Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Pinacidil: A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Minoxidil: A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.PyransPotassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Sulfonylurea CompoundsNitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsBromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Cyclic S-OxidesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.BenzophenonesIntraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.

Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in blood vessels from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. (1/374)

1. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated rings of aorta, carotid, coronary and mesenteric arteries taken from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS(-/-) mice) and the corresponding wild-type strain (eNOS(+/+) mice). The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was measured in coronary arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. In the isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(+/+) mice, acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine. In contrast, in the mesenteric arteries, the inhibition of the cholinergic relaxation required the combination of N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine and indomethacin. 3. The isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(-/-) mice did not relax in response to acetylcholine. However, acetylcholine produced an indomethacin-sensitive relaxation in the mesenteric artery from eNOS(-/-) mice. 4. The resting membrane potential of smooth muscle cells from isolated coronary arteries was significantly less negative in the eNOS(-/-) mice (-64.8 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 20 and -58.4 +/- 1.9 mV, n = 17, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). In both strains, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P did not induce endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations whereas cromakalim consistently produced hyperpolarizations (- 7.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 8 and -13.8 +/- 2.6 mV, n = 4, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). 5. These findings demonstrate that in the blood vessels studied: (1) in the eNOS(+/+) mice, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine involve either NO or the combination of NO plus a product of cyclo-oxygenase but not EDHF; (2) in the eNOS(-/-) mice, NO-dependent responses and EDHF-like responses were not observed. In the mesenteric arteries acetylcholine releases a cyclo-oxygenase derivative.  (+info)

Differential effects of pinacidil, cromakalim, and NS 1619 on electrically evoked contractions in rat vas deferens. (2/374)

AIM: To compare the inhibitory action of electrically evoked contractions of rat epididymal vas deferens by pinacidil (Pin), cromakalim (Cro), and NS 1619. METHODS: Monophasic contractions were evoked by electric field stimulation in rat isolated epididymal half of vas deferens. RESULTS: Newly developed ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers, Pin and Cro, concentration-dependently reduced the electrically evoked (0.3 Hz, 1 ms pulse duration, 60 V) contractions and glibenclamide but not charybdotoxin antagonized the inhibitory effects of both agents. Pin shifted the concentration-response curve for norepinephrine to the right with reducing the magnitude of the maximum contraction in a glibenclamide-sensitive fashion. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel opener, NS 1619, inhibited the electrically evoked contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Charybdotoxin (100 nmol.L-1) partially reduced the effect of NS 1619 but glibenclamide (10 mumol.L-1) showed no effect. None of these 3 agents affected the basal tension. CONCLUSION: Both ATP-sensitive and Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels presented in vas deferens smooth muscles involved in regulation of muscle contractility.  (+info)

Role of K+ channels in A2A adenosine receptor-mediated dilation of the pressurized renal arcuate artery. (3/374)

1. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated renal vasodilation was investigated by measuring the lumenal diameter of pressurized renal arcuate arteries isolated from the rabbit. 2. The selective A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 dilated the arteries with an EC50 of 130 nM. The CGS21680-induced vasodilation was, on average, 34% less in endothelium-denuded arteries. 3. The maximum response and the EC50 for CGS21680-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact arteries were not significantly affected by incubation with the K+ channel blockers apamin (100 nM), iberiotoxin (100 nM), 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mM), glibenclamide (1 microM) or Ba2+ (10 microM). However, a cocktail mixture of these blockers did significantly inhibit the maximum response by almost 40%, and 1 mM Ba2+ alone or 1 mM Ba2+ in addition to the cocktail inhibited the maximum CGS21680-response by 58% and about 75% respectively. 4. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was strongly inhibited when the extracellular K+ level was raised to 20 mM even though the dilator response to 1 microM levcromakalim, a K(ATP) channel opener drug, was unaffected. 5. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was inhibited by 10 microM ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, but ouabain had a similar inhibitory effect on vasodilation induced by 30 nM nicardipine (a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist) or 1 microM levcromakalim. 6. The data suggest that K+ channel activation does play a role in A(2A) receptor-mediated renal vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of raised extracellular K+ levels on the A(2A) response may be due to K(+)-induced stimulation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase.  (+info)

ATP-sensitive potassium channels regulate in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum. (4/374)

ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP)) are distributed in a variety of tissues including smooth muscle, cardiac and skeletal muscle, pancreatic beta-cells and neurons. Since K(ATP) channels are present in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, the effect of potassium-channel modulators on the release of DA in the striatum of conscious, freely-moving rats was investigated. The extracellular concentration of DA was significantly decreased by the K(ATP)-channel opener (-)-cromakalim but not by diazoxide. (-)-Cromakalim was effective at 100 and 1000 microM concentrations, and the maximum decrease was 54% below baseline. d-Amphetamine significantly increased extracellular DA levels at the doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg, s.c. with a 770% maximum increase. (-)-Cromakalim had no effect on d-amphetamine-induced DA release, while glyburide, a K(ATP) blocker, significantly potentiated the effects of a low dose of d-amphetamine. These data indicate that K+ channels present in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals modulate basal release as well as evoked release of DA.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (5/374)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effects of nicorandil as compared to mixtures of sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim in isolated rat aorta. (6/374)

