Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Amide Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Leishmania enriettii: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Spisula: A genus of surf clams in the family Mactridae, class BIVALVIA. They are often used in EMBRYOLOGY research.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Cloning, molecular analysis and differential cell localisation of the p36 RACK analogue antigen from the parasite protozoon Crithidia fasciculata. (1/141)

The family of the RACK molecules (receptors for activated C kinases) are present in all the species studied so far. In the genus Leishmania, these molecules also induce a strong immune reaction against the infection. We have cloned and characterised the gene that encodes the RACK analogue from the parasite trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata (CACK). The molecule seems to be encoded by two genes. The sequence analysis of the cloned open reading frame indicates the existence of a high degree of conservation not only with other members of the Trypanosomatidae but also with mammalians. The study of the protein kinase C phosphorylation sites shows the presence of three of them, shared with the mammalian species, additional to those present in the other protozoa suggesting a certain phylogenetic distance between the protozoon Crithidia fasciculata and the rest of the Trypanosomatidae. The CACK-encoded polypeptide shows an additional sequence of four amino acids at the carboxy-terminal end, which produces a different folding of the fragment with the presence of an alpha-helix instead of the beta-sheet usual in all the other species studied. A similar result is elicited at the amino-terminal end by the change of three amino acid residues. The immunolocalisation experiments show that the CACK displays a pattern with a distribution mainly at the plasma membrane, different from that of the related Leishmania species used as control, that displays a distribution close to the nucleus. Altogether, the data suggest that the existence of the structural differences found may have functional consequences.  (+info)

Sequence, heterologous expression and functional characterization of tryparedoxin1 from Crithidia fasciculata. (2/141)

Tryparedoxin (TXN) has recently been discovered as a constituent of the complex peroxidase system in the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata [Nogoceke et al. (1997) Biol. Chem. 378, 827-836] where it catalyzes the reduction of a peroxiredoxin-type peroxidase by trypanothione. Here we report on the full-length DNA sequence of the TXN previously isolated from C. fasciculata (TXN1). The deduced amino acid sequence comprises 147 residues and matches with all the peptide sequences of fragments obtained from TXN1. It shares a characteristic sequence motif YFSAxWCPPCR with some thioredoxin-related proteins of unknown function. This motif is homologous with the CXXC motif, which characterizes the thioredoxin superfamily of proteins and is known to catalyze disulfide reductions. Sequence conservations between TXNs and the typical thioredoxins are restricted to the intimate environment of the CXXC motif and three more remote residues presumed to contribute to the folding pattern of the thioredoxin-type proteins. The TXNs thus form a distinct molecular clade within the thioredoxin superfamily. TXN1 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)pLysS as a C-terminally extended and His-tagged protein, isolated by chelate chromatography and characterized functionally. The recombinant product exhibited a kinetic pattern identical with, and kinetic parameters similar to those of the authentic enzyme in the trypanothione/peroxiredoxin oxidoreductase assay. The recombinant TXN1 can therefore be considered a valuable tool for the screening of specific inhibitors as potential trypanocidal agents.  (+info)

A theoretical study of random segregation of minicircles in trypanosomatids. (3/141)

The kinetoplast (k) DNA network of trypanosomatids is made up of approximately 50 maxicircles and the order of 10(4) minicircles. It has been proposed, based on various observations and experiments, that the minicircles are randomly segregated between daughter cells when the parent cell divides. In this paper, this random segregation hypothesis is theoretically tested in a population dynamics model to see if it can account for the observed phenomena. The hypothesis is shown to successfully explain, in Leishmania tarentolae, the observation that there are a few major and many minor minicircle classes, the fluctuations of minicircle class copy numbers over time, the loss of non-essential minicircle classes, the long survival times of a few of these classes and that these classes are likely to be the major classes within the population. Implications of the model are examined for trypanosomatids in general, leading to several predictions. The model predicts variation in network size within a population, variation in the average network size and large-scale changes in class copy number over long time-scales, an evolutionary pressure towards larger network sizes, the selective advantage of non-random over random segregation, very strong selection for the amplified class in Crithidia fasciculata if its minicircles undergo random segregation and that Trypanosoma brucei may use sexual reproduction to maintain its viability.  (+info)

Universal minicircle sequence-binding protein, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that recognizes the two replication origins of the kinetoplast DNA minicircle. (4/141)

Replication of the kinetoplast DNA minicircle lagging (heavy (H))-strand initiates at, or near, a unique hexameric sequence (5'-ACGCCC-3') that is conserved in the minicircles of trypanosomatid species. A protein from the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata binds specifically a 14-mer sequence, consisting of the complementary strand hexamer and eight flanking nucleotides at the H-strand replication origin. This protein was identified as the previously described universal minicircle sequence (UMS)-binding protein (UMSBP) (Tzfati, Y., Abeliovich, H., Avrahami, D., and Shlomai, J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 21339-21345). This CCHC-type zinc finger protein binds the single-stranded form of both the 12-mer (UMS) and 14-mer sequences, at the replication origins of the minicircle L-strand and H-strand, respectively. The attribution of the two different DNA binding activities to the same protein relies on their co-purification from C. fasciculata cell extracts and on the high affinity of recombinant UMSBP to the two origin-associated sequences. Both the conserved H-strand hexamer and its flanking nucleotides at the replication origin are required for binding. Neither the hexameric sequence per se nor this sequence flanked by different sequences could support the generation of specific nucleoprotein complexes. Stoichiometry analysis indicates that each UMSBP molecule binds either of the two origin-associated sequences in the nucleoprotein complex but not both simultaneously.  (+info)

A candidate U1 small nuclear RNA for trypanosomatid protozoa. (5/141)

