A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
'Pyrans' are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms, which can be found in various natural substances and synthesized compounds, and may have potential applications in medicinal chemistry.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
Sulfonylurea compounds are a class of medications used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 that promote insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by closing ATP-sensitive potassium channels in their membranes.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Tetraethylammonium compounds refer to a group of organic salts containing the tetraethylammonium ion (N(C2H5)4+), which is characterized by four ethyl groups bonded to a central nitrogen atom, and are commonly used in research and medicine as pharmacological tools for studying ion channels.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in blood vessels from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. (1/374)

1. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated rings of aorta, carotid, coronary and mesenteric arteries taken from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS(-/-) mice) and the corresponding wild-type strain (eNOS(+/+) mice). The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was measured in coronary arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. In the isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(+/+) mice, acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine. In contrast, in the mesenteric arteries, the inhibition of the cholinergic relaxation required the combination of N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine and indomethacin. 3. The isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(-/-) mice did not relax in response to acetylcholine. However, acetylcholine produced an indomethacin-sensitive relaxation in the mesenteric artery from eNOS(-/-) mice. 4. The resting membrane potential of smooth muscle cells from isolated coronary arteries was significantly less negative in the eNOS(-/-) mice (-64.8 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 20 and -58.4 +/- 1.9 mV, n = 17, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). In both strains, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P did not induce endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations whereas cromakalim consistently produced hyperpolarizations (- 7.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 8 and -13.8 +/- 2.6 mV, n = 4, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). 5. These findings demonstrate that in the blood vessels studied: (1) in the eNOS(+/+) mice, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine involve either NO or the combination of NO plus a product of cyclo-oxygenase but not EDHF; (2) in the eNOS(-/-) mice, NO-dependent responses and EDHF-like responses were not observed. In the mesenteric arteries acetylcholine releases a cyclo-oxygenase derivative.  (+info)

Differential effects of pinacidil, cromakalim, and NS 1619 on electrically evoked contractions in rat vas deferens. (2/374)

AIM: To compare the inhibitory action of electrically evoked contractions of rat epididymal vas deferens by pinacidil (Pin), cromakalim (Cro), and NS 1619. METHODS: Monophasic contractions were evoked by electric field stimulation in rat isolated epididymal half of vas deferens. RESULTS: Newly developed ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers, Pin and Cro, concentration-dependently reduced the electrically evoked (0.3 Hz, 1 ms pulse duration, 60 V) contractions and glibenclamide but not charybdotoxin antagonized the inhibitory effects of both agents. Pin shifted the concentration-response curve for norepinephrine to the right with reducing the magnitude of the maximum contraction in a glibenclamide-sensitive fashion. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel opener, NS 1619, inhibited the electrically evoked contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Charybdotoxin (100 nmol.L-1) partially reduced the effect of NS 1619 but glibenclamide (10 mumol.L-1) showed no effect. None of these 3 agents affected the basal tension. CONCLUSION: Both ATP-sensitive and Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels presented in vas deferens smooth muscles involved in regulation of muscle contractility.  (+info)

Role of K+ channels in A2A adenosine receptor-mediated dilation of the pressurized renal arcuate artery. (3/374)

1. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated renal vasodilation was investigated by measuring the lumenal diameter of pressurized renal arcuate arteries isolated from the rabbit. 2. The selective A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 dilated the arteries with an EC50 of 130 nM. The CGS21680-induced vasodilation was, on average, 34% less in endothelium-denuded arteries. 3. The maximum response and the EC50 for CGS21680-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact arteries were not significantly affected by incubation with the K+ channel blockers apamin (100 nM), iberiotoxin (100 nM), 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mM), glibenclamide (1 microM) or Ba2+ (10 microM). However, a cocktail mixture of these blockers did significantly inhibit the maximum response by almost 40%, and 1 mM Ba2+ alone or 1 mM Ba2+ in addition to the cocktail inhibited the maximum CGS21680-response by 58% and about 75% respectively. 4. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was strongly inhibited when the extracellular K+ level was raised to 20 mM even though the dilator response to 1 microM levcromakalim, a K(ATP) channel opener drug, was unaffected. 5. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was inhibited by 10 microM ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, but ouabain had a similar inhibitory effect on vasodilation induced by 30 nM nicardipine (a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist) or 1 microM levcromakalim. 6. The data suggest that K+ channel activation does play a role in A(2A) receptor-mediated renal vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of raised extracellular K+ levels on the A(2A) response may be due to K(+)-induced stimulation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase.  (+info)

ATP-sensitive potassium channels regulate in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum. (4/374)

ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP)) are distributed in a variety of tissues including smooth muscle, cardiac and skeletal muscle, pancreatic beta-cells and neurons. Since K(ATP) channels are present in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, the effect of potassium-channel modulators on the release of DA in the striatum of conscious, freely-moving rats was investigated. The extracellular concentration of DA was significantly decreased by the K(ATP)-channel opener (-)-cromakalim but not by diazoxide. (-)-Cromakalim was effective at 100 and 1000 microM concentrations, and the maximum decrease was 54% below baseline. d-Amphetamine significantly increased extracellular DA levels at the doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg, s.c. with a 770% maximum increase. (-)-Cromakalim had no effect on d-amphetamine-induced DA release, while glyburide, a K(ATP) blocker, significantly potentiated the effects of a low dose of d-amphetamine. These data indicate that K+ channels present in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals modulate basal release as well as evoked release of DA.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (5/374)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effects of nicorandil as compared to mixtures of sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim in isolated rat aorta. (6/374)

1. The contribution of the relaxant mechanisms of nicorandil (NIC) were analysed by comparing its effects with those of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), levcromakalim (LEM) and mixtures (1:10, 1:30 and 1:100) of SNP:LEM in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. 2. In rings precontracted with KCl (25 mM), the relative inhibitory potency of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (GLI) on SNP:LEM mixtures showed a good correlation with the relative proportion of SNP and LEM in the mixtures. Furthermore, the degree of the inhibition by ODQ and GLI of the effects of the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture varied as a function of the relative potency of SNP and LEM in KCl-, noradrenaline- (NA) or NA plus nifedipine-treated arteries. 3. The inhibitory effects of ODQ, GLI and ODQ plus GLI on NIC-induced relaxation was similar to that for the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture in NA plus nifedipine-contracted arteries, but the inhibition of GLI or ODQ plus GLI was smaller in KCl-contracted arteries. 4. In conclusion, the relative importance of activation of the cyclic GMP pathway and K(ATP) channel opening in mixtures of SNP and LEM could be predicted by the proportion of the drugs in the mixtures and by the relative potency of SNP vs LEM in different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the present results suggest that besides these two mechanisms, a third ODQ- and GLI-insensitive mechanism, possibly involving Ca2+ channel blockade, also participates in the relaxant effects of NIC in KCl-induced contractions.  (+info)

Differential effects of lidocaine and mexiletine on relaxations to ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers in rat aortas. (7/374)

BACKGROUND: In cardiac myocytes, lidocaine reduces but mexiletine increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ currents, suggesting that these class Ib antiarrhythmic drugs may differentially modify the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. The effects of lidocaine and mexiletine on arterial relaxations induced by K+ channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate whether lidocaine and mexiletine may produce changes in relaxations to the ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers cromakalim and pinacidil in isolated rat thoracic aortas. METHODS: Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelia were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative fashion. During submaximal contractions to phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M), relaxations to cromakalim (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M), pinacidil (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M), or diltiazem (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-4) M) were obtained. Lidocaine (10(-5) to 3 x 10(-4) M), mexiletine (10(-5) to 10(-4) M) or glibenclamide (5 x 10(-6) M) was applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. RESULTS: During contractions to phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxations. A selective ATP-sensitive K+ channel antagonist, glibenclamide (5 x 10(-6) M), abolished these relaxations, whereas it did not alter relaxations to a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitor, diltiazem (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-4) M). Lidocaine (more than 10(-5) M) significantly reduced relaxations to cromakalim or pinacidil in a concentration-dependent fashion, whereas lidocaine (3 x 10(-4) M) did not affect relaxations to diltiazem. In contrast, mexiletine (more than 10(-5) M) significantly augmented relaxations to cromakalim or pinacidil. Glibenclamide (5 x 10(-6) M) abolished relaxations to cromakalim or pinacidil in arteries treated with mexiletine (10(-4) M). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lidocaine impairs but mexiletine augments vasodilation mediated by ATP-sensitive K+ channels in smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of 4-aminopyridine on responses of the basilar artery to nitric oxide. (8/374)

