A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Those biological processes that are involved in the transmission of hereditary traits from one organism to another.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds of silver and proteins used as topical anti-infective agents.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.

Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins. (1/356)

Integrin ligand binding induces a signaling complex formation via the direct association of the docking protein p130(Cas) (Cas) with diverse molecules. We report here that the 14-3-3zeta protein interacts with Cas in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also found that the two proteins associate in mammalian cells and that this interaction takes place in a phosphoserine-dependent manner, because treatment of Cas with a serine phosphatase greatly reduced its ability to bind 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, the Cas-14-3-3zeta interaction was found to be regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Thus, when cells are detached from the extracellular matrix, the binding of Cas to 14-3-3zeta is greatly diminished, whereas replating the cells onto fibronectin rapidly induces the association. Consistent with these results, we found that the subcellular localization of Cas and 14-3-3 is also regulated by integrin ligand binding and that the two proteins display a significant co-localization during cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins participate in integrin-activated signaling pathways through their interaction with Cas, which, in turn, may contribute to important biological responses regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Alternatively spliced EDA segment regulates fibronectin-dependent cell cycle progression and mitogenic signal transduction. (2/356)

Fibronectin (FN) is comprised of multiple isoforms arising from alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. One of the alternatively spliced segments, EDA, is expressed prominently in embryonic development, malignant transformation, and wound healing. We showed previously that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in promoting cell spreading and cell migration because of its enhanced binding affinity to integrin alpha5beta1 (Manabe, R., Oh-e, N., Maeda, T., Fukuda, T., and Sekiguchi, K. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 295-307). In this study, we compared the cell cycle progression and its associated signal transduction events induced by FN isoforms with or without the EDA segment to examine whether the EDA segment modulates the cell proliferative potential of FN. We found that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in inducing G1-S phase transition. Inclusion of the EDA segment potentiated the ability of FN to induce expression of cyclin D1, hyperphosphorylation of pRb, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). EDA+ FN was also more potent than EDA- FN in promoting FN-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(Cas), but not focal adhesion kinase, which occurred in parallel with the activation of ERK2, suggesting that p130(Cas) may be involved in activation of ERK2. These results indicated that alternative splicing at the EDA region is a novel mechanism that promotes FN-induced cell cycle progression through up-regulation of integrin-mediated mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

Agonist-stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction at focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle cells require c-Src. (3/356)

Thrombin and angiotensin II (angII) have trophic properties as mediators of vascular remodeling. Focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton are involved in cell growth, shape, and movement and may be important in vascular remodeling. To characterize mechanisms by which thrombin and angII modulate vessel structure, we studied the effects of these G protein-coupled receptor ligands on focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Both thrombin and angII stimulated bundling of actin filaments to form stress fibers, assembly of focal adhesions, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation at focal adhesions, such as p130Cas, paxillin, and tensin. To test whether c-Src plays a critical role in focal adhesion rearrangement, we analyzed cells with altered c-Src activity by retroviral transduction of wild-type (WT) and kinase-inactive (KI) c-Src into rat VSMCs, and by use of VSMCs from WT (src+/+) and Src-deficient (src-/-) mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, paxillin, and tensin were markedly decreased in VSMCs expressing KI-Src and in src-/- VSMCs. Expression of KI-Src did not inhibit stress fiber formation by thrombin. Surprisingly, actin bundling was markedly decreased in VSMCs from src-/- mice both basally and after thrombin stimulation, compared with src+/+ mice. We also studied the effect of KI-Src and WT-Src on VSMC spreading. Expression of KI-Src reduced the rate of VSMC spreading on collagen, whereas WT-Src enhanced cell spreading. In conclusion, c-Src plays a critical role in agonist-stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction at focal adhesions in VSMCs. c-Src kinase activity is required for the cytoskeletal turnover that occurs in cell spreading, whereas c-Src appears to regulate actin bundling via a kinase-independent mechanism.  (+info)

NSP1 defines a novel family of adaptor proteins linking integrin and tyrosine kinase receptors to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. (4/356)

As part of a program to further understand the mechanism by which extracellular signals are coordinated and cell-specific outcomes are generated, we have cloned a novel class of related adaptor molecules (NSP1, NSP2, and NSP3) and have characterized in more detail one of the members, NSP1. NSP1 has an Shc-related SH2 domain and a putative proline/serine-rich SH3 interaction domain. Treatment of cells with epidermal growth factor or insulin leads to NSP1 phosphorylation and increased association with a hypophosphorylated adaptor protein, p130(Cas). In contrast, cell contact with fibronectin results in Cas phosphorylation and a transient dissociation of NSP1 from p130(Cas). Increased expression of NSP1 in 293 cells induces activation of JNK1, but not of ERK2. Consistent with this observation, NSP1 increases the activity of an AP-1-containing promoter. Thus, we have described a novel family of adaptor proteins, one of which may be involved in the process by which receptor tyrosine kinase and integrin receptors control the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase pathway.  (+info)

Rho-dependent and -independent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin and p130Cas mediated by Ret kinase. (5/356)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a unique receptor system that includes Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface protein. In the present study, we have identified several proteins in neuroblastoma cells that are phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to GDNF. The phosphorylated proteins include focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Crk-associated substrate, p130Cas, all of which are known to be associated with focal adhesions. Of these, paxillin and p130Cas interacted with Crk proteins in GDNF-treated neuroblastoma cells. GDNF also induced reorganization of the actin cytoskelton. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas was inhibited by cytochalasin D or two specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3' kinase), wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that their tyrosine phosphorylation depends on the formation of actin stress fiber and activation of PI-3' kinase. In addition, phosphorylation of FAK but not of paxillin and p130Cas was markedly impaired by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme that specifically ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. These results suggested the presence of Rho-dependent and -independent signaling pathways downstream of PI-3' kinase that mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas through Ret kinase.  (+info)

CMS: an adapter molecule involved in cytoskeletal rearrangements. (6/356)

Cas ligand with multiple Src homology (SH) 3 domains (CMS) is an ubiquitously expressed signal transduction molecule that interacts with the focal adhesion protein p130(Cas). CMS contains three SH3 in its NH2 terminus and proline-rich sequences in its center region. The latter sequences mediate the binding to the SH3 domains of p130(Cas), Src-family kinases, p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Grb2. The COOH-terminal region contains putative actin binding sites and a coiled-coil domain that mediates homodimerization of CMS. CMS is a cytoplasmic protein that colocalizes with F-actin and p130(Cas) to membrane ruffles and leading edges of cells. Ectopic expression of CMS in COS-7 cells resulted in alteration in arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. We observed a diffuse distribution of actin in small dots and less actin fiber formation. Altogether, these features suggest that CMS functions as a scaffolding molecule with a specialized role in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression in FAK-null cells enhances cell spreading and migration requiring both auto- and activation loop phosphorylation sites and inhibits adhesion-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. (7/356)

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in integrin-mediated control of cell behavior. Following cell adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix, FAK becomes phosphorylated at multiple sites, including tyrosines 397, 576, and 577. Tyr-397 is an autophosphorylation site that promotes interaction with c-Src or Fyn. Tyr-576 and Tyr-577 lie in the putative activation loop of the kinase domain, and FAK catalytic activity may be elevated through phosphorylation of these residues by associated Src family kinase. Recent studies have implicated FAK as a positive regulator of cell spreading and migration. To further study the mechanism of adhesion-induced FAK activation and the possible role and signaling requirements for FAK in cell spreading and migration, we utilized the tetracycline repression system to achieve inducible expression of either wild-type FAK or phosphorylation site mutants in fibroblasts derived from FAK-null mouse embryos. Using these Tet-FAK cells, we demonstrated that both the FAK autophosphorylation and activation loop sites are critical for maximum adhesion-induced FAK activation and FAK-enhanced cell spreading and migration responses. Negative effects on cell spreading and migration, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the substrate p130(Cas), were observed upon induced expression of the FAK autophosphorylation site mutant. These negative effects appear to result from an inhibition of integrin-mediated signaling by the FAK-related kinase Pyk2/CAKbeta/RAFTK/CadTK.  (+info)

Integrin-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase is required for signaling to Jun NH2-terminal kinase and progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (8/356)

The extracellular matrix exerts a stringent control on the proliferation of normal cells, suggesting the existence of a mitogenic signaling pathway activated by integrins, but not significantly by growth factor receptors. Herein, we provide evidence that integrins cause a significant and protracted activation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), while several growth factors cause more modest or no activation of this enzyme. Integrin-mediated stimulation of JNK required the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with a Src kinase and p130(CAS), the phosphorylation of p130(CAS), and subsequently, the recruitment of Crk. Ras and PI-3K were not required. FAK-JNK signaling was necessary for proper progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These findings establish a role for FAK in both the activation of JNK and the control of the cell cycle, and identify a physiological stimulus for JNK signaling that is consistent with the role of Jun in both proliferation and transformation.  (+info)

Background The focal adhesion protein p130Cas (Cas) activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways upon integrin or growth factor receptor ligation. MG132. At the present period, the domain names in Cas and the downstream paths that are needed for mediating cell loss of life caused by proteasome inhibitors stay unfamiliar. Curiously, nevertheless, MG132 or Bortezomib treatment lead in service of autophagy in cells that was missing Cas, but not really in cells that indicated Cas. Furthermore, autophagy was discovered to play a protecting part in Cas-deficient cells, as inhibition of autophagy either by chemical substance or hereditary means improved MG132-caused apoptosis in Cas-/- (EV) cells, but not really in Cas-FL cells. Lack of Cas also led to Rabbit polyclonal to ABCB5 level of resistance to the DNA-damaging agent Doxorubicin, which coincided with Doxorubicin-induced autophagy in Cas-/- (EV) cells. Therefore, Cas may possess a regulatory part in cell loss of life signaling in response ...
The cell signaling docking protein p130cas became tyrosine-phosphorylated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells during induced differentiation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and serum or a combination of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The differentiating cells develop a neuronal phenotype with neurites and growth cones and sustained activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and pp60c-src. The TPA-induced p130cas phosphorylation increased within 5 min of stimulation and persisted for at least 4 days, whereas bFGF/IGF-I-induced p130cas phosphorylation was biphasic. However, the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of p130cas was not restricted to differentiation inducing stimuli. The phosphorylation was blocked by the specific PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, and transient transfection with active PKC-epsilon induced p130cas tyrosine phosphorylation. pp60c-src, known to directly phosphorylate p130cas in other cell systems, was not activated ...
Robinson LJ, Yaroslavskiy BB, Griswold RD, Zadorozny EV, Guo L, Tourkova IL, Blair HC. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-alpha with BCAR1 and Traf6. Exp Cell Res. 2009 Apr 15; 315(7):1287-301 ...