In trypanosomatid protozoa, all mRNAs obtain identical 5'-ends by trans-splicing of the 5'-terminal 39 nucleotides of a small spliced leader RNA to appropriate acceptor sites in pre-mRNA. Although this process involves spliceosomal small nuclear (sn) RNAs, it is thought that trypanosomatids do not contain a homolog of the cis-spliceosomal U1 snRNA. We show here that a trypanosomatid protozoon, Crithidia fasciculata, contains a novel small RNA that displays several features characteristic of a U1 snRNA, including (i) a methylguanosine cap and additional 5'-terminal modifications, (ii) a potential binding site for common core proteins that are present in other trans-spliceosomal ribonucleoproteins, (iii) a U1-like 5'-terminal sequence, and (iv) a U1-like stem/loop I structure. Because trypanosomatid pre-mRNAs do not appear to contain cis-spliced introns, we argue that this previously unrecognized RNA species is a good candidate to be a trans-spliceosomal U1 snRNA.  (+info)

Identification of cis and trans elements involved in the cell cycle regulation of multiple genes in Crithidia fasciculata. (6/141)

Transcripts of several DNA replication genes, including the RPA1 and TOP2 genes, encoding the large subunit of nuclear replication protein A and the kinetoplast topoisomerase II, accumulate periodically during the cell cycle in the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. An octamer consensus sequence, CAUAGAAG, present in the 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of these mRNAs is required for periodic accumulation of the TOP2 and RPA1 transcripts and also for binding of a nuclear factor(s) to the 5' UTR RNAs of these genes. We show here that insertion of multiple (six) copies of this octamer sequence (6x octamer) into the 5' UTR of a reporter gene confers periodic accumulation on its transcript. Competition experiments and UV cross-linking studies show that the 6x octamer RNA and TOP2 5' UTR RNA bind to the same nuclear factor(s). Single-nucleotide substitutions in the 6x octamer that abolish the RNA gel shift also prevent cyclic accumulation of the reporter gene transcript. A protein termed cycling element binding protein, purified by affinity chromatography using 6x octamer RNA as a ligand, binds to RNAs containing wild-type octamers and not to those with mutant octamers. These results define a small sequence element in C. fasciculata mRNAs required for their cell cycle regulation and report the identification and purification of a putative regulatory protein that binds specifically to these elements.  (+info)

The high resolution crystal structure of recombinant Crithidia fasciculata tryparedoxin-I. (7/141)

Tryparedoxin-I is a recently discovered thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase involved in the regulation of oxidative stress in parasitic trypanosomatids. The crystal structure of recombinant Crithidia fasciculata tryparedoxin-I in the oxidized state has been determined using multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods applied to a selenomethionyl derivative. The model comprises residues 3 to 145 with 236 water molecules and has been refined using all data between a 19- and 1.4-A resolution to an R-factor and R-free of 19.1 and 22.3%, respectively. Despite sharing only about 20% sequence identity, tryparedoxin-I presents a five-stranded twisted beta-sheet and two elements of helical structure in the same type of fold as displayed by thioredoxin, the archetypal thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase. However, the relationship of secondary structure with the linear amino acid sequences is different for each protein, producing a distinctive topology. The beta-sheet core is extended in the trypanosomatid protein with an N-terminal beta-hairpin. There are also differences in the content and orientation of helical elements of secondary structure positioned at the surface of the proteins, which leads to different shapes and charge distributions between human thioredoxin and tryparedoxin-I. A right-handed redox-active disulfide is formed between Cys-40 and Cys-43 at the N-terminal region of a distorted alpha-helix (alpha1). Cys-40 is solvent-accessible, and Cys-43 is positioned in a hydrophilic cavity. Three C-H...O hydrogen bonds donated from two proline residues serve to stabilize the disulfide-carrying helix and support the correct alignment of active site residues. The accurate model for tryparedoxin-I allows for comparisons with the family of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases and provides a template for the discovery or design of selective inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism in trypanosomes. Such inhibitors are sought as potential therapies against a range of human pathogens.  (+info)

Activation of active-site cysteine residues in the peroxiredoxin-type tryparedoxin peroxidase of Crithidia fasciculata. (8/141)

Tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx), recently identified as the hydroperoxide-detoxifying enzyme of trypanosomatidae [Nogoceke, E., Gommel, D. U., Kiess, M., Kalisz, H. M. & Flohe, L. (1997) Biol. Chem. 378, 827-836], is a member of the peroxiredoxin family and is characterized by two VCP motifs. Based on a consensus sequence of TXNPx and peroxiredoxin-type peroxidases, eight TXNPx variants were designed, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, checked for alpha-helix content by CD and kinetically analysed. The variant Q164E was fully active, C52S, W87D and R128E were inactive and C173S, W87H, W177E and W177H showed reduced activity. Wild-type TXNPx and Q164E exhibit ping-pong kinetics with infinite maximum velocities, whereas saturation kinetics were observed with C173S and W177E. The data comply with a mechanism in which C52, primarily activated by R128 and possibly by W87, is first oxidized by hydroperoxide to a sulfenic acid derivative. C173, supported by W177, then forms an intersubunit disulfide bridge with C52. If C173 is exchanged with a redox-inactive residue (Ser) or is insufficiently activated, the redox shuttle remains restricted to C52. The shift in the kinetic pattern and decrease in specific activity of C173S and W177E may result from a limited accessibility of the oxidized C52 to tryparedoxin, which in the oxidized wild-type TXNPx presumably attacks the C173 sulfur of the disulfide bridge. The proposed mechanism of action of TXNPx is consistent with that deduced for the homologous thioredoxin peroxidase of yeast [Chae, H. Z., Uhm, T. B. & Rhee, S. G. (1994) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 7022-7026] and is supported by molecular modelling based on the structure of the human peroxiredoxin 'hORF6' [Choi, H.-J., Kang, S. W. Yang, C.-H., Rhee, S. G. & Ryu, S.-E. (1998) Nat. Struct. Biol. 5, 400-406].  (+info)

