A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Those biological processes that are involved in the transmission of hereditary traits from one organism to another.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds of silver and proteins used as topical anti-infective agents.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.

Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins. (1/356)

Integrin ligand binding induces a signaling complex formation via the direct association of the docking protein p130(Cas) (Cas) with diverse molecules. We report here that the 14-3-3zeta protein interacts with Cas in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also found that the two proteins associate in mammalian cells and that this interaction takes place in a phosphoserine-dependent manner, because treatment of Cas with a serine phosphatase greatly reduced its ability to bind 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, the Cas-14-3-3zeta interaction was found to be regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Thus, when cells are detached from the extracellular matrix, the binding of Cas to 14-3-3zeta is greatly diminished, whereas replating the cells onto fibronectin rapidly induces the association. Consistent with these results, we found that the subcellular localization of Cas and 14-3-3 is also regulated by integrin ligand binding and that the two proteins display a significant co-localization during cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins participate in integrin-activated signaling pathways through their interaction with Cas, which, in turn, may contribute to important biological responses regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Alternatively spliced EDA segment regulates fibronectin-dependent cell cycle progression and mitogenic signal transduction. (2/356)

Fibronectin (FN) is comprised of multiple isoforms arising from alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. One of the alternatively spliced segments, EDA, is expressed prominently in embryonic development, malignant transformation, and wound healing. We showed previously that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in promoting cell spreading and cell migration because of its enhanced binding affinity to integrin alpha5beta1 (Manabe, R., Oh-e, N., Maeda, T., Fukuda, T., and Sekiguchi, K. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 295-307). In this study, we compared the cell cycle progression and its associated signal transduction events induced by FN isoforms with or without the EDA segment to examine whether the EDA segment modulates the cell proliferative potential of FN. We found that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in inducing G1-S phase transition. Inclusion of the EDA segment potentiated the ability of FN to induce expression of cyclin D1, hyperphosphorylation of pRb, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). EDA+ FN was also more potent than EDA- FN in promoting FN-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(Cas), but not focal adhesion kinase, which occurred in parallel with the activation of ERK2, suggesting that p130(Cas) may be involved in activation of ERK2. These results indicated that alternative splicing at the EDA region is a novel mechanism that promotes FN-induced cell cycle progression through up-regulation of integrin-mediated mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

Agonist-stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction at focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle cells require c-Src. (3/356)

Thrombin and angiotensin II (angII) have trophic properties as mediators of vascular remodeling. Focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton are involved in cell growth, shape, and movement and may be important in vascular remodeling. To characterize mechanisms by which thrombin and angII modulate vessel structure, we studied the effects of these G protein-coupled receptor ligands on focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Both thrombin and angII stimulated bundling of actin filaments to form stress fibers, assembly of focal adhesions, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation at focal adhesions, such as p130Cas, paxillin, and tensin. To test whether c-Src plays a critical role in focal adhesion rearrangement, we analyzed cells with altered c-Src activity by retroviral transduction of wild-type (WT) and kinase-inactive (KI) c-Src into rat VSMCs, and by use of VSMCs from WT (src+/+) and Src-deficient (src-/-) mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, paxillin, and tensin were markedly decreased in VSMCs expressing KI-Src and in src-/- VSMCs. Expression of KI-Src did not inhibit stress fiber formation by thrombin. Surprisingly, actin bundling was markedly decreased in VSMCs from src-/- mice both basally and after thrombin stimulation, compared with src+/+ mice. We also studied the effect of KI-Src and WT-Src on VSMC spreading. Expression of KI-Src reduced the rate of VSMC spreading on collagen, whereas WT-Src enhanced cell spreading. In conclusion, c-Src plays a critical role in agonist-stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction at focal adhesions in VSMCs. c-Src kinase activity is required for the cytoskeletal turnover that occurs in cell spreading, whereas c-Src appears to regulate actin bundling via a kinase-independent mechanism.  (+info)

NSP1 defines a novel family of adaptor proteins linking integrin and tyrosine kinase receptors to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. (4/356)

As part of a program to further understand the mechanism by which extracellular signals are coordinated and cell-specific outcomes are generated, we have cloned a novel class of related adaptor molecules (NSP1, NSP2, and NSP3) and have characterized in more detail one of the members, NSP1. NSP1 has an Shc-related SH2 domain and a putative proline/serine-rich SH3 interaction domain. Treatment of cells with epidermal growth factor or insulin leads to NSP1 phosphorylation and increased association with a hypophosphorylated adaptor protein, p130(Cas). In contrast, cell contact with fibronectin results in Cas phosphorylation and a transient dissociation of NSP1 from p130(Cas). Increased expression of NSP1 in 293 cells induces activation of JNK1, but not of ERK2. Consistent with this observation, NSP1 increases the activity of an AP-1-containing promoter. Thus, we have described a novel family of adaptor proteins, one of which may be involved in the process by which receptor tyrosine kinase and integrin receptors control the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase pathway.  (+info)

Rho-dependent and -independent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin and p130Cas mediated by Ret kinase. (5/356)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a unique receptor system that includes Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface protein. In the present study, we have identified several proteins in neuroblastoma cells that are phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to GDNF. The phosphorylated proteins include focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Crk-associated substrate, p130Cas, all of which are known to be associated with focal adhesions. Of these, paxillin and p130Cas interacted with Crk proteins in GDNF-treated neuroblastoma cells. GDNF also induced reorganization of the actin cytoskelton. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas was inhibited by cytochalasin D or two specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3' kinase), wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that their tyrosine phosphorylation depends on the formation of actin stress fiber and activation of PI-3' kinase. In addition, phosphorylation of FAK but not of paxillin and p130Cas was markedly impaired by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme that specifically ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. These results suggested the presence of Rho-dependent and -independent signaling pathways downstream of PI-3' kinase that mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas through Ret kinase.  (+info)

CMS: an adapter molecule involved in cytoskeletal rearrangements. (6/356)