Breast tumors are initially dependent on estrogens for growth and progression and can be inhibited by anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen. However, breast cancers progress to become anti-estrogen resistant. Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance gene 3 was identified in the search for genes involved in the development of estrogen resistance. The gene encodes a component of intracellular signal transduction that causes estrogen-independent proliferation in human breast cancer cells. The protein contains a putative src homology 2 (SH2) domain, a hall mark of cellular tyrosine kinase signaling molecules, and is partly homologous to the cell division cycle protein CDC48. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
Background The focal adhesion protein p130Cas (Cas) activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways upon integrin or growth factor receptor ligation. MG132. At the present period, the domain names in Cas and the downstream paths that are needed for mediating cell loss of life caused by proteasome inhibitors stay unfamiliar. Curiously, nevertheless, MG132 or Bortezomib treatment lead in service of autophagy in cells that was missing Cas, but not really in cells that indicated Cas. Furthermore, autophagy was discovered to play a protecting part in Cas-deficient cells, as inhibition of autophagy either by chemical substance or hereditary means improved MG132-caused apoptosis in Cas-/- (EV) cells, but not really in Cas-FL cells. Lack of Cas also led to Rabbit polyclonal to ABCB5 level of resistance to the DNA-damaging agent Doxorubicin, which coincided with Doxorubicin-induced autophagy in Cas-/- (EV) cells. Therefore, Cas may possess a regulatory part in cell loss of life signaling in response ...
Tyrosine phosphorylated Cas substrate domain blocks activation of JNK. a) NIH3T3 cells stably transfected with vector alone, the Src*/Cas(SD) chimera alone, v-c
Complete information for BCAR1 gene (Protein Coding), BCAR1, Cas Family Scaffolding Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
In addition to the Cas9 protein that bacteria use to bind ... DNA, bacteria have other Cas proteins that know where to insert ... team has discovered how these proteins -- Cas1 and Cas2 -- locate and ...
CAS Number, CAS NO. Search, cas no. of chemicals Search,cas number database free for lookchem-CasNo list - 1,140682-60-6,140641-19-6
CAS Number, CAS NO. Search, cas no. of chemicals Search,cas number database free for lookchem-CasNo list - 1,183239-55-6,106-80-9
Plasmid pRSF-DUET Cas1 Cas2 from Dr. George Churchs lab contains the inserts Cas1 and Cas2 and is published in Science. 2016 Jun 9. pii: aaf1175. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
BCAR1兔单克隆抗体[EPR1860](ab92699)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Listing of chemicals CAS Number: 129885-04-7 through CAS Number: 1343-88-0 with links to more detailed information for each chemical.
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香豆素-3-羧酸乙酯 Ethyl 3-coumarincarboxylate 是一种香豆素衍生物。Ethyl 3-coumarincarboxylate 可作为伪模板,用于制备对黄曲霉毒素具有较为特异性识别能力的分子印迹聚合物 (MIP ...
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Products CAS number 2,3-Dibromosuccinic acid 526-78-3 2-Bromoacetic acid 79-08-3 2-Bromobutyric acid 80
Restekの検索可能なクロマトグラムライブラリはRestekの化学者、パートナー、お客様のアプリケーションから得た、多数のクロマトグラムの総合的なデータベースです。 当社の独自のライブラリは、化合物名、同義語、CAS #、化合物クラス、Restekまたは競合のカラム名、カタログ番号、またはキーワードでクロマトグラムを検索できます。 結果を絞るためにもっと検索用語を使えます。ライブラリのサイドバー内のリンクを使って検索結果を素早く絞り込むことも可能です。 ここに示すアプリケーションに関して質問があれば、Restekのテクニカルサービスグループにご連絡ください。. ...
Description: Cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, the product of the CAS gene, is associated with microtubules and the mitotic spindle. CAS is the human homologue of the yeast chromosome-segregation gene, CSE-1. The molecular mechanism or function by which CAS is associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis is not yet fully understood. High expression of cytoplasmic CAS protein appears to correlate with proliferation of lymphoid cells. CAS expression may be useful in the identification of proliferating cells and in the elucidation of the function of cellular apoptosis.. Primary Antibody. ...
PND-1186, also known as SR-2156 and VS-4718, is a potent FAK inhibitor with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.5 nM in vitro. PND-1186 has an IC50 of ~100 nM in breast carcinoma cells. Notably, 1.0 µM PND-1186 (|5-fold above IC50) had limited effects on cell proliferation. However, under non-adherent conditions as spheroids and as colonies in soft agar, 0.1 µM PND-1186 blocked FAK and p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation, promoted caspase-3 activation, and triggered cell apoptosis. PND-1186 inhibited 4T1 breast carcinoma subcutaneous tumor growth correlated with elevated tumor cell apoptosis and caspase 3 activation.
PYK2 (PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase. It is involved in calcium-induced regulation of ion channels and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. PYK2 may represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide-activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. The encoded protein undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in response to increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation, membrane depolarization, or protein kinase C activation. This protein has been shown to bind CRK-associated substrate, nephrocystin, GTPase regulator associated with FAK and the SH2 domain of GRB2. This protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies ...
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The RNA-guided CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins Cas9 and Cas12a provide adaptive immunity against invading nucleic acids, and function as powerful tools for genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we reveal the underlying mechanisms of a third, fundamentally distinct RNA-guided genome-editing platform named CRISPR-CasX, which uses unique structures for programmable double-stranded DNA binding and cleavage. Biochemical and in vivo data demonstrate that CasX is active for Escherichia coli and human genome modification. Eight cryo-electron microscopy structures of CasX in different states of assembly with its guide RNA and double-stranded DNA substrates reveal an extensive RNA scaffold and a domain required for DNA unwinding. These data demonstrate how CasX activity arose through convergent evolution to establish an enzyme family that is functionally separate from both Cas9 and Cas12a ...
I was recently involved in a collaboration between the Zhang and Collins labs at MIT to use the RNA-targeting CRISPR protein Cas13a/C2c2 to detect either DNA or RNA from pathogens. By combining the use of Cas13a/C2c2 as a detector with isothermal amplification of the DNA or RNA targets, we were able to get down to attomolar detection. You can read the full paper over at Science but here I can give some of my own experience with and views on the platform were calling SHERLOCK (Specific High Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter UnLOCKing). To be clear, Im the 5th author on this paper and definitely agree that the four people ahead of me did more of the work. I am not the expert on Cas13a/C2c2. However, I did help some to develop SHERLOCK as a diagnostic system and use it enough to get a handle for how it works with different targets. I also tried it with another diagnostic project and have found it easy to work with. How it works Cas13a/C2c2 has two RNA cutting abilities. The first is that it cuts the RNA
CascAID - this is the name of the new system that the team set-up to quickly and efficiently test whether antibiotics are necessary. To this end, the Munich team of this years iGEM competition took advantage of the recently discovered protein Cas13a. Unlike related proteins, Cas13a has the unique ability to bind and cleave RNA domains in a highly specific manner. Building on this capability, the iGEM team developed the test system CascAID (Cas13a controlled assay for infectious diseases), which combines an automated microfluidic device for rapid analysis and extraction of nucleic acids with a paper-based readout system. In addition to the 1st Runner Up award in the overall standings, the system received special awards in the categories Best Diagnostics Project, Best Model, Best Hardware, Best Software and Best Applied Design. The International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition ( ...
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Protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) is a heterotetrameric serine/threonine kinase involved in proliferation, apoptosis and embryonic development. It is expressed at elevated levels in proliferating tissue, human cancer cell lines and virtually all forms of solid cancers. Recently it has been shown that CK2 inhibition induces apoptosis in cell models of acquired anti-estrogen resistance. These findings suggest that there may be tumor phenotype specific effects of CK2 in breast cancer and consequently phenotype specific sensitivity to CK2 inhibition. As such we sought to determine if luminal and basal cell types display differential sensitivity to selective CK2 inhibitors. Utilizing crystal violet and alamar blue assays, it was found that CK2 inhibition decreased viability of both luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines, with basal-like ER(−) MDA MB 231 cells showing notable sensitivity. Hypertrophic morphologic changes consistent with cellular senescence were noted upon inhibition of CK2. ...
|p>IDT staff scientist Dr Chris Vakulskas will talk about the development of a mutant protein, |em>A.s.|/em> Cas12a (Cpf1) |em>Ultra|/em>, which has dramatically improved cleavage to a level that rivals |em>S.p.|/em> Cas9 without altering its PAM specificity. The |em>A.s.|/em> Cas12a (Cpf1) |em>Ultra|/em> protein also demonstrates low-temperature cleavage activity superior to that of |em>L.b.|/em> Cas12a, making it a universal Cas12a solution for genome editing in both animal and plant species. Finally, IDT research scientist Bernice Thommandru will describe optimal HDR methods and reagents for maximizing HDR rates when using either |em>A.s.|/em> Cas12a (Cpf1) |em>Ultra|/em> or |em>S.p.|/em> Cas9.|/p>
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Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ...
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (11): 6446-51. doi: ... CRK-associated substrate-related protein (CAS-L), and Cas scaffolding protein family member 2 (CASS2). An important paralog of ... NEDD9 is a member of the CAS (Crk-associated substrate) protein family, which has 4 members in vertebrates. The other ... Huang Z, Yazdani U, Thompson-Peer KL, Kolodkin AL, Terman JR (2007). "Crk-associated substrate (Cas) signaling protein ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Crk-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRKL gene. v-CRK avian sarcoma virus CT10-homolog-like contains ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Shi CS, Tuscano J, Kehrl JH (February 2000). "Adaptor proteins CRK and CRKL associate with the serine/threonine protein kinase ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... related protein kinases HPK1 and KHS are candidates for highly selective signal transducers of Crk family adapter proteins". ... the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and a 75-kDa protein that is a substrate for T cell antigen receptor-activated ... a guanine nucleotide-releasing protein expressed ubiquitously, binds to the Src homology 3 domains of CRK and GRB2/ASH proteins ...
... (Crk associated substrate 4) is the fourth and last described member of the CAS protein family. CASS4 was detected by ... A putative mechanism for the integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrates". The Journal of ... CAS proteins have an amino terminal SH3 domain enabling interaction with poly-proline motif-containing proteins such as FAK. ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene. ...
Crk-associated substrate) of adaptor proteins which is characterized by the presence of multiple conserved motifs for protein- ... Embryonal Fyn-associated substrate), and CASS4 (Cas scaffolding protein family member 4). These Cas proteins have a high ... BCAR1 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor molecule originally identified as the major substrate of v-Src and v-Crk . p130Cas/ ... Garton AJ, Flint AJ, Tonks NK (1996). "Identification of p130(cas) as a substrate for the cytosolic protein tyrosine ...
"Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... The protein associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and interacts with the fyn-binding protein. ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of target proteins by Fyn serves to either regulate target protein activity, and/or to generate a ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ...
"Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... "Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... Nephrocystin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPHP1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with src homology domain 3 ... "A novel gene that encodes a protein with a putative src homology 3 domain is a candidate gene for familial juvenile ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ...
Insulin receptor substrate 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRS4 gene. IRS4 encodes the insulin receptor ... "The insulin-like growth factor I receptor-induced interaction of insulin receptor substrate-4 and Crk-II". Endocrinology. 142 ( ... 2002). "Insulin receptor substrate 4 associates with the protein IRAS". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (22): 19439-47. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 2003). "Insulin receptor substrate-4 is expressed in muscle tissue without acting as a substrate for the insulin receptor". ...
