optimal. These PCR methods could be used to accurately detect the main bacterial causes of infant gastroenteritis.. ...
The discovery of a new species exhibiting more effective antibacterial properties is necessary because of the demand on Lavandula species, which continues to increase in a variety of industries. Lavandula pubescens might be a good alternative, as it exhibits strong antibacterial activity. In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oils from different organs (flowers, leaves, stems, and roots) of L. pubescens was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, hexane, and ethyl acetate) and different organ (flower, leaf, stem, and root) extracts of L. pubescens were evaluated. Only the ethyl acetate extracts of L. pubescens exhibited antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains tested, including Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Escherichia coli (KF 918342), Aeromonas hydrophila (KCTC 12487), E. coli (ATCC 35150), Cronobacter sakazakii (ATCC 29544), and Aeromonas salmonicida
In this study, we report on the epidemiologic investigation in a Swiss powdered infant formula production facility after a batch of Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) was found to be contaminated with Cronobacter (C.) sakazakii during a routine testing of packed products of a Swiss PIF brand ready for distribution. Epidemiological investigation on isolates originating from PIF batches from the production unit by macro restriction typing quickly (PFGE) identified an isolate showing a pattern identical to the ones originating from the packed product, suggesting this strain being the source of contamination. To obtain an overview on the heterogeneity of strains isolated within this production unit 115 C. sakazakii isolates, which were routinely collected between August 2015 and September 2016, were characterized by PFGE and serotyping. In addition, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed on 11 selected isolates. Macro restriction analysis revealed the presence of two main clusters (C1,C2) ...
Małgorzata Czerwicka , Kinga Marszewska , Stephen J. Forsythe , Anna Bychowska , Alicja Mazgajczyk , Halina Dziadziuszko , Karolina Ossowska , Piotr Stepnowski , Zbigniew Kaczyński ...
The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are colonised by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and other Enterobacteriaceae, and whether their presence was influenced by the feeding regime. One hundred and twenty-nine tubes were collected from two neonatal intensive care units (NICU). A questionnaire on feeding regime was completed with each sample. Enterobacteriaceae present in the tubes were identified using conventional and molecular methods, and their antibiograms determined. The neonates were fed breast milk (16%), fortified breast milk (28%), ready to feed formula (20%), reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, 6%), or a mixture of these (21%). Eight percent of tubes were received from neonates who were nil by mouth. Organisms were isolated from 76% of enteral feeding tubes as a biofilm (up to 107 cfu/tube from neonates fed fortified breast milk and reconstituted PIF) and in the residual lumen liquid (up to
ID A0A0K2P7K9_9ENTR Unreviewed; 206 AA. AC A0A0K2P7K9; DT 11-NOV-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-NOV-2015, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 12. DE RecName: Full=Superoxide dismutase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}; DE EC=1.15.1.1 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}; GN ORFNames=AFK67_00920 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ALB68754.1}; OS Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. dublinensis LMG 23823. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Cronobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=1159554 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ALB68754.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=LMG 23823 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559}; RA Noorani M.; RL Submitted (JUL-2015) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=LMG 23823 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000055559}; RA Descombes P., Baert L., Ngom-Bru C., Barretto C.; RT Cronobacter ...
HiPP Stage 1 is best from birth onward - a nutritionally complete, whey based, gentle infant milk formula. This gentle organic milk formula is specifically formulated using only the finest organic milk so that babies grow strong and healthy.
The European Food Safety Authoritys (EFSA) Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel) published today an opinion relating to microbiological risks in infant and follow-on formulae. The Panel concluded that Salmonella and Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) are the micro-organisms of greatest concern. In order to minimise exposure among high risk infants, experts advised that where breast-milk substitutes are utilised, it is preferable to choose commercial sterile liquid formulae.
The European Food Safety Authoritys (EFSA) Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel) published today an opinion relating to microbiological risks in infant and follow-on formulae. The Panel concluded that Salmonella and Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) are the micro-organisms of greatest concern. In order to minimise exposure among high risk infants, experts advised that where breast-milk substitutes are utilised, it is preferable to choose commercial sterile liquid formulae. Infant and follow-on formulae containing low levels of these micro-organisms do not appear to cause illness in healthy infants and young children. Nevertheless due to the potential for multiplication of these micro-organisms during the preparation and holding time prior to consumption of the reconstituted formula, contamination of powdered infant formula is a considerable risk factor. Compliance with high standard processing conditions and appropriate hygienic measures are of highest importance. The BIOHAZ ...