Cas ligand with multiple Src homology (SH) 3 domains (CMS) is an ubiquitously expressed signal transduction molecule that interacts with the focal adhesion protein p130(Cas). CMS contains three SH3 in its NH2 terminus and proline-rich sequences in its center region. The latter sequences mediate the binding to the SH3 domains of p130(Cas), Src-family kinases, p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Grb2. The COOH-terminal region contains putative actin binding sites and a coiled-coil domain that mediates homodimerization of CMS. CMS is a cytoplasmic protein that colocalizes with F-actin and p130(Cas) to membrane ruffles and leading edges of cells. Ectopic expression of CMS in COS-7 cells resulted in alteration in arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. We observed a diffuse distribution of actin in small dots and less actin fiber formation. Altogether, these features suggest that CMS functions as a scaffolding molecule with a specialized role in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression in FAK-null cells enhances cell spreading and migration requiring both auto- and activation loop phosphorylation sites and inhibits adhesion-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. (7/356)

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in integrin-mediated control of cell behavior. Following cell adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix, FAK becomes phosphorylated at multiple sites, including tyrosines 397, 576, and 577. Tyr-397 is an autophosphorylation site that promotes interaction with c-Src or Fyn. Tyr-576 and Tyr-577 lie in the putative activation loop of the kinase domain, and FAK catalytic activity may be elevated through phosphorylation of these residues by associated Src family kinase. Recent studies have implicated FAK as a positive regulator of cell spreading and migration. To further study the mechanism of adhesion-induced FAK activation and the possible role and signaling requirements for FAK in cell spreading and migration, we utilized the tetracycline repression system to achieve inducible expression of either wild-type FAK or phosphorylation site mutants in fibroblasts derived from FAK-null mouse embryos. Using these Tet-FAK cells, we demonstrated that both the FAK autophosphorylation and activation loop sites are critical for maximum adhesion-induced FAK activation and FAK-enhanced cell spreading and migration responses. Negative effects on cell spreading and migration, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the substrate p130(Cas), were observed upon induced expression of the FAK autophosphorylation site mutant. These negative effects appear to result from an inhibition of integrin-mediated signaling by the FAK-related kinase Pyk2/CAKbeta/RAFTK/CadTK.  (+info)

Integrin-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase is required for signaling to Jun NH2-terminal kinase and progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (8/356)

The extracellular matrix exerts a stringent control on the proliferation of normal cells, suggesting the existence of a mitogenic signaling pathway activated by integrins, but not significantly by growth factor receptors. Herein, we provide evidence that integrins cause a significant and protracted activation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), while several growth factors cause more modest or no activation of this enzyme. Integrin-mediated stimulation of JNK required the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with a Src kinase and p130(CAS), the phosphorylation of p130(CAS), and subsequently, the recruitment of Crk. Ras and PI-3K were not required. FAK-JNK signaling was necessary for proper progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These findings establish a role for FAK in both the activation of JNK and the control of the cell cycle, and identify a physiological stimulus for JNK signaling that is consistent with the role of Jun in both proliferation and transformation.  (+info)

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

Examples of mammary neoplasms in animals include:

* Mammary adenocarcinoma: A type of tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells that produce milk.
* Mammary fibroadenoma: A benign tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the growth of fibrous and glandular tissue.
* Inflammatory mammary carcinoma: A type of tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells and abnormal cells.

These tumors can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and exposure to certain environmental agents. They can also be induced experimentally using chemical carcinogens or viruses.