1. The contribution of the relaxant mechanisms of nicorandil (NIC) were analysed by comparing its effects with those of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), levcromakalim (LEM) and mixtures (1:10, 1:30 and 1:100) of SNP:LEM in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. 2. In rings precontracted with KCl (25 mM), the relative inhibitory potency of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (GLI) on SNP:LEM mixtures showed a good correlation with the relative proportion of SNP and LEM in the mixtures. Furthermore, the degree of the inhibition by ODQ and GLI of the effects of the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture varied as a function of the relative potency of SNP and LEM in KCl-, noradrenaline- (NA) or NA plus nifedipine-treated arteries. 3. The inhibitory effects of ODQ, GLI and ODQ plus GLI on NIC-induced relaxation was similar to that for the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture in NA plus nifedipine-contracted arteries, but the inhibition of GLI or ODQ plus GLI was smaller in KCl-contracted arteries. 4. In conclusion, the relative importance of activation of the cyclic GMP pathway and K(ATP) channel opening in mixtures of SNP and LEM could be predicted by the proportion of the drugs in the mixtures and by the relative potency of SNP vs LEM in different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the present results suggest that besides these two mechanisms, a third ODQ- and GLI-insensitive mechanism, possibly involving Ca2+ channel blockade, also participates in the relaxant effects of NIC in KCl-induced contractions.  (+info)

Differential effects of lidocaine and mexiletine on relaxations to ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers in rat aortas. (7/374)

BACKGROUND: In cardiac myocytes, lidocaine reduces but mexiletine increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ currents, suggesting that these class Ib antiarrhythmic drugs may differentially modify the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. The effects of lidocaine and mexiletine on arterial relaxations induced by K+ channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate whether lidocaine and mexiletine may produce changes in relaxations to the ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers cromakalim and pinacidil in isolated rat thoracic aortas. METHODS: Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelia were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative fashion. During submaximal contractions to phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M), relaxations to cromakalim (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M), pinacidil (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M), or diltiazem (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-4) M) were obtained. Lidocaine (10(-5) to 3 x 10(-4) M), mexiletine (10(-5) to 10(-4) M) or glibenclamide (5 x 10(-6) M) was applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. RESULTS: During contractions to phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxations. A selective ATP-sensitive K+ channel antagonist, glibenclamide (5 x 10(-6) M), abolished these relaxations, whereas it did not alter relaxations to a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitor, diltiazem (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-4) M). Lidocaine (more than 10(-5) M) significantly reduced relaxations to cromakalim or pinacidil in a concentration-dependent fashion, whereas lidocaine (3 x 10(-4) M) did not affect relaxations to diltiazem. In contrast, mexiletine (more than 10(-5) M) significantly augmented relaxations to cromakalim or pinacidil. Glibenclamide (5 x 10(-6) M) abolished relaxations to cromakalim or pinacidil in arteries treated with mexiletine (10(-4) M). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lidocaine impairs but mexiletine augments vasodilation mediated by ATP-sensitive K+ channels in smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of 4-aminopyridine on responses of the basilar artery to nitric oxide. (8/374)

1. Voltage-dependent K+ channels are present in cerebral arteries and may modulate vascular tone. We used 200 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), thought to be a relatively selective inhibitor of voltage-dependent K+ channels at this concentration, to test whether activation of these channels may influence baseline diameter of the basilar artery and dilator responses to nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in vivo. 2. Using a cranial window in anaesthetized rats, topical application of 4-AP to the basilar artery (baseline diameter = 240+/-5 microm, mean +/- s.e.mean) produced 10+/-1% constriction. Sodium nitroprusside (a NO donor), acetylcholine (which stimulates endothelial release of NO), 8-bromo cyclic GMP (a cyclic GMP analogue), cromakalim (an activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and papaverine (a non-NO, non-K+ channel-related vasodilator) produced concentration-dependent vasodilator responses that were reproducible. 3. Responses to 10 and 100 nM nitroprusside were inhibited by 4-AP (20+/-4 vs 8+/-2% and 51+/-5 vs 33+/-5%, respectively, n=10; P<0.05). Responses to acetylcholine and 8-bromo cyclic GMP were also partially inhibited by 4-AP. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on vasodilator responses to cromakalim or papaverine. These findings suggest that NO/cyclic GMP-induced dilator responses of the basilar artery are selectively inhibited by 4-aminopyridine. 4. Responses to nitroprusside were also markedly inhibited by 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase; 16+/-4 vs 1+/-1% and 44+/-7 vs 7+/-1%; n=10; P<0.05). 5. Thus, dilator responses of the rat basilar artery to NO appear to be mediated by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and partially by activation of a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive mechanism. The most likely mechanism would appear to be activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels by NO/cyclic GMP.  (+info)

*Cromakalim

... (INN) is a potassium channel-opening vasodilator. The active isomer is levcromakalim. It acts on ATP-sensitive ...

*Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

"Response of guinea pig smooth and striated urethral sphincter to cromakalim, prazosin, nifedipine, nitroprusside, and ...