The most parsimonious tree was obtained via using DHFR-TS sequences of Crithidia fasciculata, a monogenetic trypanosomatid, as outgroup (Fernandes and Beverley
1OC8: Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron Radiation and Evidence for a Conformational Switch Implicated in Function
Splicing factor 1 (SF1), 50 µg. SF1 contains 1 CCHC-type zinc finger and 1 KH domain. SF1 is Necessary for the ATP-dependent first step of spliceosome assembly.
Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel
In order to understand the mechanism of molecular interactions at the active site of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P), homology modeling and docking studies were performed. We generated a Three-Dimensional (3D) model of target protein based on the Crystal structure of Leishmania Major Try PI (PDB ID: 3TUE) using modeler software. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P). Inhibition of the Tryparedoxin peroxidase interaction has become a new therapeutic strategy in treating leishmaniasis. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (TryP). Tryparedoxin peroxidase of Trypanosomatidae family functions as antioxidant through their peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase activities. The theoretical docking study, conducted on a sample previously reported for anti-cancer properties of Methotrexate at the binding site of 3D models of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase of Leishmania braziliensis (L. ...
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is characterized by cutaneous lesions that heal spontaneously or after specific treatment. This paper reports on the analysis of kDNA minicircle sequences from clinical samples (typical lesions and scars) that were PCR-amplified with specific primers for Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia. From 56 clinical isolates we obtained a single amplified fragment (ca. 790 bp), which after cloning and sequencing resulted in 290 minicircle sequences from both active lesions and scars. We aimed to get a compositional profile of these sequences in clinical samples and evaluate the corresponding compositional changes. Sequences were analyzed with the compseq and wordcount (Emboss package) to get the composition of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides. Additionally, we built a nucleotide dictionary with words of 7, 8, 9 and 10 nucleotides. This compositional analysis showed that minicircles amplified from active cutaneous lesions and scars have a distinct
article{9d3be0e5-e41f-4a44-8c51-3977de05b2b1, abstract = {Mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which catalyses the first step in polyamine biosynthesis, has a very fast turnover. It is degraded by the 26S proteasome in an ubiquitin-independent process and the degradation is stimulated by polyamines in a feedback control of the enzyme. Interestingly, there is a major difference in the metabolic stability between ODCs from various trypanosomatids. Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani both contain stable ODCs, whereas Crithidia fasciculata has an ODC with a rapid turnover. In spite of the difference in stability there is a high degree of sequence homology between C. fasciculata ODC and L. donovani ODC. In the present study we demonstrate that C. fasciculata ODC is rapidly degraded also in mammalian systems like CHO cells and rabbit reticulocyte lysate, suggesting that the degradation signals of the enzyme are recognised by the mammalian systems. L. donovani ODC, on the other hand, is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of inhibitor binding free energies by quantum neural networks. Nucleoside analogues binding to trypanosomal nucleoside hydrolase. AU - Braunheim, Benjamin B.. AU - Miles, Robert W.. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. AU - Schwartz, Steven D.. PY - 1999/12/7. Y1 - 1999/12/7. N2 - A computational method has been developed to predict inhibitor binding energy for untested inhibitor molecules. A neural network is trained from the electrostatic potential surfaces of known inhibitors and their binding energies. The algorithm is then able to predict, with high accuracy, the binding energy of unknown inhibitors. IU-nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata and the inhibitor molecules described previously [Miles, R. W. Tyler, P. C. Evans, G. Fumeaux R. H., ParK(i)n, D. W., and Schramm, V. L. (1999) Biochemistry 38, xxxx-xxxx] are used as the test system. Discrete points on the molecular electrostatic potential surface of inhibitor molecules are input to neural networks to identify the ...
Klingbeil MM, Englund PT. 2004. Closing the gaps in kinetoplast DNA network replication.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101(13):4333-4. ...
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Native: indigenous.. Non-native: introduced (intentionally or unintentionally); has become naturalized.. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). State documented: never been documented from the county, but known from the state. May be present. Or, may be restricted to a small area or a habitat (alpine, marsh, etc.), so unlikely found in some counties.. Note: when native and non-native populations both exist in a county, only native status is shown on the map.. ...
Image via WikipediaVery often you hear about new methods, often more computationally expensive, that are pegged as improvements to existing commonly used techniques. Many a "Google killer" comes to mind as do methods for predicting protein-ligand interactions, something I have a little more experience with. All such methods face a common challenge - they have to overcome both a mental block to trying out anything new when existing methods work well, as well as a need to demonstrate that a change will be worth the effort.. Take virtual screening for example. While methods for docking and scoring, esp the high throughput variety, are hardly limited to one big dominant player, a la Google in search, the concepts underlying docking and scoring fall into familiar territory for many people. Some years ago, scientists began experimenting with methods like MM-PBSA and LIE, hoping to come up with results that were based on more physical models of molecular recognition and using better sampling methods. ...
At 06:36 AM 6/7/2001, [email protected] wrote: ,hi all, , ,* The problem: , ,When i do a ldapadd with this ldif file there is an error : Use 2.0.11, it provides more detail in the returned error message. Check your LDIF for trailing spaces and other crud. ,dn: cn=vpu_grm1,ou=ums,o=alcatel,c=fr ,VoiceMailboxId: -1 ,userPassword: rennes1 ,uid: vpugrm1 ,cn: vpugrm1 ,rfc822Mailbox: [email protected] ,mailDeliveryOption: mailbox ,mailFolderMap: Sun-MS ,optionBvABv: vpim ,objectClass: vPIMUser ,objectClass: aVPSUser ,objectClass: emailPerson ,mailHost: mcu141d.ums.alcatel.fr ,vpuSiteName: rennes ,VPUNumber: 1 ,telephoneNumber1: vpu_grm1 ,telephoneNumber: vpu_grm1 , ,=,, err=21 text=value contains invalid data , , ,But when i do a ldapadd with this ldif file there is no error , ,dn: cn=vpugrm1,ou=ums,o=alcatel,c=fr ,VoiceMailboxId: -1 ,userPassword: rennes1 ,uid: vpugrm1 ,cn: vpugrm1 ,rfc822Mailbox: [email protected] ,mailDeliveryOption: mailbox ,mailFolderMap: Sun-MS ,optionBvABv: ...