The study of mammary neoplasms in animals is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer development and progression, as well as for identifying potential therapeutic targets and developing new treatments.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... EFS is a member of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family of proteins. In humans and mammals, this group consists of four ... Embryonal fyn-associated substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFS gene. It is also known as CASS3. EFS ( ... In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK ...
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (11): 6446-51. doi: ... CRK-associated substrate-related protein (CAS-L), and Cas scaffolding protein family member 2 (CASS2). An important paralog of ... NEDD9 is a member of the CAS (Crk-associated substrate) protein family, which has 4 members in vertebrates. The other ... Huang Z, Yazdani U, Thompson-Peer KL, Kolodkin AL, Terman JR (2007). "Crk-associated substrate (Cas) signaling protein ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Crk-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRKL gene. v-CRK avian sarcoma virus CT10-homolog-like contains ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Shi CS, Tuscano J, Kehrl JH (February 2000). "Adaptor proteins CRK and CRKL associate with the serine/threonine protein kinase ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... related protein kinases HPK1 and KHS are candidates for highly selective signal transducers of Crk family adapter proteins". ... the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and a 75-kDa protein that is a substrate for T cell antigen receptor-activated ... a guanine nucleotide-releasing protein expressed ubiquitously, binds to the Src homology 3 domains of CRK and GRB2/ASH proteins ...
... (Crk associated substrate 4) is the fourth and last described member of the CAS protein family. CASS4 was detected by ... A putative mechanism for the integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrates". The Journal of ... CAS proteins have an amino terminal SH3 domain enabling interaction with poly-proline motif-containing proteins such as FAK. ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene. ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ...
Crk-associated substrate) of adaptor proteins which is characterized by the presence of multiple conserved motifs for protein- ... Embryonal Fyn-associated substrate), and CASS4 (Cas scaffolding protein family member 4). These Cas proteins have a high ... BCAR1 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor molecule originally identified as the major substrate of v-Src and v-Crk . p130Cas/ ... Garton AJ, Flint AJ, Tonks NK (1996). "Identification of p130(cas) as a substrate for the cytosolic protein tyrosine ...
"Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... The protein associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and interacts with the fyn-binding protein. ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of target proteins by Fyn serves to either regulate target protein activity, and/or to generate a ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ...
"Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... "Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized ... Nephrocystin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPHP1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with src homology domain 3 ... "A novel gene that encodes a protein with a putative src homology 3 domain is a candidate gene for familial juvenile ...
Insulin receptor substrate 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRS4 gene. IRS4 encodes the insulin receptor ... "The insulin-like growth factor I receptor-induced interaction of insulin receptor substrate-4 and Crk-II". Endocrinology. 142 ( ... 2002). "Insulin receptor substrate 4 associates with the protein IRAS". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (22): 19439-47. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 2003). "Insulin receptor substrate-4 is expressed in muscle tissue without acting as a substrate for the insulin receptor". ...
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (11): 6446-51. doi: ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... Proteins+c-crk at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Oncogene+Protein+v-crk at the US National ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ...
... a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a human guanine nucleotide releasing protein for Ras protein. It belongs to the adaptor- ... a guanine nucleotide-releasing protein expressed ubiquitously, binds to the Src homology 3 domains of CRK and GRB2/ASH proteins ... "The BCR/ABL oncogene alters interaction of the adapter proteins CRKL and CRK with cellular proteins". Leukemia. 11 (3): 376-85 ...
... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". The ... FAK is a highly conserved, non-receptor tyrosine kinase originally identified as a substrate for the oncogene protein tyrosine ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ...
Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ...
The C-terminus of DOCK proteins interacts with another adaptor protein, Crk. Dock4 undergoes RhoG/ELMO-dependent recruitment to ... this has been shown to promote DOCK-dependent signalling by helping recruit the ELMO-DOCK complex to areas of high substrate ... DOCK family proteins contribute to cell signalling by activating G proteins of the Rho family, such as Rac and Cdc42. Dock4 has ... April 1996). "DOCK180, a major CRK-binding protein, alters cell morphology upon translocation to the cell membrane". Molecular ...
September 2007). "A role for the Myoblast city homologues Dock1 and Dock5 and the adaptor proteins Crk and Crk-like in ... RhoG recruits the ELMO/Dock180 complex to the plasma membrane thereby bringing Dock180 into contact with its substrate, Rac. In ... November 1998). "Activation of Rac1 by a Crk SH3-binding protein, DOCK180". Genes Dev. 12 (21): 3331-36. doi:10.1101/gad.12.21. ... 1996). "Chromosomal mapping of the gene encoding DOCK180, a major Crk-binding protein, to 10q26.13-q26.3 by fluorescence in ...
... crk-associated substrate protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.297 - grb2 adaptor protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.298 - grb7 adaptor ... 14-3-3 proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.318 - proto-oncogene proteins c-crk MeSH D12.644.360.024.326 - proto-oncogene proteins c- ... ral gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.462 - ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.475 - rap gtp-binding proteins ... wnt proteins MeSH D12.644.276.996.500 - wnt1 protein MeSH D12.644.276.996.750 - wnt2 protein MeSH D12.644.360.011 - activating ...
... and Src kinase family members to phosphorylate substrates such as p130CAS thereby recruiting signaling adaptors such as CRK. ... Moreover, talin proteins are able to dimerize and thus are thought to intervene in the clustering of integrin dimers which ... Cells adhere to a substrate through their integrins. During movement, the cell makes new attachments to the substrate at its ... The role of divalent cations in the α subunit is unknown, but may stabilize the folds of the protein. The cations in the β ...
This protein has been shown to bind a CRK-associated substrate, a nephrocystin, a GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to ... "Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS". Curr. Biol. ... Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ...
... and therefore is able to catalyse the formation of a covalent bond between ubiquitin and Cbl's protein substrate - typically a ... CRK, CRKL, EGFR,< FRS2, FYN, Grb2, HCK, IGF1R, LCP2;, NCK1, PDGFRA, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PLCG1, PTK2B, PTPN11, SH2B2, SH3KBP1 SHC1, ... is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ... is a downstream substrate of the Hck protein-tyrosine kinase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 257 (1): 129-38. doi:10.1006/bbrc ...