*List of drugs: Cp-Cz

Crolom cromakalim (INN) cromitrile (INN) cromoglicate lisetil (INN) cromoglicic acid (INN) Cromoptic cronidipine (INN) ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... cromakalim MeSH D03.438.150.500 --- ellagic acid MeSH D03.438.150.600 --- hematoxylin MeSH D03.438.150.909 --- vitamin e MeSH ... cromakalim MeSH D03.830.219.500 --- ellagic acid MeSH D03.830.219.600 --- hematoxylin MeSH D03.830.219.909 --- vitamin e MeSH ... cromakalim MeSH D03.383.129.578.399 --- maleimides MeSH D03.383.129.578.399.418 --- ethylmaleimide MeSH D03.383.129.578.617 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cromakalim and cicletanine against pacing-induced myocardial ischemia in conscious rabbits. AU - Szilvássy, Z.. AU - Koltai, Matyas. AU - Ferdinándy, P.. AU - Jakab, Ildiko. AU - Lonovics, J.. AU - Tarrade, Thierry. AU - Allard, Michel. AU - Braquet, Pierre G.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Myocardial ischemia assessed by intracavital ST-segment elevation, shortening of ventricular effective refractory period (VERP), and increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was provoked by ventricular overdrive pacing (VOP) in conscious rabbits. Cromakalim (10 μg/kg), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, and cicletanine (30 mg/kg), a cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor, reduced VOP-induced ST-segment elevation and LVEDP-increase. Under resting conditions, cromakalim lowered blood pressure, increased heart rate (HR), and shortened VERP, whereas cicletanine decreased HR, prolonged VERP without changing blood pressure. Co-administration of cromakalim and cicletanine additively ...
Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
Cromakalim | C16H18N2O3 | CID 443423 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The effects of trans-5,6-dihydro-6-hydroxy-5,5-dimethyl-2-nitro-7-(2-oxopiperidin -1-yl)-7H- thieno[3,2-b]pyran (RWJ 26629) were compared with those of the standard potassium channel opener cromakalim and several standard calcium channel blockers. RWJ 26629 lowered the mean arterial blood pressure in conscious spontaneously hypertensive (ED30 = 10 micrograms/kg p.o. or 8 micrograms/kg i.v.) and renal hypertensive (15 ...
Cromakalim (INN) is a potassium channel-opening vasodilator. The active isomer is levcromakalim. It acts on ATP-sensitive potassium channels and so causes membrane hyperpolarization. It can be used to treat hypertension as it will relax vascular smooth muscle to lower blood pressure. Hyperpolarisation of smooth muscle cell membranes pulls their membrane potential away from the threshold, so making it more difficult to excite them and thereby cause contraction. Reaction of 4-cyanophenol (4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) with 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-butyne under PTC probably proceeds to initial formation of a propargyl carbocation. The course of the reaction can be envisaged by assuming that this then attacks the aromatic ring; the resulting allylic cation can then capture the adjacent phenol oxygen and thus form the observed product (3). Treatment of that product with aqueous NBS leads to the addition of the elements of hypobromous acid and formation of the bromohydrin (4) as a mixture of the trans ...
The invention provides methods for determining the ability of compounds to regulate lipogenesis and lipolysis by acting as a sulfonylurea-1 (SUR 1) potassium channel activator, an adipocyte potassium channel activator, an SUR 1 antagonist, and an adipocyte specific SUR 1 antagonist. The present invention recognizes the presence of the sulfonylurea receptor in adipocytes and its utility in identifying compounds and in regulating lipogenesis and lipolysis.
Toxins that block voltage-dependent K(+) channels and those that modify Na(+) channel gating exhibit positive inotropic effect on skeletal muscle. We compared the effect of the venom of Tityus cambridgei (Tc) and Tityus serrulatus (Ts) scorpions on mouse diaphragm force, in vitro. In indirect and direct (using D-tubocurarine 7.3 mu M) stimulation, Tc, 10 mu g/mL increased the contractile force, an effect prevented by tetrodotoxin (TTX) while Ts, 0.5 mu g/mL, potentiated only indirectly stimulated diaphragm, thus indicating its activity is mainly mediated through acetylcholine release from nerve terminal. This effect is prevented by TTX and attenuated by the K(+) channel opener cromakalim. In conclusion, our data show that while the positive inotropic effect of both venoms appears associated to the activity of Na(+) and K(+) channels, only Tc venom acts also directly on skeletal muscle. This finding call for further studies on Tc venom to identify the toxin responsible for its direct inotropic ...
Purpose : To evaluate the pharmacologic and safety parameters of CKLP1 following topical application in hound dog eyes. Methods : Optimal concentration of CKLP1 for reduction of IOP was established in female hound dogs (n=5) by topical application to the eye with CKLP1 (5-20 mM). Following washout (14 days), the dogs were treated with the optimal dose once daily for 60 consecutive days. IOP was measured 3 times daily (1, 4 and 23 hours post treatment), 3-7 times per week. Blood pressure measurements were recorded using a tail cuff, once daily, 3-5 times per week. For pharmacokinetic studies, both eyes were treated with CKLP1 for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 4 and 8 and concentration of CKLP1 and its parent compound levcromakalim were evaluated in the plasma by LC MS/MS. Necropsy was performed on all animals and systemic effects of drug administration were histologically evaluated in 40 different tissue samples from each animal. Results : The 10 mM topical dose of ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Minoxidil sulphate (CAS 83701-22-8) Industry Market Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Minoxidil sulphate Industry, 2011-2021 Market...
This page displays a blog entry. Glibenclamide 2.5Mg Où En Acheter - Glibenclamide En Ligne Livraison Rapide Ou Acheter Vrai Glibenclamide, Où Acheter Glibenclamide Sur Le Net Vente Glibenclamide En Ligne France ACHAT GLIBENCLAMIDE EN LIGNE! - ENTRER ICI! Glibenclamid...
The 203/266 Replacement Part Kit is for the electric can opener. The Kit contains 1 gear, 1 knife and 1 stud. Make sure the can opener is performing a
The present invention describes novel nitrosated and/or nitrosylated potassium channel activators, and novel compositions comprising at least one nitrosated and/or nitrosylated potassium channel activator, and, optionally, at least one compound that donates, transfers or releases nitric oxide, elevates endogenous levels of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, stimulates endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide or is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase and/or at least one vasoactive agent. The present invention also provides novel compositions comprising at least one potassium channel activator, and at least one compound that donates, transfers or releases nitric oxide, elevates endogenous levels of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, stimulates endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide or is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase and/or at least one vasoactive agent. The present invention also provides methods for treating or preventing sexual dysfunctions in males and females, for enhancing sexual responses