The deathball is weird. I get a little bit of everything in the comp and there are so many things to micro individually I dont know what to do. I guess thats the point of the challenge though... but if I could, say, choose my composition with a fixed army cost, that would help a little. Then as the difficulty increases, just add in the ennemys army value like its already done, or force the composition you give, or both ...
Not to be confused with the fungi genus Chytridium. Crithidia is a genus of trypanosome Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They pass from host to host as cysts in infective faeces and typically, the parasites develop in the digestive tracts of insects and interact with the intestinal epithelium using their flagellum. They display very low host-specificity and a single parasite can infect a large range of invertebrate hosts. At different points in its life-cycle, it passes through amastigote, promastigote, and epimastigote phases; the last is particularly characteristic, and similar stages in other trypanosomes are often called crithidial. Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common species like Bombus terrestris, Bombus muscorum, and Bombus hortorum. The parasites negatively impact reproductive fitness of Bombus queens, as they affect their ovarian development as ...
trypanothione synthetase: catalyzes the synthesis of N(1)- and N(8)-glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione from ATP/Mg, glutathione, and spermidine; member of ATP-dependent class of ligases forming an amide linkage
Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs. Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee disease transmission networks. Larvae that were artificially inoculated with C. bombi showed no signs of infection seven days after inoculation. However, larvae that received either an artificial inoculation or a contaminated feed from brood-caring workers were able to transmit the parasite to naive workers. These results ...
Crithidia confusa ATCC ® PRA-346™ Designation: 320AR Isolation: Intestine of Largus cf. cinctus (Heteroptera), Alajuela Province, Costa Rica, 2009
Abstract Kinetoplast DNA is the mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatids. This DNA consists primarily of thousands of small minicircles which are linked together to form a giant network. Replication of this DNA involves release of individual minicircles from the network to form free minicircles. The free minicircles then replicate and the two progeny are reattached to the network. When all minicircles within the network have replicated, the double-sized network divides to form two progeny structures which are each identical to the parent network.
The flowers of Ironweed are like crimson torches in the late summer prairie. Named for its tough stem, Ironweed has excellent posture and never slouches in the garden making it an excellent high border garden plant. It attracts late season butterlies and monarchs and an excellent source of seeds for birds in the wildlife garden.
The list of unique features of the trypanosomatid cell is long, so only the best known oddities will be briefly mentioned here. Kinetoplast (k) DNA in the single mitochondrion of trypanosomatids has a unique structure, being composed of thousands of mutually interlocked minicircles and dozens of maxicircles (Lukes et al., 2005). Perhaps hundred of proteins are required for maintenance and replication of this extremely complicated network. Maxicircles encode homologues of typical mitochondrial genes of other eukaryotes, however, some of them are present in an encrypted form, which means that their transcripts have to undergo RNA editing by the insertions and deletions of uridines in order to become translatable on mitochondrial ribosomes. Information from the exact editing is specified by hundreds of small RNA molecules termed guide RNAs that are encoded by minicircles. Moreover, dozens of proteins, constituting several unique protein complexes, are necessary for the process. It is worth ...
ZNF9, DNA binding protein, cellular nucleic acid binding protein, cellular nucleic acid-binding protein, zinc finger protein 9 (a cellular retroviral nucleic acid binding protein), Cellular nucleic acid-binding protein , Zinc finger protein 9, CCHC-type zinc ...
In other words, while putting everyone on a monitor for a month would catch more heart attacks, its not a "feasible" allocation of resources. So, the deCODEme test, which as stated has no evidence, is being used like a random number generator to justify picking some patients for additional care and not others. Why? They tested positive for the A-fib gene. Magic.. So, since there is no evidence, only "decision to take action," you could replace the deCODEme test with a homeopathic test that produces the same ratio of positive results for the same clinical effect. I understand that people sometimes feel they need a special reason to pursue healthcare from which they could always hypothetically benefit, but there is no rational necessity to produce this impetuous prior to treatment other than the psychological comfort of rationalization.. I would like to see a study where one person gets the genetic test, and one person gets a random jibberish report recommending the same thing, and see if there ...
Navigating the nuclear highways - Liz is now at Bio21 - Liz has developed a method-microscopy combined with fluorescence fluctuation analysis-to track the movement of molecules around the complex DNA networks within the nuclei of live cells. Inside the nucleus, DNA repair machines find sites of damage to prevent genetic mutations, and transcription factors search for target DNA sequences to maintain normal gene expression.
Find out your ethnic mix and discover distant relatives with a simple DNA test. AncestryDNA-The worlds largest consumer DNA network. How it works. 1. Order a kit with easy-to-follow instructions. 2. Activate your kit and return your saliva sample to our state-of-the-art lab. 3. In roughly 6-8 weeks your results will be ready online. Uncover… Read More ». ...
Evaluation of selected antitumor agents as subversive substrate and potential inhibitor of trypanothione reductase: an alternative approach for chemotherapy of ...
GRIEMBERG, Gloria et al. Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.66, n.1, pp. 3-8. ISSN 1669-9106.. Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. Other structures such as membrane, flagellum and basal corpuscle can be stained as well, showing what is called atypical fluorescent images. As C. luciliae belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family, which include the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., it was considered that these atypical images could be caused by cross-reactions. Serological studies for Chagas disease were performed in 105 serum samples displaying atypical images. Sixty four percent of the samples from non endemic and 78.3% from endemic areas for Chagas disease ...