Drawn from samples parallel to those being tested by public health officials and following the same methodology, the new testing did not detect any presence of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii), the company stated.. These new results reaffirm the testing conducted before the batch was made available to retailers and consumers. Based on both sets of tests, Mead Johnson can say with confidence that Enfamil Premium Newborn formula, like every infant formula the company produces, is safe, the company said. All Mead Johnson infant formulas undergo more than 2,300 quality tests and checks to ensure that they meet or exceed all standards set by regulatory bodies, including the World Health Organization and the U.S. FDA.. The company undertook the retesting due to confusion in the marketplace - both Supervalu and Walmart removed that product from their shelves following news reports of an infants death. That infant had been fed the Enfamil product, however there has been no connection made ...
Weiss, C., Becker, B. and Holzapfel, W. (2005) Application and Acceptability of Three Commercial Systems for Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in Ready-to-Eat Vegetable Salads. Archiv für Lebensmittelhygiene, 56, 34-38.
Lebenswert Stage 1 is a trusted organic baby formula made from the highest-quality ingredients without artificial preservatives or chemicals.
Free Shipping From 0-6 months of age 600g of formula per box EU Organic certified Contains Prebiotics and Probiotics Contains Omega-3 ALA and DHA Contains Omega-6
Free Shipping 0-6 months of age600g of formula per box Contains Prebiotics and Probiotics Contains Omega 3 (ALA) EU organic certified
Organic skim milk No starch Prebiotics Omega 3 DHA and Omega 6 AA LCPs Essential vitamins and nutrients No soy No synthetic preservatives or nutrients Certified organic to European standards (which are stricter than in the US) Appropriate from birth to 6 months GMO-free Shelf-stable Manufactured in Germany and packaged
SMA HA Hypoallergenic Infant Milk formula is specifically for babies who are allergic to cow s milk and helps to promote healthy muscle, bone development.
Das foodproof Enterobacteriaceae plus Cronobacter Detection Kit ermöglicht den gleichzeitigen Nachweis der Gattung Cronobacter (E. sakazakii) und der Familie der Enterobacteriaceae mittels real-time PCR. Seit 2005 gelten gesetzliche Vorgaben, die die Untersuchung pulverförmiger Säuglingsnahrung auf die pathogene Gattung Cronobacter vorschreiben und ein Screening auf die Familie der Enterobacteriaceae als Hygieneindikator empfehlen. Das foodproof Enterobacteriaceae plus Cronobacter Detection Kit kombiniert diese beiden Parameter und erfüllt damit die gesetzlichen Anforderungen in nur einem Test. Das Kit wurde durch MicroVal zertifiziert.
The global infant milk market is segmented into form such as powders, concentrated liquids and ready to use. Among these segments, ready to use infant milk segment is expected to occupy top position in overall infant milk market during the forecast period. Increasing number of employed woman and rising disposable income are some of the factors which are anticipated to propel the growth of the ready to use infant milk market during the forecast period. Further, high product penetration and wide product portfolio of infant milks in developed markets such as U.S. is expected to increase over the forecast period.. Global infant milk market is expected to flourish at a significant CAGR of 10.3% during the forecast period. Factors such as increasing infant health concerns, growth in number of working mothers and continuous enhancement in infant milk formula is anticipated to drive the market of infant milk during the forecast period. Moreover, the global infant milk market is expected to garner ...
Kimberly Pagel. The World Health Organization, or WHO, recommends infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life; however, most infants in the United States rely on infant formula for some portion of their nutrition. It is estimated 1 million infants in the United States are fed formula from birth, and this amount almost triples for infants who are 3 months old.. Infant formula comes in three common forms: powder, liquid concentrate and ready-to-feed.. Powder formula is the least expensive, must be mixed with water before feeding and is the most widely used variety.. In using powdered infant formula, it is very important to know it is not sterile. This means it may occasionally contain pathogens that can cause serious illnesses. Many studies were conducted by the Food and Drug Administration, and the two most commonly found bacteria in powdered infant formula were Cronobacter, formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii, and salmonella.. Even though the FDA takes steps to ensure ...