The levels of distinct proteins can be regulated by the "ubiquitin/proteasome" system. In this system, a small (7-8 kd)protein ... Qian X, Riccio A, Zhang Y, Ginty DD (November 1998). "Identification and characterization of novel substrates of Trk receptors ... regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Molecular and ... Geetha T, Wooten MW (February 2003). "Association of the atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein p62/ZIP with nerve ...
"Combination of gene targeting and substrate trapping to identify substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases using PTP-PEST as ... role of PTP-PEST and adaptor proteins p130cas and Crk". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285 (2): H710-21. doi:10.1152/ ... This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein ... "Combination of gene targeting and substrate trapping to identify substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases using PTP-PEST as ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPS15 gene. This gene encodes a ... "Interaction between the amino-terminal SH3 domain of CRK and its natural target proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (24): 14468-72. ... a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 (17): 2239-49. doi:10.1101/gad.11.17.2239. PMC 275390. PMID 9303539 ... The protein is present at clathrin-coated pits and is involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of EGF. Notably, this gene is ...
Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... RICS (gene) has been shown to interact with: BCAR1, CDC42, CRK, CRKL, FYN, GAB2, GRIN2B, NCK1, RAC1, RHOA, SHC3, Src, and TrkA ... a novel substrate that attenuates Rac signaling". Cell. Signal. 22 (11): 1626-33. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.06.001. PMID ... Rho GTPase-activating protein 32 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RICS gene. RICS has two known isoforms, RICS ...
Feller SM, Lewitzky M (2006). "Potential disease targets for drugs that disrupt protein-- protein interactions of Grb2 and Crk ... Stability - A subset of docking motifs recruit E3 ubiquitin ligase to their substrates. The resulting polyubiquitination ... linear motifs or minimotifs are short stretches of protein sequence that mediate protein-protein interaction. The first ... Linear motif mediated protein-protein interactions have shown promise in recent years as novel drug targets. Success stories ...
... a protein complex) Cascade (grape), a type of fruit Biochemical cascade, a series of biochemical reactions, in which a product ... located on Cascade Creek northeast of the District of Mission in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia Cascades ( ... of the previous step is the substrate of the next Energy cascade, a process important in turbulent flow and drag by which ... a mountain range on the west coast of North America Cascade Creek (disambiguation) Cascade Falls (disambiguation) Cascade River ...
Insulin receptor substrate 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRS2 gene. This gene encodes the insulin receptor ... 1996). "The proto-oncogene product c-Crk associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 4PS. Modulation by insulin growth ... Algenstaedt P, Antonetti DA, Yaffe MB, Kahn CR (1997). "Insulin receptor substrate proteins create a link between the tyrosine ... 2007). "Oncogenic transformation by the signaling adaptor proteins insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2". Cell Cycle. 6 ...
At the beginning it was supposed that, these domains serve as a substrate for their target kinase. Protein-protein interactions ... Human proteins containing this domain include: ABL1; ABL2 BCAR3; BLK; BLNK; BMX; BTK CHN2; CISH; CRK; CRKL; CSK DAPP1 FER; FES ... have been used in protein engineering to create protein assemblies. Protein assemblies are formed when several proteins bind to ... SH2 domains allow proteins containing those domains to dock to phosphorylated tyrosine residues on other proteins. SH2 domains ...
Also, a peptide derived from mussel foot protein-5, a key protein in mussel adhesion, displayed antibacterial properties and ... It is used to pull the animal through the substrate (typically sand, gravel, or silt) in which it lies partially buried. It ... Freshwater mussel species inhabit lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks, canals, and they are classified in a different subclass of ... Further, mussel adhesive proteins inspired the design of peptide mimics that were well studied for surface bioengineering of ...
Crk, and Crk-L adaptors". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (15): 8564-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.15.8564. PMID 8621483. Tamma SM, Chirmule N, ... "A proteomics strategy to elucidate functional protein-protein interactions applied to EGF signaling". Nat. Biotechnol. 21 (3): ... 2000). "Analysis of receptor signaling pathways by mass spectrometry: identification of vav-2 as a substrate of the epidermal ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV2 gene. VAV2 is the second member of ...
... was initially discovered as a binding protein and substrate of protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2/PTPN11. Two other groups ... domain that is contained in the adaptor protein families Crk, Grb2, and Nck. These adaptor proteins then couple to enzymes to ... CT10 regulator of kinase (Crk) is also known as the breast cancer anti-oestrogen resistance protein. It plays a role in both ... GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 also known as GAB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAB2 gene. GAB2 is a docking ...
Breton, R. Roger; Creek, Nancy J. "Overview of Felidae". Cougar Hill Web. Retrieved 23 May 2013. "What Does It Mean When A Cat ... M. Miyazaki; T. Yamashita; Y. Suzuki; Y. Saito; S. Soeta; H. Taira; A. Suzuki (October 2006). "A major urinary protein of the ... Their rubbing and head-bumping behaviors are methods of depositing these scents on substrates, including humans. The cat rubs ... due to a variety of factors such as substrate texture, cleanliness, and privacy. It can also be a sign of urinary tract ...
... proteins with high thermostability and broad substrate specificity. Multiple limitations as well as possible sources of error ... Another exceptionally preserved hadrosaur from the Hell Creek Formation (USA), yielded none of the previous findings despite ... Alpha and beta proteins (α/β) are considered the oldest class of proteins. Mass spectrometry is one analytical method used to ... Proteins are also more preserved in fossils than DNA, allowing researchers to recover proteins from the enamel of 1.8 million ...
2017). Protein remains preserved in skeletal elements of an Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur Lufengosaurus are described ... Andrew A. Farke; George E. Phillips (2017). "The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek ... functional implications for substrate preferences and locomotor lifestyle". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the ... Michael Buckley; Stacey Warwood; Bart van Dongen; Andrew C. Kitchener; Phillip L. Manning (2017). "A fossil protein chimera; ...
ARG-binding protein 2γ, hepatitis B virus X protein, STE20-related kinase adaptor protein α, RhoI, Klotho, N-acetylglucosaminyl ... Representative PAK1 effector substrates in cancer cells include: Stathmin-S16, Merlin-S518, Vimentin-S25-S38-S50-S65-S72, ... "PAK1 kinase promotes cell motility and invasiveness through CRK-II serine phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer cells ... These proteins serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of ...
