A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Creation of an artificial external opening or fistula in the intestines.
A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.
Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Benign, non-Langerhans-cell, histiocytic proliferative disorder that primarily affects the lymph nodes. It is often referred to as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Various branches of nursing practice limited to specialized areas.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.

Histocompatibility antigens in inflammatory bowel disease. Their clinical significance and their association with arthropathy with special reference to HLA-B27 (W27). (1/3713)

Histocompatibility (HLA) antigen phenotypes have been studied in 100 patients with ulcerative colitis, 100 with Crohn's disease, and 283 normal controls. In addition the incidence of ankylosing spondylitis, sacroiliitis, and "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy was determined in the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There was no significant difference in antigen frequency between patients and controls. However, the incidence of HLA-B27 was increased in the patients complicated by ankylosing spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. In contrast, none of the 29 IBD patients with "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy had B27 antigen. Furthermore, ankylosing spondylitis was found more frequently in ulcerative colitis bearing HLA-B27 compared with non-B27 patients (P less than 0-01). The same was found in Crohn's disease, although this difference was not statistically significant. In addition, 12 of 14 ulcerative colitis patients and five out of six Crohn's patients with HLA-B27 had total colitis, compared with the frequency of total colitis in non-B27 patients (P less than 0-024 and less than 0-03 respectively). The data suggest that B27 histocompatibility antigen could be a pathogenetic discriminator between the arthropathies in IBD and may be of prognostic significance with respect to extension and severity of the disease.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/3713)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Biased JH usage in plasma cell immunoglobulin gene sequences from colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis but not in Crohn's disease. (3/3713)

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colonic and rectal mucosa. Autoantibodies have been observed in ulcerative colitis which may have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Evidence also suggests that there is an hereditary predisposition towards the disease, although no individual genes have been identified. AIMS: This is a pilot study of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgH) in ulcerative colitis to determine whether they have any particular genetic characteristics which may lead to a better understanding of the disease aetiology. SUBJECTS: Colonic or rectal tissue was obtained from five children with ulcerative colitis. Tissue was also obtained from five children with Crohn's disease and five children who did not have inflammatory bowel disease as controls. METHODS: B cells and IgD+ B cells were identified by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections. Areas of lamina propria containing plasma cells, and areas of IgD+ B cells were microdissected. The immunoglobulin genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequences were analysed for content of somatic mutations and composition of heavy chain. RESULTS: An increase in the use of JH6 and DXP'1, and a decrease in the use of JH4, gene segments in immunoglobulin genes from lamina propria plasma cells, and from virgin IgD+ B cells, was found in patients with ulcerative colitis. These biases were not present in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is a fundamental difference in the immunoglobulin genes from patients with ulcerative colitis. Whether this is caused by a difference in content of immunoglobulin gene segments in the germline or a difference in the recombination mechanism is not known.  (+info)

A genomewide analysis provides evidence for novel linkages in inflammatory bowel disease in a large European cohort. (4/3713)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation, typically starting in early adulthood. IBD is subdivided into two subtypes, on the basis of clinical and histologic features: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Previous genomewide searches identified regions harboring susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 12, and 16. To expand our understanding of the genetic risk profile, we performed a 9-cM genomewide search for susceptibility loci in 268 families containing 353 affected sibling pairs. Previous linkages on chromosomes 12 and 16 were replicated, and the chromosome 4 linkage was extended in this sample. New suggestive evidence for autosomal linkages was observed on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 22, with LOD scores of 2.08, 2.07, 2.30, and 1.52, respectively. A maximum LOD score of 1.76 was observed on the X chromosome, for UC, which is consistent with the clinical association of IBD with Ullrich-Turner syndrome. The linkage finding on chromosome 6p is of interest, given the possible contribution of human leukocyte antigen and tumor necrosis-factor genes in IBD. This genomewide linkage scan, done with a large family cohort, has confirmed three previous IBD linkages and has provided evidence for five additional regions that may harbor IBD predisposition genes.  (+info)

Linkage of Crohn's disease to the major histocompatibility complex region is detected by multiple non-parametric analyses. (5/3713)