OTTAWA — Loblaw Companies Ltd, is recalling its President’s Choice brand Lower Iron milk-based powdered infant formula due to possible contamination by Cronobacter bacteria.
Powdered infant formula is not sterile and its nutrients provide good conditions for the preservation and growth of Cronobacter. The bacterium is especially risky for newborn infants: it can cause dangerous bloodstream infections, meningitis, and death.
Every Monday, Costco releases dozens of SECRET UNADVERTISED SALE ITEMS. Dont miss out on these weekly deals! Visit this page to get exclusive updates every Monday!!
infant milk Exporters ☆ Search here 278 infant milk selling leads from 278 infant milk exporters at EC21, ☆ Choose Quality infant milk Exporters Now.
We are currently offering locally sourced baby milk formulae(from Australia), packed from powdered form into a 400g/900 gram tin, which is manufactured under the s...
Protein type and/or heat treatment pre- or post-homogenisation can affect the physical stability of infant formulations during manufacture. Previous research has described the use of α-lactalbumin...
OTTAWA - Loblaw Companies Ltd, is recalling its Presidents Choice brand Lower Iron milk-based powdered infant formula due to possible contamination by…
Hipp Organic First Infant Milk is specially formulated using only the finest organic milk and contains Praebotik oligosaccharides (GOS) and Omega 3 & 6 LCPs (DHA & AA), as well as all the important nutrients, vitamins and minerals that babies require to grow strong and healthy. Hipp Organic First Infant Milk 800g is a nutritionally complete, whey-based, infant milk, which is suitable from birth onwards if baby is not being breastfed, or to complement breastfeeding.. ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; Enterobacteriaceae; Cronobacter; Cronobacter ...
Anti-TNF alpha antibodies were among the first approved antibody drugs and now belongs to the best-selling drugs. Today, several companies are developing biosimilars to those drugs which will increase the access of medications and potentially reduce health care costs. There is a great demand for pharmacokinetic assays for anti-TNF-alpha drugs and the bridging assay format is a potential tool, mostly due to its high serum tolerance. This project at Gyros Protein Technologies AB aimed to investigate the properties of the solid phase on the Gyrolab and to utilize this to optimize the bridging assay to be used as a pharmacokinetic assay for a human antibody in the presence of serum. The solid phase was optimized by incorporating three reagents with increasing molecular weight and examining the column profiles generated. Furthermore, the capture reagent was titrated with b-BSA to avoid cross-binding of both arms of the antibody to the capture reagent. Since the background was relatively high, further ...
Milupa Aptamil First Infant Milk: Over 12 independent user reviews summarized in the dooyoo conclusion ✓ Compare 2 shopping deals starting at 67.08£ (15.01.2018)!
Great price on NANNYcare First infant milk - 900g. FREE delivery options available. Trusted service, convenient and safe shopping online
recent run of tests. Blood only. chloride up. cholestrol up. Free T3 up. Vit B12 way down. Vit D. NORMAL. YEAH to that!. the EEG did not show anything, as the two machines flunked out on me. I say its cos I am boobless, doctor laughed said I am prob so radioactive (not funny says me) but no explanation. But the TD echocardiogram from a few months ago, still stands.. moderate membranous subarotic stenosis (guess I is old) and that pesky newly found systolic ejection murmur thingy. hence the TD echo whatzit.. recent run of tests. Blood only. chloride up. cholestrol up. Free T3 up. Vit B12 way down. Vit D. NORMAL. YEAH to that!. the EEG did not show anything, as the two machines flunked out on me. I say its cos I am boobless, doctor laughed said I am prob so radioactive (not funny says me) but no explanation. But the TD echocardiogram from a few months ago, still stands.. moderate membranous subarotic stenosis (guess I is old) and that pesky newly found systolic ejection murmur thingy. hence the TD ...
2009). "Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with ... The genus Cronobacter is composed of 7 species. Before 2007, the single species name Enterobacter sakazakii was applied to ... The Cronobacter MLST was initially applied to distinguish between C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus because 16S rDNA sequencing ... Joseph and Forsythe (2011). "Association of Cronobacter sakazakii ST4 with neonatal infections". Emerging Infectious Diseases. ...
