A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Images seen by one eye.
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
The absence of light.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.
A GTPase activating protein that is specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is expressed primarily in the brain and may be involved in signal transduction. The alternatively spliced form of CHIMERIN 1 (alpha-2 Chimerin) contains an additional src homology domain and is expressed in both the brain and testes.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Cultural contacts between people of different races.
Use for general articles concerning nursing education.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
"How Infants Learn to Use Words". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2020-09-28. "The Wild Child of Aveyron & Critical Periods of ... Researchers concluded that the theory of a critical period was true; Genie was too old to learn how to speak productively, ... "Critical periods in language acquisition and language attrition" (PDF). Penfield, Wilder (1959). Speech and Brain-mechanisms. ... Harley, Trevor A. (2010). Talking the Talk: Language, Psychology and Science. New York, NY: Psychology Press. pp. 68-71. ISBN ...
The critical period". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 50 (1): 6-10. doi:10.1037/h0044716. PMID 13406129.. ... In psychology[edit]. The term "instinct" in psychology was first used in the 1870s by Wilhelm Wundt. By the close of the 19th ... Birney, R.C., Teevan, R.C. (1961). Instinct: an enduring problem in psychology, Van Nostrand, Princeton NJ.[page needed] ... McDougall, W. (1932). The Energies of Men: a Study of the Fundamentals of Dynamic Psychology, second edition, Methuen & Co. Ltd ...
"Critical Periods in Speech Perception: New Directions". Annual Review of Psychology. 66 (1): 173-96. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych- ... They were still in that "critical period" of language acquisition, in which they were extremely receptive to new language ... Mayberry, Rachel I. (1998). "The critical period for language acquisition and the deaf child's language comprehension : A ... during the critical language period. According to World Health Organization, approximately 90% of deaf children are born to ...
Critical period (linguistics) Barker, S. (2004). Psychology (textbook) (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Bloom, L. ( ... In the field of psychology, telegraphic speech is defined as a form of communication consisting of simple two-word long ... Researchers have noted that this period of language acquisition occurs some time between the ages of 18-36 months and is ... Telegraphic speech, according to linguistics and psychology, is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in ...
Werker, Janet; Hensch, Takeo (2014). "Critical periods in speech perception: New directions". Annual Review of Psychology. 66: ... Critical Period: The classic model fails to come to grips with the idea that there is a biologically-determined critical period ... Snow, Catherine (1978). "The critical period for language acquisition: Evidence from language learning". Child Development. 49 ... rather than a species-specific genetic mechanism of the type involved in critical periods. Adults rely heavily on transfer of ...
A critical period refers to the window of time during which a human needs to experience a particular environmental stimulus in ... Psychology portal Ablism Agoraphobia Relative deprivation Social alienation Social exclusion Social isolation Solitary ... Johnson, J.S.; Newport, E.L. (1991). "Critical Period Effects on Universal Properties of Language: The Status hjof Subjacency ... Feral children provide an example of the effects of severe social deprivation during critical developmental periods. There have ...
"Critical Period". Los Angeles, CA. Reynolds, Cecil R (2004). Concise Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the ... Families that had no background in abused child psychology were not equipped to care for her, and scientists that were equipped ... It is more likely that she was confined to her crib in the first period of life and at all times kept locked in her room to ... Additionally Paul Lutus argues that psychology is not a real science because the outcome is not determined by the treatment. ...
Critical Period and Dose-Response Relationships. Neuroendocrinology, 29(3), 178-185. doi:10.1159/000122920 Adkins-Regan, E. ( ... Adkins-Regan received her B.S. in Psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park in 1967. She earned her Ph.D. in ... Critical periods for effects of early estrogen treatment". Journal of Neurobiology. 25 (7): 865-877. doi:10.1002/neu.480250710 ... She joined the faculty at Cornell University as an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology and the Department of ...
doi:10.1207/s15516709cog1401_2. Johnson, JS; Newport, EL (1989). "Critical period effects in second language learning: the ... She was a member of the faculty in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, San Diego and the University ... Monitor on Psychology. 44 (5): 40. Retrieved 3 December 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Elissa L. Newport". The ... Cognitive Psychology. 66 (1): 30-54. doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2012.09.001. PMC 3621024. PMID 23089290. Archived from the original ...
Late learners who learn a language after the critical period can acquire an accent that is similar to that of native speakers, ... Cognitive Psychology. 21 (1): 60-99. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0. ISSN 0010-0285. PMID 2920538. S2CID 15842890. ... Johnson, Jacqueline S; Newport, Elissa L (1989). "Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of ... Moyer, Alene (1999). "Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology: The critical factors of age, motivation, and instruction". Studies ...
After the critical period, age of acquisition is no longer supposed to have an effect, and native-like performance is no longer ... Cognitive Psychology. 21 (1): 60-99. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0. PMID 2920538. S2CID 15842890. Birdsong, D.; Molis, M. ( ... During the critical period between 4 and 6 years old, there is a significant increase in the accuracy of grammaticality ... However, the idea that there is a critical period for the acquisition of syntactic competence, which is reflected by the ...
These views are closely associated with the critical period hypothesis. In acquiring an L2, Hyltenstam (1992) found that around ... International Society of Political Psychology, 2003. Ser. 2. 8 Oct. 2011 Brian A. Jacob. "Defining Culture in a Multicultural ... Johnson, Jacqueline; Newport, Elissa (January 1989). "Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of ... and usually children learn their second language slower and weaker even during the critical period. As for the fluency, it is ...
When the critical period is over, it is nearly impossible to reach native-like proficiency in one's second language and even ... Cognitive Psychology, 21(1), 60-99. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0 Myers-Scotton, C. (2008). Multiple Voices: An Introduction ... In addition, the Critical Period Hypothesis states that younger learners have certain advantages over older learners in ... Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a ...
She also challenged the idea of the role of 'critical periods' in human development. Her research was influential in social ... She studied psychology at the University of Reading where she met Alan D.B. Clarke who would become her life-long partner. She ... In 1965 they moved to the University of Hull where Alan Clarke was appointed chair of psychology. In 1985 Ann Clarke was ... She was a member of the editorial board of Educational Psychology. Clarke's research on learning disabilities emphasised the ...
Babyhood is a critical period in personality development when the foundations of adult personality are laid. In contrast ... Developmental Psychology. p. 121 ISBN 971-23-2463-X 1998 "However, Hurlock (1982) cites that infancy, compared to babyhood, is ... Babyhood is regarded as a critical period in personality development because it is the time when the foundations of adult ... Potential diseases of concern during the neonatal period include: Neonatal jaundice Infant respiratory distress syndrome ...
Environmental stimulation during either sensitive or critical periods is necessary in forming neural connections Fodor, I. E ... Front Psychology, 3(53). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00053 Geraerts, E., Lindsay, D.S, Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., Raymaekers, L ... ProQuest Psychology Journals. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. Diamond, A., Barnett, W.S., Thomas, J., Munro, S. (2007). Preschool Program ... Developmental Psychology, 13(5), 501-508. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.13.5.501 Easterbrook, J.A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue ...