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a human guanine nucleotide releasing protein for Ras protein. It belongs to the adaptor- ... a guanine nucleotide-releasing protein expressed ubiquitously, binds to the Src homology 3 domains of CRK and GRB2/ASH proteins ... "The BCR/ABL oncogene alters interaction of the adapter proteins CRKL and CRK with cellular proteins". Leukemia. 11 (3): 376-85 ...
... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". The ... FAK is a highly conserved, non-receptor tyrosine kinase originally identified as a substrate for the oncogene protein tyrosine ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ...
This protein has been shown to bind a CRK-associated substrate, a nephrocystin, a GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to ... "Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS". Curr. Biol. ... Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ...
The C-terminus of DOCK proteins interacts with another adaptor protein, Crk. Dock4 undergoes RhoG/ELMO-dependent recruitment to ... this has been shown to promote DOCK-dependent signalling by helping recruit the ELMO-DOCK complex to areas of high substrate ... DOCK family proteins contribute to cell signalling by activating G proteins of the Rho family, such as Rac and Cdc42. Dock4 has ... April 1996). "DOCK180, a major CRK-binding protein, alters cell morphology upon translocation to the cell membrane". Molecular ...
... crk-associated substrate protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.297 - grb2 adaptor protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.298 - grb7 adaptor ... 14-3-3 proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.318 - proto-oncogene proteins c-crk MeSH D12.644.360.024.326 - proto-oncogene proteins c- ... ral gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.462 - ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.475 - rap gtp-binding proteins ... wnt proteins MeSH D12.644.276.996.500 - wnt1 protein MeSH D12.644.276.996.750 - wnt2 protein MeSH D12.644.360.011 - activating ...
... and Src kinase family members to phosphorylate substrates such as p130CAS thereby recruiting signaling adaptors such as CRK. ... Moreover, talin proteins are able to dimerize and thus are thought to intervene in the clustering of integrin dimers which ... Cells adhere to a substrate through their integrins. During movement, the cell makes new attachments to the substrate at its ... The role of divalent cations in the α subunit is unknown, but may stabilize the folds of the protein. The cations in the β ...
"Structure and function of Cas-L, a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein phosphatase binding. 細胞の構成要素. • 細胞質. • 細胞質基質. • 膜. • 焦点接着. • extrinsic component of ... positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • 胎座. • 脈管形成. • protein ... protein kinase activity. • JUN kinase binding. • non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (11): 6446-51. doi: ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... Proteins+c-crk at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Oncogene+Protein+v-crk at the US National ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ...
"Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... "Identification of Src as a novel atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein". Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 2 ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell (United States) 122 (6): 957-68. ... SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction blocking drug". Oncogene (England) 21 (13): 2037-50. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID ...
... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... EFS is a member of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family of proteins. In humans and mammals, this group consists of four ... Embryonal fyn-associated substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFS gene. It is also known as CASS3. EFS ( ... In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK ...
... and therefore is able to catalyse the formation of a covalent bond between ubiquitin and Cbl's protein substrate - typically a ... CRK, CRKL, EGFR,< FRS2, FYN, Grb2, HCK, IGF1R, LCP2;, NCK1, PDGFRA, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PLCG1, PTK2B, PTPN11, SH2B2, SH3KBP1 SHC1, ... is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ... is a downstream substrate of the Hck protein-tyrosine kinase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 257 (1): 129-38. doi:10.1006/bbrc ...
... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... MeSH protein, human PTK2 protein, human. *"Breaking down cancer's wall of resistance", by DR Nick Peel, Cancer Research UK, ... PTK2 proteinska tirozinska kinaza 2 (PTK2, Fokalna adheziona kinaza, FAK), protein je koji je kod ljudi kodiran PTK2 genom.[2] ... "The GIT family of proteins forms multimers and associates with the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Piccolo". J. Biol. Chem. 278 ...
"Combination of gene targeting and substrate trapping to identify substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases using PTP-PEST as ... role of PTP-PEST and adaptor proteins p130cas and Crk". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285 (2): H710-21. doi:10.1152/ ... This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein ... "Combination of gene targeting and substrate trapping to identify substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases using PTP-PEST as ...
The levels of distinct proteins can be regulated by the "ubiquitin/proteasome" system. In this system, a small (7-8 kd)protein ... Qian X, Riccio A, Zhang Y, Ginty DD (November 1998). "Identification and characterization of novel substrates of Trk receptors ... regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Molecular and ... Geetha T, Wooten MW (February 2003). "Association of the atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein p62/ZIP with nerve ...
Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... RICS (gene) has been shown to interact with: BCAR1, CDC42, CRK, CRKL, FYN, GAB2, GRIN2B, NCK1, RAC1, RHOA, SHC3, Src, and TrkA ... a novel substrate that attenuates Rac signaling". Cell. Signal. 22 (11): 1626-33. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.06.001. PMID ... Rho GTPase-activating protein 32 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RICS gene. RICS has two known isoforms, RICS ...
Feller SM, Lewitzky M (2006). "Potential disease targets for drugs that disrupt protein-- protein interactions of Grb2 and Crk ... Stability - A subset of docking motifs recruit E3 ubiquitin ligase to their substrates. The resulting polyubiquitination ... linear motifs or minimotifs are short stretches of protein sequence that mediate protein-protein interaction. The first ... Linear motif mediated protein-protein interactions have shown promise in recent years as novel drug targets. Success stories ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPS15 gene. This gene encodes a ... "Interaction between the amino-terminal SH3 domain of CRK and its natural target proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (24): 14468-72. ... a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 (17): 2239-49. doi:10.1101/gad.11.17.2239. PMC 275390. PMID 9303539 ... The protein is present at clathrin-coated pits and is involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of EGF. Notably, this gene is ...
Insulin receptor substrate 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRS2 gene. This gene encodes the insulin receptor ... 1996). "The proto-oncogene product c-Crk associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 4PS. Modulation by insulin growth ... Algenstaedt P, Antonetti DA, Yaffe MB, Kahn CR (1997). "Insulin receptor substrate proteins create a link between the tyrosine ... 2007). "Oncogenic transformation by the signaling adaptor proteins insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2". Cell Cycle. 6 ...
... a protein complex) Cascade (grape), a type of fruit Biochemical cascade, a series of biochemical reactions, in which a product ... located on Cascade Creek northeast of the District of Mission in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia Cascades ( ... of the previous step is the substrate of the next Energy cascade, a process important in turbulent flow and drag by which ... a mountain range on the west coast of North America Cascade Creek (disambiguation) Cascade Falls (disambiguation) Cascade River ...
Substrate-level phosphorylation 2 NADH 3 or 5 Oxidative phosphorylation : Each NADH produces net 1.5 ATP (instead of usual 2.5 ... When this protein is active in the inner membrane it short circuits the coupling between the electron transport chain and ATP ... Hydrogeochemical Constraints on Microbial Investigations 2.4 km Below Surface at the Kidd Creek Deep Fluid and Deep Life ... An uncoupling protein known as thermogenin is expressed in some cell types and is a channel that can transport protons. ...
It was revealed that approximately 50 litres of non radioactive material leaked into a local creek. Despite reports in local ... is the only substrate-spawning cichlid in the lake.[10][61] This large cichlid mainly feeds on macrophytes.[10][62] The ... a local delicacy with a very high protein content.[76][77] ...
Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and can output concentrated urine; their kidneys have a thin ... Among Native Americans such as the Creek, Cherokee and Apache, the bat is identified as a trickster.[248] In Tanzania, a winged ... "Somatosensory substrates of flight control in bats". Cell Reports. 11 (6): 851-858. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.001. PMC ... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ...
Months later, a fossil lamprey even older than the Mazon Creek genera was reported from Witteberg Group rocks near Grahamstown ... Their teeth consist of a meshwork of keratin filaments and other proteins.[15] ... "A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output". PLOS Biology. 8 (12): e1000567. doi ... from the Mississippian Mazon Creek lagerstätte and the Bear Gulch limestone sequence. None of the fossil lampreys found to date ...
The Cambrian substrate revolution saw life on the sea floor change from minimal burrowing (left) to a diverse burrowing fauna ( ... Increased browsing on willows and conifers along Blacktail Creek due to a lack of predation caused channel incision because the ... presumably because they acquire plenty of amino acids from the animal proteins in their diet.[94] ... Riparian willow recovery at Blacktail Creek, Yellowstone National Park, after reintroduction of wolves, the local keystone ...
cellular protein localization. • positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading. • positive regulation of ... regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Molecular and ... protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ...
Sea shells found in the creek and backwater of the coast of west India are used as an additive to poultry feed. They are ... Very often shells of bivalves or smaller gastropods are used, depending on what is available on the particular substrate where ... or whether they are intended to help prevent the shell sinking into a soft substrate. ...
He then attaches a spermatophore to the substrate, which she will retrieve into her cloaca. ... of California and in the southern Sierra Nevada and occupy a diverse array of habitats found near the small ponds and creeks ... Fibronectin binding protein A. Mycotoxins. *Aflatoxin. *Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, gamma-amanitin, epsilon- ...
Nitrogen is a valuable substrate that can be utilized in algal growth. Various sources of nitrogen can be used as a nutrient ... Scottish Bioenergy, who run the project, sell the microalgae as high value, protein-rich food for fisheries. In the future, ... 2.5 acre ATS system, installed by Hydromentia on a farm creek in Florida ... Spirulina which is an alga rich in proteins content has been commercially cultivated in India. Algae is used in India for ...
Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such ... The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures (the Cambrian substrate ... and the isolation of proteins and evidence for DNA fragments.[10][11][12][13] In 2014, Mary Schweitzer and her colleagues ... can compare protein amino acid or nucleotide sequence homology (i.e., similarity) to evaluate taxonomy and evolutionary ...
Richardson & ... (1977). Fossils of the Mason Creek.. *^ Kruta, I.; Landman, N.; Rouget, I.; Cecca, F.; Tafforeau, P. (2011). " ... Like most molluscs, cephalopods use hemocyanin, a copper-containing protein, rather than hemoglobin, to transport oxygen. As a ... Once the eggs are released and attached to a sheltered substrate the females then die.[76] In some species of cephalopods, egg ... Aggressive sex is an activity that most cephalopods engage in; a protein in the male capsule sheath stimulates this behavior. ...
Often, the scent contains pheromones or carrier proteins such as the major urinary proteins to stabilize the odours and ... The creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) engages in ritualized aggression when others of the species invade its territory. ... In a behaviour called "spur marking", they grasp the substrate, usually a small sapling, and drag the spur over it, cutting ... Ross, M.R. (1977). "Aggression as a social mechanism in the creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus)". Copeia. 1977 (2): 393-397. ...