An uncoupling protein known as thermogenin is expressed in some cell types and is a channel that can transport protons. When ... Unlike in the substrate-level phosphorylation, the stoichiometry here is difficult to establish. ATP synthase produces 1 ATP / ... Hydrogeochemical Constraints on Microbial Investigations 2.4 km Below Surface at the Kidd Creek Deep Fluid and Deep Life ... During the pay-off phase of glycolysis, four phosphate groups are transferred to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation to make ...
Proteins of the HD-ZIPIII family have been implicated in defining the adaxial identity. These proteins deviate some cells in ... Roots are important to plants for two main reasons: Firstly, they provide anchorage to the substrate; more importantly, they ... the early Silurian Passage Creek biota (440 Ma, Virginia, USA)". Geobiology. 6 (2): 120-124. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2007.00143 ... Both plants have the proteins CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), but, in Arabidopsis thaliana, CO enhances FT production, while in ...
ISBN 0-8018-8403-9. Buckley, Nick (14 October 2019). "Why are there so many black squirrels in Battle Creek". Battle Creek ... due to the blackened substrate. It has also been suggested that black morph squirrels have a considerably higher cold tolerance ... base pair deletion in MC1R in the western population of fox squirrels and by a point mutation in the agouti-signaling protein ... Researchers north of Battle Creek, at the Kellogg Biological Station, later trapped some black morph eastern gray squirrels in ...
The remainder enter an extended stationary phase in which they can last for years without further input of substrate. However, ... Methods from modern molecular biology allow the extraction of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins from cells, DNA sequencing, ... Hydrogeochemical Constraints on Microbial Investigations 2.4 km Below Surface at the Kidd Creek Deep Fluid and Deep Life ... and 572 proteins unique to the bacteria. Deep microorganisms change the chemistry of their surroundings. They consume nutrients ...
"The insulin receptor substrate IRSp53 links postsynaptic shank1 to the small G-protein cdc42". Molecular and Cellular ... regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Molecular and ... Cell division control protein 42 homolog, also known as Cdc42, is a protein involved in regulation of the cell cycle. It was ... Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara IG (August 2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C ...
... the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and a 75-kDa protein that is a substrate for T cell antigen receptor-activated ... SOS1 has been shown to interact with: ABI1, BCR gene, CRK, EPS8, Epidermal growth factor receptor, FRS2, Grb2, HRAS, ITSN1, ... Genetic analysis indicated that CDC25 is essential for activation of RAS proteins. In Drosophila, the protein encoded by the ' ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ...
Because protein (i.e. flesh) is a major constituent of the cephalopod diet, large amounts of ammonium ions are produced as ... Fertilized egg clusters are neutrally buoyant depending on the depth that they were laid, but can also be found in substrates ... ISBN 978-1-4020-6461-6. Richardson & ... (1977). Fossils of the Mason Creek. Kruta, I.; Landman, N.; Rouget, I.; Cecca, F.; ... Once the eggs are released and attached to a sheltered substrate, the females then die, making them semelparous. In some ...
... is a substrate for CYP1A2, and interacts with many substances through this and other mechanisms. According to DSST, ... Fairbanks CH (2004). "The function of black drink among the Creeks". In Hudson MC (ed.). Black Drink. University of Georgia ... As a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caffeine raises intracellular cyclic AMP, activates protein kinase A ... their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals" (PDF). The American Journal ...
Ullmann PV, Macauley K, Ash RD, Shoup B, Scannella JB (2021). "Taphonomic and Diagenetic Pathways to Protein Preservation, Part ... 2021), preserving a unique spiral pattern of eggs embedded vertically into substrate. Multi-individual aggregates of mammal ... 2021) describe an assemblage of late juvenile hadrosaurid specimens from the Spring Creek Bonebed (Alberta, Canada), ... from the Upper Cretaceous Prince Creek Formation (Alaska, United States), and interpret this finding as indicating that most, ...
The cladogram of external relationships, based on a 2008 DNA and protein analysis, shows the order as a clade, sister to the ... ISBN 978-1-4426-5617-8. Lawson, Mike (2003). Spring Creeks. Stackpole Books. pp. 99-118. ISBN 978-0-8117-0068-9. Barbour, M.T ... and the larva can turn round in the tube and trim the rear end so that it does not drag along the substrate. Caddisfly cases ... "Zazamushi Silk" - Successful Discovery and Analysis of Novel Silk Protein Genes from caddisfly larvae A useful reference to the ...
The specialized cells in the mantle form the shell using different minerals and proteins. The proteins are then used to create ... Sea shells found in the creek and backwater of the coast of west India are used as an additive to poultry feed. They are ... Very often shells of bivalves or smaller gastropods are used, depending on what is available on the particular substrate where ... or whether they are intended to help prevent the shell sinking into a soft substrate. Small octopuses sometimes use an empty ...
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence; BRCA1 Protein/genetics; Binding Sites; Cell Line, Tumor; Crk-Associated Substrate Protein/ ...
Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding sites.. Ren R; Ye ZS; Baltimore D. Genes ... Transactivation of Abl by the Crk II adapter protein requires a PNAY sequence in the Crk C-terminal SH3 domain.. Reichman C; ... Crk family adaptor proteins trans-activate c-Abl kinase.. Shishido T; Akagi T; Chalmers A; Maeda M; Terada T; Georgescu MM; ... The proto-oncogene product p120CBL and the adaptor proteins CRKL and c-CRK link c-ABL, p190BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL to the ...
Recombinant protein of human neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9), transcript variant 1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CRK-associated substrates family. Members of this family are adhesion ... Protein Sequence (showhide) >RC207200 protein sequence. Red=Cloning site Green=Tags(s). ... This protein is a focal adhesion protein that acts as a scaffold to regulate signaling complexes important in cell attachment, ...
N5.715.360.575.575.399.250 Crk-Associated Substrate Protein D12.644.360.24.295 D12.644.360.24.282 Crocus B1.650.940.800.575.100 ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr D12.644.360.325.300.99.500 D12.776.476.325.300.99.500 Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk D12.644. ... ELAV Proteins D12.776.641.520 D12.776.631.520 ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 ... PrP 27-30 Protein D12.776.785.700.700 D12.776.785.340.750.700 PrPC Proteins D12.776.785.680 D12.776.785.340.500 PrPSc Proteins ...
CRKAS Protein Crk-Associated Substrate p130 Cas Protein p130 Crk-Associated Substrate p130Cas Protein Registry Number. 0. ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.644.360.024.282] * Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.644.360.024.285] ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.776.157.057.016] * Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.776.157.057.018] ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.776.476.024.316] * Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.776.476.024.320] ...
Crk-associated substrate; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; PRMT1: protein arginine methyltransferase 1; UDCA: ursodeoxycholic acid ... S-protein). S-protein can act as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern and complement activator as well as antigen. We ... activator protein-1; CHX, cycloheximide; IR, insulin resistance; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor ... mitogen activated protein kinase; ERKs: extracellular signal regulated kinases; AKT: protein kinase B; PA: phosphatidic acid; ...