Cronobacter sakazakii > 6.7 at 67.5 °C (153.5 °F) Listeria monocytogenes > 6.9 at 65.5 °C (149.9 °F) Salmonella ser. ...
"The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome ... Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Species: Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Yersinia phage phiR8-01 Yersinia phage phi80-18 ...
Cronobacter, formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is a group of bacteria that can be found in the environment. The germs ... Anybody can get sick from Cronobacter, but the infection occurs most often in infants. Cronobacter infections are rare, but ... Cronobacter infections can be prevented by: Breastfeeding. This is one of the best things that can do for the infant's health, ... Reports Cronobacter infections among infants who were fed only breast milk and no formula or other foods are rare. Cleaning, ...
... and other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii. Microbiology. 154, 3659-3667 (2008). ... Enterobacter sakazakii: a new species of "Enterobacteriaceae" isolated from clinical specimens. International Journal of ...
... has been shown to be critical to the entry of Cronobacter sakazakii across the intestinal epithelium as well as ... "Cronobacter spp. (previously Enterobacter sakazakii) invade and translocate across both cultured human intestinal epithelial ...
Cronobacter sakazakii is a food borne pathogen causing meningitis in neonates and was shown to bind fibronectin via OmpA and ... Nair MK, Venkitanarayanan K, Silbart LK, Kim KS (May 2009). "Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Cronobacter sakazakii binds ...
... due to infection with Cronobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms that can be introduced to PIF during its production. ... Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Between ... 1958 and 2006, there have been several dozen reported cases of E. sakazakii infection worldwide. The WHO believes that such ...
Cronobacter sakazakii, Shigella sonnei, Kluyvera species, Citrobacter species, and Raoultella ornithinolytica. The mechanism of ...
... such as Citrobacter koseri and Cronobacter sakazakii for example. Ultrasounds are useful for early imaging to determine ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... n. Cronobacter, a rod that can cause illness in neonates. Cronobacter sakazakii (sak.a.zaki.ī. N.L. gen. n. sakazakii, of ... The type species of the genus Cronobacter is Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. All Cronobacter species, except C. condimenti, ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... LPSN "Cronobacter muytjensii" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Cronobacter muytjensii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "The taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii: proposal of a new genus Cronobacter gen. nov. ...
... and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov ... Cronobacter malonaticus, formerly considered a subspecies of Cronobacter sakazakii, is a bacterium. Its type strain is CDC 1058 ... nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. ... "Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with clinical ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... 2008). "Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter ... Cronobacter sakazakii, which before 2007 was named Enterobacter sakazakii, is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped, ...
... pulveris into Cronobacter as Cronobacter zurichensis nom. nov., Cronobacter helveticus comb. nov. and Cronobacter pulveris comb ... Enterobacter gergoviae and Enterobacter sakazakii strains". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 8 (9): 564-578. doi:10.1046/j. ... nov., respectively, and emended description of the genera Enterobacter and Cronobacter". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... 2008). "Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter ... Cronobacter sakazakii, which before 2007 was named Enterobacter sakazakii, is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped, ...
Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663more » bp. • It encodes 545 proteins ... Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages ... We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage ...
... sakazakii remain applicable for the Cronobacter genus. The reclassification of E. sakazakii to the new genus Cronobacter will ... Cronobacter, gen. nov., within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The new species are presently Cronobacter sakazakii; C. ... The name Cronobacter was appropriately derived from Greek mythology. E. sakazakii constitutes a microbiological hazard in the ... The Naming Of Cronobacter Sakazakii. By Andy Weisbecker on September 27, 2009. ...
Genomic DNA from Cronobacter sakazakii strain 2001-10-01 TypeStrain=False Application: ... nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter ... Enterobacter sakazakii Farmer et al. Strain Designations Genomic DNA from Cronobacter sakazakii strain 2001-10-01 [ATCC® BAA- ... Cronobacter sakazakii (Farmer et al.) Iversen et al. (ATCC® BAA-894D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Cronobacter ...