BACKGROUND: There is evidence for genetic susceptibility to Crohn's disease, and a tentative association with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and HLA class II alleles. AIMS: To examine the potential of genetic linkage between Crohn's disease and the MHC region on chromosome 6p. METHODS: TNF microsatellite markers and, for some families, additional HLA antigens were typed for 323 individuals from 49 Crohn's disease multiplex families to generate informative haplotypes. Non-parametric linkage analysis methods, including sib pair and affected relative pair methods, were used. RESULTS: Increased sharing of haplotypes was observed in affected sib pairs: 92% (48/52) shared one or two haplotypes versus an expected 75% if linkage did not exist (p=0.004). After other affected relative pairs were included, the significance level reached 0.001. The mean proportion of haplotype sharing was increased for both concordant affected (pi=0.60, p=0.002) and unaffected sib pairs (pi=0.58, p=0. 031) compared with the expected value (pi=0.5). In contrast, sharing in discordant sib pairs was significantly decreased (pi=0.42, p=0. 007). Linear regression analysis using all three types of sib pairs yielded a slope of -0.38 at p=0.00003. It seemed that the HLA effect was stronger in non-Jewish families than in Jewish families. CONCLUSIONS: All available analytical methods support linkage of Crohn's disease to the MHC region in these Crohn's disease families. This region is estimated to contribute approximately 10-33% of the total genetic risk to Crohn's disease.  (+info)

Antigen-specific B-cell unresponsiveness induced by chronic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle. (6/3713)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle results in a chronic granulomatous enteritis. Clinical disease (i.e., cachexia, diarrhea, and high fecal bacterial counts) is preceded by a lengthy subclinical stage of disease. The immunologic mechanisms associated with the progression of infected cattle from subclinical to clinical disease are unclear. In this study, a cell proliferation assay was used in combination with flow cytometry to compare peripheral blood lymphocyte responses of cattle with subclinical paratuberculosis to responses of cattle with clinical paratuberculosis. B cells from cattle with subclinical disease proliferated vigorously upon stimulation with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen, with up to 12.4% of the total B cells responding. However, B cells from cattle with clinical disease did not proliferate upon antigen stimulation despite good proliferation in response to concanavalin A stimulation. In addition, these animals had high percentages of peripheral blood B cells. B cells from noninfected animals did not proliferate upon M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen stimulation. Thus, it appears that B-cell proliferation is a sensitive indicator of subclinical Johne's disease. Furthermore, the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the antigen-specific unresponsiveness of peripheral blood B cells may be significant in the eventual progression from subclinical to clinical Johne's disease in cattle.  (+info)

Secretion imbalance between tumour necrosis factor and its inhibitor in inflammatory bowel disease. (7/3713)

BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and TNF-beta are soluble ligands binding to TNF receptors with similar activities; soluble TNF receptors neutralise TNF activity by acting as inhibitors. Little is known about the cytokine/soluble receptor role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS: To test the hypothesis that an imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitors plays a role in gut inflammation in patients with IBD. METHODS: The secretion of TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, and soluble TNF receptors was compared in the culture supernatants of colonic biopsy specimens and isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with active colonic IBD. RESULTS: Spontaneous secretion of TNF-alpha in involved IBD mucosa was higher than in normal control and self limited colitis mucosa. Secretion of TNF-beta was higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in those with ulcerative colitis. Soluble TNF receptor in IBD mucosa inhibited TNF activity. Type 2 soluble receptor release from IBD mucosa was increased in active inflammation; release from lamina propria cells was not increased. Mucosal TNF-alpha production correlated with severity of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed enhanced secretion of TNF-alpha but failure to release enhanced amounts of soluble TNF receptor in lamina propria mononuclear cells of patients with IBD. An imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitor may be implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD.  (+info)

Analysis of MHC class II DP, DQ and DR alleles in Crohn's disease. (8/3713)

