Critical Period (Psychology): A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Psychology, Medical: A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Darkness: The absence of light.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Gestalt Theory: A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Displacement (Psychology): The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Psychology, Military: The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.Chimerin 1: A GTPase activating protein that is specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is expressed primarily in the brain and may be involved in signal transduction. The alternatively spliced form of CHIMERIN 1 (alpha-2 Chimerin) contains an additional src homology domain and is expressed in both the brain and testes.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Psychology, Applied: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Codependency (Psychology): A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.Mice, Inbred C57BLPyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Latency Period (Psychology): The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Social Mobility: The movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Introversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Race Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.BooksPsychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.

*Critical period

In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism ... Some researchers differentiate between 'critical' and 'sensitive' periods-defining 'sensitive' periods as more extended periods ... and thus able to explain the effects of monocular deprivation during this critical period. The critical period for cats is ... are particularly likely to develop during critical periods. "Critical period" also relates to the ability to acquire one's ...

*List of MeSH codes (F02)

... critical period (psychology) MeSH F02.463.425.234 --- cues MeSH F02.463.425.280 --- discrimination learning MeSH F02.463. ... latency period (psychology) MeSH F02.739.794.793.626 --- oral stage MeSH F02.739.794.837 --- self psychology MeSH F02.739. ... psychology) MeSH F02.463.425.770.232 --- extinction (psychology) MeSH F02.463.425.770.379 --- knowledge of results (psychology ... psychology) MeSH F02.463.593.257.800 --- signal detection (psychology) MeSH F02.463.593.292 --- eidetic imagery MeSH F02.463. ...

*Behavioral cusp

Behaviorism Behavior analysis of child development Child development Child development stages Child psychology Critical period ... The concept has far reaching implications for every individual, and for the field of developmental psychology, because it ... Face Validity Feral child Functional analysis (psychology) Early childhood education Pedagogy psychological behaviorism Play ( ...

*Telegraphic speech

Critical period#Linguistics Barker, S. (2004). Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education. Bloom, L. (1970). Language ... In the field of psychology, telegraphic speech is defined as a form of communication consisting of simple two-word long ... Researchers have noted that this period of language acquisition occurs some time between the ages of 18-36 months and is ... Telegraphic speech, according to linguistics and psychology, is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in ...

*Critical period hypothesis

Carnegie Mellon Symposia on Cognition (1 ed.). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-3276-1. Oyama, S. (1976). "A sensitive period ... Support for the critical period theory stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in ... rather than a critical period biological constraint. The critical period hypothesis was first proposed by Montreal neurologist ... long after the supposed critical period for acquiring this skill. Recently, it has been suggested that if a critical period ...

*Instinct

The critical period. Journal of comparative & physiological psychology 0021-50 (1), p. 6. Kim, Young-Joon. 2006. A Command ... For instance, there exists a sensitive period for a bird in which it learns the identity of its mother. Konrad Lorenz famously ... In a conference in 1960, chaired by Frank Beach, a pioneer in comparative psychology, and attended by luminaries in the field, ... By the year 2000, a survey of the 12 best selling textbooks in Introductory Psychology revealed only one reference to instincts ...

*Imprinting (psychology)

Imprinting is hypothesized to have a critical period. The best-known form of imprinting is mental imprinting, in which a young ... When proximity during this critical period does not occur-for example, where a brother and sister are brought up separately, ... 2008) Psychology: A Student Friendly Approach. "Unit 12: Developmental Psychology." pp. 268 [1] Orbituary: Angelo d'Arrigo The ... "critical period" between 13-16 hours shortly after hatching. For example, the goslings would imprint on Lorenz himself (to be ...

*Music psychology

... "critical period" in which the ability can be learned, especially in conjunction with early musical training. Behavioural ... Music psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain ... This period has also seen the founding of music psychology-specific journals, societies, conferences, research groups, centers ... As structuralism gave way to Gestalt psychology and behaviorism at the turn of the century, music psychology moved beyond the ...

*Elissa L. Newport

Johnson, JS; Newport, EL (1989). "Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of maturational state on ... She was a member of the faculty in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, San Diego and the University ... Cognitive Psychology. 66: 30-54. doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2012.09.00. Retrieved 3 December 2015. Wonnacott, E; Newport, EL; ... Cognitive Psychology. 56 (3): 165-209. doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2007.04.002. PMC 2405816 . PMID 17662707. Thompson, Susan P.; ...

*Grammaticality

After the critical period, age of acquisition is no longer supposed to have an effect, and native-like performance is no longer ... Cognitive Psychology. 21: 60-99. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0. PMID 2920538. Birdsong, D.; Molis, M. (2001). "On the ... During the critical period between 4 and 6 years old, there is a significant increase in the accuracy of grammaticality ... However, the idea that there is a critical period for the acquisition of syntactic competence, which is reflected by the ...

*Sequential bilingualism

When the critical period is over, it is nearly impossible to reach native-like proficiency in one's second language and even ... Cognitive Psychology, 21(1), 60-99. doi: 10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0 Myers-Scotton, C. (2008). Multiple Voices: An ... In addition, the Critical Period Hypothesis states that younger learners have certain advantages over older learners in ... Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a ...

*Glossary of education terms (T-Z)

The theory is central to child psychology and is based on schemata-schemes of how one perceives the world-in "critical periods ... Theory of cognitive development: A developmental psychology theory developed by Jean Piaget to explain cognitive development. ...

*Infant

Babyhood is a critical period in personality development when the foundations of adult personality are laid. In contrast ... Developmental Psychology - Page 121 971232463X 1998 "However, Hurlock (1982) cites that infancy, compared to babyhood, is ... Babyhood is regarded as a critical period in personality development because it is the time when the foundations of adult ... Potential diseases of concern during the neonatal period include: Neonatal jaundice Infant respiratory distress syndrome ...

*Human ethology

For example, stating that children acquire a behavior because they are in a "critical period" is similar to stating that they ... Evolutionary psychology combines ethology, primatology, anthropology, and other fields to study modern human behavior in ... "critical period" does not explain why humans are more sensitive to certain experiences at certain times. A common critique is ... Evolutionary psychology has trouble developing research that can distinguish between environmental and cultural explanation and ...

*Childhood memory

Environmental stimulation during either sensitive or critical periods is necessary in forming neural connections Fodor, I. E ... Front Psychology, 3(53). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00053 Geraerts, E., Lindsay, D.S, Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., Raymaekers, L ... ProQuest Psychology Journals. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. Diamond, A., Barnett, W.S., Thomas, J., Munro, S. (2007). Preschool Program ... Developmental Psychology, 13(5), 501-508. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.13.5.501 Easterbrook, J.A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue ...

*Social deprivation

A critical period refers to the window of time during which a human needs to experience a particular environmental stimulus in ... Psychology portal Ablism Agoraphobia Relative deprivation Social alienation Social exclusion Bassouk, E.L.; Donelan, B. (2003 ... Johnson, J.S.; Newport, E.L. (1991). "Critical Period Effects on Universal Properties of Language: The Status hjof Subjacency ... Feral children provide an example of the effects of severe social deprivation during critical developmental periods. There have ...

*Anna (feral child)

Curtiss, Susan (1974). The Development of Language in Genie: a Case of Language Acquisition Beyond the "Critical Period". Los ... Families that had no background in abused child psychology were not equipped to care for her, and scientists that were equipped ... It is more likely that she was confined to her crib in the first period of life and at all times kept locked in her room to ... Additionally Paul Lutus argues that psychology is not a real science because the outcome is not determined by the treatment. ...

*Psychological refractory period

... and various results indicate how these areas of psychology are negatively affected by the psychological refractory period delay ... Navon, D; Miller, J (May 2002). "Queuing or sharing? A critical evaluation of the single-bottleneck notion". Cognitive ... The term psychological refractory period (PRP) refers to the period of time during which the response to a second stimulus is ... "Can Practice Overcome Age-Related Differences in the Psychological Refractory Period Effect?". Psychology and Aging. 19 (4): ...

*Language acquisition

"Critical periods in language acquisition and language attrition" (PDF). Penfield, Wilder (1959). Speech and Brain-mechanisms. ... Harley, Trevor A. (2010). Talking the Talk: Language, Psychology and Science. New York, NY: Psychology Press. pp. 68-71. ISBN ... Assuming that children are exposed to language during the critical period, it is almost never missed by cognitively normal ... A Critical Period in Humans". Curtiss, Susan (1977). Genie: a psycholinguistic study of a modern-day "wild child". Boston: ...

*MIDAS Technical Analysis

... such as moving averages deemphasize these critical changes and so mix periods of differing underlying market psychology, thus ... The trading psychology behind accumulation and distribution can be analysed quantitatively from raw price and volume data and ... See Hawkins' Chapter 9 in Coles, PhD, and Hawkins (2011). The Dipper Setup is a critical trading setup developed by Andrew ... A critical discussion of the indicator can also be found in Coles' Chapter 15 in Coles, PhD, and Hawkins (2011). The rudiments ...