Proteins can have structural and/or functional roles. For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are ... The enzyme itself is not used up in the process and is free to catalyze the same reaction with a new set of substrates. Using ... Follow the Water': Hydrogeochemical Constraints on Microbial Investigations 2.4 km Below Surface at the Kidd Creek Deep Fluid ... The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of four levels. The primary structure of a protein consists ...
... was initially discovered as a binding protein and substrate of protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2/PTPN11. Two other groups ... domain that is contained in the adaptor protein families Crk, Grb2, and Nck. These adaptor proteins then couple to enzymes to ... CT10 regulator of kinase (Crk) is also known as the breast cancer anti-oestrogen resistance protein. It plays a role in both ... GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 also known as GAB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAB2 gene. GAB2 is a docking ...
Breton, R. Roger; Creek, Nancy J. "Overview of Felidae". Cougar Hill Web. Retrieved May 23, 2013. "Why Do Cats Purr". 2018-08- ... M. Miyazaki; T. Yamashita; Y. Suzuki; Y. Saito; S. Soeta; H. Taira; A. Suzuki (October 2006). "A major urinary protein of the ... Their rubbing and head-bumping behaviors are methods of depositing these scents on substrates, including humans. The cat rubs ... due to a variety of factors such as substrate texture, cleanliness and privacy. It can also be a sign of urinary tract problems ...
Evan T. Saitta; Jakob Vinther (2019). "A perspective on the evidence for keratin protein preservation in fossils: An issue of ... Phil R. Bell; Matthew C. Herne; Tom Brougham; Elizabeth T. Smith (2018). "Ornithopod diversity in the Griman Creek Formation ( ... Kohei Tanaka; Darla K. Zelenitsky; François Therrien; Yoshitsugu Kobayashi (2018). "Nest substrate reflects incubation style in ... 2018), who interpret their findings as inconsistent with any protein or other original organic substance preservation in the ...
2017). Protein remains preserved in skeletal elements of an Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur Lufengosaurus are described ... Andrew A. Farke; George E. Phillips (2017). "The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek ... functional implications for substrate preferences and locomotor lifestyle". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the ... Michael Buckley; Stacey Warwood; Bart van Dongen; Andrew C. Kitchener; Phillip L. Manning (2017). "A fossil protein chimera; ...
ARG-binding protein 2γ, hepatitis B virus X protein, STE20-related kinase adaptor protein α, RhoI, Klotho, N-acetylglucosaminyl ... Representative PAK1 effector substrates in cancer cells include: Stathmin-S16, Merlin-S518, Vimentin-S25-S38-S50-S65-S72, ... "PAK1 kinase promotes cell motility and invasiveness through CRK-II serine phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer cells ... These proteins serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of ...
"Crk-Associated Substrate Protein" by people in this website by year, and whether "Crk-Associated Substrate Protein" was a major ... "Crk-Associated Substrate Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein*Crk-Associated Substrate Protein. *Crk Associated Substrate Protein ...
positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info ... CRK CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [Homo sapiens] CRK CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1398 ... SH2_CRK_like; Src homology 2 domain found in cancer-related signaling adaptor protein CRK. cd11758. Location:135 → 189. SH3_CRK ... SH2_CRK_like; Src homology 2 domain found in cancer-related signaling adaptor protein CRK. cd11758. Location:135 → 189. SH3_CRK ...
positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading Source: Ensembl. *regulation of actin cytoskeleton ... View protein in InterPro. IPR035458. CRK_SH3_C. IPR035457. CRK_SH3_N. IPR000980. SH2. IPR036860. SH2_dom_sf. IPR036028. SH3- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR035458. CRK_SH3_C. IPR035457. CRK_SH3_N. IPR000980. SH2. IPR036860. SH2_dom_sf. IPR036028. SH3- ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q5ND51. Q64010. Q64010-2. Mus musculus (Mouse). ...
Interaction with GRB2 enhances insulin-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. May be involved in nonreceptor ... "The insulin-like growth factor I receptor-induced interaction of insulin receptor substrate-4 and Crk-II.". Karas M., Koval A.P ... "Insulin receptor substrate 4 associates with the protein IRAS.". Sano H., Liu S.C.H., Lane W.S., Piletz J.E., Lienhard G.E.. J ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Crk-associated substrate protein‎ (7 В). *. ► Protein crystals‎ (1 К, 54 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Ab152999 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Crk associated substrate. *Crk associated substrate p130Cas. *CRK-associated substrate. *CRKAS. *FLJ12176 ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... Docking protein which plays a central coordinating role for tyrosine kinase-based signaling related to cell adhesion. ...
Polte T. R., Hanks S. K. Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas. Proc. ... The protein concentration of each lysate was determined using BCA protein assay reagent (Pierce Chemical Co.). Precleared ... in a human ostesarcoma cell line and is a substrate for protein kinase C. EMBO J., 8: 2955-2965, 1989. ... Protein concentrations were determined using the BCA protein assay reagent (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, IL), and 100 μg of ...
Protein Coding), BCAR1, Cas Family Scaffolding Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance Protein 1 3 * Crk-Associated Substrate P130Cas 3 ... Protein Symbol:. P56945-BCAR1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance protein 1 Protein Accession:. ... Protein Expression for BCAR1 Gene. See protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, PaxDb, and MaxQB ...
... but not of focal adhesion kinase or Crk-associated substrate. Signal transduction from CDCP1 to PKC? leads to its activation, ... CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) was shown to promote metastasis in scirrhous and lung adenocarcinomas as well as in ... Assessment of the Radiation Effects of Cardiac CT Angiography Using Protein and Genetic Biomarkers JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING ... VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma leads to up-regulation of CUB domain-containing protein 1 to stimulate PKC delta-driven ...
Cas was originally cloned as a highly tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in cel … ... the protein encoded by the Crkas gene (also known as Cas), is an adaptor molecule with a unique structure that contains a Src ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein * Phosphoproteins * Proteins * Recombinant Fusion Proteins * Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130 ... Cas was originally cloned as a highly tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in cells transformed by v-Src (refs 2,3) or v-Crk (ref. 4 ...
Moreover, CRK proteins are the major phosphorylation substrates of ABL kinase and its oncogenic mutant BCR-ABL kinase. The ... proteins play important roles in human cancer metastasis and invasion. ... interaction between CRK and BCR-ABL plays important roles in chronic myeloid leukem ... CT-10 regulator of kinase (CRK) proteins play important roles in human cancer metastasis and invasion. Moreover, CRK proteins ...
... a v-Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate (Cas), p130Cas, and a still uncharacterized protein, FIPSH3-2, which contains an ... Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas. T R Polte and S K Hanks ... Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas ... Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas ...
CRK-associated substrate-related protein. *enhancer of filamentation 1. *Cas scaffolding protein family member 2 ... HEF1, also known as Enhancer of filamentation 1, CRKassociated substrate-related protein, CAS-L, CasL, p105 and Neural ... Integrin beta-1 stimulation leads to recruitment of various proteins including CRK, NCK and SHPTP2 to the tyrosine ... This protein localizes to both the cell nucleus and the cell periphery and is differently localized in fibroblasts and ...
CASS4 (Crk associated substrate 4) is the fourth and last described member of the CAS protein family.[6] CASS4 was detected by ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ... Protein family[edit]. In vertebrates, the CAS protein family contains four members: p130Cas/BCAR1, NEDD9/HEF1, EFS and CASS4. ...
90-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase; CRKL, Crk-like protein; CAS, Crk-associated substrate; SPAG, sperm-associated antigen; SOS ... and GTPase-activating protein-guanine nucleotide exchange factor family proteins. The specific functions of these proteins in ... against the International Protein Index (IPI) human protein database version 3.37 containing 69,289 proteins to which 175 ... mitogen-activated protein kinase. CML. chronic myelogenous leukemia. MEK. mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal ...
... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... EFS is a member of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family of proteins. In humans and mammals, this group consists of four ... Embryonal fyn-associated substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFS gene. It is also known as CASS3. EFS ( ... In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK ...
MeSH Terms: Cells, Cultured; Chromium/toxicity*; Crk-Associated Substrate Protein; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Epithelial ... Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/biosynthesis; Proteins*; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130; Signal ... JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck)/biosynthesis; Mitogen-Activated ... Protein Kinases/biosynthesis*; Neoplasm Proteins*; Phosphoproteins/biosynthesis; Phosphoproteins/genetics; ...
The proto-oncogene product c-Crk associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 4PS. J Biol Chem 1996. 271:9287-9290. View ... Crk was originally identified as an oncogene product v-Crk. The cellular homologues of v-Crk are known as Crk-I (SH2-SH3 domain ... Proteins interacting with IRS proteins by unknown mechanisms. There are a number of proteins that associate with IRS proteins ... These proteins include adaptors (14-3-3 proteins), transforming proteins (SV40 large T antigen), structural proteins (integrins ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... i.e Crk and Nck. The domains are frequently found as repeats in a single protein sequence and will then often bind both mono- ... and di-phosphorylated substrates. The structure of the SH2 domain belongs to the alpha+beta class, its overall shape forming a ...
Crk-associated substrate related protein Cas-L; CRK-associated substrate-related protein; dJ49G10.2; dJ761I2.1; Enhancer of ... These proteins are substrates of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Src family of tyrosine kinases two active targets for drug ... HEF1 protein production increases levels of mRNA transcripts that encode proteins associated with motility, cell transformation ... Protein Aliases: Cas scaffolding protein family member 2; CAS-L; cas-like docking; ...
Accordingly, many of the identified kinase substrates (e.g. Crk proteins, cortactin, Wave, etc.) are closely associated with ... b) To analyze the kinase activity, c-Abl was immunoprecipitated and incubated with recombinant GST-Crk as a substrate. Crk ... Feller SM, Knudsen B, Hanafusa H. C-Abl kinase regulates the protein binding activity of c-Crk. EMBO J. 1994;13(10):2341-51. ... and protein kinase C (PKC) as a new c-Abl kinase. pAblT735 interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, which caused cytoplasmic retention ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ...
The role of protein tyrosine kinases, adapter molecules and molecular signaling complexes have been a central interest. As ... These complexes contain enzymes that are regulated by protein phosphorylation and whose substrates are located at the membrane ... These linker or adaptor molecules include LAT, Grb2, Crk, and Cbl. LAT, initially characterized by this laboratory, is an ... Activation of protein serine/threonine kinases and pathways coupled to small G proteins, and elevation of intracellular calcium ...
Crk-Associated Substrate (protein). CAS. Coatings, Adhesives and Sealants. CAS. Central Asian States. ...
Crk-Associated Substrate (protein). CAS. Coatings, Adhesives and Sealants. CAS. Central Asian States. ...
Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type is required for lymphocyte trafficking and marginal zone B cell maintenance. J. ... Ratios of phosphorylated protein:total protein in stimulated cells, normalized to the ratio of phosphorylated protein:total ... and recruits small GTP-binding proteins such as Rho, Rac, and Rap. Activation of the small GTP-binding proteins requires the ... the ratio of each phospho-specific protein to the total protein level in stimulated cells was determined and then normalized to ...