BACKGROUND: Although inflammation in Crohn's disease is believed to be mediated by activated T cells, genotyping of all MHC class II alleles in white people with this disease has not been reported. AIMS: To perform a detailed molecular analysis of HLA DPB, DQB, and DRB genes in white patients with Crohn's disease and controls in order to determine if the inheritance of any class II genes confers susceptibility or resistance to this disease. METHODS: Complete molecular typing of HLA class II DPB, DQB, and DRB alleles was performed in 58 white patients with Crohn's disease and 93 healthy controls using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide based approach. RESULTS: No significant association with any DPB or DQB alleles was noted in patients with Crohn's disease. Since our previous studies had shown a strong association of an HLA DRB3*0301/DRB1*1302 haplotype with Crohn's disease, we re-examined this association using more stringent genotyping criteria. This haplotype was present in 20.7% of patients and 5.4% of controls (p = 0.0066; relative risk = 4.59). CONCLUSIONS: The DRB3*0301/DRB1*1302 haplotype is the only significant MHC class II association noted in white people with Crohn's disease and represents the strongest association of any MHC or non-MHC locus with this disease.  (+info)

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

NOD2 (Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-containing protein 2) signaling adaptor protein, also known as CARD15 (Caspase Recruitment Domain-containing protein 15), is a crucial intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays an essential role in the innate immune response. NOD2 is primarily expressed in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and intestinal epithelial cells.

NOD2 signaling adaptor protein contains two caspase recruitment domains (CARD), a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD), and multiple leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The LRR region is responsible for recognizing and binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) derived from bacterial cell walls, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Upon recognition of MDP, NOD2 undergoes oligomerization through its NOD domain, which leads to the recruitment of receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) via CARD-CARD interactions. This interaction results in the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which ultimately induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides.

Dysregulation or mutations in NOD2 signaling adaptor protein have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease, Blau syndrome, and susceptibility to certain mycobacterial infections.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

An enterostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening from the intestine to the abdominal wall, which allows for the elimination of waste from the body. This opening is called a stoma and can be temporary or permanent, depending on the individual's medical condition. There are several types of enterostomies, including colostomy, ileostomy, and jejunostomy, which differ based on the specific location in the intestine where the stoma is created.

The purpose of an enterostomy may vary, but it is often performed to divert the flow of waste away from a diseased or damaged section of the intestine, allowing it to heal. Common reasons for an enterostomy include inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, trauma, and birth defects.

After the surgery, patients will need to wear a pouching system over the stoma to collect waste. They will also require specialized care and education on how to manage their stoma and maintain their overall health. With proper care and support, individuals with an enterostomy can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2 (RIPK2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory and cell death pathways. It is a serine-threonine kinase that interacts with receptors involved in innate immune signaling, such as TNFR1 and TLRs. RIPK2 is essential for the activation of NF-κB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, and cell survival. Additionally, RIPK2 has been implicated in the regulation of programmed cell death pathways such as necroptosis. Mutations in RIPK2 have been associated with various immune-related disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease and Blau syndrome.

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis (GTB) is a type of tuberculosis that affects the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, intestines, and associated organs such as the liver and spleen. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which typically infects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

In GTB, the bacteria invade the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and cause inflammation, ulceration, and thickening of the intestinal wall. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody), weight loss, fever, and fatigue. GTB can also cause complications such as bowel obstruction, perforation, or fistula formation.

Diagnosis of GTB can be challenging, as the symptoms are non-specific and can mimic those of other gastrointestinal disorders. Diagnostic tests may include endoscopy, biopsy, culture, and molecular testing for the presence of M. tuberculosis. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, administered under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

It's worth noting that GTB is relatively rare in developed countries with low rates of tuberculosis, but it is more common in areas where TB is endemic or among populations with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.

Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine is a chemical compound that is a component of bacterial cell walls. It is also known as N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanine-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid, which is its more detailed and complete chemical name.

This compound is a key building block of peptidoglycan, a complex polymer that provides structural rigidity to bacterial cell walls. Specifically, Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine is a part of the peptide subunit that links individual peptidoglycan strands together, forming a cross-linked network that helps protect bacteria from external stresses and osmotic pressure.

In addition to its structural role, Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine has been shown to have immunostimulatory properties, and it is being investigated as a potential vaccine adjuvant to enhance the immune response to other antigens.

Paneth cells are specialized epithelial cells located in the small intestine, specifically in the crypts of Lieberkühn. They play an essential role in the immune function and maintenance of the intestinal environment. Paneth cells are characterized by their large, granulated secretory vesicles that contain antimicrobial peptides and proteins, such as defensins and lysozyme. These substances help to control the growth of bacteria in the small intestine and maintain a balanced microbiota. Additionally, Paneth cells secrete other factors that support the function and survival of stem cells located in the crypts. They are also involved in the inflammatory response by producing cytokines and chemokines, which help to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

The transverse colon is the section of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen, located between the ascending colon and the descending colon. It receives digested food material from the left side of the cecum via the transverse mesocolon, a double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches it to the posterior abdominal wall.