In contrast, during this period he was highly critical of the ideas of both socialism and Zionism, and proposed the solution of ... 8 in Vygotsky, The Psychology of Art (1925). Kozulin, A. (1986). "The concept of activity in Soviet psychology: Vygotsky, his ... These are the mechanistic "instrumental" period of the 1920s, integrative "holistic" period of the 1930s, and the transitional ... 243-260). London and New York: Routledge Consciousness as a problem in the Psychology of Behavior, 1925 Educational Psychology ...
Many forms of developmental learning have a critical period, for instance, for imprinting among geese and language acquisition ... comparative psychology, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and anthropology. It was in fact Julian Huxley who identified ... "Biased learning" is not necessarily limited to the developmental period. Mapping Transdisciplinarity in Human Sciences. In: ... has a critical role in linguistic capability. Hormones: Chemicals used to communicate among cells of an individual organism. ...
Babyhood is a critical period in personality development when the foundations of adult personality are laid.[24] In contrast ... Developmental Psychology - Page 121 971232463X 1998 "However, Hurlock (1982) cites that infancy, compared to babyhood, is ... Babyhood is regarded as a critical period in personality development because it is the time when the foundations of adult ... Developmental Psychology. 28 (4): 568-577. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.28.4.568.. "Until recently, scientific accounts ... of the ...
Season two's episodes were shot in Calgary, Alberta over an 85-day period. The series received widespread critical acclaim and ... Kirsten Dunst as Peggy Blumquist, a hairdresser focused on improving herself through self-actualization and pop psychology ... The site's critical consensus reads: "Season two of Fargo retains all the elements that made the series an award-winning hit, ... According to Hawley, the change in the time period helped to develop a sense of turbulence and violence in a world that "could ...
... sites and along with the regulation of local inhibitory synapses have been found to be very sensitive to critical period ... The idea of neural plasticity was first proposed during 1890 by William James in Principles of Psychology. During the first ... that the brain was fully developed at adulthood and specific regions were unable to change functions after the critical period ... It is known that during postnatal life a critical step to nervous system development is synapse elimination. The changes in ...
2--- Middle Period: Metaphysics and Epistemology; vol. 3-Plato's Middle Period: Psychology and Value Theory; vol. 4--Plato's ... Women and Utopia: Critical Interpretations (edited with M. Barr, University Press of America, 1983, 171 pp.)--Selected ... Socratic Moral Psychology (with T. Brickhouse; Cambridge University Press, 2010, 276 pp.) Ancient Philosophy: Essential ... Critical Assessments in four volumes: vol. 1--Problems of Interpretation and Method; vol. ...
There also appears to be a critical period for lowering later food neophobia in children during the weaning process. The ... Food neophobia, as it may be referred to, is an important concern in pediatric psychology. In biomedical research, neophobia is ... Logue, A.W. (2004). The Psychology of Eating and Drinking. New York: Brunner-Routledge. p. 90. Pliner, P.; K. Hobden (1992). " ... List of phobias Culture shock Cognitive ethology Habituation Neophilia Psychology Progress trap Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; ...
The theory is central to child psychology and is based on schemata-schemes of how one perceives the world-in "critical periods ... Theory of cognitive development: A developmental psychology theory developed by Jean Piaget to explain cognitive development. ...
In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism ... strong critical periods' and 'weak critical periods' (a.k.a. 'sensitive' periods) - defining 'weak critical periods' / ' ... These traits cannot be acquired after the end of the critical period. Examples of weak critical periods include phoneme tuning ... PNN development coincides with the closure of critical periods, and both PNN formation and critical period timing is delayed in ...
Carnegie Mellon Symposia on Cognition (1 ed.). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-3276-1. Oyama, S. (1976). "A sensitive period ... The critical period hypothesis is derived from the concept of a critical period in the biological sciences, which refers to a ... have strong critical periods and cannot be acquired after the end of the critical period. The theory has often been extended to ... 1995). The age factor in second language acquisition : a critical look at the critical period hypothesis. Clevedon [England]: ...
... and Critical period hypothesis. Language acquisition has been studied from the perspective of developmental psychology and ... "Critical periods in language acquisition and language attrition" (PDF).. *^ Penfield, Wilder (1959). Speech and Brain- ... A Critical Period in Humans".. *^ Curtiss, Susan (1977). Genie: a psycholinguistic study of a modern-day "wild child". Boston: ... Assuming that children are exposed to language during the critical period,[62] it is almost never missed by cognitively normal ...
... "critical period" for imprinting. The developmental age that Gottlieb measured characterized this "critical period" with an " ... After this he received his Ph.D. in Duke's joint psychology-zoology program, allowing him to further his research on birds. In ... in 1982 he was an Excellence Foundation Professor and Head of the Department of Psychology at the university of North Carolina ... After receiving his bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Miami, he received his Ph.D. in the psychology - ...
They also were both interested in psychology and the relation between individual personalities and cultural patterns, and in ... but which also during the early period was of an erotic character.[17][18][19][20] Both Benedict and Mead wanted to dislodge ... though Doi is highly critical of Benedict's concept that Japan has a 'shame' culture, whose emphasis is on how one's moral ... During this time period stories were circulating that going to college led girls to become childless and never be married. ...
Ernst, E. (2008). "Placebo and other Non-specific Effects". In Ernst, E. (ed.). Healing, Hype, or Harm? A Critical Analysis of ... other than those intrinsic to the dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period. CAM ... "Alternative medicine and the psychology of belief". Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine. 3 (2).. CS1 maint: ref=harv ( ... which had deplored the lack of critical thinking and scientific rigor in OAM-supported research, had been signed by four Nobel ...
Critical appraisalEdit. Hippolyte Taine considered the psychological portraits of Stendhal's characters to be "real, because ... Contemporary readers did not fully appreciate Stendhal's realistic style during the Romantic period in which he lived. He was ... psychology and considered one of the early and foremost practitioners of realism. ... and economics of the period than are, for example, the corresponding works of Rousseau or Goethe; one feels that the great ...
Normally, this occurs about forty weeks after the mother's last menstrual period. This developing human is called an embryo for ... Developmental neurobiologists suspect that these connections may be critical to perception of pain by the fetus.[62] However, ... Russo, N. F., & Zierk, K. L. "Abortion, Childbearing and Women's Wellbeing" (1992) Professional Psychology: Research and ... "virtually complete by the end of the embryonic period."[5] ...
Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.. *Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine ... Therapeutics is the field, more commonly referenced in earlier periods of history, of the various remedies that can be used to ... and some are specialized in critical medicine. ... The post-18th century modernity period brought more ... It typically involves entry level education at a university medical school, followed by a period of supervised practice or ...