Protein Coding), Embryonal Fyn-Associated Substrate, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... The SH3-binding sites that bind to the SRC SH3 domain are required for interaction with CRK and are implicated in promotion of ... Protein Symbol:. O43281-EFS_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Embryonal Fyn-associated substrate. Protein Accession:. O43281. Secondary ... The protein encoded by a similiar gene in mice was shown to bind to SH3 domains of protein-tyrosine kinases. The function of ...
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G. Ohashi, Y., Tachibana, K., Kamiguchi, K ... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G [22]. ... Crk-associated substrate (Cas) family member, NEDD9, is regulated in human neuroblastoma cells and in the embryonic hindbrain ... Crk-associated substrate (Cas) family member, NEDD9, is regulated in human neuroblastoma cells and in the embryonic hindbrain ...
The first Pro-rich domain interacts with the SH3 domain of CRK-associated substrate (BCAR1) and CASL.. The carboxy-terminal ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. FAK subfamily.. Contains 1 FERM domain.. Contains 1 ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ... Focal Adhesion Kinase is a 125 kDa non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in signalling by growth factors, ...
Mayer BJ, Hanafusa H. Association of the v-crk oncogene product with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and protein kinase ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate specificity: size and phosphotyrosine positioning requirements in peptide substrates. ... Identification of p130(cas) as a substrate for the cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST.. A J Garton, A J Flint, and ... Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 ...
  • The screen identified two proteins that interact with FAK via their Src homology 3 (SH3) domains: a v-Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate (Cas), p130Cas, and a still uncharacterized protein, FIPSH3-2, which contains an SH3 domain closely related to that of p130Cas. (pnas.org)
  • The stable interaction between p130Cas and FAK emerges as a likely key element in integrin-mediated signal transduction and further represents a direct molecular link between the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. (pnas.org)
  • Part of a collagen-stimulated complex involved in cell migration made of CDC42, CRK, TNK2 and BCAR1/p130cas. (genecards.org)
  • p130Cas (Cas), the protein encoded by the Crkas gene (also known as Cas), is an adaptor molecule with a unique structure that contains a Src homology (SH)-3 domain followed by multiple YXXP motifs and a proline-rich region. (nih.gov)
  • HEF1 forms a homodimer and can heterodimerize with HLH proteins ID2, E12, E47 and also with p130cas. (novusbio.com)
  • [7] in 2008 following in silico screening of databases describing expressed sequence tags from an evolutionarily diverse group of organisms, using the CAS-related proteins ( p130Cas , NEDD9/HEF1 and EFS ) mRNAs as templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent clinical studies at another institution have found that overexpression of BCAR1 (p130Cas), a related protein, is associated with tamoxifen resistance. (thermofisher.com)
  • US stimulation of chondrocytes induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas), CrkII, and extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk). (unl.edu)
  • These include the SH2/SH3 adaptor protein Crk and the Crk-binding protein p130cas. (genetex.com)
  • We show here that pp105 is a novel p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate)-related protein. (rupress.org)
  • Deduced amino acid sequence revealed that pp105 contains conserved motifs with p130Cas, and both pp105 and p130Cas bind to focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) and Crk. (rupress.org)
  • Two YopH target proteins were p130Cas and ADAP, of which the latter interestingly is an adapter protein specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • These were talin, VASP and interestingly the p130Cas-Crk-DOCK180 scaffold, while FAK, paxillin and vinculin were absent. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, VASP, p130Cas and Crk were shown to be important for the filopodia formation in GD25β1B. (diva-portal.org)
  • We found that a pathway consisting of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the adaptor protein p130Cas (Cas), and the guanosine triphosphatase Rac selectively transduced ECM stiffness into stable intracellular stiffness, increased the abundance of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1, and promoted S-phase entry. (sciencemag.org)
  • Several focal adhesion proteins, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the adapter proteins p130Cas (Cas) and paxillin, and the cytoskeletal protein vinculin, have been implicated in the initial stiffness-sensing event ( 13 , 15 - 22 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Because vimentin phosphorylation is able to modulate p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130CAS) and actin polymerization, we also evaluated the role of PP1 in the biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously reported a novel interaction between v-Crk and myosin-1c, and demonstrated that this interaction is essential for cell migration, even in the absence of p130CAS. (ijbs.com)
  • Cell adhesion and spreading also activate cell adhesion components and cytoskeletal proteins, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Src, paxillin, p130CAS (Crk-associated substrate), vinculin, and other signaling molecules [ 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The product of this gene has several SH2 and SH3 domains (src-homology domains) and is involved in several signaling pathways, recruiting cytoplasmic proteins in the vicinity of tyrosine kinase through SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Reciprocal regulation of Abl kinase by Crk Y251 and Abi1 controls invasive phenotypes in glioblastoma. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction with GRB2 enhances insulin-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. (uniprot.org)
  • Docking protein which plays a central coordinating role for tyrosine kinase-based signaling related to cell adhesion. (abcam.com)
  • The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in integrin-mediated signaling events and in the mechanism of cell transformation by the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. (pnas.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and SH3 domain binding . (genecards.org)
  • Forms complexes in vivo with PTK2/FAK1, adapter protein CRKL and LYN kinase. (genecards.org)
  • CT-10 regulator of kinase (CRK) proteins play important roles in human cancer metastasis and invasion. (rsc.org)
  • Moreover, CRK proteins are the major phosphorylation substrates of ABL kinase and its oncogenic mutant BCR-ABL kinase. (rsc.org)
  • Herein, we report the development of a peptide inhibitor, PRM-3, targeting the interaction between CRK-II and ABL kinase. (rsc.org)
  • PRM-3 binds to the N-terminal SH3 (nSH3) domain in CRK-II with a 10 nM affinity and prevents the interaction between CRK-II and ABL kinase. (rsc.org)
  • Remarkably, PRM-3 also inhibited the CRK phosphorylation by T315I-ABL kinase, which is resistant to all first- and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (rsc.org)
  • HEF1 also forms complexes in vivo with related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK), adapter protein CRKL and LYN kinase and also interacts with MICAL and TXNL4/DIM1. (novusbio.com)
  • This results in activation of the receptor kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of a family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. (jci.org)
  • PI3-kinase is critical for metabolic actions of insulin, such as glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis, whereas Grb-2/SOS complex, which activates the MAP kinase cascade, is critical in mitogenic response. (jci.org)
  • These proteins are substrates of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Src family of tyrosine kinases two active targets for drug development. (thermofisher.com)
  • We report a novel mechanism and identified strong c-Abl threonine 735 phosphorylation (pAbl T735 ) mediated by the type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector D-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (βHBP) and protein kinase C (PKC) as a new c-Abl kinase. (springer.com)
  • The CDPK-SnRK superfamily consists of seven types of serine-threonine protein kinases: calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPKs), CDPK-related kinases (CRKs), phospho enol pyruvate carboxylase kinases (PPCKs), PEP carboxylase kinase-related kinases (PEPRKs), calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs), and SnRKs. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition, the two major types of kinases that decode calcium signals in animals (calmodulin-dependent protein kinases [CaMKs] and protein kinase C) appear to be missing or under-represented in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Focal Adhesion Kinase is a 125 kDa non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in signalling by growth factors, extracellular matrix and stress signals. (abcam.com)
  • Binding of full-length Crk or the isolated SH2 domains of GAP or Abl resulted in a significant protection of phosphorylated EGFR against dephosphorylation by cellular phosphatase activity, but did not appear to stimulate the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR. (elsevier.com)
  • Auvinen M, Paasinen-Sohns A, Hirai H, Andersson LC, Hölttä E. Ornithine decarboxylase- and ras-induced cell transformations: reversal by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and role of pp130CAS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Paxillin, a focal-adhesion-associated protein, becomes phosphorylated in response to a number of stimuli which also induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal-adhesion-associated protein tyrosine kinase pp125FAK. (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is involved in calcium-induced regulation of ion channels and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. (fishersci.com)
  • The encoded protein undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in response to increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation, membrane depolarization, or protein kinase C activation. (fishersci.com)
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division , cell adhesion , and stress response. (wikidoc.org)
  • The student will perform immunoprecipitations (IP) of key signaling nodes in cell and tumor lysates and then based on the quantitative mass spectrometry protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, validate the findings by choosing the appropriate single agent or combinations of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs in order to both shut down the affected signaling pathways and kill the cancer cells. (harvard.edu)
  • These conditions are ideal to trigger the inflammatory pathways leading to activation of I κ B kinase (IKK) and related kinases, which affect insulin signaling at its bottleneck by phosphorylating and switching off the function of insulin receptor substrate (IRS). (hindawi.com)
  • Analogous to its functional activation of p73, the kinase activity is essential for c-Abl to up-regulate p73 protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA damage sensor proteins, including ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylate and activate c-Abl in response to DNA damage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Western blot analysis revealed that, compared with the TNF-α-treated control group, FWFE increased the expression of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), and increased IR tyrosyl phosporylation, in insulin resistant FL83B cells. (mdpi.com)
  • KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. (gopubmed.org)
  • We evaluated a possible integrin/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mechanotransduction pathway using Western blotting with antibodies targeting specific phosphorylation sites on intracellular signaling proteins. (unl.edu)
  • We previously described inhibition of cell migration by PTEN and restoration of motility by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130 Cas ). (rupress.org)
  • We now report a novel pathway regulating random cell motility involving Shc and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which is downmodulated by PTEN and additive to a FAK pathway regulating directional migration. (rupress.org)
  • Purified PTEN can remove a specific phosphate group from PIP 3 , thereby inhibiting protein kinase B (also known as Akt), which in turn participates in cell growth control and inhibits the apoptosis pathway. (rupress.org)
  • We also observed that PTEN inhibits integrin- and growth factor-mediated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Previously, we have shown that DOC-2/DAB2 suppresses protein kinase C-induced AP-1 activation, which is modulated by serine 24 phosphorylation in the N terminus of DOC-2/DAB2. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple focal adhesion proteins and induces migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells: roles of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and protein kinase C". Blood 95 (8): 2505-13. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting chimeric sequence encodes for an abnormal hybrid protein (120 kD) that possesses a tyrosine kinase activity and an SH2 domain, not present in the normal c-abl encoded protein, but similar to that of the protein product of the transforming viral abl gene. (genetex.com)
  • The p53-related protein p73, is also a substrate of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl, in response to DNA damage. (genetex.com)
  • Uehata et al (1997) Calcium sensitization of smooth muscle mediated by a Rho-associated protein kinase. (tocris.com)
  • ABL1_HUMAN ] Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many key processes linked to cell growth and survival such as cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, cell motility and adhesion, receptor endocytosis, autophagy, DNA damage response and apoptosis. (proteopedia.org)
  • This chromosomal translocation induces the formation of the chimeric protein nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), which possesses significant oncogenic potential resulting from the constitutive activation of the tyrosine kinase ALK. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Insulin binds to the insulin receptor at the cell surface and activates its tyrosine kinase activity, leading to autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of several receptor substrates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One of the major substrates of the activated HGF receptor tyrosine kinase is the adaptor protein Gab1. (broadinstitute.org)