The present invention describes novel nitrosated and/or nitrosylated potassium channel activators, and novel compositions comprising at least one nitrosated and/or nitrosylated potassium channel activator, and, optionally, at least one compound that donates, transfers or releases nitric oxide, elevates endogenous levels of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, stimulates endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide or is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase and/or at least one vasoactive agent. The present invention also provides novel compositions comprising at least one potassium channel activator, and at least one compound that donates, transfers or releases nitric oxide, elevates endogenous levels of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, stimulates endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide or is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase and/or at least one vasoactive agent. The present invention also provides methods for treating or preventing sexual dysfunctions in males and females, for enhancing sexual responses
(2015) Sun et al. Frontiers in Neurology. High dose sodium salicylate causes moderate, reversible hearing loss and tinnitus. Salicylate-induced hearing loss is believed to arise from a reduction in the electromotile response of outer hair cells (OHCs) and/or reduction of KCNQ4 potassium currents ...
Effects of KRN4884 (5-amino-,i,N,/i,-[2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-,i,N,/i,-cyano-3-pyridinecarboxamidine), a novel K,sup,+,/sup, channel opener, on ionic currents were examined in rabbit femoral arterial myocytes (RFAMs). Under whole-cell clamp conditions where cells were superfused with 5.9 mM K,sup,+,/sup, bathing solution, KRN4884 elicited an outward current at −30 mV. KRN4884-induced current had a reversal potential of −78 mV and was abolished by application of glibenclamide (glib). KRN4884 was approximately 43 times more potent than levcromakalim in activating an ATP-sensitive K,sup,+,/sup, current (I,sub,K-ATP,/sub,). On the other hand, KRN4884 affected neither voltage-dependent Ca,sup,2+,/sup, nor delayed rectifier K,sup,+,/sup, channel currents. In the inside-out patch clamp configuration where cells were superfused with the symmetrical 140 mM K,sup,+,/sup, solution, KRN4884 activated 47 pS K,sup,+,/sup, channels in the presence of adenosine diphosphate. Similar 47 pS K,sup,+,/sup, ...
Simple question. Does 4-piece change how you go about opening? Personally I prefer SV but have gotten my BM play to a point where I should be using it as it outperforms SV in certain encounters. Still struggle with the opener a bit and recently picked up 4-piece. Thanks in advance for any input.
There has been much recent interest in the roles played by smooth-muscle K+ channels in protecting cells against ischemic and anoxic insults and in therapeutic vaso- and bronchodilation (Buckingham 1990; Longmore & Weston 1990). A K+ channel, which is uniquely sensitive to cytoplasmic ATP (KATP), has been identified as a likely candidate for mediating these important functions (Standen et al. 1989). We now show, by using electrophysiological techniques in three different types of smooth muscle, that a large-conductance voltage and Ca2+ -sensitive channel, otherwise indistinguishable from the large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel (BK channel), is also sensitive to cytoplasmic ATP and cromakalim. ATP, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased the probability of channel opening (P0) of rabbit aortic, rabbit tracheal and pig coronary artery BK channels with a K1 of 0.2-0.6mM. Cromakalim, 10 μM, partially reversed the ATP induced inhibition and increased P0. Our observations raise the possibility ...
Rasmet 300 Gate Opener Motor Automatic Electronic Electric Gate Operator Ramset Swing - We have all models of Ramset Gate Openers that are available the 30, 30-30, 300, 3000, 3100, 3200, which are Swing Gate Operators, the 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 5100, 5200 and the 5500 are all Sliding Gate Openers, for the best selection of Commercial or Residential Gate Openers and Operators at Dealers price look no further, Ramset Offers one of the best Electronic Gate Openers in the industry so for that Electric Automatic Gate Opener at a good price we offer the Gate Opener World at your finger tips
Synopsis Nicorandil belongs to the class of compounds known as potassium channel activators which are characterised by their arterial vasodilator properties. In addition, nicorandil has venodilating...
As the saying goes, change can be a good thing. However, change can also be a scary proposition for those who are satisfied with the way things currently are...
Hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite induce relaxations via ATP-sensitive K+ channels, indicating that oxygen-derived free radicals may activate these channels. Levels of free radicals are increased throughout the arterial wall in animal models of atherosclerosis, and therefore, vasorelaxation via ATP-sensitive K+ channels may be augmented in chronic hypertension. The present study was designed to determine whether relaxations to an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, levcromakalim, are increased in the aorta from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether free radical scavengers reduce these relaxations. Rings of aortas without endothelium taken from age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were suspended for isometric force recording. Relaxations to levcromakalim (10(-8) to 10(-5) M), which are abolished by glibenclamide (10(-5) M), were augmented in the aorta from SHR, compared to those in the aorta from WKY. In the aorta from SHR, catalase (1200 U/ml), but neither superoxide dismutase (150 U
Read "Kinetic Analysis of the Inhibitory Effect of Glibenclamide on KATP Channels of Mammalian Skeletal Muscle, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
viewing) (1). Buy Generic Micronase (Glibenclamide/Glyburide) pills at easy. md/.22 ��� 2016 Order Generic Glibenclamide Online Wilfrid and Gwen order generic glibenclamide online order generic glibenclamide o.18 ��� 2016 micronase. jpg. Tags: online Glyburide(Glibenclamide) no pharmacy how do you get Glyburide(Glibenclamide) generic vancouver canada ME1 Apr 2016 Can You Take Glibenclamide Tab analog, Glibenclamide. Alternative treatment Glibenclamide Generic Online Quick Delivery, GlibenclamideGeneric Index � Glibenclamide + Metformin. Search Generic / Brand name ...
Generic Minoxidil is an answer to hair thinning in men and women. Buy Generic Minoxidil online to reduce Hair Thinning at douongboduong.com.
Presentation differentiating Minoxidil responders from non-responders, whether higher concentrations work better, and how Minoxidil grows hair.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Cell Sciences \ Monkey IL2 ELISPOT Kit w_o plates \ CKM013 for more molecular products just contact us
Shop Plungers & Drain Openers at acehardware.com and get Free Store Pickup at your neighborhood Ace. Buy Online & Pickup Today. See Details.
Abbott Laboratories (now AbbVie) and Icagen (now Neusentis) were developing small-molecule ion channel modulators for the treatment of chronic pain and
Glibenclamide Tablet is a medicine that is used for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and other conditions. Glibenclamide Tablet contains Glibenclamide