Crithidia luciliae is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host.[2] As part of the family of Trypanosomatidae, they are characterised by the presence of a kinetoplast; a complex network of interlocking circular dsDNA molecules. The presence of this kinetoplast means they are important in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythamatosus (SLE). By using C.luciliae as a substrate for immunofluorescence, the organelle can be used to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies, a common feature of the disease.[3][4]. ...
In addition to these heteroxenous organisms, several genera such as Crithidia, Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, Herpetomonas and Rhynchoidomonas are restricted to a single host from such widely diverse groups of invertebrates as ciliates, rotifers, nematodes, mollusks, annelids and arachnids, but are found predominantly in insects (Wallace 1966, McGhee and Cosgrove 1980, Vickerman 1994). Insect trypanosomatids have been traditionally allocated to distinct genera that were described based on morphological features, host and geographical origin (Wallace et al. 1983, Momen 2001). However, for identification purposes, these criteria proved to be impractical and insufficient, because different genera share the same evolutive forms (Wallace 1966) and because a diverse range of insects and plants can alberg lower trypanosomatids (Catarino et al. 2001). Therefore, the same trypanosomatid species may be recovered from diverse species of insects or plants and the same insect species may harbor various species ...
Download UMS for free. The UMS project provides an Microsoft Excel Add-in that allows for simple Monte Carlo simulation. It offers functions for drawing from various well-known probability distributions (Normal, Exponential etc).
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I. Flagella and cell bodies of Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti were irradiated at preselected points with a pulsed ruby laser microbeam. Results were recorded by high-speed cinephotomicrography. A flagellum could be completely amputated at the irradiated point.. 2. The portion of the flagellum between the cell body and the irradiated point beat from the base after irradiation. The amputated portion of the flagellum could beat from either the tip or the irradiated point, and could beat first from the tip and then from the irradiated point or vice versa. Beating could continue for up to ten cycles.. 3. For flagellar activity in this organism neither a unique region of the flagellum nor the cell body is necessary. Wave propagation appears to involve the transmission of a signal at a greater velocity than that of the wave. The results favour a model of bend propagation which allows for a distribution of autonomous initiators along the flagellar length.. ...
The trypanosomatid protists belonging to Order Kinetoplastida are some of the most successful parasites ever known to mankind. Their extreme physiological diversity and adaptability to different environmental conditions and host systems make them some of the most widespread parasites, causing deadly diseases in humans and other vertebrates. This project focuses on their unique mitochondrion, called the kinetoplast, and more specifically involves the characterization of a part of their mitochondrial DNA (also called kinetoplast DNA or kDNA), the maxicircles, which are functional homologs of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA in the kinetoplastid protists. We have sequenced and characterized the maxicircle genomes of 20 new trypanosomatids and compared them with 8 previously published maxicircle genomes of other trypanosomatids. Transcripts of ~13 of the 20 total genes in these maxicircles undergo post-transcriptional modifications involving the insertion and deletion of U residues at precise sites, to yield
Many trypanosomatid protozoa are important human or animal pathogens. The well defined morphology and precisely choreographed division of trypanosomatid cells makes morphological analysis a powerful tool for analyzing the effect of mutations, chemical insults and changes between lifecycle stages. High-throughput image analysis of micrographs has the potential to accelerate collection of quantitative morphological data. Trypanosomatid cells have two large DNA-containing organelles, the kinetoplast (mitochondrial DNA) and nucleus, which provide useful markers for morphometric analysis; however they need to be accurately identified and often lie in close proximity. This presents a technical challenge. Accurate identification and quantitation of the DNA content of these organelles is a central requirement of any automated analysis method. We have developed a technique based on double staining of the DNA with a minor groove binding (4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)) and a base pair intercalating
Leaf and fascicle. Inflorescence - Axillary racemes in the upper 2/3 of the stem. Racemes very bracteate and the inflorescence appearing as just axillary flowers. Flowers single from each leaf (bract) axil, 1-2 per node, opposite. Pedicels 3-5mm long, shorter than or equaling the calyx, glabrous, ascending. Axis of the inflorescence angled, puberulent. Flowers - Corolla pink, to +2cm long, 5-lobed. Corolla tube densely antrorse pubescent externally, mostly glabrous internally, contracted in the basal 5mm (the portion surrounded by the calyx). Corolla tube with pink spots and two yellow stripes internally (ventrally). Corolla lobes rounded, with pilose margins, to +1cm broad, 1cm long, spreading, the upper two pilose-bearded at the base internally. Stamens 4, didynamous, mostly included. Filaments pale pink to whitish, pink pilose, to +1cm long, adnate at the apex of the contracted portion of the corolla tube. Anthers whitish, pilose dorsally, +/-3mm long, 1.5mm broad, with two acute basal lobes. ...
A. Anatomia dhe fiziologjia 1. Korteksi (pjesa e jashtme) ka 3 shtresa; duke filluar nga jashtë ato janë: a. Zona glomerulosa, e cila prodhon hormonin mineralokortikoid. Zona glomeruloza është nën kontrollin e sistemit reninë-angiotensinë-aldosteron. b. Zona fasciculata prodhon glukokortikoidët. Zona fasciculata është nën kontrollin e hormonit ACTH të prodhuar prej hipofizës. c. Zona reticularis prodhon…