The transverse colon is responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes, and vitamins from the digested food material before it moves into the distal sections of the large intestine. It also contains a large number of bacteria that help in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of certain vitamins, such as vitamin K and biotin.

The transverse colon is highly mobile and can change its position within the abdomen depending on factors such as respiration, digestion, and posture. It is also prone to various pathological conditions, including inflammation (colitis), diverticulosis, and cancer.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Sinus histiocytosis is a rare condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of histiocytes (a type of immune cell) in the sinuses. It is also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease when it occurs as a systemic disorder. In sinus histiocytosis, the histiocytes accumulate in the mucous membranes lining the sinuses, leading to their enlargement and possible obstruction. Symptoms may include nasal congestion, drainage, and pain. The exact cause of sinus histiocytosis is unknown, but it is not contagious or cancerous. Treatment typically involves monitoring and, in some cases, surgery to relieve symptoms caused by blockages.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that involves the degradation and recycling of damaged or unnecessary cellular components, such as proteins and organelles. The term "autophagy" comes from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "phagy" meaning eating. It is a natural process that occurs in all types of cells and helps maintain cellular homeostasis by breaking down and recycling these components.

There are several different types of autophagy, including macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Macroautophagy is the most well-known form and involves the formation of a double-membraned vesicle called an autophagosome, which engulfs the cellular component to be degraded. The autophagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an organelle containing enzymes that break down and recycle the contents of the autophagosome.

Autophagy plays important roles in various cellular processes, including adaptation to starvation, removal of damaged organelles, clearance of protein aggregates, and regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Dysregulation of autophagy has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

A Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is an analytical approach used in genetic research to identify associations between genetic variants, typically Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and specific traits or diseases across the entire genome. This method involves scanning the genomes of many individuals, usually thousands, to find genetic markers that occur more frequently in people with a particular disease or trait than in those without it.

The goal of a GWAS is to identify genetic loci (positions on chromosomes) associated with a trait or disease, which can help researchers understand the underlying genetic architecture and biological mechanisms contributing to the condition. It's important to note that while GWAS can identify associations between genetic variants and traits/diseases, these studies do not necessarily prove causation. Further functional validation studies are often required to confirm the role of identified genetic variants in the development or progression of a trait or disease.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Nursing specialties refer to specific areas of practice within the nursing profession that require additional education, training, and expertise beyond the basic nursing degree. These specialties allow nurses to focus their career on a particular population, disease, or type of care, and may include areas such as:

1. Pediatrics: Nursing care for infants, children, and adolescents.
2. Gerontology: Nursing care for older adults.
3. Oncology: Nursing care for patients with cancer.
4. Critical Care: Nursing care for critically ill patients in intensive care units.
5. Perioperative Nursing: Nursing care for patients undergoing surgery.
6. Neonatal Nursing: Nursing care for newborns who require specialized medical care.
7. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: Nursing care for patients with mental health disorders.
8. Rehabilitation Nursing: Nursing care for patients recovering from illness or injury.
9. Occupational Health Nursing: Nursing care focused on promoting and maintaining the health and well-being of workers.
10. Public Health Nursing: Nursing care focused on improving the health of communities and populations.

Nurses who specialize in these areas may hold additional certifications, such as Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN) or Critical Care Registered Nurse (CCRN), which demonstrate their expertise and commitment to providing high-quality care in their chosen specialty.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Duodenoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a duodenoscope, which is a flexible, lighted tube with a camera and tiny tools on the end, through the mouth and down the throat to examine the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) and the opening of the bile and pancreatic ducts.

During the procedure, the doctor can take tissue samples for biopsy, remove polyps or other abnormal growths, or perform other interventions as needed. Duodenoscopy is commonly used to diagnose and treat conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

It's important to note that duodenoscopes have been associated with the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in some cases, so healthcare providers must follow strict cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize this risk.