BAYK 8644 is a L-type Ca2+ channel activator (EC50 = 17.3 nM). BAYK 8644 has positive inotropic, vasoconstrictive and behavioral effects in vivo.
Ramset Heavy Duty Gate Opener 30-30 1 Horse Power Swing Gate Opener - We have all models of Ramset Gate Openers that are available the 30, 30-30, 300, 3000, 3100, 3200, which are Swing Gate Operators, the 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 5100, 5200 and the 5500 are all Sliding Gate Openers, for the best selection of Commercial or Residential Gate Openers and Operators at Dealers price look no further, Ramset Offers one of the best Electronic Gate Openers in the industry so for that Electric Automatic Gate Opener at a good price we offer the Gate Opener World at your finger tips
Multipurpose Glitch Opener - After Effects Templates AFTER EFFECTS CS5.5+ | 1920X1080 (HD) | NO PLUG-INS | 58.70 MB Multipurpose Glitch Opener - After Effects Templates AFTER EFFECTS CS5.5+ |
Stomp Logo Opener 51510 - After Effects Templates AFTER EFFECTS CS6 and higher | 1920X1080 (HD) | NO PLUG-INS | 37.53 MB Stomp Logo Opener 51510 - After Effects Templates AFTER EFFECTS CS6 and
I have been using minoxidil from the last 5 months or so (10% once a day). So this week of holidays we decided to go on a trip to Australia and the...
Options trading - Have you heard about Binary options but are to afraid to ask by now? We here at Opteck are dedicated to help you go from novice to Investor
Disponibilitate: Stoc epuizat FOLIGAIN MINOXIDIL 2% Tratament pentru regenerarea parului pentru femei, Eficient și Ultra Pur 2% Minoxidil Tratament Regenerare par cu rezultate clinice dovedite, recomandat pentru femei, 3 luni tratament. Dovedit clinic pentru a ajuta părul sa creasca din nou. Regenereaza cresterea parului rezistent si plin de viata. Reactivează foliculii pilosi pentru... ...
SURPRISE, Ariz. - This may be the camp of good feelings, but the period of everybody feeling good is officially over for the Rangers.Joey Gallo has...
Iptakalim was unable to open pancreatic β-cell KATP channels, perhaps due to the presence of the SUR1, instead of the SUR2, subunit in these cells. Moreover, an intriguing finding was that iptakalim closed pancreatic β-cell-type KATP channels. It has been reported that PNU-99963, a nonsulfonylurea-based KATP channel inhibitor that has a structure similar to the KATP channel opener pinacidil, inhibits β-cell KATP channels (Cui et al., 2003). Structurally, iptakalim is also similar to the core portion of pinacidil; therefore, it is possible that KATP channel opener analogs with such a structure can inhibit KATP channels. Iptakalim may directly block β-cell KATP channels by acting on the Kir6.2 subunit (or some closely associated regulatory proteins). It is well documented that some KATP channel modulators, such as nicorandil, pinacidil, and glibenclamide, regulate KATP channel activity by targeting the regulating subunit SUR (Gribble and Ashcroft, 2000a; Hansen, 2006), whereas others (e.g., ...
Radikal Therapeutics (RTX) is developing a novel cytoprotective agent (R-801) for the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) following lung transplanta...
Get here the entire database of minoxidil manufacturers, minoxidil suppliers and exporters from India.The minoxidil companies in India are offering products at suitable prices.
The Tigers-Giants World Series opener last night earned the second-lowest Game 1 overnight on record. Fox earned an 8.8 overnight from 8:00-11:30pm ET, down 8% from a 9.6 for Cardinals-Rangers Game 1 last year. It marks the second-lowest World Series opener ever, behind only the
China Aluminum Automatic Swing Gate Drive, Find details about China Swing Door Opener, Automatic Swing Door Opener from Aluminum Automatic Swing Gate Drive - Shen Zhen Hui Trade Industry Co., Ltd.
Florida Gators cornerback Loucheiz Purifoy is one of several players suspended for the teams season opener on Saturday against Toledo. ESPN reported the news on Friday, with multiple media outlets confirming the suspensions...
RegenePure Minoxidil Spray contains the highest grade of minoxidil to offer the best possible results in the fight against male pattern baldness.
TOPEX paint can opener is innovative solution, very useful in renovation and finishing works. It allows to open paint can effortlessly and without unexpected paint splashes. Additionally features bottle cap opener and hole for door handle rod. TOPEX brand
from $26.47 per flacon Minoxidil: Uses People use Minoxidil as a drug used in alopecia to stabilize the process of hair loss and restoration of hair. The
Buy Jar Opener - Number 1 - 24 hr 39134-N-24HR: Shop top promotional products at 4imprint.com: FREE SAMPLES and On-Time Delivery Guaranteed
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. nicorandil ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. nicorandil ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Highly cited, novel & standard ion channel modulators for popular targets including voltage & ligand gated sodium, potassium & calcium channels.
Wellona Pharma - Manufacturers, Exporters, Suppliers & Trader of API/Bulk drugs Glibenclamide Powder at Cheap Price in India. Buy Glibenclamide Online
Odell Beckham Jr. has been listed as questionable for the New York Giants' season opener against the Cowboys in Dallas on Sunday night.
You may find that their results needed to determine whether cervical healthmdbiz cancer in rats. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist for more details.
Imperdível! Comprar Medicamentos Genéricos Baratos A Partir Do Site Farmácia Aprovada. Entrega Rápida Para o Brasil ⇒ Clique Aqui Para Comprar GLUCOVANCE…
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP sensitive potassium channel openers. T2 - A new class of ocular hypotensive agents. AU - Roy Chowdhury, Uttio. AU - Dosa, Peter I.. AU - Fautsch, Michael P. PY - 2016/3/2. Y1 - 2016/3/2. N2 - ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels connect the metabolic and energetic state of cells due to their sensitivity to ATP and ADP concentrations. KATP channels have been identified in multiple tissues and organs of the body including heart, pancreas, vascular smooth muscles and skeletal muscles. These channels are obligatory hetero-octamers and contain four sulfonylurea (SUR) and four potassium inward rectifier (Kir) subunits. Based on the particular type of SUR and Kir present, there are several tissue specific subtypes of KATP channels, each with their own unique set of functions. Recently, KATP channels have been reported in human and mouse ocular tissues. In ex vivo and in vivo model systems, KATP channel openers showed significant ocular hypotensive properties with no appearance of ...
Question - For how long my hair would continue to shedd as a result of minoxidil.. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Minoxidil, Ask a Dermatologist
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Cell Sciences \ Monkey IL4 ELISA Kit \ CKM003 for more molecular products just contact us
Sartorius Biohit Pipet Stands and Accessories Calibration tool/Tube opener Pipets, Pipettes and Pipette Tips:Pipettes:Pipette Accessories
Buy Jar Opener - Arrow - 24 hr 39134-AR-24HR: Shop top promotional products at 4imprint.com: FREE SAMPLES and On-Time Delivery Guaranteed
Regaine Mens Extra Strength Foam Minoxidil 5% 4 months Supply 4 * 60 g for sale on Trade Me, New Zealands #1 auction and classifieds website
Results were less encouraging in breast cancer wtih leukaemia 49, add 30 ОL of prewarmed substrate buffer to each well and incubate at 37ВC for 60 minutes (20).