Methane metabolism - Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
CDC reports on a case of cronobacter sakazakii infection caused by consumption of extrinsically contaminated expressed human ... CDC reports on a case of cronobacter sakazakii infection caused by consumption of extrinsically contaminated expressed human ... C. sakazakii can cause sepsis and severe meningitis, particularly among infants (1). Cronobacter infections have been traced to ... Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in powdered follow-up formulae [meeting report]. Rome, Italy: United Nations, Food ...
... the Indiana State Department of Health was notified of a case of Cronobacter sakazakii meningitis in an infant who had been fed ... the Indiana State Department of Health was notified of a case of Cronobacter sakazakii meningitis in an infant who had been fed ... Notes from the Field: Cronobacter sakazakii Meningitis in a Full-Term Neonate Fed Exclusively with Breast Milk - Indiana, 2018 ... In January 2018, the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) was notified of a case of Cronobacter sakazakii meningitis in a ...
Cronobacter sakazakii (strain ATCC BAA-894) (Enterobacter sakazakii)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database ... tr,A7MFY3,A7MFY3_CROS8 Uncharacterized protein OS=Cronobacter sakazakii (strain ATCC BAA-894) OX=290339 GN=ESA_02371 PE=4 SV=1 ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Enterobacteriaceae › Cronobacter › ...
In their « Expanded Information on Cronobacter » CDC states « If a Cronobacter infection is diagnosed by a laboratory culture ... have issued another warning about the severity of infections caused by the bacteria Cronobacter sakazakii [i] in their circular ... Cronobacter bacteria can cause severe blood infections (sepsis) or meningitis (an inflammation of the membranes that protect ... The CDC warning notes that « Getting sick from Cronobacter does not happen very often, but it is often deadly in young infants ...
... of Cronobacter sakazakii, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, rod prokaryote (bacterium). Cronobacter sakazakii belongs to the ... of Cronobacter sakazakii, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, rod prokaryote (bacterium). Cronobacter sakazakii belongs to the ... Cronobacter) within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Cronobacter sakazakii has been linked to incidence of infant meningitis and ... For many years it was classified as Enterobacter sakazakii (also known as Enterobacter cloacae), but recent molecular typing ...
Cronobacter sakazakii (strain ATCC BAA-894) (Enterobacter sakazakii)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database ... tr,A7MQ23,A7MQ23_CROS8 FHA domain-containing protein OS=Cronobacter sakazakii (strain ATCC BAA-894) OX=290339 GN=ESA_03928 PE=4 ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Enterobacteriaceae › Cronobacter › ...
Food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii synthesizes two lipid A species, differing by the length of the secondary acyl chain ... C. sakazakii LpxL and LpxM transfer a C14:0 secondary acyl chain to the 2′- and 3′-position of lipid A, respectively. C. ... sakazakii LpxP can transfer either a C16:1 or a C14:0 secondary acyl chains to the 2′-position of lipid A. ... sakazakii. Based on the sequence alignment, proteins YP_001438378.1 encoded by ESA02293, YP_001439016.1 encoded by ESA02951, ...
In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion ... In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion ... A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial ... A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial ...
... sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, ... sakazakii serotypes by PCR-based O-antigen serotyping. C. sakazakii ST4 (19/56, 33.9%), ST1 (12/56, 21.4%), and ST64 (11/56, ... The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only seven clusters by ompA and rpoB ... The C. sakazakii isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs) by MLST, compared with only 7 clusters by ompA and rpoB ...
... the Emergent Bacterial Pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii Comes of Age; MLST and Whole Genome Sequence Analysis. BMC Genomics, 15 ... KEYWORDS: Detection, Molecular Characterization, Cronobacter sakazakii, Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) JOURNAL NAME: Advances in ... ABSTRACT: Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen that currently contaminates a wide ... There is no existing data on the detection of Cronobacter sakazakii previously reported in the North central region of Nigeria ...
and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter ... The three pulsotypes were identified as Cronobacter sakazakii (pulsotype P-1) and Cronobacter malonaticus (pulsotypes P-2 and ... Dissemination of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in a Powdered Milk Protein Manufacturing Facility. N. Mullane, B. ...
MilliporeSigma offers innovative rapid testing solutions for the detection of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter sakazakii ( ... Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) Infection. Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) is a pathogenic bacterium within ... MilliporeSigma offers a selection of products for the enrichment, and isolation Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.). It ... Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation agar,. 44±1°, 24 h. Enterobacter sakazakii agar (R&F agar) 36±1°,. 18-24 h. ...