*Language deprivation

The "critical period of learning" hypothesis states that for a must be exposed the language by a certain age to acquire ... Psychology Today, 15(9), 28. Accessed 3/11/2012 Tartter, V. C. (1998). Language Processing in Atypical Populations. California ... The combined research on these cases has furthered the research in the critical period hypothesis in language acquisition. The ... It is said to be associated with a period of increased neuroplasticity. It is also thought to end around the onset of puberty. ...

*Lev Vygotsky

It was during this period that he-under the influence of Kurt Lewin's "Topological (and vector) psychology"-introduced the ... in the critical literature of this period were referred to as "one of the most used and least understood constructs to appear ... During the earlier mechanistic and reductionist "instrumental psychology" period of his career (1920s), he argued that human ... 8 in Vygotsky, The Psychology of Art (1925). Kozulin, A. (1986). "The concept of activity in Soviet psychology: Vygotsky, his ...

*Janet Werker

J.F. Werker and T.K. Hensch, "Critical Periods in Speech Perception: New Directions," Annu. Rev. Psych., vol. 66, pp. 173-196, ... Werker received her Ph.D. in psychology at the University of British Columbia (1982). She is a Canada Research Chair professor ... Werker completed her BA in psychology and social relations at Harvard University in 1976. She then went to the University of ... Janet Werker is a researcher in the field of developmental psychology. She researches the foundations of monolingual and ...

*Tinbergen's four questions

Many forms of developmental learning have a critical period, for instance, for imprinting among geese and language acquisition ... comparative psychology, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and anthropology. It was in fact Julian Huxley who identified ... "Biased learning" is not necessarily limited to the developmental period. Mapping Transdisciplinarity in Human Sciences. In: ... has a critical role in linguistic capability. Hormones: Chemicals used to communicate among cells of an individual organism. ...

*Neophobia

There also appears to be a critical period for lowering later food neophobia in children during the weaning process. The ... Food neophobia, as it may be referred to, is an important concern in pediatric psychology. In biomedical research, neophobia is ... Logue, A.W. (2004). The Psychology of Eating and Drinking. New York: Brunner-Routledge. p. 90. Pliner, P.; K. Hobden (1992). " ... List of phobias Culture shock Cognitive ethology Habituation Neophilia Psychology Progress trap Anarcho-primitivism Shim, Jae ...

*Veterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States

"In line of duty means an injury or disease incurred or aggravated during a period of active military, naval, or air service ... the psychology supervisor at my facility refused to order psychological tests with titles containing the word 'malingering,' ... Care for Mission Critical". logisticshealth.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04. "Veterans Evaluation Services". Retrieved 23 August 2014 ... Clinical or counseling psychology interns, psychiatric residents, licensed clinical social workers, nurse practitioners, ...
Welcome to the Oxford Clinical Psychology subscriber services. These pages contain information on accessing Oxford Clinical Psychology, managing your purchases or subscriptions, and getting help if you have a problem.. Oxford Clinical Psychology is available via subscription and perpetual access. Pick which select titles you would like using our title-by-title sales model, or subscribe to or purchase the entire resource.. For institutions. Oxford Clinical Psychology is available to libraries, institutions, and group and private practices worldwide.. Find out how you can purchase or subscribe.. For individuals. If you are a student or academic, you can recommend Oxford Clinical Psychology to your librarian.. If you are a professional at a group or private practice, find out how you can purchase or subscribe.. ...
The Foundations in Clinical Psychology MSc is aimed at students who have had little exposure to clinical psychology in their first degree and for intercalating MBBS students. It provides you with the knowledge, understanding and skills required for careers in the clinical psychology sectors.. The course provides you with a sound basis to apply for an assistant psychologist post. It will also provide the necessary academic and research skills for you to apply for further training, if you have the relevant work experience. This might include vocational training eg doctoral training in Clinical Psychology, training as a Forensic Psychologist or Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programmes.. You also benefit from this course if you are a Psychology graduate who is keen to pursue a research career in the clinical aspects of psychology, including clinically-oriented PhDs.. As a student on this ...
The School of Psychology at the University of Surrey is one of the most active and highly regarded psychology departments in the UK. We specialise in applied and policy-oriented teaching and research with a strong theoretical context. Were at the cutting edge of psychology research, and have been the focus for many cross-national studies. Weve received funding from many research councils, as well as local and national government. We offer excellent graduate employment prospects, and are one of the biggest psychology postgraduate training schools in the country. Our PsychD Clinical Psychology offers a combination of opportunities thats hard to match elsewhere. Youll get training that combines theory and methods, as well as experience of contemporary clinical psychology practice. This course puts special emphasis on psychological practice, and will prepare you for a career as a professional psychologist. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Clinical psychology at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Clinical psychology easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
The Clinical Psychologists Service Cluster exploresthe role of clinical psychologists, competence issues, ethical practice and supervisory practices to gain an understanding of the modern clinical psychologist.
... is one of the major Speciality area with psychology that carries on-going and inclusive mental and behavioral health care for persons families, cultures, and varied populations It is a department in breadth - one that is mostly comprehensive of severe psychopathology - and marked by extensiveness and integration of awareness and skill from a comprehensive array of disciplines within and outside of psychology proper. The possibility of clinical psychology includes all ages, several diversities and different systems.. ...
The University of Massachusetts Amherst Clinical Psychology Program offers a PhD in Clinical Psychology and espouses the clinical science model of training. We prepare students for careers in clinical research. Faculty and students engage in basic and applied studies of psychopathology, development, emotion, cognition, psychotherapy, neuropsychology, and family systems. Students who are interested in research and academic careers will thrive in our program. Our program is a proud member of the Academy of Psychological Clinical Science.. Consistent with our clinical science model, we train all of our students to engage in empirically supported clinical practice. As a result, our program may not be appropriate for students interested in full-time practice with a minimal research commitment. Students have the opportunity to engage in psychotherapy and neuropsychological assessments with clients from across the lifespan, from diverse backgrounds, and in a wide ...
10 Units. This course focuses on the clinical psychology of older adults and of those with intellectual disability. The first module will offer a general introduction to mental health and ageing. It will also cover the role of the Clinical Psychologist in cognitive capacity assessment, as well as the management of behavioural disturbance associated with disorders of ageing such as dementia. The second module will offer a general introduction to disability with a particular focus on mental health in intellectual disability. It will also cover the definition, aetiology and assessment of intellectual disability, service provision and psychological interventions for individuals and their carers.. ...
Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology - become a competent and capable clinical psychologist from this joint partnership programme approved between the Health Professional Council and the British Psychological Society.
The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful. The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input does not occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language-especially grammatical systems. The evidence for such a period is limited, and support stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development, ...
The CPIP uniquely integrates complementary training experiences at the Psychiatry Departments Vermont Center for Children, Youth, and Families (VCCYF) and the Psychology Departments Behavior Therapy and Psychotherapy Center (BTPC). At the VCCYF, interns receive advanced training in the application of evidence-based interventions from the family perspective, directly addressing both child and parent emotional and behavioral strengths and difficulties. In the framework of the Vermont Family Based Approach, interns apply health promotion, prevention, and intervention to help the well families remain well, prevent at-risk children from developing emotional and behavioral problems, and intervene comprehensively with children and families challenged by psychopathology. At the VCCYF, interns collaborate with professionals in psychiatry, psychology, social work, nursing, and genetics. At the BTPC, interns receive advanced training in culturally competent, evidence-based treatment of ...
The past 30 years have seen the field of clinical neuropsychology grow to become an influential discipline within mainstream clinical psychology and an established component of most professional courses. It remains one of the fastest growing specialities within mainstream clinical psychology, neurology, and the psychiatric disciplines.
Peter Kyriakoulis is the director of the Positive Psychology Clinic and the Positive Psychology Wellness Centre. He is a clinical psychologist who specialises in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. He completed his undergraduate studies with honours at the University of Athens in 2000, and in 2003 he completed a Masters in Clinical Psychology in Melbourne. Since 2003 he has been working in private practice as a psychologist, and over the ensuing years has worked in community health and various psychiatric settings, becoming a member of the Clinical College of the Australian Psychological Society in 2007. Peter has a wide interest in applying positive psychology and neuropsychotherapy principles in clinical practice whilst maintaining a cognitive behavioural framework. He also specialises in psychological assessment using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). He is currently completing his PhD on Panic ...
Dr. Phillips is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist, and she has extensive training in the most cutting edge scientific and evidence based treatments in psychology. She is an expert at treating several childhood disorders such as Selective Mutism, Separation Anxiety, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Encopresis/Enuresis, and Tourettes Syndrome. She also specializes in the treatment of anxiety, depression, panic, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and anger. Dr. Phillips practices Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), an orientation that has been proven to provide patients with fast results.. Dr. Phillips received her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Hawaii. She completed her clinical internship at USC Childrens Hospital and has practiced psychology for 12 years. In addition to her clinical practice, Dr. Phillips trains other therapists in the delivery of CBT. Dr. Phillips is a Diplomate of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy, an organization ...
Martin Binks Ph.D. is Associate Professor, Nutritional Sciences, at Texas Tech University and leads the Behavioral Medicine & Translational Research Lab. He is a clinical psychologist specializing in behavioral medicine and obesity research. Dr. Binks received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Fairleigh Dickenson University, trained at the Bronx VA Medical Center and completed pre and postdoctoral training in Behavioral Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is formerly an Assistant Professor at Duke University Medical Center, Division of Medical Psychology. He was Director of Behavioral Health, Research, and New Business and Strategic Alliances at the Duke Diet & Fitness Center.. Martin has authored many research publications and the book The Duke Diet. He is an outspoken public advocate for obesity research funding, treatment for people with obesity, and scientific integrity. His research interests include: lifestyle modification, pharmacologic and ...
Local resource for applied behavior analysis therapists in Glendale. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to applied behavior analysis therapy, applied behavior analysis clinics, applied behavior analysis specialists, autism therapy, autism treatments, autism clinics, and applied behavior analysis support, as well as advice and content on autism support groups and autism societies.
The study of social cognition has been one of the dominant, most influential trends in social psychology over the past two decades. In this volume (see record 1997-09104-000) the authors do more than simply chronicle its findings, however. They make a genuine creative contribution by applying social cognition to other developments in the field, such as the study of close relationships and self-regulation. Thus, this is not simply another social cognition book: It is a book about social psychology written from the perspective of social cognition. It succeeds in the important task of building a bridge between social cognition and many other domains of study. The scholarship is quite impressive, and it integrates social and clinical psychology throughout. Consistent with the integrative thrust of the work, the authors also treat the distinction between applied and basic research as artificial and counterproductive. A seemingly minor but continually annoying ...
Dr. Jonathan Houdmont is a Lecturer in Occupational Health Psychology and Director of the Workplace Health & Wellbeing postgraduate studies program in the Institute of Work, Health and Organisations (IWHO) at the University of Nottingham, UK. His research interests focus on measurement and intervention issues in relation to work-related stress and psychosocial risk. Dr. Stavroula Leka is an Associate Professor in Occupational Health Psychology at IWHO and Director of its program of work for the World Health Organization. Her primary research interests are the translation of occupational health and safety knowledge and policy into practice, and psychosocial risk management. She has been awarded an early career achievement award in occupational health psychology by the American Psychological Association, US NIOSH and the Society of Occupational Health Psychology. She is Chair of the Education Forum of the European Academy of Occupational ...
In order to qualify for Mental Health jobs in Arkansas, you should compare all available technical schools in your target area, as well as consider taking some of your clinical psychology courses online. Check with each nursing school below for assistance with certificate program requirements, degree prerequisites, and class registration.
Dr. Kathleen M. Carroll graduated summa cum laude from Duke University, received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1988 from the University of Minnesota, and completed her pre-doctoral training at the Yale University School of Medicines Division of Substance Abuse, where she was promoted to Professor in 2002. She is Principal Investigator of the Center for Psychotherapy Development at Yale, NIDAs only Center devoted to behavioral therapies research, and since 1999 she has been Principal Investigator of the New England Node of the National Institute on Drug Abuses Clinical Trials Network. Dr. Carroll is the author of over 300 peer-reviewed publications as well as numerous chapters and books. Her research has focused on the development and evaluation of behavioral treatments and combinations of behavioral therapies and pharmacotherapies, with an emphasis on improving the quality and rigor of clinical efficacy research in the addictions. Dr. Carroll received a NIH MERIT (Method to Extend ...
Debra Silverman combines her expertise in Astrology and clinical Psychology to craft a magical healing combination. In private practice for over 38 years, Debra combines astrology with her own system called The 4 Elements as tools to help people step into their power. Her book, The Missing Element, describes how
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We next hypothesized that the precociously high A/N ratio observed in Het mice would lead to a restricted duration of critical-period synaptic plasticity. To test this idea, we paired synaptic stimulation of the TC pathway with stellate cell postsynaptic depolarization, a paradigm reported by several groups to elicit decreasing levels of LTP as the first postnatal week progresses (Crair and Malenka, 1995; Harlow et al., 2010). At P5, we were able to robustly induce LTP in all targeted cells in slices derived from WT animals (Fig. 1E), although, as reported by many others (Crair and Malenka, 1995; Barth and Malenka, 2001; Harlow et al., 2010), LTP disappeared in WT mice by P8 (Fig. 1F). In contrast, LTP was strikingly absent from P5 Het slices (Fig. 1E). The lack of LTP at this early age could reflect a delay in the critical period for LTP. However, this was not the case, because we were also unable to elicit LTP from P8 Het slices (Fig. 1F). ...
Research Interests The future aint what it used to be - Yogi Berra It is precisely because the future is unpredictable that the mammalian brain has evolved the capacity to acquire new information through sensory experiences, store this information as memories, and rapidly retrieve this information to modify behavior. But how do novel sensory experiences embed themselves in the fabric of the brain to form memories? This question drives the research in my laboratory, which examines the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity in the neocortex. Specifically, I am interested in understanding i) where experience-dependent plasticity is initiated in the cortical circuitry; ii) how experience regulates the growth or retraction of synapses; iii) whether plasticity is restricted to only a subset of synaptic connections; iv) what distinguishes "critical period" plasticity from adult plasticity; v) how synaptic plasticity is altered in the aging and diseased ...