Grave's disease and Crohn's disease. Coghlan A (January 10, 2018). "A single gene can either raise or lower Crohn's disease ... "Crohn's disease". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crohn's disease. ... National Research Council (2003). "Johne's Disease and Crohn's Disease". Diagnosis and Control of Johne's Disease. Washington, ... While Crohn's is an immune-related disease, it does not appear to be an autoimmune disease (the immune system is not triggered ...
"Crohn's disease of the vulva". Journal of Crohn's and Colitis. 8 (7): 563-570. doi:10.1016/j.crohns.2013.10.009. PMID 24252167 ... Crohn's disease (CD) of the vulva is a rare extra intestinal condition, with granulomatous cutaneous lesions affecting the ... Hamilton PA, Brown P, Davies JD, Salmon PR, Crow KD (July 1977). "Crohn's disease: an unusual cause of dyspareunia". Br Med J. ... Reitsma W, Wiegman MJ, Damstra RJ (March 2012). "Penile and scrotal lzmphedema as an unusual presentation of Crohn's disease: ...
Stress can influence the course of Crohn's disease. Smoking has also been associated with the disease, and smokers with Crohn's ... What should patients with Crohn's disease avoid?, from Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program at the Digestive Disease Center at ... 1982). "A comparative study of metronidazole and sulfasalazine for active Crohn's disease: The cooperative Crohn's disease ... "Crohn Disease". WebMD. Retrieved July 7, 2012. Hanauer, SB (1991). "Sulfasalazine vs. Steroids in Crohn's disease: David vs. ...
The Crohn's Disease Activity Index or CDAI is a research tool used to quantify the symptoms of patients with Crohn's disease. ... "Development of a Crohn's disease activity index. National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study". Gastroenterology. 70 (3): 439-444 ... As Crohn's disease is a disease with a variety of symptoms that affect quality of life, the quantification of symptoms may be ... Remission of Crohn's disease is defined as CDAI below 150. Severe disease was defined as a value of greater than 450. Most ...
"Crohn's Disease". Mayo Clinic. 6 August 2022. Crohn's Disease Archived 9 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine National Digestive ... The following is a list of notable people diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel ... Diseases Information Clearinghouse "Signs and Symptoms of Crohn's Disease". CROHN'S & COLITIS FOUNDATION. Retrieved 24 June ... Crohn's Disease and finding his own voice". The Herald. Retrieved 1 March 2023. Dineen knows pain of Crohn's SLAM! Hockey 5 ...
The mission of the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation is "to cure Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to improve the quality ... Marshall S. Bedine On Crohn's Disease". Baltimore Jewish Times. April 8, 1994. p. 16. "Our Mission and Core Values - Crohn's & ... of life of children and adults affected by these diseases." Crohn's and Colitis Canada Crohn's and Colitis UK Guts UK "Crohn's ... "Crohn's & Colitis Foundation". cctakesteps.org. "Crohn's & Colitis Foundation". "Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America[ ...
Crohn's & Colitis UK (formerly NACC) is a UK charity dedicated to Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and other forms of ... inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It was founded in 1979 as the National Association for Colitis and Crohn's Disease. Crohn's ... Crohn's and Colitis Canada Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Guts UK Official website "Crohn's and Colitis UK, registered ... These two illnesses are both forms of Iinflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and they affect over 500,000 people in the UK. Crohn's ...
He was a great-nephew of Burrill Bernard Crohn, for whom Crohn's disease is named. Crohn had the "delta 32" mutation on the ... Stephen Lyon Crohn (September 5, 1946 - August 23, 2013) also known as "The man who can't catch AIDS", was a man notable for a ... Crohn committed suicide by a drug overdose on oxycodone and benzodiazepines at the age of 66. Timothy Ray Brown Adam Castillejo ... Video and text from a PBS documentary about Stephen Crohn and the discovery of CCR5 v t e (Articles with short description, ...
"Crohn's Disease". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 28 August 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2021. "Crohn's Disease". National ... This condition may occur in isolation, but is frequently indicative of another underlying disorder, such as Crohn's disease. If ... Crohn's disease, chronic corticosteroid treatment and others. It arises as a complication of paraproctitis. Ischiorectal, inter ... Diseases of the rectum and anus: perianal abscess". In Goldman, Lee; Schafer, Andrew I. (eds.). Goldman-Cecil Medicine. Vol. 1 ...
"Crohn's Disease". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 28 August 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2021. "Crohn's disease". NHS UK. 23 ... "Fistulae and abscesses in symptomatic perianal Crohn's disease". International Journal of Colorectal Disease. 11 (5): 222-6. ... Hence, it can be confused with Crohn's disease. Rectal gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The condition is usually ... Perianal Crohn's disease is associated with fistulizing, fissuring and perianal abscess formation. After colostomy, the distal ...