Cromakalim - WikipediaCromakalim - Wikipedia

Cromakalim (INN) is a potassium channel-opening vasodilator. The active isomer is levcromakalim. It acts on ATP-sensitive ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromakalim

Cromakalim | C16H18N2O3 - PubChemCromakalim | C16H18N2O3 - PubChem

Cromakalim , C16H18N2O3 , CID 443423 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/443423

Cromakalim
      - Levcromakalim
     Summary Report | CureHunterCromakalim - Levcromakalim Summary Report | CureHunter

Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also ... Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer; Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer; Cromakalim, (3S-trans)-Isomer; Cromakalim, (trans)-Isomer; ... Cromakalim (Levcromakalim). Subscribe to New Research on Cromakalim A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been ... Pre-treatment with cromakalim delayed the time to ischemic contracture (19.3 +/- 1.5 min v 15.3 +/- 0.6 for control, P , 0.05) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD019806-Cromakalim-Levcromakalim.do

Pharmacologic and safety profile of the ocular hypotensive agent cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium...Pharmacologic and safety profile of the ocular hypotensive agent cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium...

Pharmacologic and safety profile of the ocular hypotensive agent cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium ... Pharmacologic and safety profile of the ocular hypotensive agent cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium ... Pharmacologic and safety profile of the ocular hypotensive agent cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2743510&resultClick=1

Butylidenephthalide antagonizes cromakalim-induced systolic pressure reduction in conscious normotensive rats | BMC...Butylidenephthalide antagonizes cromakalim-induced systolic pressure reduction in conscious normotensive rats | BMC...

The antagonistic effect of Bdph against cromakalim was similar to that of 4-AP, a K+ channel blocker of Kv1 family, and ... Recently, we have observed that Bdph antagonized cromakalim, an ATP-dependent K+ channel opener, in guinea-pig trachea. Thus, ... we were interested in investigating whether Bdph at the dose without changing blood pressure antagonized cromakalim-induced ... surmountably but not parallelly rightward shifted the log dose-systolic pressure reduction curve of cromakalim, an ATP- ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0877-z

Cromakalim and cicletanine against pacing-induced myocardial ischemia in conscious rabbits<...Cromakalim and cicletanine against pacing-induced myocardial ischemia in conscious rabbits<...