1. Voltage-dependent K+ channels are present in cerebral arteries and may modulate vascular tone. We used 200 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), thought to be a relatively selective inhibitor of voltage-dependent K+ channels at this concentration, to test whether activation of these channels may influence baseline diameter of the basilar artery and dilator responses to nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in vivo. 2. Using a cranial window in anaesthetized rats, topical application of 4-AP to the basilar artery (baseline diameter = 240+/-5 microm, mean +/- s.e.mean) produced 10+/-1% constriction. Sodium nitroprusside (a NO donor), acetylcholine (which stimulates endothelial release of NO), 8-bromo cyclic GMP (a cyclic GMP analogue), cromakalim (an activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and papaverine (a non-NO, non-K+ channel-related vasodilator) produced concentration-dependent vasodilator responses that were reproducible. 3. Responses to 10 and 100 nM nitroprusside were inhibited by 4-AP (20+/-4 vs 8+/-2% and 51+/-5 vs 33+/-5%, respectively, n=10; P<0.05). Responses to acetylcholine and 8-bromo cyclic GMP were also partially inhibited by 4-AP. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on vasodilator responses to cromakalim or papaverine. These findings suggest that NO/cyclic GMP-induced dilator responses of the basilar artery are selectively inhibited by 4-aminopyridine. 4. Responses to nitroprusside were also markedly inhibited by 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase; 16+/-4 vs 1+/-1% and 44+/-7 vs 7+/-1%; n=10; P<0.05). 5. Thus, dilator responses of the rat basilar artery to NO appear to be mediated by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and partially by activation of a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive mechanism. The most likely mechanism would appear to be activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels by NO/cyclic GMP.  (+info)

Cromakalim is a pharmacological agent, specifically a potassium channel opener, that was investigated for its potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and angina. Potassium channel openers work by relaxing smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, which leads to vasodilation and decreased blood pressure. However, cromakalim was never approved for clinical use due to its associated side effects, including negative inotropic effects on the heart and potential proarrhythmic properties.

Benzopyrans are a class of chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring fused to a pyran ring. They are also known as chromenes. Benzopyrans can be found in various natural sources, including plants and fungi, and have been studied for their potential biological activities. Some benzopyrans have been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. However, some benzopyrans can also be toxic or have other adverse health effects, so it is important to study their properties and potential uses carefully.

"Pyrroles" is not a medical term in and of itself, but "pyrrole" is an organic compound that contains one nitrogen atom and four carbon atoms in a ring structure. In the context of human health, "pyrroles" often refers to a group of compounds called pyrrol derivatives or pyrrole metabolites.

In clinical settings, "pyrroles" is sometimes used to refer to a urinary metabolite called "pyrrole-protein conjugate," which contains a pyrrole ring and is excreted in the urine. Elevated levels of this compound have been associated with certain psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, the relationship between pyrroles and these conditions is not well understood, and more research is needed to establish a clear medical definition or diagnostic criteria for "pyrrole disorder" or "pyroluria."

Potassium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes or variants of the element potassium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable form. A common example is Potassium-40 (40K), which occurs naturally in small amounts in potassium-containing substances. It decays through beta decay and positron emission, as well as electron capture, with a half-life of approximately 1.25 billion years.

Radioisotopes like 40K have medical applications such as in dating archaeological artifacts or studying certain biological processes. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from potassium radioisotopes can be harmful and potentially lead to health issues like radiation sickness or cancer.

Glyburide is a medication that falls under the class of drugs known as sulfonylureas. It is primarily used to manage type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. Glyburide works by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby increasing the amount of insulin available in the body to help glucose enter cells and decrease the level of glucose in the bloodstream.

The medical definition of Glyburide is:
A second-generation sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug (oral hypoglycemic) used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts by stimulating pancreatic beta cells to release insulin and increases peripheral glucose uptake and utilization, thereby reducing blood glucose levels. Glyburide may also decrease glucose production in the liver.

It is important to note that Glyburide should be used as part of a comprehensive diabetes management plan that includes proper diet, exercise, regular monitoring of blood sugar levels, and other necessary lifestyle modifications. As with any medication, it can have side effects and potential interactions with other drugs, so it should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Pinacidil is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is a specific pharmaceutical compound, rather than a general medical term. However, I can provide you with information about what Pinacidil is.

Pinacidil is an oral antihypertensive medication that acts as a direct activator of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. These channels are present in various tissues, including the pancreas, heart, and smooth muscle cells. By opening KATP channels, Pinacidil causes hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, which leads to relaxation of smooth muscles in blood vessels. This results in vasodilation and a decrease in blood pressure.

Pinacidil is used off-label for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to its ability to dilate pulmonary arteries. However, it is not commonly prescribed for this purpose due to the availability of other FDA-approved medications specifically designed for PAH treatment.

Please consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for more detailed information about Pinacidil and its uses, side effects, and potential interactions with other medications.

Minoxidil is a medication that is primarily used to treat hair loss. It is a vasodilator, which means it widens blood vessels and improves blood flow. When applied to the scalp, it helps to stimulate hair growth and slows down hair loss. It is available in topical form as a solution or foam, and is usually applied once or twice a day. Minoxidil is not intended for use in children, and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult with their doctor before using it.