Ernst E (May 2008). "Chiropractic: a critical evaluation". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 35 (5): 544-62. doi:10.1016/ ... found that the clinical and cost utilization of chiropractic services based on 70,274 member-months over a 7-year period ... The Psychology of the Occult. *The Ragged Edge of Science. *The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience ... A critical review". Vaccine. 34 (38): 4484-4500. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.07.026. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 27475472.. ...
a b c Zusne, Leonard; Jones, Warren H. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ... Lawson, T. J; Crane, L. L. (2014). Dowsing Rods Designed to Sharpen Critical Thinking and Understanding of Ideomotor Action. ... was introduced at this period[15] - its origin is unknown but features characteristics of the West Country dialects. In the ... In Spiritualism and the New Psychology: An Explanation of Spiritualist Phenomena and Beliefs in Terms of Modern Knowledge. ...
h. ^ Toledo must have been one of the largest cities in Europe during this period. In 1571 the population of the city was ... Department of Psychology), concludes that "even if El Greco were astigmatic, he would have adapted to it, and his figures, ... Posthumous critical reputation[edit]. .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser- ... The discovery of the Dormition of the Virgin on Syros, an authentic and signed work from the painter's Cretan period, and the ...
... over a follow-up period that averaged 7.5 years. In this study the effects were similar for men and women. Meta-analytic ... a b c d e f g h i Schonfeld, I.S., & Chang, C.-H. (2017). Occupational health psychology: Work, stress, and health. New York, ... Occupational Health Psychology (OHP). [1] *^ a b Everly, G.S., Jr. (1986). An introduction to occupational health psychology. ... Occupational health psychology (OHP) is an interdisciplinary area of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of ...
The period of 2001 to 2006 was the period that Thaksin Shinawatra came into power. It was a period of increased democratization ... McCargo, Duncan (2012), "The Changing Politics of Thailand's Buddhist Order", Critical Asian Studies, Routledge, 44 (4), ISSN ... It was the period the temple cremated their teacher Maechi Chandra, and it was a period that the temple started to expand its ... In this period the temple started its own satellite channel called Dhammakaya Media Channel (DMC),[67][68] and a university ...
Experimental psychology[edit]. See also: Cognitive science, Cognitive psychology, and Neuroscience. Experimental psychology's ... Wagenaar, W. A. (1972). "Generation of random sequences by human subjects: A critical survey of literature". Psychological ... People with Tourette syndrome are sometimes able to suppress their tics for limited periods, but doing so often results in an ... Routledge (Psychology Press). pp. 278 ff. ISBN 0415029600.. *^ Timothy O'Connor (Oct 29, 2010). Edward N. Zalta, ed. "Free Will ...
Howells, John G.; Osborn, M. Livia (1984). A reference companion to the history of abnormal psychology. Greenwood Press. ISBN ... A clear rock painting in Ginga Wardelirrhmeng, on the northern edge of the Arnhem Land plateau, from the freshwater period[61] ... that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia.[97][98][99] ... Knowledge of developmental psychology puts into perspective how developmental disabilities influence the child, as do their ...
The first period of Sartre's career, defined in large part by Being and Nothingness (1943), gave way to a second period-when ... Ursula Tidd, Simone de Beauvoir, Psychology Press, p. 19. *^ Van den Hoven, Adrian; Andrew N. Leak (2005). Sartre Today: A ... Critical essays. *Anti-Semite and Jew / Réflexions sur la question juive (wr. 1944, pub. 1946) ... It was during this period of confinement that Sartre read Martin Heidegger's Being and Time, later to become a major influence ...
He was the author of several influential books and essays, most notably Character Analysis (1933), The Mass Psychology of ... Castoriadis later said of this period that "the main audience of the group and of the journal was formed by groups of the old, ... Herbert Marcuse, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory, was an influential libertarian socialist[31] ... For the publication and significance of The Mass Psychology of Fascism and Character Analysis, see Sharaf 1994, pp. 163-164, ...
Aurobindo/psychology.html Sri Aurobindo's Psychology - description of the various psychological faculties according to Sri ... but is quite different than what was present during Vedic period.[8] ... Rod Hemsell, Ken Wilber and Sri Aurobindo: A Critical Perspective. *v. *t ... Vrinte, Joseph (2002), The Perennial Quest for a Psychology with a Soul : An inquiry into the relevance of Sri Aurobindo's ...
There may be a critical period during development during which the level of stress hormones in the bloodstream contribute to ... Frontiers in Psychology. [permanent dead link] *^ Heim C.; Newport D. J.; Heit S.; Graham Y. P.; Wilcox M.; Bonsall R.; ... Maintenance of the SHRP period may be critical for HPA development, and the extreme stress of maternal separation, which ... First, maternal care is crucial in maintaining the normal stress hypo responsive period (SHRP), which in rodents, is the first ...
... uses of test statistics are themselves open to critical analysis,[161] although critical commentary on papers in economics in ... Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Distinctions include such production alternatives as for ... akin to studies in behavioural psychology, and confounding factors to the neoclassical assumptions are the subject of ... Hunt, E. K. (2002). History of Economic Thought: A Critical Perspective. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0606-8. .. ...
Harbowy, Matthew E. (1997). "Tea Chemistry". Critical Reviews in Plant Science. 16 (5): 415-480. doi:10.1080/713608154.. ... The first record of tea cultivation is also dated to this period (the reign of Emperor Xuan of Han), during which tea was ... Psychology Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-415-92722-2.. *^ "Google Ngram Viewer". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2018-05-30.. ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ...
Mitchell, J.T. & Everly, G.S. (1993). Critical incident stress debriefing: An operations manual for the prevention of traumatic ... In the field of psychology, debriefing is used in the processing of traumatic events. Here, the emphasis is on the narrative; ... safety and a safe learning environment is of utmost importance within both the simulation and the debriefing period.[30][1][28] ... in their critical review of simulation-based medical education research.[5] In 2012 the SSH piloted two new certifications to ...
"Psychology Today.. *^ a b c Walshe, Sadhbh (July 7, 2011). "The Right Word: Fox rabid about Casey Anthony". London: The ... Mason's response was viewed as especially critical of Nancy Grace, whose news program is cited as having "almost single- ... she was at home during these time periods because she left from work early during the days in question.[86] Bradley alerted ... wasting police resources and leading to legitimate abductions going uninvestigated during the critical first few hours. ...
The Vedic period was glorified by this tradition. Many rishis were women, indeed so that several of them authored many of the ... Anderson, Pamela Sue; Clack, Beverley (eds.) Feminist Philosophy of Religion: Critical Readings (London: Routledge, 2004) ISBN ... In the Vedic period women were free to enter into brahmacharya just like men, and attain salvation. ...
Scholarly views on the genetics and psychology of politics[edit]. In Predisposed: Liberals, Conservatives, and the Biology of ... Gertrude Himmelfarb (2004). The New History and the Old: Critical Essays and Reappraisals. Harvard University Press. p. 16. ... In the postmodern period,] traditional literature has been found to have been written by "dead white males" to serve the ... This mode of thinking tends to espouse laissez-faire economics and a critical view of the federal government. Libertarian ...
Patai, Raphael (1996). The Jews of Hungary: history, culture, psychology. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143- ... Maria Theresa was not just critical of Marie Antoinette. She disliked Leopold's reserve and often blamed him for being cold. ... During this period, there was no rest for Maria Theresa during pregnancies or around the births; the war and child-bearing were ... the concept of an extended incubation period was largely unknown and it was believed that Josepha had caught smallpox from the ...