As previously described T. cruzi has a single tubular mitochondrion which shares with the similar organelle from mammalian cells some features as the presence of DNA, cristae and a number of enzymes detected in its interior membrane. The Kinetoplast, a fibrous network of DNA which constitutes 20-25% of the total parasite DNA is located at the mitochondrion. Electron microscopy studies have shown that the K-DNA molecules are organized as associated minicircles and maxicircles. Although each Kinetoplast comprises 20.000-25.000 minicircles, the role played by the K-DNA has not been established. However, evidence from the number of base pairs and the coding capability of the mincircles suggest that they would only translate small proteins whose existence and importance have not been yet disclosed. Maxicircles, however, owing to their size and molecular weight are likely to code for enzymes which participate of the parasite metabolism. Whatever its role, K-DNA seems to be essential for the parasite ...
Methodology provided: The group of Luise Krauth-Siegel is highly experienced in the functional and kinetic characterization of thiol redox proteins. They have established methods for the sensitive and quantitative determination of low molecular mass thiols as well as for the large scale production of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione. The tools for inducible RNA-interference and gene deletion in T. brucei are available. Methods for the quantitative proteome LC/MS analysis are currently established (in collaboration with Thomas Ruppert, ZMBH ...
in liver extrahepatic : outside the liver Mobilize amino acids from extrahepatic tissues: These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis. main adipose tissue Stimulation of fat breakdown how it signals with the targets: steroid hormone Primary function: stimulate tissues to raise blood glucose and break down protein the secreted glucocorticoids from the zona fasciculata, then travels through the circulatory system these glucocorticoids then attach themselves to the glucocorticoid receptors which are found on almost every cell a glucocorticoid receptor binds to glucocorticoids within the bloodstream, which allows the GCs to enter into the intercellular fluid of a cell the receptors are then transferred to the nucleus, where they perform specific functions depending on which glucocorticoid receptor was activated and which hormone was present superpowers surpress overactive immune system GCs travel through the blood until it reaches the inflammated area and then starts to break down the overactive ...
Abstract. We show using PCR that psbC, atpA and petB genes are present in the plastid DNA minicircles from the dinoflagellate… Expand ...
Complete information for ZCCHC12 gene (Protein Coding), Zinc Finger CCHC-Type Containing 12, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
To bring promising anti- trypanosomatid drug discovery initiatives forward with the help of key experts in industry and academia to create a unique and powerful drug discovery platform with the common objective of advancing promising laboratory- driven discoveries into clinical utility. EU FP7 work programme : HEALTH.2013.2.3.4-2: Drug development for neglected parasitic diseases. FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1. Duration: 36 months Scientific oordinator Dr. Jane MacDougall PhD [email protected] ...
I have compiled this list of the nine most annoying insects of all. Even for people who love insects, some No-See-Ums Why No No-see-ums live near water, since their larvae are aquatic. Theyre so tiny they can pass right through ordinary window screens - thus the name no-see-um ... Read Article ...
Aulia, Septin Ambar and , Imron Rosyadi, S.E, M.Si. (2016) Pengaruh Pendidikan, Pelatihan Dan Motivasi Kerja Terhadap Produktivitas Kerja Karyawan (Pada Pt. Inti Sukses Garmindo,Semarang). Skripsi thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. ...
If you have not been under a rock, you are probably well aware of the pending end of the world, brought to us by the brilliant Mayans (who somehow could predict the precise end of the world several thousand years in advance but somehow missed predicting the demise of their own culture) and their now…
FLA Comments on CSBP Draft Standard for Biomass Production. FLA submitted comments to the Council for Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP) regarding their draft standard for sustainability. CSBP is an organization established in 2007 to develop comprehensive voluntary sustainability standards for the production of biomass and its conversion to bioenergy. CSBP intends for its standard to serve as the foundation for an independent third-party certification program, which will set the emerging bioenergy industry on a course of continuous improvement. FLA is following this group as it is the position of FLA that certification and sustainability principles should not be required for entrance into bioenergy markets.. CSBP has released a draft standard and opened it to public comments. The deadline has been extended to December 7, 2009. Landowners should feel free to comment.. Visit the CSBP website for a copy of this draft standard or to submit your own comments ...
Learn how to use the Oracle User Messaging Service Adapter, which provides a JCA Adapter that wraps the Oracle User Message Service (UMS), an Oracle Fusion Middleware Component that enables communication between users and applications. Get an overview of UMS Adapter concepts, features, configuration, and error handling.
1GXF: Two Interacting Binding Sites for Quinacrine Derivatives in the Active Site of Trypanothione Reductase: A Template for Drug Design
UMS ETD-db is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. More information and software credits ...
Complete information for ZCCHC18 gene (Protein Coding), Zinc Finger CCHC-Type Containing 18, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Dear AQA,. Ahead of GCSE results day, it has come to my attention that the decision has been taken to remove students exam marks from results slips for the new GCSEs. I have a number of concerns about this and I am writing to ask you to reconsider.. First of all, let me clarify my understanding of what will happen on results day with candidates results slips. Slips will contain a mix of the new GCSE grades and the old GCSE grades. The results of the old GCSE grades will be given alongside uniform mark scale (UMS) scores and grade boundaries will be shared. The results of the new GCSE grades will be given only as a grade, without the raw mark attached. There is no longer a need for UMS scores with the new GCSEs, because they are linear, but without knowing your own mark, grade boundaries are pointless. If students would like to know how close they were to the next grade - if its reasonable to request a remark, if they were close enough to resit in November - they will need to form an orderly ...
analytik de - Links und Informationen rund ums Labor, u.a. t gliche Meldungen, Jobb rse, Ger teb rse, Analysenger te, Laboratorien, Laborprodukte, HPLC, Chromatographie, Spektroskopie, GLP, GMP, Methoden
analytik de - Links und Informationen rund ums Labor, u.a. t gliche Meldungen, Jobb rse, Ger teb rse, Analysenger te, Laboratorien, Laborprodukte, HPLC, Chromatographie, Spektroskopie, GLP, GMP, Methoden