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinas. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The insulin receptor is the prototype for a family of homologous integral membrane proteins composed of an extracellular insulin-binding domain that controls the activity of an intracellular tyrosine kinase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Insulin or IGF binding stimulates tyrosine autophosphorylation in the receptor β subunits, which activates the kinase and recruits cellular substrates-IRS1 and IRS2-for tyrosine phosphorylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 or IRS2 recruits and activates various SH2 domain-containing proteins, including the PI 3-kinase, which activates the PKB cascade. (sciencemag.org)
  • 6 Metformin mediates its inhibitory function by activating the tumor suppressor LKB1 and its downstream target AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by inhibiting the RagGTPases that are essential for mTORC1 activation by amino acids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The NUP214-ABL1 fusion protein is a constitutively active protein tyrosine kinase that is found in 6% of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and that promotes proliferation and survival of T-lymphoblasts. (haematologica.org)
  • In this work, we identify and validate the SRC family kinase LCK as a protein whose activity is absolutely required for the proliferation and survival of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that depend on NUP214-ABL1 activity. (haematologica.org)
  • The IGF1R tyrosine kinase further directly phosphorylates various intracellular substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a prominent role in integrin signaling. (biologists.org)
  • Paxillin has been shown to have binding sites for the SH3 domain of Src and the SH2 domain of Crk in vitro and to coprecipitate with two other focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (p125fak). (semanticscholar.org)
  • PYK2 (PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase. (abbiotec.com)
  • C3G, a Rap1 GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) that contains a Crk-SH3-binding proline-rich motif, transduces signals from receptors to the nucleus via the Ras/Raf/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway [ 14 , 15 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • K252a, a protein kinase inhibitor, acts as a neurotrophic factor in several neuronal cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study we show that K252a enhanced the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of several focal adhesion-associated proteins including p130(Cas), focal adhesion kinase, and paxillin. (elsevier.com)
  • PTEN directly associates with FAK and can reduce its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as that of a potential downstream effector, p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130 Cas ). (rupress.org)
  • Cas was originally cloned as a highly tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in cells transformed by v-Src (refs 2,3) or v-Crk (ref. 4) and has subsequently been implicated in a variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, cell migration, growth factor stimulation, cytokine receptor engagement and bacterial infection. (nih.gov)
  • These intracellular protein-protein interactions are pivotal in transmitting the signal from the receptor to the final cellular effect, such as translocation of vesicles containing GLUT4 glucose transporters from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, activation of glycogen or protein synthesis, and initiation of specific gene transcription (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • The phosphorylated insulin receptor binds and phosphorylates IRS proteins and Shc, which bind differentially to various downstream signaling proteins. (jci.org)
  • PH domains, which are found in most of the proteins that interact with the insulin receptor, bind to charged headgroups of specific phosphatidylinositides and are thereby targeted preferentially to membrane structures. (jci.org)
  • In this report, we have developed an in vitro microtiter assay to study the binding of bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins of v-Crk and its cellular homolog, c-Crk, to the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (elsevier.com)
  • den Hertog J, Pals CE, Jonk LJ, Kruijer W. Differential expression of a novel murine non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase during differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These observations suggest that paxillin serves as an adapter protein, similar to insulin receptor substrate 1, and that pp125FAK may regulate the formation of signaling complexes by directing the phosphorylation of paxillin on tyrosine. (asm.org)
  • It mostly develops as a result of dysregulated insulin signaling in insulin-sensitive cells, as compared to inactivating mutations in insulin receptor or signaling proteins that occur relatively rare. (hindawi.com)
  • Lower insulin action or insulin resistance has been associated with lower insulin-stimulated activities of enzymes such as glycogen synthase and hexokinase and a reduced ability of insulin to activate a variety of elements of the insulin signaling system, such as tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), etc . [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The CRKs and the related cysteine-rich receptor-like proteins (CRPs) are groups of receptor-proteins that have undergone drastic expansion in higher plants. (helsinki.fi)
  • We use a secreted protein, GRIM REAPER (GRI), and its receptor as model system to investigate the molecular biology of peptide ligands and receptors. (helsinki.fi)
  • The CRKs are an intriguing family of receptor proteins. (helsinki.fi)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the CRK/DUF26 group of Receptor-like protein kinases by ozone and plant hormones in Arabidopsis. (helsinki.fi)
  • Differential binding of adapter proteins may impart some signal specificity, since many of the receptors use the same adapter proteins, and may also link the activation of the receptor to multiple pathways. (genetex.com)
  • This is the case of A36R of Vaccinia virus, Tir (translocated intimin receptor) of pathogenic E.coli and possibly Citrobacter, CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) of H.pylori, or AnkA (ankyrin repeat-containing protein A) of A.phagocytophilum. (proteopedia.org)
  • The results, ratiometric rather than strictly quantitative in nature, conformed with previous identifications of several Bcr-Abl and EGF receptor targets, and associated proteins, as detected by exhaustive mass spectrometric analyses. (mcponline.org)
  • Among the responsive sites, 20 were previously known to be tyrosine phosphorylated with insulin treatment, including sites on the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of selected tyrosine sites on receptor substrates is known to activate different pathways leading to increased glucose uptake, lipogenesis, and glycogen and protein synthesis, as well as to stimulation of cell growth ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For instance, serine phosphorylation on insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 induced by a variety of factors has been shown to interfere with the activating effects of tyrosine phosphorylation by decreasing binding to the insulin receptor or increasing degradation of IRS-1 ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Many of these factors are reflected in decreased amounts of the tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor and receptor substrates with concomitant reduction in downstream signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using this approach, we were able to identify and quantify the temporal dynamics of many previously described sites on the insulin receptor and several insulin receptor substrates, as well as many additional sites, both previously characterized and novel, on other proteins associated with insulin signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • EGF stimulates phosphorylation on Tyr-residues and induces complex formation with EGF receptor through an adapter protein such as GRB2. (mybiosource.com)
  • protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor ty. (broadinstitute.org)
  • We show that coexpression of Dok-R with activated Tek results in tyrosine phosphorylation of Dok-R and that rasGAP and Nck coimmunoprecipitate with phosphorylated Dok-R. Furthermore, Dok-R is constitutively bound to Crk presumably through the proline rich tail of Dok-R. The cloning of Dok-R represents the first downstream substrate of the activated Tek receptor, and suggests that Tek can signal through a multitude of pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Drugs that stimulate IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate protein 2) synthesis or signaling might be a good starting point. (sciencemag.org)
  • The activated receptor recruits and phosphorylates cellular substrates to initiate signal transduction ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Recruitment is regulated by serine phosphorylation of the IRS proteins, which inhibits the interaction between its PTB domain and the phosphorylated receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • This review will focus on key signaling intermediates of the IR and IGF-1R, the Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) proteins, with an emphasis on IRS-2, and discuss how these adaptor proteins play a pivotal role at the intersection of metabolism and cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • are the sole members of the FAK family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the N-terminal FERM domain may direct FAK to sites of integrin or growth factor receptor clustering as well as regulating its interactions with other potential activating proteins. (biologists.org)
  • In our body, GTP-Binding Proteins control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of EFS, but several transcriptional regulators for EFS have been proposed based on consensus binding sites in its promoter region for ATF (Activating transcription factor), NF-κβ, NF-κβ1, GATA-3, C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha), glucocorticoid receptors α and β, and p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following binding of the antigen-HLA complex to the TCR, receptors aggregate, associated protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) are activated, and TCR subunits and a number of linker or adapter molecules are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. (cancer.gov)
  • Chemokine receptors are seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled proteins that enable the lymphocytes on which they are expressed to navigate lymphoid compartments. (jimmunol.org)
  • The encoded protein may represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide-activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. (fishersci.com)
  • Starting from the characterization of a crk T-DNA insertion collection and the transcriptional regulation of the CRKs we are now addressing the molecular biology of these receptors. (helsinki.fi)
  • Recent reports have shown that several heterotrimeric protein-coupled receptors that signal through Galpha(q) can induce Rho-dependent responses, but the pathways that mediate the interaction between Galpha(q) and Rho have not yet been identified. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • REPS2: an adaptor protein involved in growth factor signaling through its influence on the Ral, a small G protein that regulates endocytosis of EGF and insulin receptors. (mybiosource.com)
  • Integrins are a large family of membrane-spanning heterodimeric (αβ) receptors that bind to ligands on other cells or to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • The information encoded by tissue and ECM stiffness is transduced into intracellular stiffness and force by integrins, the transmembrane adhesion receptors for ECM proteins, their associated focal adhesion proteins, and the actin cytoskeleton ( 10 - 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The IGF system is composed of IGF ligands, receptors, and binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The N-terminal domain shares similarity with members of the FERM homology domain family of proteins and directs interactions with integrins and growth factor receptors. (biologists.org)
  • A number of proteins have been identified as Crk-binding proteins, including C3G (RapGEF), SOS1 (son of sevenless homolog 1), DOCK180 (180 kDa protein downstream of CRK), and growth factor receptors [ 8 - 13 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: the role of adaptor proteins Crk. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, because of its SH3-binding domain, paxillin associates tightly with FAK and Crk in an extracellular matrix-independent manner. (fishersci.com)
  • Additionally, protein tyrosine kinases, found only in multicellular eukaryotes, provide links between extracellular signals and F-actin-dependent cellular processes. (biologists.org)
  • The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. (gopubmed.org)
  • Using several parallel approaches we are currently in process of identifying interacting proteins and substrates for the CRKs as well as creating tools for understanding the role of the conserved cysteines in the extracellular domain. (helsinki.fi)
  • Shv is a secreted protein that modulates DE-cadherin levels through extracellular activation of integrin signaling. (sdbonline.org)
  • Protein tyrosine kinases play important roles in the transduction of extracellular signals. (genetex.com)
  • First, in response to guidance cues and adhesive proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM), cells form a protrusion called lamellipodia at the front. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At focal adhesion sites, tensin participates in the protein complex that establishes transmembrane linkage between the extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • Recently, studies on Etk/BMX, a member of the Btk family of tyrosine kinases, have shown that the activation of Etk by extracellular matrix proteins is regulated by FAK and requires an interaction between the PH domain of Etk and the FERM domain of FAK (Chen, 1994). (biologists.org)
  • pp125FAK-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin creates a high-affinity binding site for Crk. (asm.org)
  • On the basis of their colocalization and coordinate phosphorylation, paxillin is a candidate for a substrate of pp125FAK. (asm.org)
  • Phosphorylation of paxillin on tyrosine creates binding sites for the SH2 domains of Crk, Csk, and Src. (asm.org)
  • Paxillin, a focal adhesion protein, is a substrate for several tyrosine kinases such as src, FAK, and p120BRC/ABL. (fishersci.com)