Cromakalim and cicletanine against pacing-induced myocardial ischemia in conscious rabbits. Z. Szilvássy, Matyas Koltai, P. ... Szilvássy, Z., Koltai, M., Ferdinándy, P., Jakab, I., Lonovics, J., Tarrade, T., ... Braquet, P. G. (1994). Cromakalim and ... Cromakalim and cicletanine against pacing-induced myocardial ischemia in conscious rabbits. / Szilvássy, Z.; Koltai, Matyas; ... Cromakalim (10 μg/kg), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, and cicletanine (30 mg/kg), a cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ...
more infohttps://hungary.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/cromakalim-and-cicletanine-against-pacing-induced-myocardial-isch

Opening mitoKATP increases supero... preview & related info | MendeleyOpening mitoKATP increases supero... preview & related info | Mendeley

When mitochondria were treated with the K(ATP) channel openers diazoxide or cromakalim, their ROS production increased by 40-50 ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/opening-mitokatp-increases-superoxide-generation-complex-i-electron-transport-chain/

Partial Purification and Characterization of the Mode of Action of Enterocin S37: A Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus...Partial Purification and Characterization of the Mode of Action of Enterocin S37: A Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus...

cromakalim (Cro) at 10 and glipizide (Gli) at 10 Combination of enterocin S37 with each of K+ channel modulator was also ... Effect of the combinations of enterocin S37 with cromakalim (10 ) and glipizide (10 ) was less important on L. monocytogenes ... cromakalim (Cro; 10. ) and glipizide (Gli; 10 ). Values are the mean of three independent measurements. ... Combination of cromakalim and enterocin S37 resulted in 84.29% 2.5 inhibition of the growth of sensitive strain; this data is ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2010/986460/

COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SINONASAL DISORDERS - OTONOMY, INC.COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SINONASAL DISORDERS - OTONOMY, INC.

In some embodiments, the the agonist of a potassium channel is nicorandil; minoxidil, levcromakalim; lemakalim; cromakalim; L- ...
more infohttp://www.sumobrain.com/patents/wipo/Compositions-methods-treatment-sinonasal-disorders/WO2011049960.html

Cardiotonic Agents
      - Cardiac Stimulants
     Summary Report | CureHunterCardiotonic Agents - Cardiac Stimulants Summary Report | CureHunter

Cromakalim (Levcromakalim) 9. Carbon Monoxide 10. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002316-Cardiotonic-Agents-Cardiac-Stimulants.do

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Effects of KRN4884, a Novel K^+ Channel Opener, on Ionic Currents in Rabbit...CiNii 論文 - Effects of KRN4884, a Novel K^+ Channel Opener, on Ionic Currents in Rabbit...

Cromakalim and lemakalim activate Ca^,2+,-dependent K^+ channels in canine colon CARL A ...
more infohttp://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10012544997

Coronary Myogenic Constriction Antagonizes EDHF-Mediated Dilation | HypertensionCoronary Myogenic Constriction Antagonizes EDHF-Mediated Dilation | Hypertension

Cromakalim was obtained from Tocris, UK. Stock solution (10 mmol/L) for indomethacin, cromakalim and U46619 was prepared in 96 ... or cromakalim (3 μmol/L, n=4). *P,0.05 vs control. B, EDHF-mediated dilation to ACh in coronary arteries (preconstricted with ... or cromakalim (3 μmol/L, n=4). *P,0.05 for Emax. C, Myogenic constriction (percent decrease from passive diameter) in ... The KATP channel opener cromakalim (3 μmol/L, n=4) also prevented the development of myogenic constriction (Figure 2A) but had ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/41/4/912

KCNJ3 Gene - GeneCards | KCNJ3 Protein | KCNJ3 AntibodyKCNJ3 Gene - GeneCards | KCNJ3 Protein | KCNJ3 Antibody

Kir6 (KATP) channel opener; active enantiomer of cromakalim (Cat. No. 1377). 94535-50-9. ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=KCNJ3

Functional Role of Potassium Channels in the Vasodilating Mechanism of Levosimendan in Porcine Isolated Coronary Artery |...Functional Role of Potassium Channels in the Vasodilating Mechanism of Levosimendan in Porcine Isolated Coronary Artery |...

Comparison of the effect of cromakalim in porcine and human coronary arteries. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1999;13:52 (A197).Google ... 1 μM GLI decreased the maximum of cromakalim-induced relaxation by 60% but did not affect the action of levosimendan. In ... Comparison of the vasorelaxant effect of cromakalim and the new inodilator, levosimendan, in human isolated portal vein. J ... was compared to cromakalim (0.0125-5 μM), the known activator of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, in the presence of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1025331617233

PPT - Ion Channels in the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease PowerPoint Presentation - ID:85327PPT - Ion Channels in the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease PowerPoint Presentation - ID:85327

Ion Channels in the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease. William A. Coetzee [email protected] Tel: 263-8518. Hearts are Composed of Cells. The Cardiac Myocyte. Cells Have Membranes. Channels. Pore. Filter. Gate. Patch Clamping. open. closed. Ion Channels - Gating. Slideshow 85327...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/Michelle/hearts-are-composed-of-cells

Ghent University Academic BibliographyGhent University Academic Bibliography

Protective effect of cromakalim and diazoxide, and proulcerogenic effect of glibenclamide on indomethacin-induced gastric ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=author%3D%22BUHARLIOGLU%2C+CK%22+or+

Ghent University Academic BibliographyGhent University Academic Bibliography

Protective effect of cromakalim and diazoxide, and proulcerogenic effect of glibenclamide on indomethacin-induced gastric ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=author%3D%22AKAR%2C+F%22+or+

Table of Contents - February 01, 1991, 22 (2) | StrokeTable of Contents - February 01, 1991, 22 (2) | Stroke

Cromakalim dilates rat cerebral arteries in vitro. T Nagao, S Sadoshima, M Kamouchi, M Fujishima ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/22/2

Patent US6693122 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google PatentsPatent US6693122 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google Patents