... and evidence for a speech-related critical period". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 119 (2): 719-22. Bibcode: ... Croom, Adam M. (2012). "Music, Neuroscience, and the Psychology of Well-Being: A Précis". Frontiers in Psychology. 2. doi: ... Deutsch, D. (2013). "Absolute pitch In D. Deutsch (Ed.)". The psychology of music, 3rd Edition: 141-182. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ... Scientists working in this field may have training in cognitive neuroscience, neurology, neuroanatomy, psychology, music theory ...
243-264). New York, NY US: Psychology Press.]. *^ Maner, J. K.; Luce, C. L.; Neuberg, S. L.; Cialdini, R. B.; Brown, S.; ... One study examined the physical health of mothers who volunteered over a 30-year period and found that 52% of those who did not ... Psychology[edit]. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences defines psychological altruism as "a motivational state ... "British Journal of Psychology. 98 (Pt 2): 339-359. doi:10.1348/000712606X129213. PMID 17456276.. ...
Hall, Richard (1976). Zambia 1890-1964 : The Colonial Period. London: Longman. p. 30. ISBN 9780582646209. . OCLC 3040572.. ... However, de Brazza died on the return trip, and his "searingly critical" report was neither acted upon nor released to the ... A plethora of colonialist propaganda pamphlets, ideas, and imagery played on the colonial powers' psychology of popular ... As the first census did not take place until 1924, it is difficult to quantify the population loss of the period. Casement's ...
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. Elsevier. 2004-02-19. ISBN 9780080522777. .. ... Throughout the reading itself, the author provides important cues to identify the villain, known as inference critical episodes ... The experience of thoughts not remaining on a single topic for a long period of time ... "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 35 (1): 196-204. doi:10.1037/a0014104. PMC 2750806. PMID ...
The rail line from Cape Town provided a centrally located railway station, and proved critical to the British in occupying the ... The Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality elects a municipal council for five-year periods, through a mixed-member proportional ... Psychology and Counselling ...
In cognitive psychology and decision theory, loss aversion refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring ... In marketing, the use of trial periods and rebates tries to take advantage of the buyer's tendency to value the good more after ... All these structures play a critical role in detecting threats and prepare the organism for appropriate action, with the ... "All frames are not created equal: A typology and critical analysis of framing effects." Organizational behavior and human ...
"Frontiers in Psychology. ISSN 1664-1078.. *. Morris, Bonnie J. (2016). The Disappearing L: Erasure of Lesbian Spaces and ... It received mixed critical commentary, but earned positive reviews from the gay press.[252] The late 1980s and early 1990s ... Following World War II, during a period of social repression when governments actively persecuted homosexuals, women developed ... a b Haines, Megan; et al. (2008). "Predictors and Effects of Self-Objectification in Lesbians", Psychology of Women Quarterly ...
Neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that studies how the structure and composition of a persons nervous system ... What is a critical period in psychology?. A: A critical period in psychology refers to a specific time during development when ... What is an encoding failure in psychology?. A: An encoding failure in psychology refers to a situation in which information ... A: Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that explores how the neurotransmitters within the brain affect emotion and behavior ...
Carnegie Mellon Symposia on Cognition (1 ed.). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-3276-1. .. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link). ... Support for the critical period theory stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in ... have strong critical periods and cannot be acquired after the end of the critical period.[3] Consequently, when language is ... long after the supposed critical period for acquiring this skill.[8] Recently, it has been suggested that if a critical period ...
Critical periods of developmentEdit. There are critical periods in infancy and childhood during which development of certain ... forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology. ... Upton, Penney (2011). Developmental Psychology: Critical Thinking in Psychology. Exeter: Learning Matters. p. 62. ISBN 978-0- ... Upton, Penney (2011). Developmental Psychology: Critical Thinking in Psychology. Exeter: Learning Matters. p. 84. ISBN 978-0- ...
The critical period". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 50 (1): 6-10. doi:10.1037/h0044716. PMID 13406129.. ... In psychology[edit]. The term "instinct" in psychology was first used in the 1870s by Wilhelm Wundt. By the close of the 19th ... Birney, R.C., Teevan, R.C. (1961). Instinct: an enduring problem in psychology, Van Nostrand, Princeton NJ.[page needed] ... McDougall, W. (1932). The Energies of Men: a Study of the Fundamentals of Dynamic Psychology, second edition, Methuen & Co. Ltd ...
Consequently, Cold Therapy borrows techniques from child psychology and from treatment modalities used to deal with PTSD. Cold ... Concepts: critical period, safe base, internal working model. (IWM), mentalization/intersubjectivity, attachment styles, basic ... psychology and from treatment modalities used to deal with PTSD.. Cold Therapy consists of the re-traumatization of the ... Consequently, Cold Therapy borrows techniques from child psychology and from treatment modalities used to deal with PTSD. Cold ...
The critical period hypothesis in second language acquisition. *Do environmental factors lead to late-onset Alzheimers disease ... 8th in the UK for Psychology in the UK for Psychology. The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2020 ... Rossi, 3rd Year student, BSc (Hons) Psychology. Read Rossis blog to learn more about studying psychology at the University of ... World top 100 for Psychology. Were among the top departments in the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020: Psychology ...
The process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period ... Unit 9: Developmental Psychology Flashcards Preview AP Psychology , Unit 9: Developmental Psychology , Flashcards ... An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development ... A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span ...
Study Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab flashcards from Alyssa Bellochi ... A period of time when the brain is more receptive to absorbing certain skills, tasks and info; they can still learn these tasks ... Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab Flashcards Preview Ap Psychology , Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology ... A period of dramatic self doubt that is felt by some individuals in the middle years or Middle Age of life ...
Kobayashi, Y., Ye, Z., and Hensch, T.K. (2015). Clock genes control cortical critical period timing. Neuron, 86(1), 264-275. ... Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(4), 215-224.. Squires, D., and Anderson, C. (2015). U.S. health care from a global ... Takesian, A.E., Bogart, L.J., Lichtman, J.W., and Hensch, T.K. (2018). Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period ... Evidence that the period from birth to age 3 is one such sensitive period has been the basis for strong arguments that early ...
... periweanling and periadolescent periods. We describe and discuss published data dealing with acute and long-ter ... Critical Period (Psychology). Cyclohexanols / pharmacology. Morpholines / pharmacology. Naphthalenes / pharmacology. ... discuss published data dealing with acute and long-term effects of exposure to cannabinoid agonists in such critical periods. ... Chronic administration of cannabinoid agonists during the periadolescent period causes persistent behavioural alterations in ...
Imprinting is hypothesized to have a critical period. The best-known form of imprinting is filial imprinting, in which a young ... When proximity during this critical period does not occur-for example, where a brother and sister are brought up separately, ... 2008) Psychology: A Student Friendly Approach. "Unit 12: Developmental Psychology." pp. 268 Davidson, Phil (March 31, 2006). " ... "critical period" between 13 and 16 hours shortly after hatching. For example, the goslings would imprint on Lorenz himself (to ...
Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 56, 872-876.Google Scholar. *. Hensch, T. K. (2004). Critical period ... Intensive training in adults refines A1 representations degraded in an early postnatal critical period. Proceedings of the ... Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 17, 829-840.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... 3.Department of PsychologyNew SchoolNew YorkUSA. *4.Center for Autism ResearchChildrens Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia ...
In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism ... strong critical periods and weak critical periods (a.k.a. sensitive periods) - defining weak critical periods / ... These traits cannot be acquired after the end of the critical period. Examples of weak critical periods include phoneme tuning ... PNN development coincides with the closure of critical periods, and both PNN formation and critical period timing is delayed in ...
Critical period. Term. Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus as the organism becomes used to it. ...
DeKeyser, R., and Larson-Hall, J. (2005). "What does the critical period really mean?," in Handbook of Bilingualism: ... 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland ... 4Department of Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland ...
Chambers, A., Taylor, J. R., & Potenza, M. (2003). Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period ... Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 72-101.Google ...
A critical period of addiction vulnerability. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1041-1052. ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 203-213. Gau, S. S.-F., Ni, H.-C., Shang, C.-Y., Soong, W.-T., Wu, Y.-Y., Lin, L.-Y., et ... Department of Psychology. , The Ohio State University. , 225 Psychology Building. , 1835 Neil Avenue. , Columbus. , OH 43210. ... Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 307-339. Dalley, J. W., Fryer, T. D., Brichard, L., Robinson, E. S., Theobald, D. E., Lääne, K. ...
Birdsong, D. (1999). Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ... 2Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA. *3Department of Psychology, University of ... Johnson, J. S., and Newport, E. L. (1991). Critical period effects on universal properties of language: the status of ... Half of the critical experimental items (n = 40) were finite sentences and the other half (n = 40) were restructuring sentences ...
Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202.. Abstract. Previous investigations with adolescents ... Emergence of alcohol expectancies in childhood: a possible critical period.. Miller PM1, Smith GT, Goldman MS. ...
Topics include the role of input and critical periods on language outcome and processing, neural organization, and sign ... psychology, anthropology, and comparative psychology, with a particular focus on how conceptual development is affected by the ... This course will investigate topics in second language acquisition including the critical period, the processing and neural ... Topics include the paradigms used to study the critical period for language. ...
Istari Oncology Hires Marc Banjak as General Counsel and Secretary as the Company Prepares for a Critical Period of Development ... He also holds a B.A. in Psychology from Franklin and Marshall College. He served as a Liaison Officer in Baghdad, Iraq in 2006 ... Istari Oncology Hires Marc Banjak as General Counsel and Secretary as the Company Prepares for a Critical Period of Development ...
The Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, a four-volume reference, is the field-defining work to which all ... A Critical Period for Language Learning?. *Summary. *Open Questions. *References. *Chapter 9: Gesture and Cognitive Development ... Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science: Cognitive Processes. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental ... The Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, a four-volume reference, is the field-defining work to which all ...
Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: A review of human and animal studies. 2013, Hormones and Behavior, 64: ... 2015, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56: 1141-1164 ...
Werker, JF and Hensch, TK (2015) Critical Periods in Speech Perception: New Directions. Annual Review of Psychology 66, 173-196 ... Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 108, 567-579. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.10.009 ... Cognitive Psychology 59(1), 96-121. doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.02.002 ...
Find, create, and access Psychology, flashcards with Course Hero. ... Critical Period limited time span in the development of an ... PSYCHOLOGY 219 - Winter 2013 * PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN (PSY 219) WINTER 2013 CLASS TIME: TUESDAYS 19:00-22:00 CLASS LOCATION: ( ... PSYCHOLOGY 1300 - Spring 2016 * Psychology 3/22/16 Stress and Health Stress physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral ... Vocabulary for Psychology Test 22. Find, create, and access Psychology, False sensory experiences, research ethics principles ...
critical period. imprinting. basic trust. self-concpet. adolescence. puberty. primary sex characteristics. secondary sex ...
... the ears and arms reach their critical periods at about 6 weeks ... ... Environmental Risks , Developmental Psychology - Lumen Learning https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-ss-152-1/chapter/ ... https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/psychology/teratogens. Examples of teratogens are prescription and even nonprescription ... drugs, caffeine found in ... Philip J. Cowen, in Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 1998 ... ...
Critical period after brain damage. Delayed training resulted in less change in cortical remapping. (Nudo 2006). There is a ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 823-833.. Spinal plasticity is known to play a role in ... is critical!. Tough with delays in scheduling, referrals, high caseloads.. Low -intensity stimulation can induce weakening of ... So the role of repetition in driving plasticity and learning may be critical for rehabilitation.. Induction of plasticity ...
Psychology Today, Apr 20, 2015 in Animal Emotion. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/animal-emotions/201504/judge-recognizes- ... a transition period and a critical (or sensitive) period, and what happens to them during these periods shapes what kinds of ... Critical Periods (Sensitive Periods) in Puppies - Revisited. 2015 could be declared an import year for animals on several ... What they found was that the critical period starts at around 3 weeks of age and ends at around 12 weeks of age. During this ...
Space will not permit more than a brief account of the most critical of these periods, namely, the adolescent. This period ... Most writers on psychology recognize in the life history of the child several more or less distinct periods of development. The ... This is a critical period in the development of the child and must be handled with rare judgment. Some knowledge of child ... The welfare of the race demands that the mother shall be properly nurtured and protected during this critical period. Abundance ...