Several thousand players worldwide. DOFUS is a massively multiplayer role-playing game in which the goal is to find the six precious Dofus and become master of Amakna.
Rajkot Oilseed Complex Open- November 29 * Edible oil prices were steady to weak in the early trades. * Groundnut oil prices eased due to restricted demand from retailers. * Cottonseed oil moved down due to increased selling from refinery units. * Palm olien dropped due to sufficient supply. Todays Arrivals; --Groundnut, in 35-kg bags: 1,00,000 versus 1,15,000 previous --Castor seed, in 75-kg bags:0,16,000-0,17,000 versus 0,13,000-0,14,000previous Groundnut deliveries in 35-kg bags, and prices in rupees per 20 kgs, in someof the main markets in the Saurashtra region of western state of Gujarat: Todays Todays Previous Previous deliveries price deliveries price Rajkot 18,000 0,635-0,825 20,500 0,640-0,874 Gondal 32,000 646-0,862 37,000 644-0,875 Jasdan 1,000 604-0,823 1,500 600-0
... - Modèle HU2993A-00 (). Use To obtain a numerical value indicating the rate of moisture vapor escaping from a concrete floor surface in a 24 hour period.
Ask Ariely: On Scanning Suitcases, Aligning Anticipation, and Validating Valentines Day - Heres my Q&A column from the WSJ this week - and if you have any questions for me, you can tweet them to @danariely with the hashtag #askariely, post a co... ...
The disinfectants TriGene, bleach, ethanol and liquid hand soap, and water and temperature were tested for their ability to kill bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli and promastigotes of Leishmania major. A 5-min exposure to 0.2% TriGene, 0.1% liquid hand soap and 0.05% bleach (0.05% NaOCl) killed all three trypanosomatids. Ethanol and water destroyed the parasites within 5 min at concentrations of 15-17.5% and 80-90%, respectively. All three organisms were also killed when treated for 5 min at 50°C. The results indicate that the disinfectants, water and temperature treatment (i.e. autoclaving) are suitable laboratory hygiene measures against trypanosomatid parasites.
Trypanosomatid parasites infect over 21 million people worldwide, with a range of disease phenotypes. Trypanosoma cruzi causes American trypanosomiasis, wherein 30-40% of infected individuals develop disease manifestations, most commonly cardiomyopathy but also digestive megasyndromes. In the case of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis, disease progression can be rapid or slow, with early or late central nervous system involvement. Finally, Leishmania species cause leishmaniasis, a disease that ranges from self-healing but scarring cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis in which parasites disseminate to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. This review highlights parasite factors involved in disease phenotype in all three trypanosomatid diseases, with a particular focus on recent advances using large-scale omics techniques.
Cholesterol metabolism in normal adrenal cortex cells is acutely regulated by ACTH stimulation, rising appreciably within 3 minutes of treatment and peaking within 10-15 minutes (3). Defects in either PKA or G protein coupling, as seen in mutant mouse adrenal cell sub-lines, block this response by preventing cAMP formation (11). Other signaling pathways playing key roles in adrenal responses to ACTH include lipoxygenase activation (12) and, at least in adrenal fasciculata cells, stimulation mediated by receptors for IGF1, retinoids, and thyroid hormone; several cytokines, conversely, can suppress production of steroid hormones by these cells (13). For the most part, I will focus here on the mechanisms of acute adrenal fasciculata responses to cAMP and its analogs, which are generally shared with testicular and ovarian cells. It is interesting to note, however, that StAR regulation in another adrenal steroidogenic cell type, the glomerulosa cell, responds via alternative pathways involving Ca2+ ...
Alpha-oligopeptide / Glutamine or derivatives / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Cysteine or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / D-alpha-amino acid / N-substituted-alpha-amino acid / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Fatty acylFatty acid / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / N-acyl-amine / Fatty amide / Organic disulfide / Dialkyldisulfide / Carboxamide group / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / Amino acid or derivatives / Amino acid / Sulfenyl compound / Carboxylic acid / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Primary amine / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Carbonyl group / Hydrocarbon derivative / Amine / Organic oxide / Primary aliphatic amine / Organosulfur compound / Organooxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Aliphatic acyclic compound ...
Trypanosomes contain a unique form of mitochondrial DNA called kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Several proteins are essential for network replication, and most of these localize to the antipodal sites or the kinetoflagellar zone. Essential components for kDNA synthesis include three mitochondrial DNA polymerases TbPOLIB, TbPOLIC, and TbPOLID). In contrast to other kDNA replication proteins, TbPOLID was previously reported to localize throughout the mitochondrial matrix. This spatial distribution suggests that TbPOLID requires redistribution to engage in kDNA replication. Here, we characterize the subcellular distribution of TbPOLID with respect to the Trypanosoma brucei cell cycle using immunofluorescence microscopy. Our analyses demonstrate that in addition to the previously reported matrix localization, TbPOLID was detected as discrete foci near the kDNA. TbPOLID foci colocalized with replicating minicircles at antipodal sites in a ...
Bradley, M.; Buecheler, U.S.; Walsh, C.T., 1991: Redox enzyme engineering conversion of human glutathione reductase into a trypanothione reductase
Some people might be confused about the difference between prednisone generic (Deltasone) and prednisolone generic (Delta-Cortef). Even though prednisolone and prednisone generic are both effective and they are both used in the same way, they are not the same and their application must not be confused with each other.. Prednisone generic (Deltasone) and prednisolone (Delta-Cortef) are both classified as Corticosteroid drugs. They are both synthetic members of the class of hormones called glucocorticoids. Both of them are synthetic (man-made) steroids that are used to hold back immune responses and reduce inflammation. Most glucocorticoids are synthetic analogues of hormones secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex is located along the restriction of the Adrenal gland that is found on the top of the kidneys. Glucocorticoids exert metabolic, immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory effects to our body.. The main active ingredients in all types of glucocorticoid ...