"Crohn's Disease". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 28 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2021. "Ulcerative Colitis". The ... Lyme disease Sjögren's disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis Celiac disease Non-celiac gluten sensitivity Inflammatory bowel disease ... Arthritis is predominantly a disease of the elderly, but children can also be affected by the disease. Arthritis is more common ... including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) Henoch-Schönlein purpura Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever ...
... over Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis is a documentary film created by Josh Golder to raise awareness for Crohn's disease ... True Guts won two FREDDIE Awards in the 2007 festival including its category, Inflammatory Diseases, and the Michael E. DeBakey ... M.D. Award, which is give to the "finest educational entry of the year." "Crohn's Disease , About". www.trueguts.com. Archived ... CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are forms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) True Guts premiered in Boston on ...
Edwards, H. (March 1969). "Crohn's disease. An inquiry into its nature and consequences". Annals of the Royal College of ... Crohn's Disease 1967 R. Milnes Walker, Cancer in South-West England 1966 Charles Wells, The Small Intestine 1965 Sir Hedley ... Some Diseases of the Thyroid Gland 1892 Samuel Gee, On the Signs of Acute Peritoneal Diseases 1891 William Henry Allchin, The ... Operative Treatment of Malignant Disease 1920 Berkeley Moynihan, The Spleen and some of its Diseases 1919 Sir Charles Alfred ...
"Crohn's Disease is a Chronic Condition Crohn's Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your body and managing your ... Crohn's disease. cIAP1 is responsible for NOD signalling. When this signalling is defective, Crohn's disease is triggered. The ... you can live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn's Disease?". David Vaux; Gerry Melino. Cell Death. Wiley. Temesgen Samuel ... Holcik M, Graber TE (2011). "Distinct roles for the cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins 1 and 2". Cell Death & Disease. 2 ...
Crohn's disease. Radiological features and clinical-surgical correlations; Cap.12:107-113; Cap.14:128-133 (Articles with short ... Diagnostic efficacy and image quality in Crohn disease". Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. 98 (12): 893-899. doi:10.1016/j ... Over the past several years assessment of small bowel diseases was performed by Barium follow through, or upper and lower ... The need for imaging assessment of small bowel diseases comes from the limits of traditional endoscopy in evaluating ileum ...
A Western pattern diet has been associated with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease has its effects on the symbiotic bacteria ... Baumgart, Daniel C; Sandborn, William J (2012). "Crohn's disease". The Lancet. 380 (9853): 1590-1605. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(12 ... death from heart disease, cancer (especially colon cancer), and other "Western pattern diet"-related diseases. It increases the ... The consumption of trans fatty acids such as trans elaidic acid has been linked to cardiovascular disease. By 2005, margarine ...
Crohn's disease: A trial was announced to evaluate Prochymal in moderate to severe Crohn's Disease. Graft versus host disease ... "Crohn's Disease". Mesoblast. http://ir.mesoblast.com/DownloadFile.axd?file=/Report/ComNews/20150609/01631584.pdf[bare URL PDF] ... It seeks to provide treatments for inflammatory ailments, cardiovascular disease, and back pain. The company is led by Silviu ... US Patent 9265796, Peter Ghosh & Silviu Itescu, "Methods of treating or preventing rheumatic disease", published 2014-09-18, ...
Crohn's disease is a common chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can affect any part of the GI tract, but it mostly ... Mouth diseases include tongue diseases and salivary gland diseases. A common gum disease in the mouth is gingivitis which is ... "Crohn's Disease". National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). July 10, 2013. Archived from the original on 9 ... It can also arise as a result of other gastrointestinal diseases such as coeliac disease. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune ...
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two universal type of inflammatory bowel diseases that have been ... family genetic and people's lifestyle such that smoking is considered highly associated with these diseases. Crohn's disease is ... Crohn's disease can lead to infection of any part of the digestive tract, including ileum to anus. Internal manifestations ... Mak, Wing Yan; Hart, Alisa L; Ng, Siew C (2019). "Crohn's disease". Medicine. 47 (6): 377-387. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2019.03.007 ...