  • We demonstrate that pp125FAK is directly associated with paxillin, a 68-kD cytoskeleton protein. (rupress.org)
  • Microinjection and subsequent immunohistochemical analysis reveal that glutathione S-transferase-FAK fusion proteins, which bind to paxillin, localize to focal adhesions, whereas fusion proteins with no paxillin-binding activity do not localize to focal adhesions. (rupress.org)
  • Molecular cloning of human paxillin, a focal adhesion protein phosphorylated by P210BCR/ABL. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Paxillin is a 68-kDa focal adhesion protein that is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in fibroblasts in response to transformation by v-src, treatment with platelet-derived growth factor, or cross-linking of integrins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The SH3 domain is necessary for the localization of the protein to focal adhesions and interacts with one proline-rich region of PTK2/FAK11. (abcam.com)
  • Interacts with the SH3 domain of FYN and with CRK, SRC, and YES (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Because PTEN also has an NH 2 -terminal domain with extensive homology to tensin, a protein that interacts with actin filaments at focal adhesions, we have focused on analyzing roles of PTEN in integrin-mediated cell migration and signal transduction. (rupress.org)
  • Thus for instance, c-Abl interacts with the transcription factor RXF1, which binds to the palindromic EP sequence in the hepatitis virus B enhancer, and can also be recruited to an E2FDNA binding complex, through a direct interaction with the retinoblastoma protein (RB). (genetex.com)
  • An EGFR substrate that interacts with CRK and GRB2. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gab1 interacts with Crk and CrkL, two proteins with SH2 and SH3 protein interaction domains that couple to signaling further downstream. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Polyubiquitination was shown to be mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b, which is brought into contact with ExoT because it interacts with the ExoT substrate Crk. (jci.org)
  • In addition, deletion of the v-Crk SH3 domain, which interacts with the myosin-1c tail, led to defects in cell spreading. (ijbs.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • 3BP2 is a pleckstrin homology domain- and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adapter protein that is mutated in the rare human bone disorder cherubism and which has also been implicated in immunoreceptor signaling. (asm.org)
  • 3BP2 is a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain- and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adapter protein of unknown function that was originally cloned in a screen to identify c-Abl SH3 binding proteins ( 4 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • BCAR1 (BCAR1, Cas Family Scaffolding Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The amino acid sequences of the SH3 domains are 70% identical among human EFS, BCAR1, and NEDD9, making this the most highly conserved domain for the whole protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] For the better studied members of the CAS family ( BCAR1 and NEDD9 ), all of these domains have been defined as crucial for recognition and binding by other proteins, reflecting the primary role of CAS family proteins as cell signaling cascades mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of key regulators of these processes such as BCAR1, CRK, CRKL, DOK1, EFS or NEDD9. (proteopedia.org)
  • EFS is a member of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This highlights the importance of studying the role of this family of proteins in cancer prognosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • One of our major interests is to better characterize a new family of proteins, the MICALs, that contain a flavoprotein oxidoreductase domain that is required for proper neuronal connectivity. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are a family of proteins that share the F-box motifs , that are involved in protein-protein interactions, which play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • pAbl T735 interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, which caused cytoplasmic retention of c-Abl, where it potentiated Hp -mediated cell elongation and migration. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of the specificity of bacterially expressed cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP and SH-PTP2 towards synthetic phosphopeptide substrates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several cytoplasmic substrates of c-Abl have been identified. (genetex.com)
  • We demonstrate that the endogenous 3BP2 protein binds to the cytoplasmic tail of the B-cell costimulatory molecule CD19 and that 3BP2 deficiency leads to defects in Syk phosphorylation and calcium flux. (asm.org)
  • The SH3 domain of CAS, when expressed in isolation from the rest of the protein, was able to target to focal adhesions, whereas a variant containing a point mutation that rendered the SH3 domain unable to associate with FAK remained cytoplasmic. (qub.ac.uk)
  • These substrates are commonly referred to as docking proteins, since several other intracellular proteins bind to the phosphorylated substrates, thereby transmitting the signal downstream. (jci.org)
  • Activation of FAK results in recruitment of a number of SH2-domain- and SH3-domain-containing proteins, which mediate signaling to several downstream pathways. (biologists.org)
  • It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION. (sickkids.ca)
  • To gain further insight into FAK signaling pathways, we used a two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with mouse FAK. (pnas.org)
  • NEDD9 is a noncatalytic scaffolding protein that contains docking sites for proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, regulating magnitude and duration of cell signaling cascades The overall structure of NEDD9 is represented graphically in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of protein serine/threonine kinases and pathways coupled to small G proteins, and elevation of intracellular calcium, are examples of the events that follow. (cancer.gov)
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We confirmed the expression of a subset of the identified proteins by immunofluorescence and correlated the expression of transcript and protein for key molecules in active signaling pathways in hESCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most interestingly, integrin is involved in various cell signaling pathways through its association with focal adhesion proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Similar sequences were later found in many other intracellular signal-transducing proteins [ PMID: 1377638 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The longest protein isoform encoded by this gene contains an SH3 domain, which is known to be important in intracellular signal transduction. (genecards.org)
  • This stimulatory effect of integrins requires their intracellular signaling function, which is activated by the ECM protein collagen IV . (sdbonline.org)
  • Rac-dependent intracellular stiffening involved its binding partner lamellipodin, a protein that transmits Rac signals to the cytoskeleton during cell migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the mechanism by which ECM stiffness is transduced into intracellular stiffness and stiffness-dependent cell cycling, and whether these processes are mediated by all or some of the stiffness-sensing focal adhesion proteins, remains largely unknown. (sciencemag.org)
  • The SH2-binding sites putatively bind CRK, NCK and ABL1 SH2 domains. (abcam.com)
  • SH3 domains bind to proline-rich motif containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domains are frequently found as repeats in a single protein sequence and will then often bind both mono- and di-phosphorylated substrates. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The protein encoded by a similiar gene in mice was shown to bind to SH3 domains of protein-tyrosine kinases. (genecards.org)
  • Results indicate that both full- length Crk and GAPSH2[N] bind the phosphorylated EGFR with high affinity and can quantitatively compete the binding of each other by competitive enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to identify this potential substrate, mutant (substrate-trapping) forms of PTP-PEST were generated which lack catalytic activity but retain the ability to bind substrates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This protein has been shown to bind CRK-associated substrate, nephrocystin, GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the SH2 domain of GRB2. (fishersci.com)
  • The c-Abl protein contains three high mobility group-like domains that bind to A+T-rich DNA in a cooperative manner. (genetex.com)
  • In our body, the carrier proteins , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins are a type of blood protein, that bind to and transfer cholesterol esters between lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, GTP-Binding Proteins activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP (the GTP phosphohydrolases ). (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein is a family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In protein science , Iron-Binding Proteins are metalloproteins that specifically bind to iron (Fe) . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • SOS1, a Ras GEF, binds through its PxxP motif (amino acids [a.a.] 1021-1034) to Crk/CrkL, and knockdown of SOS1 inhibits Crk-mediated transformation of NIH3T3 cells and migration of HEY (ovarian carcinoma) cells [ 16 , 17 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • Huang, Z., U. Yazdani, K. L. Thompson-Peer, A. L. Kolodkin, and J.R. Terman (2007) Crk-associated substrate (Cas) adaptor protein functions with integrins to specify axon guidance during development . (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • We reported previously that a 105 kD protein (pp105) was tyrosine phosphorylated by the engagement of beta 1 integrins in T lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Integrins and several of their associated focal adhesion proteins have been implicated in sensing ECM stiffness. (sciencemag.org)
  • FAK activation, demonstrated by an increase in phosphorylation of Tyr397 as well as other sites in the protein, is best understood in the context of the engagement of integrins at the cell surface. (biologists.org)
  • Substrate specificities of catalytic fragments of protein tyrosine phosphatases (HPTP beta, LAR, and CD45) toward phosphotyrosylpeptide substrates and thiophosphotyrosylated peptides as inhibitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • Embryonal fyn-associated substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFS gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) its approved symbol is EFS and its synonyms are "Cas scaffolding protein family member 3", CASS3, EFS1, EFS2, HEFS and SIN. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, two groups independently described the complete sequence of the NEDD9 gene, and provided initial functional analysis of NEDD9 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEF1, also known as Enhancer of filamentation 1, CRKassociated substrate-related protein, CAS-L, CasL, p105 and Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 9 is the product of the NEDD9 (CASGL) gene. (novusbio.com)
  • Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • EFS (Embryonal Fyn-Associated Substrate) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ) located on chromosome 9 . (wikidoc.org)
  • In the present study, we find that an ortholog of the poorly understood transcription factor, glucose transporter (GLUT4) enhancer factor (Glut4EF, GEF) [also known as the Huntington's disease gene regulatory region-binding protein (HDBP) 1], plays a critical role in specifying normal wing positioning in adult Drosophila. (genetics.org)
  • In humans, mutation of the gene encoding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) leads to susceptibility to infection with opportunistic pathogens and systemic autoimmunity. (jci.org)
  • The interaction between CRK and BCR-ABL plays important roles in chronic myeloid leukemia. (rsc.org)
  • Hence, inhibiting the interaction of CRK with BCR-ABL is an attractive way to attenuate cancer metastasis. (rsc.org)
  • [6] CAS proteins have an amino terminal SH3 domain enabling interaction with poly-proline motif-containing proteins such as FAK . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxy-terminal to this, they possess an unstructured domain containing multiple SH2 binding site motifs, which when tyrosine-phosphorylated allow interaction with SH2 domain containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the best-characterized protein interaction domains involved in insulin signaling are the PH (pleckstrin homology), PTB (phosphotyrosine binding), SH2, and SH3 domains ( 1 ) (Table 1 ). (jci.org)
  • These interaction domains exist in the natural tertiary structure of proteins. (jci.org)
  • In other cases, the domains for interaction are created by posttranslational covalent modification of the protein. (jci.org)
  • We are developing hypothesis directed proteomics and gloabl metabolomics and lipidomics strategies to understand the fundamental drivers of disease in cancers such as multiple myeloma, lung cancer and prostate cancer by performing protein-protein interaction studies, immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), quantitative phosphoproteomics, metabolic and lipidomic profiling as well as metabolic flux analyses. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, we used mass spectrometry to identify protein interaction partners of NUP214-ABL1. (haematologica.org)
  • The C-terminal region of FAK is rich in protein-protein interaction sites. (biologists.org)
  • We here demonstrate a role for Crk-myosin-1c interaction in cell adhesion and spreading. (ijbs.com)
  • Overexpression of the GFP-myosin-1c tail domain effectively inhibited the v-Crk-myosin-1c interaction and led to a slight decrease in cell spreading and cell surface area. (ijbs.com)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that the v-Crk-myosin-1c interaction, which modulates membrane dynamics by regulating Rac1 activity, is crucial for cell adhesion and spreading. (ijbs.com)
  • NEDD-9 is also known as enhancer of filamentation 1 (EF1), CRK-associated substrate-related protein (CAS-L), and Cas scaffolding protein family member 2 (CASS2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tensin is best known as an adaptor protein linking integrin to the actin cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • This protein localizes to both the cell nucleus and the cell periphery and is differently localized in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Chemokines, small protein chemoattractants, decorate the stromal network of fibroblasts and epithelial cells that create the cellular framework of secondary lymphoid organs through which lymphocytes continually recirculate ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that v-Crk can induce transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts by influencing the activity of cellular proteins involved in growth regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Crk-knockout ( Crk ‑/‑ ) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited significantly decreased cell spreading and reduced Rac1 activity. (ijbs.com)