Cronobacter Sakazakii Databases, Genetic Enterobacteriaceae Infections Female Genes, Bacterial Humans Infant Infant, Newborn ... We report a case of meningitis in a neonate in China, which was caused by a novel multidrug-resistant Cronobacter sakazakii ... A 7-loci (3,036 nt) multilocus sequence typing scheme was applied to 41 clinical isolates of Cronobacter sakazakii. Half (20/41 ... We describe a case of infection with Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 494 causing bacteremia and meningitis in a ...
Cronobacter sakazakiiis a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes life- threatening infantile infections, such as ... nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter ... There have been over 230 C . sakazakii STs identified and 11% of ~ 1606 C. sakazakii strains stored within the Cronobacter ... Nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. Nov., comb ...
Müller, A; Stephan, R; Fricker-Feer, C; Lehner, A (2013). Genetic diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates collected from a ... Genetic diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates collected from a Swiss infant formula production facility ...
Draft genomes of Cronobacter sakazakii strains isolated from dried spices bring unique insights into the diversity of plant- ... Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes life- threatening infantile infections, such as ... Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes life- threatening infantile infections, such as ... Draft genomes of Cronobacter sakazakii strains isolated from dried spices bring unique insights into the diversity of plant- ...
Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov. [type strain ATCC 29544(T) (=NCTC 11467(T))]; Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov. [ ... Cronobacter gen. nov. [E.] sakazakii was first defined in 1980, however recent polyphasic taxonomic analysis has determined ... type strain CDC 1058-77(T) (=LMG 23826(T)=DSM 18702(T))]; Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov. [type strain z3032(T) (=LMG 23827(T)= ... DSM 18703(T))]; Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov. [type strain ATCC 51329(T) (=CIP 103581(T))]; Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov ...
nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter ... Cronobacter sakazakii, formerly named Enterobacter sakazakii (1), is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that can be life- ... Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter ... Prevalence of Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in follow-on infant formulae and infant drinks. Lett Appl Microbiol ...
... is a bacterium that causes a rare infection in newborns, usually associated with contaminated infant ... WHAT IS CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII?. Cronobacter sakazakii is a bacterium within the family Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was ... nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter ... Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter ...
Cronobacter sakazakii Real-TM Real Time PCR kit \ B58-50FRT RG,iQ,SC,MX,A,IL for more molecular products just contact us ... We have also other products like : Cronobacter sakazakii Real-TM Real Time PCR kit. Related products : Cronobacter sakazakii ... Cronobacter sakazakii Real-TM Real Time PCR kit / Product Detail : B58-50FRT RG,iQ,SC,MX,A,IL Cronobacter sakazakii Real-TM ... Cronobacter sakazakii Real-TM Real Time PCR kit PCR kit use certain PCR kits can be used for diagnostics. We supply CE approved ...
Cronobacter sakazakii (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii). Test code:. B0090 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of ... Cronobacter sakazakii by real time polymerase chain reaction.. Cronobacter sakazakii is ubiquitously present in the environment ... C. sakazakii is Gram-negative, with a rod shaped body structure approximately 3 by 1 micrometers. It is highly flagellated ( ... Help ensure that animal populations and colonies are free of C. sakazakii ...
... safer and healthier from Cronobacter Sakazakii microbial risks. ... WHAT IS CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII?. Cronobacter sakazakii is a ... HOW IS CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII TRANSMITTED?. The primary source of the organism and the main vehicle for Cronobacter sakazakii ... WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII?. Symptoms of Cronobacter sakazakii include poor feeding response, irritability ... nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter ...