  • Child psychology" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the Black Box Recorder song, see Child Psychology (song) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, Cold Therapy borrows techniques from child psychology and from treatment modalities used to deal with PTSD. (scribd.com)
  • Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 45 , 1420-1430. (springer.com)
  • The Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, a four-volume reference, is the field-defining work to which all others are compared. (credoreference.com)
  • The findings were published Dec. 13 in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology . (upi.com)
  • Child psychology is a varied, dynamic, and rewarding field. (innerbody.com)
  • Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46 (5), 500-513. (springer.com)
  • The history of child psychology developed around the question of how far, and in what way children are different from adults and different from children in later stages of life. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Critical periods of plasticity occur in the prenatal brain and continue throughout childhood until adolescence and are very limited during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period of addiction vulnerability. (springer.com)
  • Most ninth and tenth graders are in the period of middle adolescence. (proprofs.com)
  • Adolescence is a critical period in the formation of gender identity, as well as in the development and consolidation of gender stereotypes and roles. (ed.gov)
  • Adolescence is a really important developmental period," Younan said. (upi.com)
  • When puberty hits, the brain reorganizes dramatically, said Laurence Steinberg, a professor of psychology at Temple University, who specializes in adolescence. (hechingerreport.org)
  • Here's a situation where the genetic findings line up with the known pathology of the disorder, a type of inflammation that interferes with brain development at a critical period (typically late adolescence to early adulthood). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Introduction: Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood during which a decision to embark on a career is made. (ed.gov)
  • It may well be that the environmental boost you can get, or the detriment you can suffer through adversity, may indeed be a little more important at a critical period in adolescence than I had previously thought. (wnpr.org)
  • Learning doesn't stop at adolescence, of course, but the "sensitive period" - where the brain is hyperlearning mode - does appear to come to an end. (wnpr.org)
  • Using mathematical techniques that allow researchers to disentangle the effects of genetic and environmental influences on individuals, Brant noticed that kids who had higher IQs to begin with seemed to have an extended period in adolescence during which they retained the ability to learn at a rapid pace, just like much younger children. (wnpr.org)
  • 16 Joshua K. Hartshorne, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, and Steven Pinker, "A Critical Period for Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 Million English Speakers," Cognition 177 (August 2018): 263-77. (amacad.org)
  • In accordance with the overall goals of Trinity, the Psychology Program strives to heighten student awareness of the diversity of human behavior and experience, notably with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, as well as to teach and instill an ethical approach to the study of human behavior and cognition. (trinitydc.edu)
  • In this new study published by the journal Cognition , Howard Nusbaum, professor of psychology, and colleagues tested how much an individual's general auditory working memory capacity can predict the success of acquiring absolute pitch. (eurekalert.org)
  • Steven Pinker, a professor of psychology at Harvard University, is also an author of the paper, which appears in the journal Cognition on May 1. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Plasticity greatest at critical period b. (coursehero.com)
  • Notably, canonical models of homosynaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses alone (LTP/LTD) fail to produce predictable manipulations of the critical period in vivo. (healthdocbox.com)
  • In fact, critical period plasticity is best viewed as a continuum of local circuit computations ending in structural consolidation of inputs. (healthdocbox.com)
  • ß 2005, Elsevier Inc. I. Introduction For over 40 years the primary visual cortex has stood as the premier model of critical period plasticity (Wiesel and Hubel, 1963). (healthdocbox.com)
  • This chapter considers experience dependent circuit refinement during the critical period as a cascade of cellular and molecular events linking functional to structural plasticity (Fig. 1). (healthdocbox.com)
  • A study of AQA GCE Psychology Specification complements many other popular A Levels offered by the College including: Philosophy, Law, History of Art, Government and Politics, Sociology and English Literature. (oxfordcollege.ac)
  • 9 credits at the 300 level or above from one or more of the following disciplines: Psychology (PSYC), Anthropology (ANTH), Linguistics (LING), or Sociology (SOCI). (mcgill.ca)
  • Child development is a multidisciplinary field that relies on knowledge from several other fields, such as psychology, sociology, human development, and the medical field. (universalclass.com)
  • Therefore, the study of the public formation and development is an essential component of historical psychology and sociology. (socionauki.ru)
  • Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that explores how the neurotransmitters within the brain affect emotion and behavior. (reference.com)
  • It's during this critical time that delinquent behavior increases in both rate and severity. (upi.com)
  • It has thus been established that manipulations of gonadal hormones during critical periods in development functionally affect reproductive behavior. (nih.gov)
  • John B.Watson observable behavior was important stated the chief goal of psychology was the prediction and control of behavior. (powershow.com)
  • The study of psychology emphasizes the behavior and experience of the individual. (trinitydc.edu)
  • PSYC 101 Introductory Psychology Introduces the student to the scientific study of the mind and behavior. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Psychology majors only OR PSYC 331 Experimental Developmental Psychology Introduces students to experimental developmental psychology through active involvement in the methods used to study behavior throughout the life span. (trinitydc.edu)
  • A discipline or branch of psychology that studies patterns of normal and abnormal behavior as well as personality disorders. (cueflash.com)
  • In addition, abnormal psychology is concerned with the origins and treatment of abnormal behavior and disorders. (cueflash.com)
  • Young people in transition to adulthood is a critical period of attitude and identity formation, therefore, coping behavior that are needed for successful transition to work such as active job search, acquisition of credentials through job training, or higher education will diminish due to lack of confidence in unemployed young individual (Mortimer et al. (ipl.org)
  • Moreover, it is generally accepted that experiences during critical periods of prenatal, perinatal and early childhood stages of life organize brain systems, and influence the immediate and long-term psychology and behavior of the individual. (birthpsychology.com)
  • The frontal lobe of the brain is essential for inhibiting impulses, regulating emotion and planning and organizing behavior--all of which can be critical issues for teenagers and their parents. (ucla.edu)
  • The Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience is world-renowned for its progressive research in this field. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Levin a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Duke University Medical Center, with joint appointments in the Departments of Psychology and Pharmacology as well as the School of the Environment. (duke.edu)
  • Dr Marco Catani from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King's College London, said, "White matter provides key insights which allow us to paint a precise picture of how different parts of the brain develop during critical periods in childhood. (medindia.net)
  • Social psychology studies interactions, group behaviour and culture. (york.ac.uk)
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83 , 1314-1329. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42 , 120-128. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Psychology : The course offers students an overview of the major topics in social psychology. (mcgill.ca)
  • In addition to completing a set of required courses (30 credits), all psychology majors are required to complete one of four course clusters (15 credits): general, developmental, forensic, or social psychology. (trinitydc.edu)
  • PSYC 311 Experimental Social Psychology Approaches experimental social psychology through active involvement in the methods used to study the individual in a social context. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Formerly PSY 386 Experimental Social Psychology. (trinitydc.edu)
  • The Journal of Social Psychology, 140(5), 608-614. (ipl.org)
  • Some of our students go on to work in fields such as health (clinical psychology), education (educational psychology) and criminal justice (forensic psychology) but most use the unique combination of scientific and statistical skills, critical thinking and analysis of human behaviour in other sectors such as marketing, human resources, management and the civil service. (york.ac.uk)
  • Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(8), 809-842. (ipl.org)
  • Journal Of Abnormal Psychology 2020, 129:422-431. (yale.edu)
  • Abnormal psychology is more of an umbrella term. (cueflash.com)
  • Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology , child psychopathology , forensic developmental psychology , child development , cognitive psychology , ecological psychology , and cultural psychology . (wikipedia.org)
  • One problem confronting instructors in cognitive psychology courses is covering such diverse topics as pattern recognition, attention, memory, language, decision-making, and problem solving. (routledge.com)
  • Methods and Theories in Cognitive Psychology. (routledge.com)
  • D.A. Balota, E.J. Marsh, Cognitive Psychology: An Overview. (routledge.com)
  • Evolutionary epistemology and cognitive psychology are two of them. (lrb.co.uk)
  • Lorenz demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" between 13 and 16 hours shortly after hatching. (wikipedia.org)