It's important to note that minoxidil does not work for everyone, and it may take several months of regular use before any new hair growth is seen. Additionally, if the medication is discontinued, any hair gained during treatment will likely be lost over time. Common side effects of minoxidil include scalp irritation, unwanted hair growth on other parts of the body, and changes in the color or texture of existing hair. It's important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using minoxidil.

Rubidium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element rubidium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable state. This means that rubidium atoms with an excess of neutrons in their nuclei will emit subatomic particles (such as beta particles) and/or gamma rays to transform into a more stable form, often resulting in a different element.

Rubidium has two common radioisotopes: Rubidium-82 and Rubidium-87.

* Rubidium-82 (^82Rb) is a positron emitter with a half-life of 1.25 minutes, which is commonly used in medical imaging for myocardial perfusion studies to assess blood flow to the heart muscle. It is produced by the decay of Strontium-82 (^82Sr), typically via a generator system in the hospital's radiopharmacy.
* Rubidium-87 (^87Rb) has a half-life of 48.8 billion years, which is much longer than the age of the universe. It occurs naturally and decays into Strontium-87 (^87Sr) through beta decay. This process can be used for geological dating purposes in rocks and minerals.

It's important to note that radioisotopes, including rubidium isotopes, should only be handled by trained professionals in controlled environments due to their radiation hazards.

Nicorandil is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as potassium channel activators. It works by relaxing and widening blood vessels, which improves blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Nicorandil is primarily used to treat chronic stable angina, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.

The medical definition of Nicorandil can be described as:

A synthetic derivative of nicotinamide with vasodilatory properties, acting as an opener of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. It is used in the management of chronic stable angina, providing both antianginal and antiischemic effects through a dual mechanism that includes coronary and peripheral vasodilation. By reducing afterload and preload, Nicorandil decreases myocardial oxygen demand while increasing supply, leading to improved exercise tolerance and reduced frequency of anginal episodes.

Potassium channels are membrane proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the electrical excitability of cells, including cardiac, neuronal, and muscle cells. These channels facilitate the selective passage of potassium ions (K+) across the cell membrane, maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping action potentials. They are composed of four or six subunits that assemble to form a central pore through which potassium ions move down their electrochemical gradient. Potassium channels can be modulated by various factors such as voltage, ligands, mechanical stimuli, or temperature, allowing cells to fine-tune their electrical properties and respond to different physiological demands. Dysfunction of potassium channels has been implicated in several diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Parasympatholytics are a type of medication that blocks the action of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digest response, which includes slowing the heart rate, increasing intestinal and glandular activity, and promoting urination and defecation.

Parasympatholytics work by selectively binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and digestive system. By blocking these receptors, parasympatholytics can cause a range of effects, such as an increased heart rate, decreased glandular secretions, and reduced intestinal motility.

Some common examples of parasympatholytics include atropine, scopolamine, and ipratropium. These medications are often used to treat conditions such as bradycardia (slow heart rate), excessive salivation, and gastrointestinal cramping or diarrhea. However, because they can have significant side effects, parasympatholytics are typically used only when necessary and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Diazoxide is a medication that is primarily used to treat hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in newborns and infants. It works by inhibiting the release of insulin from the pancreas, which helps to prevent the blood sugar levels from dropping too low. Diazoxide may also be used in adults with certain rare conditions that cause hypoglycemia.

In addition to its use as a hypoglycemic agent, diazoxide has been used off-label for other indications, such as the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) that is resistant to other medications. It works as a vasodilator, relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels and causing them to widen, which reduces the resistance to blood flow and lowers blood pressure.

Diazoxide is available as an injection and is typically administered in a hospital setting under the close supervision of a healthcare professional. Common side effects of diazoxide include fluid retention, headache, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause rare but serious side effects such as heart rhythm disturbances and allergic reactions.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

Guanidines are organic compounds that contain a guanidino group, which is a functional group with the formula -NH-C(=NH)-NH2. Guanidines can be found in various natural sources, including some animals, plants, and microorganisms. They also occur as byproducts of certain metabolic processes in the body.

In a medical context, guanidines are most commonly associated with the treatment of muscle weakness and neuromuscular disorders. The most well-known guanidine compound is probably guanidine hydrochloride, which has been used as a medication to treat conditions such as myasthenia gravis and Eaton-Lambert syndrome.

However, the use of guanidines as medications has declined in recent years due to their potential for toxicity and the development of safer and more effective treatments. Today, guanidines are mainly used in research settings to study various biological processes, including protein folding and aggregation, enzyme inhibition, and cell signaling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "picolines" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a term that refers to a group of chemical compounds known as methylated benzenes or xylenols. They have some industrial uses, but they are not typically relevant in the context of medical definitions or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try and help with those instead!