  • Cronobacter sakazakii, which before 2007 was named Enterobacter sakazakii, is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped, pathogenic bacterium that can live in very dry places. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, C. dublinensis sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cronobacter dublinensis sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial four named species in 2007 were Cronobacter sakazakii (comprising two subspecies), C. turicensis, C. muytjensii and C. dublinensis (comprising three subspecies) plus an unnamed species referred to as Cronobacter genomospecies I. The taxonomy was revised in 2008 to include a fifth named species C. malonaticus, which in 2007 had been regarded as a subspecies of C. sakazakii. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, Cronobacter genomospecies I was formally renamed Cronobacter universalis, and a seventh species was described called Cronobacter condimenti. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008). "Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov. comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii: proposal of a new genus Cronobacter gen. nov. and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • sakazakii, comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) the genus originated ~40 MYA, and the most clinically significant species, C. sakazakii, was distinguishable ~15-23 MYA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resulted in the classification of E. sakazakii as a new genus, Cronobacter within the Enterobacteriaceae, initially comprising four named species in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, the genus Cronobacter was created to accommodate the biogroups of E. sakazakii, with C. sakazakii as the type species. (wikipedia.org)
  • However multilocus sequence typing has shown that the majority of neonatal meningitis cases in the past 30 years, across 6 countries have been associated with only one genetic lineage of the species Cronobacter sakazakii called 'Sequence Type 4' or 'ST4', and therefore this clone appears to be of greatest concern with infant infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first isolated in 1980 by JJ Farmer III, who named the species Enterobacter sakazakii . (mechpath.com)
  • The organism was called "yellow-pigmented Enterobacter cloacae " until 1980, when it was renamed Enterobacter sakazakii . (ecolab.com)
  • Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. (ecolab.com)
  • Among them, Cronobacter species , previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii , is one of the most harmful, since it might be the causative agent of sepsis and meningitis in newborns and preterm infants during the first weeks of life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Gram-negative Cronobacter species (also known as Enterobacter sakazakii ) has been demonstrated to be one of the most frequent causative agent of sepsis and meningitis of the newborn [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. sakazakii is primarily transmitted by the consumption of contaminated foods such as powdered infant formula (PIF), cereal, dried herbs, and pasta. (mechpath.com)
  • The primary source of the organism and the main vehicle for Cronobacter sakazakii transmission is rehydrated powdered infant formula. (ecolab.com)
  • 3 C. sakazakii has been found at low levels (typically ≤3 organisms per 100 grams) in samples of infant formula powders. (ecolab.com)
  • An FAO technical meeting held in 2006 highlighted the possible need for label changes to ensure that preparation of powdered infant formula minimizes risk from C. sakazakii . (ecolab.com)
  • Standards for manufacturers of infant formula [ Omissis ] include: Current good manufacturing practices specifically designed for infant formula, including required testing for the harmful pathogens [disease-causing bacteria] Salmonella and Cronobacter . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomics and Experimental Analysis Reveal a Novel Factor Contributing to the Virulence of Cronobacter sakazakii Strains Associated With Neonate Infection. (pacb.com)
  • If an infant survives an infection by C. sakazakii , delayed brain development and other neurological disorders are frequent. (mechpath.com)
  • Symptoms of Cronobacter sakazakii include poor feeding response, irritability, jaundice, grunting respirations and unstable body temperature, with infection progressing to meningitis in many neonatal cases. (ecolab.com)
  • Recently, E. sakazakii has been re-classified as 6 species within the genus Cronobacter . (ecolab.com)
  • Cronobacter sakazakii is a bacterium within the family Enterobacteriaceae. (ecolab.com)
  • Post-process contamination of the formula powder is considered a likely source of the organism, since the usual pasteurization treatments given to the milk in the production process are adequate to destroy C. sakazakii . (ecolab.com)
  • Although this high rate of PIF contamination by Cronobacter sp . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cronobacter sakazakii is a rod-shaped Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen most commonly infecting infants and people with weakened immune systems. (mechpath.com)
  • Currently, C. sakazakii infects four to six infants in the United States every year. (mechpath.com)
  • C. sakazakii can also evade the host's immune system by invading and replicating within macrophages - white blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria. (mechpath.com)
  • In 1958, two neonates died from C. sakazakii induced meningitis. (mechpath.com)
  • Using hot water to reconstitute dry powder formula can reduce or eliminate C. sakazakii . (ecolab.com)
  • Recommendations on home preparation of PIF in order to prevent Cronobacter sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once attached to its target cells, C. sakazakii invades the latter in order to enter the bloodstream, replicate, and proliferate. (mechpath.com)
  • Since C. sakazakii is mainly a foodborne pathogen, it enters the host's digestive tract via the mouth and then reaches its target site in the intestine. (mechpath.com)