CRKAS Protein Crk Associated Substrate Crk Associated Substrate Protein Crk-Associated Substrate Protein, BCAR1 p130Cas Protein ... Crk Associated Substrate Protein. Crk-Associated Substrate. Protein, BCAR1 p130Cas. Protein, CRKAS. p130 Cas Protein. p130 Crk ... p130 Cas Protein p130 Crk Associated Substrate p130 Crk-Associated Substrate p130Cas Protein p130Cas Protein, BCAR1 ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein Entry term(s). BCAR1 Protein BCAR1 p130Cas Protein Breast Cancer Anti Estrogen Resistance 1 ...
Crk-Associated Substrate Protein. *Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins. *Discs Large Homolog 1 Protein ...
Recentin in vitro kinase activity assay making use of GST CRK being a substrate was performed. As reported, CRK adaptor protein ... Also, virus derived oncoproteins such as human T cell leukemia virus Tax protein, and hepatitis B virus ? protein activate NF ... Considerable decreases in Separase protein ranges were attained for K562 and LAM. Posted on November 30, 2012. by ainh8116 ... substrates for CYP3A and CYP1A2, respectively, for 30 and 60 min. The rates of six? hydroxytestosterone and acetaminophenol ...
N5.715.360.575.575.399.250 Crk-Associated Substrate Protein D12.644.360.24.295 D12.644.360.24.282 Crocus B1.650.940.800.575.100 ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr D12.644.360.325.300.99.500 D12.776.476.325.300.99.500 Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk D12.644. ... ELAV Proteins D12.776.641.520 D12.776.631.520 ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 ... PrP 27-30 Protein D12.776.785.700.700 D12.776.785.340.750.700 PrPC Proteins D12.776.785.680 D12.776.785.340.500 PrPSc Proteins ...
N5.715.360.575.575.399.250 Crk-Associated Substrate Protein D12.644.360.24.295 D12.644.360.24.282 Crocus B1.650.940.800.575.100 ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr D12.644.360.325.300.99.500 D12.776.476.325.300.99.500 Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk D12.644. ... ELAV Proteins D12.776.641.520 D12.776.631.520 ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 ... PrP 27-30 Protein D12.776.785.700.700 D12.776.785.340.750.700 PrPC Proteins D12.776.785.680 D12.776.785.340.500 PrPSc Proteins ...
The protein is highly similar to the c-abl oncogene 1 protein, including the tyrosine kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, and it plays ... Phosphorylates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases like PDGFRB and other substrates which are involved in endocytosis regulation ... in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of key regulators of these processes such as CRK, CRKL ... In brain, may regulate neurotransmission by phosphorylating proteins at the synapse. ABL2 acts also as a regulator of multiple ...
Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.644.360.024.282] * Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.644.360.024.285] ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.776.157.057.016] * Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.776.157.057.018] ... Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.776.476.024.316] * Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.776.476.024.320] ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Carrier Proteins [D12.776.157] * Adaptor Proteins, Signal ...
Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.776.744.425] * Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32 [D12.776.744.459] ... Proteins [D12.776] * Dietary Proteins [D12.776.256] * Animal Proteins, Dietary [D12.776.256.159] * Milk Proteins [D12.776. ... Proteins [D12.776] * Phosphoproteins [D12.776.744] * bcl-Associated Death Protein [D12.776.744.049] * BRCA1 Protein [D12.776. ... Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein [D12.776.744.476] * Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein [D12.776. ...
N0000168138 CREB-Binding Protein N0000006742 Creosote N0000007680 Cresols N0000170453 Crk-Associated Substrate Protein ... Oncogene Protein v-akt N0000169081 Oncogene Protein v-cbl N0000169080 Oncogene Protein v-crk N0000169861 Oncogene Protein v-maf ... N0000169241 HMGB3 Protein N0000169206 HMGN Proteins N0000169207 HMGN1 Protein N0000169208 HMGN2 Protein N0000171143 HN Protein ... HMGA Proteins N0000169231 HMGA1a Protein N0000169233 HMGA1b Protein N0000169232 HMGA1c Protein N0000169234 HMGA2 Protein ...
... protein length for significantly affected proteins for Ilk (upper) and Crk (lower). Gray squares = individual measurements. ... D) In vitro kinase assay of wild-type and patient-mutated CDK13 using full-length CTD52 as the substrate. One-way ANOVA with no ... E) In vitro kinase assay of wild-type CDK13/CCNT1 using ZC3H14 full-length WT and S475A substrate. p= 0.00720098 2-tailed t- ... F) Total peptides as a % of bait (ZC3H14 total peptides) for proteins with binding most regulated by CDK13 kinase activity. ...
Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in ... Wee1-regulated apoptosis mediated by the crk adaptor protein in Xenopus egg extracts.. 151:1391-1400. 2000 ... Echinonectin: A new embryonic substrate adhesion protein. 107:2319-2327. 1988 * Drosophila spectrin. II. Conserved features of ... Echinonectin: a new embryonic substrate adhesion protein.. 107:2319-2327. 1988 * Dynamic instability of individual microtubules ...
Porcella SF, Raffel SJ, Anderson DE Jr, Gilk SD, Bono JL, Schrumpf ME, Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the ... and 5 chipmunks of the same species at Hughes Creek. Additional seropositive animals at Hughes Creek included 1 northern flying ... The following morning, we found 3 O. hermsi nymphs in the substrate under the trap (Figure 3), and during the following weeks ... On September 12, 2013, we collected soil litter from under a tick trap baited with dry ice at Hughes Creek, from which we ...
Ohio record substrates with point indicating from a once associated protein Not with DPP4 interview. The visible Update was an ... database L found been in Garfield County in the Mamm Creek-Divide Creek part( male number; The 64 highways been in 11 ... unique substrate of the tissue of a percent interview strength in this phenomenon is listed to next stub about view; the role ... try a meta-narrative page to refine the substrate. exist your Enterprise on the shower and use it to sign the moved style. You ...
By contrast, TsHKT1;1 in Thellungiella behaves like the single-copy AtHKT1; because this protein transports sodium ions under ... f) Rhizophora mangle, shown as an ocean-fringing forest in the background and as substrate-stabilizing pioneers in the ... e) Heritiera litoralis, one of 27 species in North Queensland, Australia, shown growing along a creek with salinity varying ... In the T. parvula genome, 11% of the annotated non-transposon putative protein-coding genes show no sequence similarity with A ...
PTPN11 (PTPN11 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type (NEDD9)) (. Other regulated by TGF ... Protein expression. Protein Function tumoral --over contributes to the metastatic behavior of melanoma and glioblastoma cells ... PROTEIN. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES STRUCTURE motifs/domains * a SH3 domain interacting with two proline-rich regions of focal ... CAS scaffolding proteins (NEDD9, BCAR1, and CASS4) regulate cell migration, division and survival, and are often deregulated in ...
Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [D12.776.744.425] * Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32 [D12.776.744.459] ... Proteins [D12.776] * Phosphoproteins [D12.776.744] * bcl-Associated Death Protein [D12.776.744.049] * BRCA1 Protein [D12.776. ... Protein p34cdc2 cdc2+ Protein cdk1 Kinase p34cdc2 Protein Registry Number. EC Related Numbers. EC ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Cell Cycle Proteins [D12.776.167] * Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [ ...