The shift in ocular dominance induced by monocular deprivation is a sensitive index of the synaptic plasticity available in the binocular visual cortex. In juveniles, brief (≤3 d) monocular deprivation induces a rapid depression in the response to stimulation of the deprived eye, followed by a slowly emerging potentiation of the response to stimulation of the nondeprived eye (Frenkel and Bear, 2004). In adults, brief monocular deprivation is ineffective. However, a longer period of monocular deprivation (≥5 d) can induce a shift in ocular dominance, attributable entirely to potentiation of the response to stimulation of the nondeprived eye (Sawtell et al., 2003). Here, we show that persistent, juvenile-like ocular dominance plasticity can be restored in the adult visual cortex by visual deprivation. In visually deprived adults, brief monocular deprivation induces a rapid depression in the response to stimulation of the deprived eye, previously only reported in juveniles, and an acceleration ...
Cortical circuits are sensitive to experience during well-defined intervals of early postnatal development called critical periods (1). After the critical period, plasticity is reduced or absent. Monocular deprivation (MD) is a classic model of experience-dependent plasticity. MD during the critical period results in a shift of ocular dominance (OD) of cortical neurons in favor of the nondeprived eye (2, 3). No OD shift is seen after MD in adult animals. The factors responsible for the cessation of OD plasticity in adults are only partially known. There is some evidence that the developmental increase in intracortical inhibition reduces plasticity and contributes to the termination of the critical period (4-6). However, other factors present in the adult visual cortex could stabilize synaptic connections and limit experience-dependent plasticity. CSPGs are attractive ...
In the visual system, prolonged exposure to a high contrast stimulus leads to a decrease in neuronal responsiveness, referred to as contrast adaptation. Contrast adaptation has been extensively studied in carnivores and primates, but has so far received little attention in mice. This thesis explores contrast adaptation and its mechanisms in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Using extracellular tetrode recordings in mouse V1, I found contrast adaptation to be orientation unspecific. While this finding differs from reports in carnivores and primates, it is consistent with the notion that responsiveness of individual neurons is influenced by the activity history of the local network. Adaptation was also found to be cell-type specific, as putative parvalbumin (PV) expressing interneurons underwent less adaptation than other cell types. There is debate whether adaptation arises within the cortex or is inherited from the earlier stages in the visual pathway (e.g. visual thalamus or retina). In order ...
Image by cobalt123 via Flickr If you have a minute, check out this Autism Sensory Overload Simulation video to get a feel for the perceptual difficulties experienced by people with autism spectrum disorders. A recent article, Critical Period Plasticity Is Disrupted in the Barrel Cortex of Fmr1 Knockout Mice [doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.01.024] provides some clues to…
The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we combined previously obtained data from recombinant inbred BXD strains on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity and gene expression levels in the neocortex. We validated our approach using a list of genes which alter OD plasticity when inactivated. The expression levels of one fifth of these genes correlated with the amount of OD plasticity. Moreover, the two genes with the highest relative inter-strain differences were among the correlated genes. This suggests that correlation between gene expression levels and OD plasticity is indeed likely to point to genes with a causal role in modulating or generating plasticity in the visual cortex. After this validation on known plasticity genes, we identified new candidate genes by a multi-step approach. First, a list was compiled of all genes of which the expression level in BXD strains correlate with the amount of OD plasticity. To narrow this
Experimental stocking of sport fish in the regulated Tallapoosa River to determine critical periods for recruitment M. Clint Lloyd1 Quan Lai1 Steve Sammons2 Elise Irwin3 1Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 2School of Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn Alabama 3U.S. Geological Survey, Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama Cooperator Science Series # 128-2017 COOPERATOR SCIENCE SERIESii About the Cooperator Science Series: The Cooperator Science Series was initiated in 2013. Its purpose is to facilitate the archiving and retrieval of research project reports resulting primarily from investigations supported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), particularly the Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program. The online format was selected to provide immediate access to science reports for FWS, state and tribal management agencies, the ...
The Four Critical Periods: Period Two by Michele Forto I offer breed referrals to my clients at Denver Dog Works and I am breeder of Siberian Huskies and German Shepherds. I am also a certified obedience instructor, an AKC Canine Good Citizen Evaluator, and a certified Service Dog Evaluator and trainer. Over the years I…
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera, the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age. Bees were able to retain a food-odor association acquired 5-8 days after emergence, but not before, and showed better retention than those exposed to an odor at 9-12 days. In the brain, the odor-rewarded experiences that occurred at 5-8 days of age boosted the expression levels of the cell adhesion proteins Nrx1 and Nlg2 ...
The team wanted to see if the transplanted cells would affect the visual systems response to the visual deprivation after the critical period. They studied the cells effects after allowing them to mature for varying lengths of time. When the cells were as young as 17 days old or as old as 43 days old, they had little impact on the neural circuitry of the region. However, when they were 33-39 days old, their impact was significant. During that time, monocular visual deprivation shifted the neural responses away from the deprived eye and toward the non-deprived eye, revealing the state of ocular dominance plasticity. ...
COAPE: The Centre of Applied Pet Ethology was founded in 1993 and offers a wide range of independently accredited, state-of-the-art correspondence and residential courses from Foundation to Nationally-recognised Degree level in companion animal behaviour, and behaviour therapy and training. Many of COAPEs courses in canine and feline behaviour are regulated by Ofqual and accredited under the BVNACPD scheme for veterinary nurses.
DISCUSSION. To investigate whether retinal influences on callosal topography are mediated by NMDARs, we studied the topography of callosal linkages in adult rats that had been injected with the NMDAR blocker MK-801 during the P4-P6 critical period. We expected that blockade of NMDARs during this critical period would lead to the development of mirror-symmetric callosal linkages, thus replicating the effect of removing retinal input at P4 (Olavarría and Hiroi, 2003). Instead, we found that pharmacological blockade of NMDARs from P4-P6 did not induce obvious abnormalities in the topography of callosal linkages: callosal linkages were non-mirror symmetric, as in control rats. These results provide evidence that the influences that the eyes exert on callosal topography during the P4-P6 critical period do not opérate through NMDAR-mediated processes. In contrast, we found that interfering with NMDAR function ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
My specific interests lie in understanding how visual activity shapes the structure and function of connections between neurons in the visual cortex. During the critical period, closure of one eye leads to a shift in the responses of neurons towards the open eye. My labs current work focuses on the structural basis for this rapid ocular dominance plasticity using in vivo two-photon microscopy to elucidate single cell structure deep in the intact brain. Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic structures of most excitatory synapses in the CNS. Interestingly, spine structure is highly dynamic making the precise morphology of the spine a possible candidate for the coding of synaptic strength. By combining structural two-photon imaging with functional intrinsic signal imaging in the ferret and mouse, we can correlate changes in synaptic structure with changes in response properties of the visual cortex. These experiments have shown increased spine motility as well as increased ...
My specific interests lie in understanding how visual activity shapes the structure and function of connections between neurons in the visual cortex. During the critical period, closure of one eye leads to a shift in the responses of neurons towards the open eye. My labs current work focuses on the structural basis for this rapid ocular dominance plasticity using in vivo two-photon microscopy to elucidate single cell structure deep in the intact brain. Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic structures of most excitatory synapses in the CNS. Interestingly, spine structure is highly dynamic making the precise morphology of the spine a possible candidate for the coding of synaptic strength. By combining structural two-photon imaging with functional intrinsic signal imaging in the ferret and mouse, we can correlate changes in synaptic structure with changes in response properties of the visual cortex. These experiments have shown increased spine motility as well as increased ...
The molecular basis for the decline in experience-dependent neural plasticity over age remains poorly understood. In visual cortex, the robust plasticity induced in juvenile mice by brief monocular deprivation during the critical period is abrogated by genetic deletion of Arc, an activity-dependent regulator of excitatory synaptic modification. Here, we report that augmenting Arc expression in adult mice prolongs juvenile-like plasticity in visual cortex, as assessed by recordings of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in vivo. A distinguishing characteristic of juvenile OD plasticity is the weakening of deprived-eye responses, believed to be accounted for by the mechanisms of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD). Accordingly, we also found increased LTD in visual cortex of adult mice with augmented Arc expression and impaired LTD in visual cortex of juvenile mice that lack Arc or have been treated in vivo with a protein synthesis inhibitor. Further, we found that although ...
NT-4-mediated rescue of lateral geniculate neurons from effects of monocular deprivation.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Language acquisition has been studied from the perspective of developmental psychology and neuroscience,[57] which looks at learning to use and understand language parallel to a childs brain development. It has been determined, through empirical research on developmentally normal children, as well as through some extreme cases of language deprivation, that there is a "sensitive period" of language acquisition in which human infants have the ability to learn any language. Several findings have observed that from birth until the age of six months, infants can discriminate the phonetic contrasts of all languages. Researchers believe that this gives infants the ability to acquire the language spoken around them. After such an age, the child is able to perceive only the phonemes specific to the language learned. The reduced phonemic sensitivity enables children to build phonemic categories and recognize stress patterns and sound combinations specific to the language they are ...
The finding is obviously not good news for smokers, said the studys senior author, Edythe London, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.. "As the prefrontal cortex continues to develop during the critical period of adolescence, smoking may influence the trajectory of brain development and affect the function of the prefrontal cortex," London said…. Protracted development of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated as a cause of poor decision-making in teens, London said, caused by immature cognitive control during adolescence.. "Such an effect can influence the ability of youth to make rational decisions regarding their well-being, and that includes the decision to stop smoking," she said.. The key finding, London noted, is that "as the prefrontal cortex continues to develop during the critical period of adolescence, smoking may influence the trajectory of brain development, affecting ...
It appears that, in the absence of FOXG1, the critical period in which LHX2 suppresses hem fate is expanded beyond E9.5, suggesting that FOXG1 in itself is crucial for suppressing cortical plasticity (Hanashima et al., 2004). We tested this hypothesis further, and administered tamoxifen to Foxg1lox/lox animals at E12.5, well after the hem has formed, and examined the embryos at E14.5. Surprisingly, we discovered ectopic patches of hem (Fig. 3J-L). These patches appeared only at very rostral levels of sectioning, and once again correlated with patches in which Lhx2-negative cells had accumulated. We ascertained that these patches were transformed to hem fate by examining three hem markers, Wnt3a, Wnt2b and Lmx1a, in serial sections. All three markers identify similar territories as ectopic hem (Fig. 3C-E and Fig. S7). Thus, FOXG1 appears to limit the critical period during which LHX2 suppresses hem fate; upon loss of Foxg1, this time window ...
Its been thought that childrens brains go through periods of development after which the influence of experience decreases. But a recent literature is revealing remarkable residual plasticity in adults.
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats ...
The control group will not receive the therapy intervention during the 1-year study.. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, pre-treatment, post-treatment, 6 months and one year after stroke onset.. Compared to individuals randomized during the outpatient (2-3 months after stroke onset) or chronic (6-9 months after stroke onset) time points, participants randomized to early intensive motor training will show greater upper extremity motor improvement measured at one year post stroke. ...
Critical Periods in Physical Development: The concept of critical periods originated in the study of embryological development. As the embryo grows, the various organ systems develop in a fixed time
The artificial incubation of hens eggs involves four factors-temperature, humidity, air supply, and at intervals a rotation or turning of the eggs. This last factor is perhaps the most curious and unexpected of the four, yet there is no doubt that it is necessary for development as shown by good hatchability, and in the natural state it is carried out by the sitting hen. Eycleshymer (1906), Chattock (1925), and Olsen (1930) have all concluded from observations on the hens nest that the hen frequently rotates the eggs during the incubation period; Olsen considers it occurs as often as 96 times in 24 hours.. Various abnormalities have been recorded in eggs incubated without turning. Dareste (1891) stated that absence of turning causes the allantois to adhere to the yolk sac; Eycleshymer (1906) confirmed this, and added that during the first week of incubation, absence of turning may also cause the embryo to adhere to the shell membranes.. ...
PROVIDENCE, R.I.[Brown University] - Researchers from Brown University and Kings College London have gained surprising new insights into how brain anatomy influences language acquisition in young children.. Their study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, found that the explosion of language acquisition that typically occurs in children between 2 and 4 years old is not reflected in substantial changes in brain asymmetry. Structures that support language ability tend to be localized on the left side of the brain. For that reason, the researchers expected to see more myelin - the fatty material that insulates nerve fibers and helps electrical signals zip around the brain - developing on the left side in children entering the critical period of language acquisition. But that is not what the research showed.. "What we actually saw was that the asymmetry of myelin was there right from the beginning, even in the youngest children in the study, around the age of 1," said the ...