  • If, for some reason, the organism does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this "critical period" to learn a given skill or trait, it may be difficult, ultimately less successful, or even impossible, to develop certain associated functions later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lorenz's work provided startling evidence that there are critical periods in life where a definite type of stimulus is necessary for normal development. (cerebromente.org.br)
  • As we learn more about the critical period of childhood - the foundation for wellbeing in adulthood - it only further underscores the contribution that child psychologists make. (innerbody.com)
  • A general understanding of the neural basis for critical or sensitive windows of brain development is anticipated to inform classrooms and educational policy, drug design, clinical therapy, and strategies for improved learning into adulthood. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Editor's Note: This paper was previously published in the International Journal in Prenatal Perinatal Psychology Medicine Vol. 25, Issue 1-2 (2013), pp. 121-138. (birthpsychology.com)
  • International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1): 73-91. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that studies how the structure and composition of a person's nervous system and brain affects how that person thinks, feels and behaves. (reference.com)
  • A critical period in psychology refers to a specific time during development when the brain is particularly receptive to acquiring a skill or knowledge. (reference.com)
  • Psychology is the scientific study of mind, brain and behaviour. (york.ac.uk)
  • Critical period after brain damage. (prezi.com)
  • Psychology 340 WI09 Chapter 3 part 2 Guided Notes Brain Development I. Brain physiology a. (coursehero.com)
  • Psychology : An introduction to contemporary research on the relationship between brain and behaviour. (mcgill.ca)
  • Psychology : The course is an introduction to the field studying how human cognitive processes, such as perception, attention, language, learning and memory, planning and organization, are related to brain processes. (mcgill.ca)
  • This approach is widely believed to be a critical step forward in developing more brain-relevant targeted strategies for preventative interventions. (stanford.edu)
  • Binghamton psychology researchers measured the "resting state" brain activity of over 450 children ages 7 to 11 using electroencephalography (EEG) technology to learn how brain electrical activity changes during this period. (eurekalert.org)
  • We were looking for how the ways in which different brain regions are communicating is changing across age to sort of test this theory that as kids get older, there is more integration happening within their brain," said Vladimir Miskovic, assistant professor of psychology at Binghamton University. (eurekalert.org)
  • You can say that we're getting a better understanding of the precise ways and timing of kids' brain development," said Brandon Gibb, professor of psychology at Binghamton University and director of the Mood Disorders Institute and Center for Affective Science. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's been very difficult until now to get all the data you would need to answer this question of how long the critical period lasts," says Josh Tenenbaum, an MIT professor of brain and cognitive sciences and an author of the paper. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 1 8 Critical Period Mechanisms in Developing Visual Cortex Takao K. Hensch Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development RIKEN Brain Science Institute Saitama , Japan I. Introduction II. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Most impressively, only during the critical period can the seemingly innocuous act of covering an eye profoundly alter the physical structure of the brain. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Among some children with very high IQs, the brain appears to stay in learning hyperdrive for an extended period. (wnpr.org)
  • During key periods, a research team reports in today's issue of the journal Nature, the amount of gray matter in some areas can nearly double within as little as a year, followed by a correspondingly drastic loss of tissue as unneeded cells are purged and the brain continues to organize itself. (ucla.edu)
  • Neuroscientists had long known that a two-stage process of growth and attrition is typical of brain development from the fetal period through early childhood. (ucla.edu)
  • By contrast, during the period from 6 to puberty, the scientists found, the gray-matter spike shifts to the temporal and parietal lobes that play a major role in language skills and spatial relations. (ucla.edu)
  • This presented problems for prenatal psychology. (birthpsychology.com)
  • The author follows the evolution of thought about prenatal life from Sigmund Freud, Sandor Ferenczi, Otto Rank and Gustav Hans Graber, the founder and first president of the International Studysociety in Prenatal Psychology (ISPP). (birthpsychology.com)
  • For a copy of "Prenatal Origins of Neurological Development: A Critical Period for Fetus and Mother" and access to other Current Directions in Psychological Science research findings, please contact Divya Menon at 202-293-9300 or [email protected] . (healthcanal.com)
  • Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Emergence of alcohol expectancies in childhood: a possible critical period. (nih.gov)
  • Highlights fact childhood is a critical period. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The assumption has been that this special talent has a critical period to be established in childhood based on early musical training and that it was not possible for adults to acquire this skill. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, critical period changes depending on phone effect on childhood essay. (nevey.org)
  • The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. (wikipedia.org)
  • The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lenneberg's critical period hypothesis states that there are maturational constraints on the time a first language can be acquired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, doubts have arisen concerning the validity of this critical period hypothesis with regard to visual development, in particular since the time it became known that neuroscientist Susan R. Barry and others have achieved stereopsis as adults, long after the supposed critical period for acquiring this skill. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evidence for such a period is limited, and support stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development , but nonetheless is widely accepted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strictly speaking, the experimentally verified critical period relates to a time span during which damage to the development of the visual system can occur, for example if animals are deprived of the necessary binocular input for developing stereopsis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, it has been suggested that if a critical period does exist, it may be due at least partially to the delayed development of the prefrontal cortex in human children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, and processes of change in context and across time. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the critical period for the development of a human child's binocular vision is thought to be between three and eight months, with sensitivity to damage extending up to at least three years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further critical periods have been identified for the development of hearing and the vestibular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as the landmark periods of development, Scott and Fuller's research also showed some clear differences between the breeds they studied. (coape.org)
  • Advanced language development is difficult to achieve beyond a certain critical period. (proprofs.com)
  • That period appears to be critical to the child´s social and emotional development," noted Sanghag Kim , a post-doctoral researcher in psychology at the UI, in a prepared statement. (redorbit.com)
  • propose that during early development, immune factors are major regulators of ovarian development, so that an immune imbalance during this period may interfere with the formation of ovarian follicles, compromising fertility later in life. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This link between adult fertility and infections during critical periods of development may help explain the ongoing trend for declining fertility in young women worldwide. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Children and adolescents live through multiple periods of critical, sometimes chaotic, development affecting the ways they think, feel, and perceive. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Pregnancy is a critical period for central nervous system development in mothers," says psychologist Laura M. Glynn of Chapman University. (healthcanal.com)
  • The results showed that without visual signals during a critical period of development, vision is impaired for life. (edge.org)
  • He credits another researcher, Angela Brant , for coming up with a new insight into this critical period in development. (wnpr.org)
  • PSYC 301 Experimental Psychology: Research Methods Introduces students to research methods in various areas of psychology through active involvement in field and laboratory research, data analysis and interpretation, and written presentation of results. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Formerly PSY 388 Experimental Psychology: Research Methods. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Functions that are indispensable to an organism's survival, such as vision, are particularly likely to develop during critical periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism during which the nervous system is especially sensitive to certain environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is expected that most students who enter the Major program in Psychology will have taken introductory psychology, biology, and statistics at the collegial level. (mcgill.ca)
  • Those who have not taken the recommended collegial-level biology must take BIOL 111 or BIOL 112 , and those who have not taken Introductory Psychology in college must take PSYC 100 . (mcgill.ca)
  • [1] [2] Other aspects of language, such as prefrontal synthesis , have strong critical periods and cannot be acquired after the end of the critical period. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1] Examples of strong critical periods include monocular deprivation, filial imprinting, monaural occlusion, and Prefrontal Synthesis acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latest move away from 'blank slatism' has been the swing towards evolutionary psychology because it explains behaviour in terms of innate factors. (slideserve.com)