"Crohn's Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD): Merck Manual Home Edition". Merckmanuals.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31. " ... Colorectal cancer Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis Other types of inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, or ... "Crohn's disease: Symptoms". MayoClinic.com. 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2012-01-31. "Ulcerative Colitis - Symptoms, Causes and ... "Diverticulitis: Diverticular Disease: Merck Manual Home Edition". Merckmanuals.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31. "Salmonella infection ...
Myers had dyslexia and in 1988 was diagnosed with Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease that currently has no cure, ... doctors told Myers that his Crohn's Disease had gone into remission and that he no longer suffered from any of the disease's ... Late in 1988, Steele retired after being diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Steele then became a road agent for the WWF until he ... People with Crohn's disease, Professional wrestlers from Michigan, Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum, WWE Hall of ...
"Crohn's Disease Relief". Crohnsdiseaserelief.com. "Jordan Sweeney Hitting The Road to Recovery". Antimusic.com. "Jordan Sweeney ... I decided to dedicate my whole musical career (to) raising awareness about this disease." A few months after signing a record ... Sweeney decided to dedicate his whole musical career to raising awareness about this disease. He recorded his first album, ... with The Crohn's & Colitis Foundation (CCFA) Take Steps program who has supported Sweeney on his tour. Sweeney recorded his ...
"Learn the Facts About Crohn's Disease". Crohn's and Colitis. Retrieved 2017-12-06. "What is Crohn's Disease , Causes of Crohn's ... Inflammatory bowel disease is also divided into separate conditions, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which have ... "Crohn's Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD): Merck Manual Home Edition". Merckmanuals.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31. Gastric ... Crohn's disease), certain drugs (e.g. ibuprofen), radiation therapy, and Coeliac disease. Food poisoning-the bacteria that is ...
Crohn's disease has been linked to infection with the bacterium M. paratuberculosis, which has been found in pasteurised retail ... paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease". Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 11 (12): 1123. doi:10.1097/01.MIB.0000191609.20713.ea. PMID 16306778 ... The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing for the disease and culling suspected animals. Brucellosis is a ... Hermon-Taylor, John (14 July 2009). "Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Crohn's disease and the Doomsday scenario ...
In 2004, he was diagnosed with Crohn's disease, helping to explain his recurring intestinal problems. The condition required ... Slack, Donovan (August 20, 2004). "Menino battles Crohn's disease". The Boston Globe. "Former mayor Thomas M. Menino diagnosed ... People with Crohn's disease, Presidents of the United States Conference of Mayors, University of Massachusetts Boston alumni, ... cut short as he was diagnosed with an advanced form of cancer of unknown primary origin in March 2014 and died from the disease ...
Rose had Crohn's disease. Her work addressed chronic illness, and how society deals with it. Rose spent an increasing amount of ... "Crohn's patient Lizzy Rose accepts clinic's egg-freezing offer". BBC News. 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2023-02-21. "Court warns CCG ...
She has Crohn's disease. She started being known in October 2012 through her participation in the reality television show ... "Ylenia, se derrumba: "Padezco la enfermedad de Crohn...Tengo que cuidarme y no beber"". Telecinco. "Ylenia Padilla pone por fin ...
He has Crohn's disease. Erskine-Smith married Amelia (Amy) Symington, a prominent Toronto vegan chef and nutritionist, on her ...
Jul 2003). "Crohn's disease and cheilitis". Can J Gastroenterol. 17 (7): 445-7. doi:10.1155/2003/368754. PMID 12915919. West, ... Cryptitis is a non-specific histopathologic finding that is seen in several conditions, e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, ... diverticular disease, radiation colitis, infectious colitis. Cryptitis. H&E stain. Focal cryptitis and a granuloma. H&E stain. ...
In one main study in adult patients with moderate to severe active Crohn's disease in whom conventional therapy or TNF-alpha ... Vedolizumab has been approved for use in adults with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease having a poor ... for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It binds to integrin α4β7 (LPAM-1, lymphocyte Peyer's patch ... Vedolizumab eventually completed a number of phase III clinical trials for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (GEMINI I, ...

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