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

Nifedipine is an antihypertensive and calcium channel blocker medication. It works by relaxing the muscles of the blood vessels, which helps to lower blood pressure and improve the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart. Nifedipine is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), angina (chest pain), and certain types of heart rhythm disorders.

In medical terms, nifedipine can be defined as: "A dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and Raynaud's phenomenon. It works by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, which results in relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle and decreased workload on the heart."

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 (niacin). It is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in energy production and DNA repair in the body. Niacinamide can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains.

As a medical definition, niacinamide is a nutritional supplement and medication used to prevent or treat pellagra, a disease caused by niacin deficiency. It can also be used to improve skin conditions such as acne, rosacea, and hyperpigmentation, and has been studied for its potential benefits in treating diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease.

Niacinamide works by acting as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme involved in many cellular processes such as energy metabolism, DNA repair, and gene expression. Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties and can help regulate the immune system, making it useful for treating inflammatory skin conditions.

It is important to note that niacinamide should not be confused with niacin (also known as nicotinic acid), which is another form of vitamin B3 that has different effects on the body. Niacin can cause flushing and other side effects at higher doses, while niacinamide does not have these effects.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are a type of ion channel found in the membranes of cells, including those in the heart, muscle, and pancreas. These channels are unique because their opening and closing are regulated by the levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in the cell.

Under normal conditions, when ATP levels are high and ADP levels are low, the KATP channels are closed, which allows the cells to maintain their normal electrical activity. However, during times of metabolic stress or ischemia (a lack of blood flow), the levels of ATP in the cell decrease while the levels of ADP increase. This change in the ATP-to-ADP ratio causes the KATP channels to open, which allows potassium ions to flow out of the cell. The efflux of potassium ions then leads to hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, which helps to protect the cells from damage.

In the pancreas, KATP channels play a crucial role in regulating insulin secretion. In the beta cells of the pancreas, an increase in blood glucose levels leads to an increase in ATP production and a decrease in ADP levels, which causes the KATP channels to close. This closure of the KATP channels leads to depolarization of the cell membrane, which triggers the release of insulin.

Overall, KATP channels are important regulators of cellular electrical activity and play a critical role in protecting cells from damage during times of metabolic stress or ischemia.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

Charybdotoxin is a neurotoxin that is derived from the venom of the death stalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus). It specifically binds to and blocks certain types of ion channels called "big potassium" or "BK" channels, which are found in various tissues including smooth muscle, nerve, and endocrine cells. By blocking these channels, charybdotoxin can alter the electrical activity of cells and potentially affect a variety of physiological processes. It is an important tool in basic research for studying the structure and function of BK channels and their role in various diseases.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Decanoic acids are a type of medium-chain fatty acid with a chain length of 10 carbon atoms. The most common decanoic acid is decanoic acid or capric acid. It is found in various animal and plant sources, such as coconut oil and cow's milk. Decanoic acids have a variety of uses, including as ingredients in cosmetics and food products, and as a potential treatment for medical conditions such as epilepsy and bacterial infections. In the body, decanoic acids are metabolized in the liver and used for energy production.

Hydroxy acids are a class of chemical compounds that contain both a carboxylic acid group and a hydroxyl group. They are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetic products for their exfoliating, moisturizing, and anti-aging properties. The two main types of hydroxy acids used in skincare are alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs).

Alpha-hydroxy acids include compounds such as glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid. They work by breaking down the "glue" that holds dead skin cells together, promoting cell turnover and helping to improve the texture and tone of the skin. AHAs are also known for their ability to improve the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots.

Beta-hydroxy acids, on the other hand, are primarily represented by salicylic acid. BHAs are oil-soluble, which allows them to penetrate deeper into the pores and exfoliate dead skin cells and excess sebum that can lead to clogged pores and acne breakouts.

It is important to note that hydroxy acids can cause skin irritation and sensitivity to sunlight, so it is recommended to use sunscreen and start with lower concentrations when first incorporating them into a skincare routine.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

"Pyrans" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms. The name "pyran" comes from the fact that it contains a pyroline unit (two double-bonded carbons) and a ketone group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen).

While pyrans are not directly related to medical definitions, some of their derivatives have been studied for potential medicinal applications. For example, certain pyran derivatives have shown anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities in laboratory experiments. However, more research is needed before these compounds can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rubidium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and flammable. It is found in trace amounts in minerals such as leucite and pollucite.

While rubidium itself does not have a direct medical application, its radioisotopes (such as rubidium-82) are used in medical imaging, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, to study heart function and blood flow. However, the term "Rubidium" itself is not used in a medical context to define a condition or disease.