The goal of my lab is to understand how synaptic connections contribute to development and function of neural circuits that underlie memory and cognition. Presently, we are focused on two major research areas:. 1) We have identified several genes that are critical regulators of synaptic function. These genes also increase the risk for developing neurodevelopmental disorders of cognition and sociability, such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. These genes encode proteins that regulate synaptic properties during critical periods of neurodevelopment. Current studies in the lab are aimed at understanding how disruptions in synaptic properties during these developmentally sensitive periods lead to alterations in cognition, memory and sociability. Based on these studies, we hope to develop novel therapeutic strategies to improve brain function in patents with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.. 2) ...
Imprinting with a novel and conspicuous object usually occurs most readily at a particular stage of development. The word imprinting suggests that a permanent irremovable image has been left by the impact of experience on the soft wax of the developing brain. It was supposed that the brains metaphorical wax is soft only during a particular stage in development and no impression can be left before or after the critical period. However, the image of such a sharply delineated moment of imprinting is misleading, because the process is not so rigidly timed and may indeed be reversed under some conditions. This is why the term sensitive period is now most commonly used to refer to the phase during early development when the young animal most readily forms a social attachment. Filial imprinting occurs just prior to the stage in the life-cycle when, for its own safety, the young animal needs to discriminate between its parents and other members of its own species ...
This is an Allen Cell Types Database model of a Sst-IRES-Cre neuron from layer 5 of the mouse primary visual cortex. The model was based on a traced morphology after filling the cell with biocytin and optimized using experimental electrophysiology data recorded from the same cell. The electrophysiology data was collected in a highly standardized way to facilitate comparison across all cells in the database. The model was optimized by a genetic algorithm that adjusted the densities of conductances placed at the soma to match experimentally-measured features of action potential firing. Data and models from the Allen Cell Types Database are made available to the community under the Allen Institutes Terms of Use and Citation Policy ...
This is an Allen Cell Types Database model of a Sst-IRES-Cre neuron from layer 5 of the mouse primary visual cortex. The model was based on a traced morphology after filling the cell with biocytin and optimized using experimental electrophysiology data recorded from the same cell. The electrophysiology data was collected in a highly standardized way to facilitate comparison across all cells in the database. The model was optimized by a genetic algorithm that adjusted the densities of conductances placed at the soma to match experimentally-measured features of action potential firing. Data and models from the Allen Cell Types Database are made available to the community under the Allen Institutes Terms of Use and Citation Policy ...
We used the rat visual cortex as a model system to examine the changes in protein synthesis during experience-induced synaptic plasticity. Dark-rearing rats from birth results in a relatively immature visual cortex that maintains the high de- gree of synaptic plasticity characteristic of the critical period (Kirkwood et al., 1995). Exposure of dark-reared rats to light results in a rapid, robust and coordinated burst of experience- driven synaptic plasticity that can be readily monitored at the biochemical and electrophysiological level (Quinlan et al., 1999). In previous work, we showed that visual experience evokes the polyadenylation of ␣-CaMKII mRNA in visual cortex and the elevation of ␣-CaMKII protein in synaptic fractions from this brain region. Moreover, this increase was a direct result of new synthesis because it was sensitive to the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (Wu et al., 1998). Here we show that the experience-induced increase of ␣-CaMKII pro- tein does ...
Read chapter 2 Influences on Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development : Healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) development is a critical fou...
Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. Recently it was proposed that the tendency towards dendrite growth is related to the height of the self-dif 2018 Energy and Environmental Science HOT Articles
Down regulation of GGTβ decreases dendrite growth and branching of PCs. A) HEK293 cells were co-transfected with Myc-GGTα and HA-GGTβ, together with pSUPER-G
Orientation selectivity vanishes along the lateral spread, in response to a local oriented stimulus. Examples are from area
Parents can be quite competitive about it but they need to be reassured - to remember that each child has a somewhat different pathway.. "There are sensitive periods in brain development - characterised by rapid growth in neural connections in the brain and stimulated by the childs interaction with their environment - when what is called brain architecture is formed.. "This architecture becomes the foundation for the childs future development and the senses have a critical role in that development.". For example if it seems a child has difficulty seeing or hearing it is important that this issue is noticed soon, and that supports are provided such as a hearing aid or glasses.. Detection of these problems past the sensitive period means any intervention will be less effective than if the issue had been picked up earlier.. Assoc Prof Whitington says parents need to observe their children carefully and should not be afraid to ask for help if something seems not ...
If you moved from the United States to France as a child you would likely become fluent in French in a short period of time, but if you moved to France as an adult you might never become fluent. This difference in the capacity to learn language exists because there are sensitive periods in development when the brain is particularly plastic and able receive and retain information with greater efficacy.. There is a well-established field of sensitive period biology that seeks to explain how people learn to speak, how birds learn to sing, and how our sensory systems wire up among other things. The field has been particularly successful in explaining how the brain coordinates the information streaming in from the two eyes to allow binocular vision useful for depth perception. In the last century, it was discovered that when a person was born with a "lazy" eye or had their vision clouded in one eye by a cataract then their binocular vision would be impaired for a ...
Dr Beauchamp believes breastfeeding mothers can prime their childrens taste buds to be familiar with fruit and vegetables by eating them themselves. In contrast formula milk is bland and constant tasting, he said. We have demonstrated that there is a very sensitive period between two and five months of age when infants will learn to like these milk formulas, he said. This learned preference for formula milk will last at least into adolescence and we believe for their entire lives. By exposing infants at this very sensitive period is appears to be possible to make them like something that they would otherwise deem to be horrible. If we could enhance consumption of vegetables amongst pregnant and nursing women, it ought to impact on their childrens later food choices and result in healthier eating. We have yet to do this work, but we would like to run a large-scale trial to see if this would be the case. Dr Beauchamp presented his findings at the American Association for the ...
Neurodevelopment is an intricate and dynamic process involving gene-environment interactions, which result in a series of changes in gene expression, cellular f...
CHAPEL HILL, NC - Adolescents represent the majority of people who binge drink. This may come as a surprise to some, but recent surveys indicate that episodes of heavy alcohol drinking within the previous two weeks are reported by 12 percent of 8th graders, 22 percent of 10th graders, 28 percent of 12th grade seniors and 44 percent of college students.. Human adolescence, roughly between 12 to 20 years of age, marks a critical period for brain development. This is when the growth of the cortex, our gray matter, reaches a peak and is coupled with major rearrangements of neurons. Some guess that such brain remodeling during development help us adapt to lifes demands as we mature toward adulthood.. "Its also a time when the brains developing neural circuits are more sensitive to disruption," said Fulton Crews, PhD, professor of pharmacology and director of the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine. "And we and ...
In late June, the investigators took their studies in a new direction with a publication that showed the possible clinical benefits of dialing up their newly identified neural knob. They did so in a study that demonstrated how the circuit that involves the VIP neurons plays a pivotal role in restoring visual acuity in a mouse that had been deprived of sight during a critical period in infancy when the animal must either use it or lose it. They sewed shut one eye in the young mouse for a time-effectively replicating amblyopia, a condition called "lazy eye" in human children that leads to vision loss. They waited until the mice had passed through the critical development stage, took out the stitches, and then switched on the VIP neurons in the behavioral plasticity circuit by having the mice go for a run. That restored vision to normal levels, but only if the animals were also exposed simultaneously to various forms of visual stimuli-either a grating pattern ...
Its long been known that chronic stress, defined as a prolonged physical, mental, or emotional factor that results bodily or psychological tension, can alter the normal trajectories of childhood brain development (See "Early Life Experience, Critical Periods, and Brain Development"), leading to increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. What hasnt been known are the various mechanisms by which stress can make those changes, negative or positive, to the brain. Bruce McEwen, a pioneering neuroscientist who has spent his career studying the effects of stress, as well as a member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives (DABI), said that stress is one of the most commonly used words in the English language, yet it means something different to each person. Thats because the effects of stress are dependent on both genetics and environment.. "There used to be a time when we argued about what was more important to development-genes or environment. But now we understand there ...
PLANT SCIENCE. Active transport of aromas. Adebesin et al. found that rather than simply diffusing out of cells, volatile organic compounds in petunias require an active transporter for release (see also Eberl and Gershenzon).. NEURODEVELOPMENT. Building the neural tube. Zagorski et al. describe a gene regulatory network that responds to noisy signals to build robustness and accuracy into tissue patterning during development.. Reopening a critical period. Blundon et al. show that the auditory cortex of adult mice acquires juvenile flexibility if adenosine signaling is disrupted (see also Kehayas and Holtmaat). ...
This project will develop a regional initiatives report based on two workshops to articulate how empowerment and prevention strategies are used to achieve early life equity in Indigenous and Tribal populations in Australia and Indonesia. Internationally, the thousand days from conception to age two is established as a critical period of time in which to address preventable deaths, ensure health and wellbeing and expand enabling environments. This project will facilitate shared understandings, identify key action areas and investments to galvanize commitment, advocacy and knowledge exchange to significantly advance national and international health and wellbeing goals for populations experiencing vulnerability.. ...
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain. I present interdisciplinary research which indicates that the stress-regulating circuits of the male brain mature more slowly than those of the female in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal critical periods, and that this differential structural maturation is reflected in normal gender differences in right-brain attachment functions. Due to this maturational delay, developing males also are more ...
The feral children literature has frequently been cited for relevance to understanding historical antecedents of autism. Kaspar Hauser, who appeared in Nuremberg, Germany in 1828, is one of these children, raised under conditions of extreme deprivation. His case history and gradual acquisition of language after age 17 years are summarized. There is strong evidence that he was the prince of Baden, abducted from his cradle in 1812. Findings of postmortem examination, conducted after his assassination, are discussed. Hausers postadolescent recovery of language contradicts the notion of a "critical period" for language development ...
Accumulating evidence suggests that early-life nutrition can affect metabolism and thus increase the risk of disease in adulthood (e.g. type II diabetes and obesity). One possible mechanism to explain these effects is epigenetic variation at critical periods of development. Epigenetic variation describes non-inherited permanent alterations to an individuals DNA.. Recent work in mouse models has demonstrated that maternal nutritional status can affect such epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation and gene expression during embryonic development, with profound effects on outcomes. The investigators aim to study these processes in humans for the first time. The investigators will exploit the experiment of nature setting in The Gambia, i.e. fluctuation in diet according to season. During the hungry season diets are known to be depleted in nutrients required for epigenetic gene regulation. Nutritional biomarkers in blood as well as the dietary intake will be measured in ...
BACKGROUND: Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called stressors, activates a highly conserved system, the stress system, which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors ...
Nerve cells in a midbrain structure known as superior colliculus may play a crucial role in this process. When the cortical hemispheres of our brain are parted at the midline, the observer recognizes four small mounds rising from the surface of the underlying midbrain. To the early anatomists, the structures resembled little hills, called colliculi in Latin. One pair rises somewhat higher than the other, and thus was named the colliculi superior. The superior colliculi are composed of layers of nerve cells and nerve cell fibers. Three layers were shown to contain maps of our visual, acoustic and tactile space from the top to the bottom, respectively. The space maps normally overlap with great accuracy. As a consequence, the three senses permit us to localize an object in the same location with great precision. The congruence of spatial representation in three senses evolves during a critical period in brain development. Thirty years ago, Mazakasu Konishi and colleagues ...
The effects of endocrine disruptors can be strongest during critical periods such as fetal development, infancy, adolescence, conception and pregnancy. These are times of important changes that will have long-term consequences for a child (fry, larvae, pup, chick etc.) and its future children. Thousands of chemicals have been found to be endocrine disruptors. Some of them are very resistant to degradation and remain in the environment and in peoples bodies for decades or longer. Many of these are no longer in use even though we can still easily detect them. They were found to be a threat to health and were banned and/or replaced with something less dangerous. There are many other chemicals in use that have not been tested. There are others that are current foci of research and debate. These chemicals were not developed to cause harm to humans (at least not most of them), rather they were found to be harmful after they were already in use. An example that you may be aware of ...