  • However, no apparent competition of Crk binding was noted with heterologous SH2-containing proteins including GAPSH2[N], suggesting a possible specificity of Crk-p130 binding. (elsevier.com)
  • We have investigated the substrate specificity of PTP-PEST by a novel substrate-trapping approach in combination with in vitro dephosphorylation experiments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results provide the first demonstration of a PTP having an inherently restricted substrate specificity in vitro and in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In eukaryotes, protein kinases are involved in regulating key aspects of cellular function, including cell division, metabolism, and responses to external signals. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Availability permitting, a virtually unlimited number of Abs, each recognizing a specific cellular protein, may be arrayed on a chip, incubated with total cell or tissue extracts or with biological fluids, and then probed with a fluorescently labeled p-Tyr-specific monoclonal Ab, PY-KD1, specifically generated for this assay as part of the current study. (mcponline.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation is the least abundant post-translational modification (PTM) 1 compared with phospho-serine (p-Ser) or -threonine (p-Thr) and is estimated to be less than 0.05% of the total cellular protein phospho-amino acid content ( 12 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Mass spectrometry, already the standard method to identify proteins ( 13 ), has also gained popularity for phosphoproteome analysis, as practiced either with or without prior gel fractionation of the cellular proteome or subsets thereof ( 14 - 20 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Nevertheless, cataloguing the cellular transcriptome is only predictive of protein expression and typically does not shed light on post-transcriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We suggest that the GAP activity of YopE might be working as an intra-cellular probe measuring the amount of protein translocated by Yersinia during infection. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dysregulation of Rho activation through aberrant growth-factor signaling, loss of function of key Rho-regulatory proteins or overexpression of Rho mRNA could result in increased Rho activity and cellular motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As suggested above, it is the activation state of these and other Rho proteins, and not the level of expression, that dictates the cellular effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Association of these proteins with Crk enables membrane targeting of Crk and transduces various cellular signals. (ijbs.com)
  • Because many of the cellular functions attributed to CAS are likely to be dependent on its presence in focal adhesions, this study was undertaken to identify regions of the protein that are involved in its localization. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a protein domain of about 100 amino-acid residues first identified as a conserved sequence region between the oncoproteins Src and Fps [ PMID: 3025655 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Rho (Ras homology) GTPases are a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, which are related to the Ras oncogene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crk is an adaptor protein containing Src homology 2 (SH2) and 3 (SH3) domains. (ijbs.com)
  • In this article, we review some of our current understanding about early insulin signal transduction through the network of IRS interacting proteins and the mechanisms that may modify insulin signal transduction in insulin-resistant states, especially obesity and type 2 diabetes. (jci.org)
  • EFS (Embryonal Fyn-associated Substrate), also known as SIN (Src INteracting or Signal Integrating protein) was originally identified using cDNA library screening of mouse embryonal libraries for proteins containing SH3-interacting domains, or interacting with the SRC SH3 domain, in two independent studies by Ishino et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • These initial events lead to the generation of multiple protein complexes that localize at the TCR and the plasma membrane. (cancer.gov)
  • These complexes contain enzymes that are regulated by protein phosphorylation and whose substrates are located at the membrane. (cancer.gov)
  • LAT, initially characterized by this laboratory, is an integral membrane protein with multiple tyrosine residues. (cancer.gov)
  • A stroboscopic analysis of cell dynamics during cell spreading revealed that the cell-spreading deficiency in Crk ‑/‑ MEFs was due to the short protrusion/retraction distances and long persistence times of membrane extensions. (ijbs.com)
  • The low activity of Rac1 in Crk ‑/‑ MEFs, which led to delayed cell spreading in these cells, is consistent with the observed defects in membrane dynamics. (ijbs.com)
  • Reintroduction of v-Crk into Crk ‑/‑ MEFs rescued these defects, restoring cell-spreading activity and membrane dynamics to Crk +/+ MEF levels, and normalizing Rac1 activity. (ijbs.com)
  • Thus, it is of interest to understand the mechanism by which these proteins are activated as well as the membrane dynamics that occur during cell adhesion and spreading. (ijbs.com)
  • In our body, as a membrane proteins , Membrane Transport Proteins are a type of carrier protein (transport protein) whose primary function is as a permease enzyme to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Full length human recombinant protein of human NEDD9 produced in HEK293T cell. (thermofisher.com)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • Purified recombinant human PTK2B protein fragments expressed in E.coli. (genetex.com)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Once phosphorylated by SRC or other kinases, these tyrosine motifs are bound by the SH2 domains of signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within this superfamily, individual isoforms and subfamilies contain distinct regulatory domains, subcellular targeting information, and substrate specificities. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The genome of CT10 avian sarcoma virus encodes a 47-kDa fusion protein that consists of viral gag sequences fused to a cell-derived sequence containing SH2 and SH3 domains (v-crk). (elsevier.com)
  • There are 58927 SH2 domains in 53279 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In contrast, nonreceptor tyrosine kinases are recruited to substrates and or activators by their SH2 and/or SH3 domains. (genetex.com)
  • Forms a complex with the SH3 domains of CRK and GRB2. (mybiosource.com)
  • In our body, Carrier Proteins (Transport Proteins) are proteins that carry specific substances in the blood and across cell membranes. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, as carrier proteins , GTP-Binding Proteins are regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, Iron-Binding Proteins are proteins that act as carrier proteins (transport proteins) for iron (Fe) . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1. (wikigenes.org)
  • Translocated YopE can modulate this pore formation through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • The role of protein tyrosine kinases, adapter molecules and molecular signaling complexes have been a central interest. (cancer.gov)
  • We are currently using a multidisciplinary approach to study LAT as well as the multi-protein complexes that form at phosphorylated LAT. (cancer.gov)
  • These mutant proteins associated in stable complexes exclusively with the same 130-kDa protein, which was identified as p130(cas) by immunoblotting. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While c-Abl does not select DNA sequences, it can be recruited to specific DNA-binding complexes through protein-protein interactions. (genetex.com)
  • 3BP2 forms complexes with a number of signaling proteins, such as Zap-70, LAT, phospholipase C γ1 (PLC-γ1), Grb2, Cbl, and Fyn in Jurkat cells ( 6 ) and Vav1, Vav2, PLC-γ, and Syk in Daudi B cells ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins, reaching a maximum at 30 min after K252a treatment, closely correlated with the colocalization of these proteins in focal adhesion complexes and the coimmunoprecipitation of these proteins with p130(Cas). (elsevier.com)
  • NEDD9 is a member of the CAS (Crk-associated substrate) protein family, which has 4 members in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal SH2 domain of this protein functions as a positive regulator of transformation whereas the C-terminal SH3 domain functions as a negative regulator of transformation. (nih.gov)
  • G protein regulator, misc. (mybiosource.com)
  • In our diet and our body, Calcium-Binding Proteins , the proteins to which calcium ions are bound, may act as transport proteins, as regulator proteins, and as activator proteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The first and second each contain 7 exons and encode the same full-length protein isoform a (786 amino acids, considered the major isoform), the third one contains 6 exons and encodes a shorter isoform b (732 amino acids) and the fourth one contains 5 exons and encodes the shortest isoform c (349 amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arabidopsis genome encodes 1,085 typical protein kinases (M. Gribskov, unpublished data), which is about 4% of the predicted 25,500 genes ( Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • PTEN encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase motif. (rupress.org)
  • These results demonstrate that by encodes Drosophila tensin protein and that the Drosophila tensin mutants are alleles of by . (biologists.org)
  • 17p13.3 microduplication including CRK leads to overgrowth and elevated growth factors: A case report. (nih.gov)
  • Like other growth factors, insulin uses phosphorylation and the resultant protein-protein interactions as essential tools to transmit and compartmentalize its signal. (jci.org)
  • HEF-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in integrin-based signaling that affects cell motility, growth, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Cas family of docking proteins have been the subject of intense research because of their role in cell motility, growth, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet both cultivation studies and emerging genome sequences of bacteria and archaea establish that CO is a widely utilized microbial growth substrate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, attention is turning to potential mechanisms of aberrant Rho activation, such as alterations in the regulatory proteins or aberrant growth factor stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon activation of IGF1R, IRS-1 binds and becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated, allowing docking sites for SH2 domain-containing proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that PP1 is a key protein serine/threonine phosphatase that controls vimentin Ser-56 dephosphorylation in smooth muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several studies have indicated that prostate cancer cell lines (2 , 3 , 4 , 5) , as well as human cancer and benign prostatic tissues (6 , 7 , 8 , 9) , express different members of the integrin family that are known to mediate interactions between cells and ECM 4 proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK, and other proteins, and has been linked to roles in the function of the immune system, and the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain contains sites for multiple protein-protein interactions. (biologists.org)
  • Integrin beta-1 stimulation leads to recruitment of various proteins including CRK, NCK and SHPTP2 to the tyrosine phosphorylated form. (novusbio.com)
  • Integrin/ligand binding evokes tyrosine phosphorylation of various proteins. (rupress.org)
  • An in vitro biochemical assay demonstrated that PRM-3 inhibits the ABL-dependent phosphorylation of CRK-II more effectively than imatinib. (rsc.org)
  • PTP-PEST is a ubiquitously expressed, cytosolic, mammalian protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) which exhibits high specific activity in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We initially identified a prominent 130-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in pervanadate-treated HeLa cell lysates which was preferentially dephosphorylated by PTP-PEST in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that integrin/ligand binding results in the recruitment of Crk, Nck, and SHPTP2 to pp105. (rupress.org)
  • ExoT forms a complex with its substrate Crk and a Crk ligand, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b, leading to polyubiquitination of ExoT by Cbl-b and subsequent proteasomal degradation. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Contains a central domain (substrate domain) containing multiple potential SH2-binding sites and a C-terminal domain containing a divergent helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif. (abcam.com)
  • All CAS proteins except CASS4 contain a YDYVHL motif within this domain, which is an important binding site for the Src SH2 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identify two sites of phosphorylation as tyrosine residues 31 and 118, each of which conforms to the Crk SH2 domain binding motif, (P)YXXP. (asm.org)
  • The methods used to identify p130(cas) as a specific substrate for PTP-PEST are potentially applicable to any PTP and should therefore prove useful in determining the physiological substrates of other members of the PTP family. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Glut4EF proteins are zinc-finger transcription factors named for their ability to regulate expression of GLUT4 but nothing is known of Glut4EF's in vivo physiological functions. (genetics.org)
  • Characterizing the biochemical and physiological role of these proteins. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • To extend these findings to p130, the major phosphotyrosine-containing protein in CT10-transformed cells, we utilized a nitrocellulose filter binding assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Identifying these tumors with this translocation became clinically feasible after the production of antibodies that specifically interact with chimeric NPM-ALK and full-length ALK proteins. (bloodjournal.org)