A microelectrode is a small electrode with dimensions ranging from several micrometers to a few tens of micrometers in diameter. They are used in various biomedical applications, such as neurophysiological studies, neuromodulation, and brain-computer interfaces. In these applications, microelectrodes serve to record electrical activity from individual or small groups of neurons or deliver electrical stimuli to specific neural structures with high spatial resolution.

Microelectrodes can be fabricated using various materials, including metals (e.g., tungsten, stainless steel, platinum), metal alloys, carbon fibers, and semiconductor materials like silicon. The design of microelectrodes may vary depending on the specific application, with some common types being sharpened metal wires, glass-insulated metal microwires, and silicon-based probes with multiple recording sites.

The development and use of microelectrodes have significantly contributed to our understanding of neural function in health and disease, enabling researchers and clinicians to investigate the underlying mechanisms of neurological disorders and develop novel therapies for conditions such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and hearing loss.

nitroprusside (ni-troe-rus-ide)

A rapid-acting vasodilator used in the management of severe hypertension, acute heart failure, and to reduce afterload in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. It is a potent arterial and venous dilator that decreases preload and afterload, thereby reducing myocardial oxygen demand. Nitroprusside is metabolized to cyanide, which must be monitored closely during therapy to prevent toxicity.

Pharmacologic class: Peripheral vasodilators

Therapeutic class: Antihypertensives, Vasodilators

Medical Categories: Cardiovascular Drugs, Hypertension Agents

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

A ureter is a thin, muscular tube that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they are typically about 10-12 inches long. The ureters are lined with a special type of cells called transitional epithelium that can stretch and expand as urine passes through them. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The ureters play a critical role in the urinary system by ensuring that urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

Sulfonylurea compounds are a group of medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They work by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby lowering blood glucose levels. These compounds bind to specific receptors on the beta cells of the pancreas, which triggers the release of insulin.

Examples of sulfonylurea compounds include glipizide, glyburide, and glimepiride. It's important to note that these medications can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) if not properly monitored and dosed. They are often used in combination with other medications, such as metformin, to achieve optimal blood glucose control.

As with any medication, sulfonylurea compounds should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor their effectiveness and potential side effects.

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate, is a medication used primarily for the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain due to coronary artery disease) and hypertensive emergencies (severe high blood pressure). It belongs to a class of drugs called nitrates or organic nitrites.

Nitroglycerin works by relaxing and dilating the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which leads to decreased workload on the heart and increased oxygen delivery to the myocardium (heart muscle). This results in reduced symptoms of angina and improved cardiac function during hypertensive emergencies.

The drug is available in various forms, including sublingual tablets, sprays, transdermal patches, ointments, and intravenous solutions. The choice of formulation depends on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Common side effects of nitroglycerin include headache, dizziness, and hypotension (low blood pressure).

Potassium channel blockers are a class of medications that work by blocking potassium channels, which are proteins in the cell membrane that control the movement of potassium ions into and out of cells. By blocking these channels, potassium channel blockers can help to regulate electrical activity in the heart, making them useful for treating certain types of cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms).

There are several different types of potassium channel blockers, including:

1. Class III antiarrhythmic drugs: These medications, such as amiodarone and sotalol, are used to treat and prevent serious ventricular arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms that originate in the lower chambers of the heart).
2. Calcium channel blockers: While not strictly potassium channel blockers, some calcium channel blockers also have effects on potassium channels. These medications, such as diltiazem and verapamil, are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of arrhythmias.
3. Non-selective potassium channel blockers: These medications, such as 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, have a broader effect on potassium channels and are used primarily in research settings to study the electrical properties of cells.

It's important to note that potassium channel blockers can have serious side effects, particularly when used in high doses or in combination with other medications that affect heart rhythms. They should only be prescribed by a healthcare provider who is familiar with their use and potential risks.

Tetraethylammonium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the tetraethylammonium cation (N(C2H5)4+). This organic cation is derived from tetraethylammonium hydroxide, which in turn is produced by the reaction of ethyl alcohol with ammonia and then treated with a strong acid.

Tetraethylammonium compounds are used in various biomedical research applications as they can block certain types of ion channels, making them useful for studying neuronal excitability and neurotransmission. However, these compounds have also been associated with toxic effects on the nervous system and other organs, and their use is therefore subject to strict safety regulations.

Bromates are chemical compounds that contain the bromate ion (BrO3-). The most common bromate is potassium bromate, which is used as a flour improver in some bread making processes. However, its use has been restricted or banned in many countries due to concerns about its potential carcinogenicity.