This study demonstrates that young adulthood is a critical period in the development of smoking behaviour. Approximately 28% of young adults in Canada smoke-the highest prevalence of any age group and more than double the proportion of youth smokers. The findings also provide evidence of late initiation: approximately one fifth of current young adult smokers tried their first cigarette after the age of 18 years. Furthermore, regardless of when they first tried smoking, the majority of young adults became regular smokers after the age of 18. Indeed, the proportion of daily smokers increased dramatically from 8% among youth to 22% among young adults. The increase in "ever-smokers" (current and former smokers), is even more striking: 15% of youth were ever smokers, compared with 40% of young adults-an increase of 267%. Young adults were also heavier smokers than youth; cigarettes per day was 38% greater among young adults and they were more likely to smoke within the first 30 ...
Your ASF donations hard at work at UNC and Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. This pivotal study demonstrated that UBE3A is most critical in the developing brain and plays a less vital role later on in life.. This is important in designing clinical trials and knowing when is the best time to treat. But what does this mean for our loved ones? "This means that while developing a therapy that permanently reinstates UBE3A might be optimal, even a treatment that gives back UBE3A during critical periods of brain development could be truly transformative!" - Ben Philpot, PhD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. See the article in Molecular Autism.. ...
Current research in the field of child development and education emphasizes the importance of early investment in quality programming for young children and families. The recognition of critical periods has altered the landscape of best practices and hence the required competencies for professionals from across disciplines who interface with young children and their families (e.g. social work, psychology, communication sciences and disorders, public health, nursing, occupational and physical therapy, medicine). In response, the Department of Education has designed a minor with an interdisciplinary curriculum. At the core of the minor is the focus on quality services and programming for young children and families. Quality programming and service provision depends on highly trained professionals from across disciplines. A primary intent of the Early Childhood Minor is to foster the use of an interdisciplinary lens in preservice learners. Courses within the ...
There are many different eye conditions that are associated with congenital nystagmus; theoretically, any bilateral visually-significant pathology present at birth or in infancy during the critical period of visual development may interfere with the development of stable fixation (1) Eventually Ill get around to discussing the finer points of nystagmus; but for now, Im sticking to some basic study stuff. ...
There is not a great deal of difference here between physical and emotional pain. When someone feels lonely or rejected she hurts just as if she were burned. Part of the limbic system is critical in both kinds of hurts (the anterior cingulate cortex lights up in both). Being rejected in high school (possibly a critical period in some) can leave a residue of that feeling for the decades to come. It leaves an actual mark so that in a recent study those with chronic feelings of rejection died much sooner than controls who did not feel that way. (see: "Childhood Trauma Leaves a Mark on the brain." Translational Psychiatry, January 15, 2013. Carmen Sandi et al; see http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-01-childhood-trauma-brain.html ). Loneliness can be traced all the way back to just after birth when a child must be held and caressed. If he is not held, then he hurts for a lifetime and dies sooner. Pain and repression kill. Neurotics die earlier. It turns out that ...
Many of the customers in the emerging economies are first time consumers in the sense that this is the first time they or their ancestors have had a steady degree of disposable income. This means they are having their first experience with different brands of packaged foods, electronics, clothing, and yes pharmaceuticals. They are in the process of forming their opinions and tastes right now, based on their experiences, interactions, observations, and conversations with friends. Once solidified, these brand perceptions can persist even from one generation to the next. This is a critical period for companies to build their reputation. Smart companies are therefore giving extra importance to corporate responsibility and helping out the community. Some are investing in the healthcare infrastructure of these emerging countries, not only to build goodwill, but also to create improved access to their products. Some are also making a point to create and leverage production ...
The possibility of anesthetic neurotoxicity was first suggested more than 15 years ago with findings of apoptosis in the brains of rodents after ethanol exposure during critical periods of neurodevelopment. A similar neuroapoptotic effect was soon identified in anesthetic agents and linked to long-term functional consequences. Since then, nearly all commonly used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonists have been evaluated and were found to result in neurotoxic effects in a variety of animal species, including non-human primates.1 Hundreds of preclinical studies have now been published demonstrating effects with anesthetic doses relevant to humans and using monitoring standards similar to those used for clinical care in children. Despite the presence of this robust body of preclinical data, however, the clinical evidence is much sparser ...
On January 16,1979, the Shah of Iran Mohamad Reza Pahlavi, left the royal palace, the Peacock Throne and his beloved country Iran for the last time, commencing what became a 19-month odyssey into exile. He wondered hopelessly from Egypt to Morocco, Bahamas, Mexico, the U.S, then Panama and back again to Egypt where he died furtively at the age of 60. His death had profound consequences for the future of the Middle East and the world, yet the untold medical story of the last King of Iran has to date remained a puzzling mystery. By unraveling the secrecy surrounding this critical period of history, beginning from the onset of the Shahs illness, to the diagnosis/misdiagnosis and maltreatment, "A Dying King" exposes the main causes of the Iranian Revolution, the pursuant 444 days hostage crisis, and the adversarial relations between the U.S and Iran.. ...
The human brain undergoes a dynamic phase of development with rapid structural and functional growth in the first year of life. Insight into thi critical period...
Abstract To elicit current practice and attitudes toward use of antibiotic-prophylaxis among TJR patients prior to dental procedures, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of practicing Canadian orthopaedic (OS) and dental surgeons (DS). Of respondents, 77% of OS and 71% of DS indicated that they routinely prescribe antibiotic-prophylaxis, but while 63% of OS advocate lifelong use, only 22% of DS choose to do so (p,0.0001). While we concluded that both groups nonetheless recognize the importance of treatment within 2-years post-TJR as per historical AAOS/ADA guidelines, it is important to note that the 2-year recommendation, as cited by the AAOS/ADA to be the most critical period for seeding of bacteremia, was based on results of a single unpublished study which had thus not been subjected to critical peer review. Results of our study did show that greater duration of practice and hence greater experience pointed to the potential inadequacy of these ...
The findings presented here confirm and extend earlier observations (9,25) identifying a critical period during the development and maturation of the SHR that is particularly amenable to pharmacological intervention. In the present study, administration of ACE inhibitors throughout intrauterine development and during the first 16 wk of life reduced blood pressure in a fashion that was at least partially sustainable for as long as 24 wk after the drug was discontinued.. The fall in blood pressure was accompanied by a reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy. Our studies suggest that normalization of the hypertrophic response after treatment was, if anything, more complete than the observed decrease in blood pressure.. The mechanism(s) underlying the curtailment of hypertrophy remains undefined. The fall in blood pressure seen after ACE inhibition would be expected to lead to reduced tension in the ventricular wall and, by inference, to a decrease in the "driving force" ...
The standard-bearers of the cause of women of an earlier period found it hard to recognize the conditions which now confront us. It is so difficult to adjust ones self to the life where the radicalism of yesterday has become the conservatism of today. Never in the history of the world has a radical principle become an accomplished fact until, after having served its purpose as an educator, it expresses the conservative sentiments of the mass. There are social theorists and sound administrators of justice who insist that the way to repeal a bad law is to enforce it. There are people who would make war odious by carrying on war until conditions become so intolerable that all nations being waste and humanity rendered delirious by suffering, men should declare that peace must reign because the land is desolate and the very air heavy with the lament of the living for the dead. At the critical period when the opportunity for place and influence is to be seized, or ...
All MPL patients will need to spend a minimum of 1-2 days in the hospital following the procedure. This is so pain and discomfort can be controlled using injectable and transdermal medications, as well as to restrict and monitor movement by the patient during this most critical period of recovery.. Once home, owners should do everything possible to limit their dogs activity, as strict rest is required for proper healing. Initially, there should be no running, jumping or playing, as these can all lead to reluxation of the patella during the healing process. Although rare, reluxation does occur, and often requires further surgery. This is of most concern during the first 8 weeks of recovery, or in patients who suffered from a severe-grade luxation prior to surgery. Any pins used during surgery may need to be removed in 3-12 months. Rarely, a patient will present post-surgically with an "allergic" reaction to the metal from any screws, plates, pins or wire used in the ...
The SICU is an intensivist-led multidisciplinary model of care aimed at improving patient outcomes, by providing state-of-the-art care to critically ill patients. Our team provides board-certified critical care physician specialists, in-house physicians in training, and a skilled nursing staff 24 hours a day, seven days a week.. The division is a pioneer in the use of several leading-edge technologies, including goal-directed echocardiography, lung ultrasound and other non-invasive monitoring methods. This is crucial to caring for patients during the most critical period of their post-operative recovery - before their condition has stabilized to the point of transfer to a conventional hospital floor.. ...
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Saturday, June 21, 1788.. Convention met pursuant to adjournment.. The Hon. Mr. WILLIAMS rose, and addressed the chair. We are now, sir, said he, to investigate and decide upon a Constitution, in which not only the present members of the community are deeply interested, but upon which the happiness or misery of generations yet unborn is, in a great measure, suspended. I therefore hope for a wise and prudent determination. I believe that this country has never before seen such a critical period in political affairs. We have felt the feebleness of those ties by which the states are held together, and the want of that energy which is necessary to manage our general concerns. Various are the expedients which have been proposed to remedy these evils; but they have been proposed without effect; though I am persuaded that, if the Confederation had been attended to as its value justly merited, and proper attention paid to a few necessary amendments, it might have carried us on for a ...
My longing and regret is that I was an absent father for such a long time, and such a critical period in the lives of my sons. I am sad that I missed so much, and feel guilty that I was not there for them. I weep to know of times they needed a dad, and I was not there, and my heart aches. I can never make up for times lost, but can try to make some recompense for the damage I caused, and hopefully they will accept some benign advice and well-intentioned guidance from admittedly foolish and crippled old man ...
Several critical periods over a human life span - including before birth -- determine when individuals are the most susceptible to environmental toxicants. Researchers will gather at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to discuss these
Follow this guide to getting back into exercise after recovering from an injury will help you stay safe during this critical period.
A contemporary history of a critical period, Are We Ready? analyzes the impact of 9/11, the anthrax attacks that followed, and preparations for a possible smallpox attack on the nations public health infrastructure. David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz interviewed local, state, and federal officials to determine the immediate reactions of key participants in these events.
A womans drug use can affect both her foetus and her newborn. Most drugs cross the placenta--the organ that provides nourishment to the foetus. Some can cause direct toxic (poisonous) effects and drug dependency in the foetus. After birth, some drugs can be passed to the baby through breast-feeding. The critical period of embryonic development, when the major organ systems develop, starts at about 17 days post-conception and is complete by 60 to 70 days. Exposure to certain drugs during this pe
In this second instalment of a series on Cambodian history, Australian scholar Milton E. Osborne deals with the critical period last century when the French increased their presence and control over Cambodia during the reign of King Norodom.
Dewster,. 1.) I fully accept that for development work, visual pitch display is essential - I have a modified guitar tuner and frequency counters showing audio and RF frequencies running when I do development, ans often have these logged so I can go back and analyse results.. 2.) I agree that, if useful, the pitch display needs low latency - Not as fast as 2ms (the eyes response is slower than that!) but perhaps 10ms.(I think about 15ms seperation is the shortest interval someone is likely to see, 69Hz if I remember correctly was the frequency at which flicker was discernable to one candidate at the Royal Free Hospital when I built a flicker fusion kit for a research project at the Medical School - this used LEDs pulsed at 50:50 duty cycle - most people lost it below 60Hz - above this frequency candidates saw the LEDs as continuously on - 10ms [100Hz] is certainly above this threshold for most humans.. Tests were conducted void of any interfering modulated light sources! Most flicker seen on ...
Socialization and Training of Older Kittens. Although the sensitive period for socialization during which kittens are most susceptible to influence has passed by this stage, some socialization can still take place. Continue exposing the kitten to new experiences (such as car rides) and individuals (people, friendly animals). This is also a good time to leash train kittens if youre interested in taking them outdoors for safe excursions, or even training them to do simple tricks. Theyre more likely to be open to such training if its started at a young age (see How to Train a Cat or Kitten for training tips).. Kittens can be quite feisty during this stage, and playfights with siblings and other pets may get out of hand at times. Set limits, let kittens know what sort of behaviours are unacceptable, and enforce rules consistently. For example, if a kitten bites your hand, keep the hand still (waving it around will make the kitten think youre playing) and say "no" in a firm voice until the kitten ...
Read chapter 5 Strategies for Health Care Settings: Healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) development is a critical foundation for a productive ...
PCB Fabrication; Also known as Quality PCB, this one isnt a U.S company. Theyre in China- but they do at least have a presence in California. It was an eye opening experience when I first did business with them. I had thought that I had to order jillions of boards before it made sense to go offshore, but I was pleasantly surprised to find that they can be competitive even for as few as ten boards ...