... cromakalim (BRL 34915), aprikalim, bimakalim, emakalim and lemakalim. Nicorandil, pinacidil, cromakalim and minoxidil are the ... 5,256,688 and 5,354,764 disclose the use of pinacidil or cromakalim for treating myocardial ischemia; U.S. Pat. No. 5,262,419 ... cromakalim (BRL 34915), aprikalim, bimakalim, emakalim, lemakalim, minoxidil, diazoxide, 9-chloro-7-(2-chlorophenyl)-5H- ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6693122?dq=6978253

Effect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test.  - PubMed - NCBIEffect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test. - PubMed - NCBI

Effect of pinacidil, minoxidil and cromakalim in the mouse forced swimming test. The test was performed 20 min after treatment ... cromakalim (30 μg per mouse i.c.v.), minoxidil (20 μg per mouse i.c.v.), aODN (3 nmol per single i.c.v. injection) and dODN (3 ... cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of ... and cromakalim (20-30 microg per mouse i.c.v.) increased immobility time when administered in the same experimental conditions ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10323599

Patente US20020143188 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google PatentesPatente US20020143188 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google Patentes

wherein the compound of Formula (III) is a nitrosated cromakalim, a nitrosylated cromakalim, a nitrosated and nitrosylated ... cromakalim (BRL 34915), aprikalim, bimakalim, emakalim and lemakalim. Nicorandil, pinacidil, cromakalim and minoxidil are the ... 5,256,688 and 5,354,764 disclose the use of pinacidil or cromakalim for treating myocardial ischemia; U.S. Pat. No. 5,262,419 ... wherein the potassium channel activator is nicorandil, pinacidil, cromakalim, aprikalim, bimakalim, emakalim, lemakalim, ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US20020143188

Search Results | jnsSearch Results | jns

Controlled release of cromakalim from the cromakalim/hyaluronan implant at a dose of 0.055 mg/kg significantly increased lumen ... Cromakalim was coupled to a viscous carrier, hyaluronan, 15% by weight. In vitro release kinetics studies showed a steady ... Prevention of cerebral vasospasm by local delivery of cromakalim with a biodegradable controlled-release system in a rat model ... The authors tested the efficacy of locally delivered intrathecal cromakalim, a PCO, incorporated into a controlled-release ...
more infohttps://thejns.org/search?f_0=author&q_0=Meena+Jhanwar-Uniyal

Frontiers | VasoTracker, a Low-Cost and Open Source Pressure Myograph System for Vascular Physiology | PhysiologyFrontiers | VasoTracker, a Low-Cost and Open Source Pressure Myograph System for Vascular Physiology | Physiology

McCarron, J. G., Quayle, J. M., Halpern, W., and Nelson, M. T. (1991). Cromakalim and pinacidil dilate small mesenteric ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00099/full

Actions of pinacidil on membrane currents in canine ventricular myocytes and their modulation by intracellular ATP and cAMP -...Actions of pinacidil on membrane currents in canine ventricular myocytes and their modulation by intracellular ATP and cAMP -...

In vitro and in vivo comparison of two K+ channel openers, diazoxide and cromakalim, and their inhibition by glibenclamide.. * ... Glyburide blocks the relaxation response to BRL 34915 (cromakalim), minoxidil sulfate and diazoxide in vascular smooth muscle. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Actions-of-pinacidil-on-membrane-currents-in-canine-Tseng-Hoffman/0167ae0d3c877342183f6251e3af6ecef72bf8cb
  • In the present study performed in the porcine epicardial coronary artery, the effect of levosimendan (0.009-3.2 μM) was compared to cromakalim (0.0125-5 μM), the known activator of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels, in the presence of glibenclamide (GLI), an inhibitor of K ATP channels and tetraethylammonium (TEA), the non-selective inhibitor of potassium channels. (springer.com)
  • Cromakalim dilates rat cerebral arteries in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • The authors tested the efficacy of locally delivered intrathecal cromakalim, a PCO, incorporated into a controlled-release system to prevent cerebral vasospasm in a rat model of SAH. (thejns.org)
  • 1 μM GLI decreased the maximum of cromakalim-induced relaxation by 60% but did not affect the action of levosimendan. (springer.com)
  • Thus, we were interested in investigating whether Bdph at the dose without changing blood pressure antagonized cromakalim-induced systolic pressure reduction in conscious rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g each were divided into 10 groups and treated with various doses of cromakalim or cromakalim/hyaluronan in a rat double SAH model. (thejns.org)
  • Intracellular electrophysiological studies showed that ischemia-induced depolarization was reversed with cromakalim, which increased the resting potential nearly back to preischemic levels. (curehunter.com)
  • In vitro release kinetics studies showed a steady release of cromakalim over days. (thejns.org)
  • The active enantiomer of cromakalim has been found to be effective in alleviating nocturnal asthma at plasma concentrations just threshold for relaxing human airways smooth muscle in vitro. (curehunter.com)
  • Publications] Kohji Okabe: 'Actions of cromakalim on ionic currents recorded from single smooth muscle cells of the rat portal vein. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Controlled release of cromakalim from the cromakalim/hyaluronan implant at a dose of 0.055 mg/kg significantly increased lumen patency in a dose-dependent manner up to 94 ± 8% (mean ± standard error of the mean) of the basilar arteries of the sham group compared with the empty polymer group (p = 0.006). (thejns.org)
  • Lumen patencies of the cromakalim-only groups did not differ in statistical significance at low (64 ± 9%) or high (66 ± 7%) doses compared to the SAH-only group. (thejns.org)
  • While clinical trials have indicated that cromakalim may be of benefit in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, it remains to be determined whether KCOs will find a place in our armamentarium of clinically useful anti-asthma agents. (curehunter.com)