Bromates can form in drinking water supplies that are treated with ozone or chlorine in the presence of bromide ions. This can occur during water treatment or as a result of contamination from natural sources or industrial waste. Exposure to high levels of bromates has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly thyroid and kidney cancer. Therefore, regulatory agencies have set limits on the amount of bromates that are allowed in drinking water and other consumer products.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

... (INN) is a potassium channel-opening vasodilator. The active isomer is levcromakalim. It acts on ATP-sensitive ...
"Response of guinea pig smooth and striated urethral sphincter to cromakalim, prazosin, nifedipine, nitroprusside, and ...
Traditional Bangladeshi healers use the bark as an antidiarrhoeal as it contains an antispasmodic similar to cromakalim. The ...
... cromakalim MeSH D03.438.150.500 - ellagic acid MeSH D03.438.150.600 - hematoxylin MeSH D03.438.150.909 - vitamin e MeSH D03.438 ... cromakalim MeSH D03.830.219.500 - ellagic acid MeSH D03.830.219.600 - hematoxylin MeSH D03.830.219.909 - vitamin e MeSH D03.830 ... cromakalim MeSH D03.383.129.578.399 - maleimides MeSH D03.383.129.578.399.418 - ethylmaleimide MeSH D03.383.129.578.617 - ...
Crolom Cromolyn cromakalim (INN) cromitrile (INN) cromoglicate lisetil (INN) cromoglicic acid (INN) Cromoptic cronidipine (INN ...
Cromakalim (INN) is a potassium channel-opening vasodilator. The active isomer is levcromakalim. It acts on ATP-sensitive ...
Prevention of cerebral vasospasm by local delivery of cromakalim with a biodegradable controlled-release system in a rat model ...
Berndt, S. I., Vijai, J., Benavente, Y., Camp, N. J., Nieters, A., Wang, Z., Smedby, K. E., Kleinstern, G., Hjalgrim, H., Besson, C., Skibola, C. F., Morton, L. M., Brooks-Wilson, A. R., Teras, L. R., Breeze, C., Arias, J., Adami, H-O., Albanes, D., Anderson, K. C., Ansell, S. M., & 120 othersBassig, B., Becker, N., Bhatti, P., Birmann, B. M., Boffetta, P., Bracci, P. M., Brennan, P., Brown, E. E., Burdett, L., Cannon-Albright, L. A., Chang, E. T., Chiu, B. C. H., Chung, C. C., Clavel, J., Cocco, P., Colditz, G., Conde, L., Conti, D. V., Cox, D. G., Curtin, K., Casabonne, D., De Vivo, I., Diepstra, A., Diver, W. R., Dogan, A., Edlund, C. K., Foretova, L., Fraumeni, J. F., Gabbas, A., Ghesquières, H., Giles, G. G., Glaser, S., Glenn, M., Glimelius, B., Gu, J., Habermann, T. M., Haiman, C. A., Haioun, C., Hofmann, J. N., Holford, T. R., Holly, E. A., Hutchinson, A., Izhar, A., Jackson, R. D., Jarrett, R. F., Kaaks, R., Kane, E., Kolonel, L. N., Kong, Y., Kraft, P., Kricker, A., Lake, A., Lan, Q., ...
The finding that 2-DG inhibits cromakalim induced vasorelaxation is consistent with the hypothesis that cromakalim is acting ... with cromakalim. In addition the vasorelaxant effects of cromakalim and sodium nitroprusside were compared following inhibition ... Cromakalim (I pg/kg/min, 15 min), SR 44866 (0.25 pg/kg/min, 15 min) or their solvent (0.09 ml/kg/min, 15 min) were then infused ... Cromakalim was only weakly active in the rhesus monkey: 0.1 - 1 mg/kg i.v. led to only shortlived falls in BP which were ...
Cromakalim/farmacologia , Cromakalim/farmacocinética , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Administração ... RESULTS: Controlled release of cromakalim from the cromakalim/hyaluronan implant at a dose of 0.055 mg/kg significantly ... Cromakalim/administração & dosagem , Cromakalim/farmacologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Meia-Vida , ... Cromakalim/administração & dosagem , Cromakalim/sangue , Olho/citologia , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/metabolismo , ...
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Hemodynamic and pharmacological mechanisms of the hypotensive effects of cromakalim in rats blockade by glibenclamide. British ...
48] showed that when heart mitochondria were treated with the mitoKATP channel openers diazoxide or cromakalim, their ROS ...
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Flecainide has high bioavailability after an oral dose,[28] meaning that most of the drug that is ingested will enter the systemic blood stream. Peak serum concentrations can be seen 1 to 6 hours after ingestion of an oral dose. While the plasma half-life is about 20 hours, it is quite variable, and can range from 12 to 27 hours.[29] During oral loading with flecainide, a steady state equilibrium is typically achieved in 3 to 5 days. The majority of flecainide is eliminated by the kidneys, with the remainder metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2D6 isoenzyme in the liver.[30] Therefore, alterations in renal function or urine pH will greatly affect the elimination of flecainide, as more is eliminated by the kidney than by the hepatic route. Because of the dual elimination routes of flecainide and its tendency to decrease myocardial contractility,[17] flecainide interacts with numerous pharmaceuticals and can potentiate the effects of other myocardial depressants and AV node blocking agents. In ...