Health Behavior Courses (HB) | UAB School of Public HealthHealth Behavior Courses (HB) | UAB School of Public Health

This Masters level course provides an overview of critical health issues in adolescence and reviews the potential of emerging ... Adolescence is a time of growth and experimentation, a period marked by establishing autonomy and confronting new challenges. ... and psychology. Course will be graded by letter. 3 hours (Pavela) ...
more infohttp://soph.uab.edu/node/17872

DClinPsy Clinical Psychology - University of PlymouthDClinPsy Clinical Psychology - University of Plymouth

Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology - become a competent and capable clinical psychologist from this joint ... It develops further critical thinking in the 5 core course themes and core course philosophy underpinning clinical psychology. ... Over the duration of the programme you will also undertake year-long placement periods. During your first year of study you ... It develops further critical and reflexive thinking, analysis and synthesis within clinical psychology and prepares trainees ...
more infohttps://www.plymouth.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/dclinpsy-clinical-psychology

The University of Detroit Mercy clinical psychologyThe University of Detroit Mercy clinical psychology

Information about The University of Detroit Mercy clinical psychology. Whether you are considering an associates or a bachelors ... More importantly, student loan consolidation can extend your repayment period, giving you longer to repay your loans, as your ... The 4-hour SAT test contains three sections, namely writing, critical reading, and mathematics. Most of the questions are ... Psychology - Test 1. Psychology - Test 2. Psychology - Test 3. Psychology - Test 4. ...
more infohttp://www.udmercy.org/The-University-of-Detroit-Mercy-clinical-psychology.php

Outlook | Newsletter of the Society of Behavioral MedicineOutlook | Newsletter of the Society of Behavioral Medicine

Military Psychology. 2011;23(3):297-313.. Baum A, Revenson TA, Singer JE. Handbook of Health Psychology, 2nd ed. New York: ... and its several action teams in several high-priority areas scan the health policy environment for open comment periods, ... describe a bio-psychosocial oncology unit model in which psychosocial oncology professionals are critical players in this ... In :Handbook of Health Psychology, 2nd ed. New York: Psychology Press; 2012. p. 193-217. ISBN-10: 0805864628. ...
more infohttp://www.sbm.org/outlook/0212/complete.php

Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids in critical developmental periods.Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids in critical developmental periods.

... periweanling and periadolescent periods. We describe and discuss published data dealing with acute and long-ter ... Critical Period (Psychology). Cyclohexanols / pharmacology. Morpholines / pharmacology. Naphthalenes / pharmacology. ... discuss published data dealing with acute and long-term effects of exposure to cannabinoid agonists in such critical periods. ... Chronic administration of cannabinoid agonists during the periadolescent period causes persistent behavioural alterations in ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Behavioural-neuroendocrine-effects-cannabinoids-in/16148439.html

What is neuropsychology? | Reference.comWhat is neuropsychology? | Reference.com

Neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that studies how the structure and composition of a persons nervous system ... What is a critical period in psychology?. A: A critical period in psychology refers to a specific time during development when ... What is an encoding failure in psychology?. A: An encoding failure in psychology refers to a situation in which information ... A: Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that explores how the neurotransmitters within the brain affect emotion and behavior ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/education/neuropsychology-13d6240d0d82c91e

Orientation behavior in fish larvae: A missing piece to Hjorts critical period hypothesis<...Orientation behavior in fish larvae: A missing piece to Hjort's critical period hypothesis<...