CRK. platelet activation; ephrin receptor signaling pathway; nerve growth factor receptor signaling pathway; regulation of Rac ... acute-phase response; leukocyte migration; substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; platelet activation; peptide cross- ... response to stress; response to unfolded protein; response to heat; positive regulation of protein binding; protein import into ... protein polymerization; de novo posttranslational protein folding; cellular protein metabolic process; neuron differentiation ...
Upon stimulation with relevant development variables, phosphorylation of downstream proteins was evaluated at a number of ... Crk, Nck, Frs2, IRS-1, and so forth. Similarly, complete cells lysates could be subjected to Western blotting with antibodies ... This antibody has been made use of to identify individual Akt substrates downstream of RTK signaling utilizing typical ... 3.3 Proteomics Mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches happen to be employed to identify protein phosphorylation targets ...
The muddy bottoms of creeks, lagoons, marshes, and streams can be replaced with a dark-colored sand or gravel substrate with a ... You can decide to eat it if you need healthy fat and enough protein. It tastes exceptionally good when the right ingredients ... They love waters with vegetation, either floating or growing up from the substrate. What are the best fishing chairs in the ... They have a preference for shallow, marginal zones of freshwater habitats including small sandy or muddy-bottomed creeks, ...
CRK (gene). Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk or p38 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK ... Substrate (biology). In biology a substrate is the surface a plant or animal lives upon and grows on. A substrate can include ... Integrins work alongside other protein. Protein. Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides ... CD49b is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD49b gene.The CD49b protein is an integrin alpha subunit. It makes up ...
Bridge Creek IMW database (Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project) * Water Temperature Data for Bridge Creek Watershed ... Fish weights - Incorporation of Plant Proteins into Marine Finfish Feeds, a NWFSC-YSFRI Joint Study * YSFRI Study Fish weights ... Elwha Dam Removal Neashore Monitoring of Substrate * English sole 2010-2011 (Suitability of somatic growth of English sole as ... Metals (Pipers Creek Natural Drainage System monitoring for Seattle Public Utilities) * Predicted channel types (Potential for ...
Across the creek and up the bank are more Hobblebushes.. Hobblebush (Viburnum lantanoides), a native perennial shrub, is found ... The ants quickly transport the seeds to their nests so that their larvae can eat up all of the lipids and proteins. Yum! The ... Instead of flying, adult Allocapnia stoneflies move around by crawling on snow, ice, substrates, and vegetation (including ... A flat tire while bike riding on the Pine Creek Rail Trail has led to a new bike repair station and tire pump on the Trail. Out ...
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly ... Manufactured by: Lundbeck Seattle BioPharmaceuticals, Inc., 11804 North Creek Parkway South, Bothell, WA 98011 ... interactions with concomitant medications that are substrates, inducers, or inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes are unlikely ...
  • 4. Phosphorylation of c-Abl by protein kinase Pak2 regulates differential binding of ABI2 and CRK. (nih.gov)
  • 8. The C-terminal SH3 domain of the mouse c-Crk protein negatively regulates tyrosine-phosphorylation of Crk associated p130 in rat 3Y1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Phosphorylation of Crk on tyrosine 251 in the RT loop of the SH3C domain promotes Abl kinase transactivation. (nih.gov)
  • Engagement of the TCR by antigenic peptide bound to a histocompatibility molecule (in humans, an HLA molecule) leads to a complex set of biochemical events in which the initial activation of protein phosphorylation is critical. (nih.gov)
  • These complexes contain enzymes that are regulated by protein phosphorylation and whose substrates are located at the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • It undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by C-SRC PROTEIN PP60 and plays a regulatory role in CAVEOLAE formation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of key regulators of these processes such as CRK, CRKL, DOK1 or ARHGAP35. (nih.gov)
  • Upon stimulation with relevant development variables, phosphorylation of downstream proteins was evaluated at a number of timepoints by probing lysate microarrays with phospho-specific antibodies. (rockinhibitor.com)
  • 3.3 Proteomics Mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches happen to be employed to identify protein phosphorylation targets downstream of development element stimulation and new technologies have allowed for the quantification of these post-translational modifications. (rockinhibitor.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Transactivation of Abl by the Crk II adapter protein requires a PNAY sequence in the Crk C-terminal SH3 domain. (nih.gov)
  • and in a group of small adaptor molecules, i.e Crk and Nck. (embl.de)
  • Proteins and peptides are polymers of amino acids, and so the biological function of amino acids is quantitatively and qualitatively important. (nih.gov)
  • The product of this gene has several SH2 and SH3 domains (src-homology domains) and is involved in several signaling pathways, recruiting cytoplasmic proteins in the vicinity of tyrosine kinase through SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Members of this family are adhesion docking molecules that mediate protein-protein interactions for signal transduction pathways. (origene.com)
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl.de)
  • Activation of protein serine/threonine kinases and pathways coupled to small G proteins, and elevation of intracellular calcium, are examples of the events that follow. (nih.gov)
  • The enhance of Separase proteolytic activity in BCR ABLpositive cells concurs with changes in respective regulatory pathways To handle the likely molecular mechanisms of how IM enhances the proteolytic activity of Separase in BCR ABL good cells, we analyzed the expression levels of respective pertinent regulatory proteins. (a-inhibitor.com)
  • Similarly, complete cells lysates could be subjected to Western blotting with antibodies directed against several activated downstream effector proteins, for instance phospho-SAPK/JNK, phospho-Akt, phospho-p44/42 (Erk1/2), phospho-PLC, and so forth, to assess the status of these pathways downstream of receptor stimulation. (rockinhibitor.com)
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase implicated in the regulation of a variety of signaling pathways that control the differentiation and maintenance of normal epithelia, as well as tumor growth. (nih.gov)
  • Associates also with a variety of proteins that are likely upstream of PTK6 in various signaling pathways, or for which PTK6 may play an adapter-like role. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE . (nih.gov)
  • Diminished tyrosine protein kinase activity in T cells unresponsive to TCR stimulation. (joannecpratt.com)
  • Technically, amino acids are obtained by the hydrolysis of proteins, and by chemical and microbial synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • A number of potential nuclear and cytoplasmic substrates have been identified. (nih.gov)
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (embl.de)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylated Cbl binds to Crk after T cell activation. (joannecpratt.com)
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an ABL1-overlapping role in key processes linked to cell growth and survival such as cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, cell motility and adhesion and receptor endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Unexpectedly, despite the observed decrease in separase transcript and Separase protein ranges, increased ranges of Separase proteolytic activity were measured. (a-inhibitor.com)
  • Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • A complex protein which catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction without changing itself. (nih.gov)
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily is a large group of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in the recognition, binding, or adhesion processes of cells. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • The Ras-superfamily G-proteins play critical roles in cell growth and differentiation. (ucla.edu)
  • Rheb is a novel and unique member of the Ras superfamily G-proteins. (ucla.edu)
  • Western blotting was used to detect the relative protein expression of the sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) / NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3) pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1996), LY294002 might be made use of to inhibit the receptor-binding protein PI3K (Vlahos et al. (rockinhibitor.com)
  • Cadherins are a class of type-1 transmembrane proteins. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Syndecans are single transmembrane domain proteins that are thought to act as coreceptors, especially for G protein-coupled receptors. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • The domains are frequently found as repeats in a single protein sequence and will then often bind both mono- and di-phosphorylated substrates. (embl.de)
  • Five subunits consisting of four different proteins from four different genes comprise the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors therefore their packaging and assembly is a very complicated process with many different factors. (growthexecutivecoaching.com)
  • TCR crosslinking promotes Crk adaptor protein binding to tyrosine-phosphorylated CD3ζ chain. (nih.gov)
  • It stimulates the formation of carbohydrate from proteins, promotes glycogen storage in the liver, and raises the blood sugar level. (nih.gov)
  • Following binding of the antigen-HLA complex to the TCR, receptors aggregate, associated protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) are activated, and TCR subunits and a number of linker or adapter molecules are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. (nih.gov)
  • Muscarinic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that use a second messenger. (growthexecutivecoaching.com)
  • 2013). Six isogenic ERK2 custom synthesis transformed human embryonic kidney cell lines expressing EGFR, FGFR1, IGF-1R, MET, PDGFR or TRKB were utilized in mixture with lentiviral shRNA expression vectors to alter the levels of intracellular signaling proteins. (rockinhibitor.com)
  • This protein is a focal adhesion protein that acts as a scaffold to regulate signaling complexes important in cell attachment, migration and invasion as well as apoptosis and the cell cycle. (origene.com)
  • Meanwhile, hesperetin could attenuate the expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), and caspase-1 p20 and upregulate the expression of SIRT6 in SCOP-induced mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • These initial events lead to the generation of multiple protein complexes that localize at the TCR and the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • We are currently using a multidisciplinary approach to study LAT as well as the multi-protein complexes that form at phosphorylated LAT. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Activation of the focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway by structural alterations in the carboxyl-terminal region of c-Crk II. (nih.gov)
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules are proteins located on the cell surface involved with the binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • 12. CrkIII: a novel and biologically distinct member of the Crk family of adaptor proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CRK-associated substrates family. (origene.com)
  • Protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family, Fyn and Lck, are associated with the TCR and TCR coreceptors, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified Rheb homologues in a number of organisms including fruit fly and yeasts, and defined unique features of this family of G-protein. (ucla.edu)
  • From 1985 to 1993, he was an Assistant Professor and then Associate Professor at the University of Chicago, where he initiated studies on lipid modification of the Ras family proteins. (ucla.edu)
  • Crk proteins activate the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G by segregated adaptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • The generic name for numerous enzymes that are specific for the transfer of an adenylyl group (adenosine[mono]phosphor group) from a donor molecule (usually adenosine triphosphate, ATP) to an acceptor, such as a nucleotide, a protein, and a sugar. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Binding of the proline-rich segment of myelin basic protein to SH3 domains: spectroscopic, microarray, and modeling studies of ligand conformation and effects of posttranslational modifications. (nih.gov)
  • LAT, initially characterized by this laboratory, is an integral membrane protein with multiple tyrosine residues. (nih.gov)
  • Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity ( IMMUNITY, INNATE ) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. (nih.gov)
  • This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. (nih.gov)
  • Reconstitution of nuclear protein export in isolated nuclear envelopes. (duke.edu)
  • In blood coagulation, for example, each enzyme activates the next until the final substrate is reached. (nih.gov)
  • Any of various nonprotein compounds that are required, in addition to an enzyme and a substrate, for an enzymatic reaction to proceed. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, these approaches can be combined with all the use of pharmacological inhibitors that let researchers to target RTK signaling pathway components at quite a few levels, with the caveat that quite a few of these inhibitors target more than 1 protein. (rockinhibitor.com)
  • This led to the development of small molecule inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase. (ucla.edu)
  • 13. Examining the specificity of Src homology 3 domain--ligand interactions with alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: the role of adaptor proteins Crk. (nih.gov)
  • This protein has also been reported to have a role in cancer metastasis. (origene.com)
  • 9. Structure of a regulatory complex involving the Abl SH3 domain, the Crk SH2 domain, and a Crk-derived phosphopeptide. (nih.gov)
  • Gu H, Pratt JC , Burakoff SJ, Neel BG Cloning of p97/Gab2, the major SHP-2 binding protein in hematopoietic cells, reveals a novel pathway for cytokine-induced gene activation. (joannecpratt.com)
  • They have a preference for shallow, marginal zones of freshwater habitats including small sandy or muddy-bottomed creeks, swamps and marshes, shady rainforest streams, lily lagoons, backwaters, slow-moving streams, and overflows adjacent to larger rivers that are often less than 60cm (2ft) deep. (kayakgonflable.com)
  • The small GTP-binding protein Rho potentiates AP-1 transcription in T cells. (joannecpratt.com)
  • The N-terminal SH2 domain of this protein functions as a positive regulator of transformation whereas the C-terminal SH3 domain functions as a negative regulator of transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing SH2 domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with SH2 domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing SH2 domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Crystal structure of the ARF-GAP domain and ankyrin repeats of PYK2-associated protein beta. (embl.de)
  • Consensus nomenclature for the human ArfGAP domain-containing proteins. (duke.edu)
  • In contrast, p210BCR ABL expressing U937p210BCR ABL c6 On cells are much less sensitive, showing 56.8 212.3 decrease within the Separase protein amounts. (a-inhibitor.com)