  • These are the most critically important period in the formation of a young child's personality, character, intelligence and abilities. (doglistener.co.uk)
  • During a brief postnatal period (of weeks to years) proportional to the expected lifespan of the species (Berardi et al. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Some aspects of language, such as phoneme tuning , grammar processing, articulation control , and vocabulary acquisition have weak critical periods and can be significantly improved by training at any age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers differentiate between 'strong critical periods' and 'weak critical periods' (a.k.a. 'sensitive' periods) - defining 'weak critical periods' / 'sensitive periods' as more extended periods, after which learning is still possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of weak critical periods include phoneme tuning, grammar processing, articulation control, vocabulary acquisition, music training, auditory processing, sport training, and many other traits that can be significantly improved by training at any age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have found that during critical periods in the visual cortex, neural synapses become the target of microglial phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ideal for graduate courses in Linguistics, Education, and TESOL, Second Language Acquisition takes an interdisciplinary, research-based approach to explain particular facts about second language acquisition from an evolutionary linguistics and psychology perspective. (umich.edu)
  • We don't see very much difference between people who start at birth and people who start at 10, but we start seeing a decline after that," says Joshua Hartshorne, an assistant professor of psychology at Boston College, who conducted this study as a postdoc at MIT. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In addition, psychology majors also can apply to the B.A. in Psychology to M.A. in Counseling program , which allows select students to complete their undergraduate psychology degree while also beginning graduate coursework towards a Master's degree in counseling. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Other UChicago authors on the paper are psychology doctoral student Stephen C. Van Hedger, post-doctoral scholar Shannon L.M. Heald and College undergraduate Rachelle Koch. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the journal, see Developmental Psychology (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • American Journal of Psychology 54: 157-173. (prezi.com)
  • The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(1), 112-127. (ipl.org)
  • Their review of the literature in Current Directions in Psychological Science , a journal published by the Association for Psychological Science , discusses the theories and findings that are starting to fill what Glynn calls "a significant gap in our understanding of this critical stage of most women's lives. (healthcanal.com)
  • Current Directions in Psychological Science , a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, publishes concise reviews on the latest advances in theory and research spanning all of scientific psychology and its applications. (healthcanal.com)
  • Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding teaches students how to test their assumptions, and motivates them to use scientific thinking skills to better understand the field of psychology and the world around them. (mypearsonstore.com)
  • In this same period, the North American psychologist Carol Ryff presented critical studies on the construct in the field of psychology. (scielo.br)
  • If you would like to purchase a supporting text book or borrow one from your local library then simply makes sure that it covers the AQA 2015 Psychology specification. (oxfordcollege.ac)
  • There are many theorists that have made a profound contribution to this area of psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cluster is designed to give the student a degree of expertise within a given area of psychology. (trinitydc.edu)
  • In your first two years you'll build upon your learning of five main areas of psychology. (york.ac.uk)
  • In the first two years you will study five main areas of psychology. (york.ac.uk)
  • In the late 1980s, the significant amount of research on SWB, mainly by scholars from various fields of psychology, resulted in a crisis in defining the concept and a subdivision into subjective well-being and psychological well-being. (scielo.br)
  • Introduction to Psychology course at the college level. (powershow.com)
  • Dr. Zindel Segal, a U of T psychology professor and an expert in CBT, said in an interview with me that "when people are in certain mood states, they tend to have thoughts that are very compatible with those mood states. (thevarsity.ca)
  • We are seeing children petrified by seeing water in a tub or cowering when large airplanes are flying overhead because they sound like rushing water," said Randall Kyes, a research associate professor of psychology and head of the division of international programs at the UW s National Primate Research Center. (innovations-report.com)
  • In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scott and Fuller conducted extensive research over a period of 14 years on successive generations of 6 breeds of dog (Basenji, Beagle, Cocker Spaniel, Shetland Sheepdog and Fox Terrier) and their hybrids in an attempt to quantify breed differences in behaviour. (coape.org)
  • Ethologists such as Lorenz and Tinbergen in the 1930s, introduced the concepts of instinct and critical period, both innate features of behaviour. (slideserve.com)
  • Psychology investigates the effects on the individual of other individuals, groups, the environment, and the world of sensation and perception. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Critical period" also relates to the ability to acquire one's first language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have the longest developmental period of any creature. (proprofs.com)
  • The Psychology major and minor are offered to students in the College of Arts and Sciences, and the major is offered in the School of Professional Studies. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Psychology also supports the human relations major in both the College of Arts and Sciences and the School of Professional Studies. (trinitydc.edu)
  • John B. Watson and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are typically cited as providing the foundations for modern developmental psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the timing of these molecular events seems to be partially explained by clock genes, experience is crucial as sensory deprivation experiments have been shown to interfere with the proper timing of critical periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychology : An introduction to the design and analysis of experiments, including analysis of variance, planned and post hoc tests and a comparison of anova to correlational analysis. (mcgill.ca)
  • Brian Nosek and a team of researchers set out to replicate 100 high profile psychology experiments that had been performed in 2008. (edge.org)
  • Founded the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology. (powershow.com)
  • A great deal of evidence suggests that it is more difficult to learn a new language as an adult than as a child, which has led scientists to propose that there is a "critical period" for language learning. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Fuller and Clark's experiment suggested that the effects of isolation resulted from the trauma of emerging from isolation, rather than from deprivation during the isolation period. (aavs.org)
  • In language you have specific words and vocabulary," says Brant, a postdoctoral fellow in psychology at Penn State University. (wnpr.org)
  • By the year 2000, a survey of the 12 best selling textbooks in Introductory Psychology revealed only one reference to instincts, and that was in regard to Sigmund Freud 's referral to the " id " instincts. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] In this sense, the term 'instinct' appeared to have become outmoded for introductory textbooks on human psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For introductory psychology courses at two- and four-year colleges and universities. (mypearsonstore.com)
  • Formerly PSY 121 Introductory Psychology. (trinitydc.edu)
  • Ex: Flotation tank, people like them for brief periods of time. (coursehero.com)
  • But while sensory information is critical to our survival, there is so much information available at any given time that we would be overwhelmed if we were forced to attend to all of it. (lumenlearning.com)
  • in particular, the hippocampus and frontal lobes that are responsible for learning and memory and higher cognitive functions continue to grow and develop during this critical period of time. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The diet and metabolic status during this time period could impact cognitive function for the remainder of the child's life. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In stressful situations, there is almost always an overwhelming flood of information in a very short period of time. (killology.com)
  • Science and psychology now tend to lean towards the first five to five and a half years being the critical time period. (doglistener.co.uk)
  • By the time their condition was diagnosed - they came from impoverished and uneducated families in remote regions - the regional physicians had told the parents that it was too late because the children were past a critical period for gaining vision. (edge.org)
  • For humans, this critical window closes tight by the time a child is eight years old. (edge.org)
  • At the cellular level, critical periods are characterized by maturation of the inhibitory circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after the opening of the critical period, PSA levels decrease, allowing PV cell maturation by activating inhibitory GABAa receptors that facilitate inhibitory circuit remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers found that people who passed the "critical period" would not acquire their first language fluently. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2013 study from Harvard University researchers reported that a drug commonly used to treat epilepsy could effectively reopen a critical period of learning ability, allowing a person to learn skills like absolute pitch. (eurekalert.org)