... critical period{"} would have remarkable demographic consequences.",. keywords = "Critical period, Fish larvae, Modeling, ... Staaterman E, Paris CB, Helgers J. Orientation behavior in fish larvae: A missing piece to Hjorts critical period hypothesis. ... Staaterman, E, Paris, CB & Helgers, J 2012, Orientation behavior in fish larvae: A missing piece to Hjorts critical period ... Orientation behavior in fish larvae : A missing piece to Hjorts critical period hypothesis. In: Journal of theoretical biology ...
more infohttps://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/orientation-behavior-in-fish-larvae-a-missing-piece-to-hjorts-cri

Reinterpreting the purpose of premarital counseling | SpringerLinkReinterpreting the purpose of premarital counseling | SpringerLink

Interpersonal Relationship Critical Period Cross Cultural Psychology Meaningful Relationship Pastoral Counseling This is a ... Its purpose is to extend the resources of the Gospel and the Church to a couple at a critical period in their lives. In the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01791816

TEDMED: Young brains, autism and epilepsy - The Chart - CNN.com BlogsTEDMED: Young brains, autism and epilepsy - The Chart - CNN.com Blogs

I learned about the critical period in Psychology class have been preaching what I learned to my teenage brothers. ...
more infohttp://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/04/22/tedmed-young-brains-autism-and-epilepsy/?replytocom=173897

TEDMED: Young brains, autism and epilepsy - The Chart - CNN.com BlogsTEDMED: Young brains, autism and epilepsy - The Chart - CNN.com Blogs

I learned about the critical period in Psychology class have been preaching what I learned to my teenage brothers. ...
more infohttp://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/04/22/tedmed-young-brains-autism-and-epilepsy/?replytocom=173667

Cudmore, R. H.<...Cudmore, R. H.<...

Critical Period (Psychology) Medicine & Life Sciences * Visual Cortex Medicine & Life Sciences * AMPA Receptors Medicine & Life ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/robert-cudmore

Developmental psychology - WikipediaDevelopmental psychology - Wikipedia

Critical periods of developmentEdit. There are critical periods in infancy and childhood during which development of certain ... forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology. ... Upton, Penney (2011). Developmental Psychology: Critical Thinking in Psychology. Exeter: Learning Matters. p. 62. ISBN 978-0- ... Upton, Penney (2011). Developmental Psychology: Critical Thinking in Psychology. Exeter: Learning Matters. p. 84. ISBN 978-0- ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developmental_psychology

Yang, C. H.<...Yang, C. H.<...

A critical period for the development of schizophrenia-like pathology by aberrant postnatal neurogenesis. Sheu, J. R., Hsieh, C ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/zh/persons/chih-hao-yang-2

尋找研究成果
             - 臺北醫學大學尋找研究成果 - 臺北醫學大學

A critical period for the development of schizophrenia-like pathology by aberrant postnatal neurogenesis. Sheu, J. R., Hsieh, C ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/zh/publications/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&originalSearch=&improvedLayoutOrganisationUuid=&format=

Unit 9: Developmental Psychology Flashcards by Jessie  Bui | BrainscapeUnit 9: Developmental Psychology Flashcards by Jessie Bui | Brainscape

The process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period ... Unit 9: Developmental Psychology Flashcards Preview AP Psychology , Unit 9: Developmental Psychology , Flashcards ... An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development ... A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span ...
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MSU PsychologyMSU Psychology

Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: A review of human and animal studies. 2013, Hormones and Behavior, 64: ... 2015, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56: 1141-1164 ...
more infohttps://psychology.msu.edu/research/publications?q=klump

Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab Flashcards by Alyssa Bellochi | BrainscapeAlyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab Flashcards by Alyssa Bellochi | Brainscape

Study Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab flashcards from Alyssa Bellochi ... A period of time when the brain is more receptive to absorbing certain skills, tasks and info; they can still learn these tasks ... Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab Flashcards Preview Ap Psychology , Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology ... A period of dramatic self doubt that is felt by some individuals in the middle years or Middle Age of life ...
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Research Interests for Edward D. LevinResearch Interests for Edward D. Levin

Critical Period (Psychology), Cross-Over Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Crystallography, X-Ray, Cues, Cycloserine, Cystine, ... Psychology), Reinforcement Schedule, Reproducibility of Results, Research Design, Respiratory System, Retention (Psychology), ... whereas α7 nicotinic receptors appear to be more important for the long-term consumption of nicotine over a period of 5 months ... with joint appointments in the Departments of Psychology and Pharmacology as well as the School of the Environment. The primary ...
more infohttp://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/pn/faculty/edlevin/research.html

List of MeSH codes (F02) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (F02) - Wikipedia

... critical period (psychology) MeSH F02.463.425.234 --- cues MeSH F02.463.425.280 --- discrimination learning MeSH F02.463. ... latency period (psychology) MeSH F02.739.794.793.626 --- oral stage MeSH F02.739.794.837 --- self psychology MeSH F02.739. ... psychology) MeSH F02.463.425.770.232 --- extinction (psychology) MeSH F02.463.425.770.379 --- knowledge of results (psychology ... psychology) MeSH F02.463.593.257.800 --- signal detection (psychology) MeSH F02.463.593.292 --- eidetic imagery MeSH F02.463. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(F02)

Behavioral cusp - WikipediaBehavioral cusp - Wikipedia

Behaviorism Behavior analysis of child development Child development Child development stages Child psychology Critical period ... The concept has far reaching implications for every individual, and for the field of developmental psychology, because it ... Face Validity Feral child Functional analysis (psychology) Early childhood education Pedagogy psychological behaviorism Play ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behavioral_cusp

MAPLE: A Multilingual Approach to Parent Language Estimates | Bilingualism: Language and Cognition | Cambridge CoreMAPLE: A Multilingual Approach to Parent Language Estimates | Bilingualism: Language and Cognition | Cambridge Core

Werker, JF and Hensch, TK (2015) Critical Periods in Speech Perception: New Directions. Annual Review of Psychology 66, 173-196 ... Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 108, 567-579. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.10.009 ... Cognitive Psychology 59(1), 96-121. doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.02.002 ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition/article/maple-a-multilingual-approach-to-parent-language-estimates/871E9488574C8F638FCFAA9234DC0159

Emergence of alcohol expectancies in childhood: a possible critical period.  - PubMed - NCBIEmergence of alcohol expectancies in childhood: a possible critical period. - PubMed - NCBI

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202.. Abstract. Previous investigations with adolescents ... Emergence of alcohol expectancies in childhood: a possible critical period.. Miller PM1, Smith GT, Goldman MS. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2359308?dopt=Abstract

Learning Who is Your Mother: Behavior of ImprintingLearning Who is Your Mother: Behavior of Imprinting

The interaction of learned and innate behavior.The critical periods. J. of Comparative and Physiological Psychology,50, 6. John ... Firstly, because there is a stringent critical period, or fixed time, for it taking place. With few exceptions, this is not so ... Lorenzs work provided startling evidence that there are critical periods in life where a definite type of stimulus is ... These investigations have shown that imprinting is neither rapid nor irreversible, and also not restricted to a critical period ...
more infohttp://www.cerebromente.org.br/n14/experimento/lorenz/index-lorenz.html

Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2nd EditionPsychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2nd Edition

Critical Periods for Language Learning Theoretical Accounts of Language Acquisition. Nonhuman Animal Communication ... Buy AccessNEW MyLab Psychology with Pearson eText for Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding (access code required), 2nd ... Buy AccessNEW MyLab Psychology without Pearson eText -- Instant Access -- for Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2nd ... Buy AccessMyLab Psychology with Pearson eText -- Instant Access -- for Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding , 2nd Edition ...
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  • Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that explores how the neurotransmitters within the brain affect emotion and behavior. (reference.com)
  • Confirming the existence of a critical period for a particular ability requires evidence that there is a point after which the associated behavior is no longer correlated with age, and ability stays at the same level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Maria Montessori was one of the earlier educators who brought attention to this phenomenon and called it "Sensitive Periods", which is one of the pillars of her philosophy of education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experience-dependent refinements are often restricted to well-defined critical periods in early life, but how these are established remains mostly unknown. (nih.gov)
  • A threshold level of inhibition within the visual cortex may thus trigger, once in life, an experience-dependent critical period for circuit consolidation, which may otherwise lie dormant. (nih.gov)
  • Using knockout mice, we have found that β2-containinc nicotinic receptors appear to be more important for the initiation of nicotine self-administration during the first few weeks, whereas α7 nicotinic receptors appear to be more important for the long-term consumption of nicotine over a period of 5 months. (duke.edu)
  • Although the A Level Psychology programmes build on the course content of GCSE, it is not necessary to have this qualification before undertaking an A-Level. (oxfordcollege.ac)
  • Dr. Zindel Segal, a U of T psychology professor and an expert in CBT, said in an interview with me that "when people are in certain mood states, they tend to have thoughts that are very compatible with those mood states. (thevarsity.ca)
  • Virtual larvae of the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) were released daily during their peak spawning period from two locations in the Florida Keys Reef Tract, a region of complex eddy fields bounded by the strong Florida Current. (elsevier.com)
  • Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding teaches students how to test their assumptions, and motivates them to use scientific thinking skills to better understand the field of psychology and the world around them. (mypearsonstore.com)
  • What they found was that the critical period starts at around 3 weeks of age and ends at around 12 weeks of age. (coape.org)