Cromakalim / therapeutic use Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Cromakalim (MeSH Term). *cyclo(Trp-Asp-Pro-Val-Leu) (Supplementary Concept). *Cyclopenthiazide (MeSH Term) ...
Although cromakalim and ISDN at doses effective at decreasing voiding frequency caused blood pressure to drop, nicorandil at an ... Nicorandil (1 mg/kg), cromakalim (0.1 mg/kg) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN; 1000 mg/kg) decreased voiding frequency ...
... through a mechanism which differs from that of cromakalim (a classical KATP activator).[5] Zofenopril, like captopril, showed ...
A novel cromakalim analogue induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells through the caspase ...
Abstract(i) We studied the effects of a new cromakalim analogue, SR47063, in guinea-pig ventricular cells. The experiments were ...
Cromakalim D3.438.150.455 D3.633.100.150.455 Cromolyn Sodium D3.438.150.266.300 D3.633. Crops, Agricultural ...
Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer Cromakalim, (3S-trans)-Isomer Cromakalim ... Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0329128. Registry Number. 148811-93-2. Terms. Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer ... Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0329129. Registry Number. 148811-94-3. Terms. Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer ... Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0329133. Registry Number. 94535-51-0. Terms. Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer ...
Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer Cromakalim, (3S-trans)-Isomer Cromakalim ... Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0329128. Registry Number. 148811-93-2. Terms. Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer ... Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0329129. Registry Number. 148811-94-3. Terms. Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer ... Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0329133. Registry Number. 94535-51-0. Terms. Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer ...
Cromakalim, (3R-cis)-Isomer. Cromakalim, (3R-trans)-Isomer. Cromakalim, (3S-cis)-Isomer. Cromakalim, (3S-trans)-Isomer. ... Cromakalim - Preferred Concept UI. M0029396. Scope note. A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in ... Cromakalim, (trans)-Isomer. Lemakalim. Levcromakalim. Tree number(s):. D03.383.129.578.150. D03.383.663.283.455. D03.633. ... Cromakalim Entry term(s):. BRL 38226. BRL 38227. BRL-34915. BRL-38226. BRL-38227. BRL38226. BRL38227. ...
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Effect of cromakalim on spontaneous activity of castrated rat vas deferens 1-gen-1994 Boselli, Cinzia; Barbieri, Annalisa; E., ... Effects of cromakalim (BRL 34915) on mechanical responses of rat vas deferens to noradrenaline and naphazoline. 1-gen-1991 ... Effect of cromakalim on spontaneous activity of castrated rat vas deferens. 1-gen-1994 Boselli, Cinzia; Barbieri, Annalisa; ... Effect of cromakalim on spontaneous activity of castrated rat vas deferens. 1994-01-01 Boselli, Cinzia; Barbieri, Annalisa; E ...
KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate. HN - 2008 ...
... channel opener cromakalim inhibited the Ca2+ -induced contraction in K30 but not that evoked in K60. On the contrary, DP7 was ... channel opener cromakalim inhibited the Ca2+ -induced contraction in K30 but not that evoked in K60. On the contrary, DP7 was ...
Ocular Hypotensive Effects of the ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener Cromakalim in Human and Murine Experimental Model ...
Norouzi-Javidan A, Ostadhadi S, Zolfaghari S, Moradi A and Dehpour A (2017) RETRACTED ARTICLE: Cromakalim, a Potassium Channel ...
  • Cromakalim (INN) is a potassium channel-opening vasodilator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) and diazoxide on IOP in three independent mouse models of ocular hypertension. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have identified cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel water-soluble ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, as a new ocular hypotensive agent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abstract(i) We studied the effects of a new cromakalim analogue, SR47063, in guinea-pig ventricular cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 12. A novel cromakalim analogue induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells through the caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway. (nih.gov)
  • in vitro cardioprotective effects of zofenopril occur via modulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ), through a mechanism which differs from that of cromakalim (a classical K ATP activator). (medscape.com)
  • Effects of cromakalim (BRL 34915) on mechanical responses of rat vas deferens to noradrenaline and naphazoline. (unipv.it)
  • Purpose: To evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters and ocular hypotensive effects of cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) in normotensive large animal models. (bvsalud.org)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) and diazoxide on IOP in three independent mouse models of ocular hypertension. (bvsalud.org)