In Silico Analyses of Epicoccamides on Selected Leishmania Trypanothione Reductase Enzyme-based Target, Nighat Fatima, Amara Mumtaz1, Rahat Shamim2, M. I. Qadir3 and S. A. Muhammad
Hi all, I have configurd a 3G WWAN HWIC (in a 2800 router) as its reported below. Then I have left the router on for some weeks, but without any traffic in the internal LAN. Now my company have received a huge bill (several thousands of euros) for
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Parasites Kinetoplastids cause a number of serious diseases that have contributed to death and health problems in humans. The severity of these infections depends in most cases on the nature of the pathogen, on its different degrees of propagation, and on the expression of the virulence factors involved in the immune evasion mechanisms of the host and on the pathogenesis of infection. These details are determinant in the equilibrium of the pathogen-host interaction and the result of this relation, which can vary from symbiosis, mutualism or parasitism.The objective of this Research Topic is to evaluate the immunological cellular and humoral mechanisms developed by vertebrate hosts and consequently the escape routes that these pathogenic trypanosomatids developed to deceive and escape from protective imune responses. The current issue highlights the research on subversion and modulation of host defense mechanisms associated with the immunopathogenesis of trypanosomatid infections, providing a broad
The effects of acriflavine on two species of Trypanosomatidae, Crithidia luciliae and Trypanosoma mega, have been investigated. It has been observed that kinetoplastic (i.e. mitochondrial) DNA is lost in a high percentage of acriflavine-treated cells. Resting flagellates, from stationary-phase or hemin-deficient cultures, are considerably more resistant to the acridine than are flagellates from a log-phase culture. When the kinetoplast has retained some DNA and still remains visible in stained smears, it appears reduced in size, and its ultrastructure is extremely abnormal: the DNA fibrils, clearly visible in normal kinetoplasts, are condensed; they appear as an electron-opaque, apparently homogeneous mass, separated from the membranes by a space of low electron-opacity. Analyses of DNA extracts, with high speed centrifugation in CsCl density gradients, revealed that the satellite band, presumably kinetoplastic DNA, is lost by trypanosomes grown for 5 days in the presence of acriflavine. ...
Methods A cohort of 36 subjects with active SLE presenting with classical complement activation were enrolled and followed monthly for 1 year. At each study visit blood was collected, serum isolated and frozen until analysis. A total of 371 specimens were collected. Disease activity was scored on the day of each study visit according to the SELENA-SLEDAI method excluding anti-dsDNA or complement components (non-serological [ns] SELENA-SLEDAI). All specimens were tested using four different anti-dsDNA kits; QUANTA Lite, QUANTA Flash, a high Avidity anti-dsDNA ELISA, and the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence assay (CLIFT) (Inova Diagnostics, San Diego, CA). Study visits presenting with inactive disease (ns-SELENA- SLEDAI score=0) were compared to those presenting with active disease (ns-SELENA- SLEDAI,0). The longitudinal data were analyzed using linear mixed effect modeling with the ns-SELENA-SLEDAI as dependent variable and the anti-dsDNA titers as fixed effect predictors. Marginal ...
Trypanosomatids are unicellular parasites that cause devastating diseases in both humans and animals. They include Trypanosoma brucei, two subspecies of which cause human sleeping sickness, and Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., which are responsible for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, respectively. The treatment of these diseases is still unsatisfactory, and new drugs are urgently needed (1).. In addition to their clinical importance, some trypanosomatids are highly accessible experimental model systems for investigating general biological processes. Moreover, trypanosomatids appear to have diverged from all other eukaryotes very early in evolution and therefore show many unique features, some of which might reflect primitive traits that were present in the universal ancestor of all eukaryotes (2).. Many of these features concern the mitochondrion. Its genome consists of two genetic elements, maxi- and minicircles, which are highly topologically interlocked and localized to a discrete ...
The goal of this workshop is to foster scientific exchange between scientists working on the chromatin proteome, the dynamic behavior of proteins in the nucleus and the integration and visualization of protein and DNA networks. There will be dedicated sessions on the proteomic analysis of histone modifications, of defined chromosomal domains and of functional proteomics together with sessions on quantitative proteomics, emerging technologies and bioinformatic analysis of large proteomic datasets and their visualization, with lectures given by leading researchers in the field. There will also be two poster sessions and several short oral presentations by junior researchers that will be selected from the abstracts.. ...
Sehubungan dengan telah selesainya perekapan nilai lomba poster kesehatan se-karisedanan Surakarta  oleh prodi keperawatan FIK UMS berikut kami sampaikan juara lomba poster. 1.    Juara I   a.n Liliana kristi dari SMA Negeri 1 Purwodadi 2.    Juara II a.n Vera dari SMK Taman Siswa Sukoharjo 3.    Juara III a.n Dimas Rizky Ramadhan dari SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Surakarta 4.    Juara Harapan I a.n Sukmaningrum Latifah O dari SMA Negeri 1 Sragen 5.    Juara Harapan II a.n Sintang MM siswa SMA Al Islam 1 6.    Juara harapan III a.n Irfan Ardian SMA Al Azhar Surakarta Kepada pemenang kami sampaikan selamat dan mohon hadiah dapat di ambil di kantor keperawatan RD 104 Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan pada jam kerja, atau hubungi sahuri teguh ( 081804500717) atau Arief Wahyudi ( 085647213628).
Title:Trypanosomatidae Diseases: From the Current Therapy to the Efficacious Role of Trypanothione Reductase in Drug Discovery. VOLUME: 20 ISSUE: 21. Author(s):L.S.C. Bernardes, C.L. Zani and I. Carvalho. Affiliation:Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, Ribeirao Preto-SP, Brazil, CEP 14040-903.. Keywords:Antitrypanosomatidae drugs, trypanosomatidae diseases, trypanothione reductase, trypanothione reductase inhibitors.. Abstract:According to World Health Organization (WHO), trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are the most challenging among the neglected tropical diseases. Comparative studies between Leishmania spp and Trypanosoma cruzi have been conducted aiming to find a broad spectrum antiprotozoal agent acting against both parasites. Among the potential molecular target, Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered an ideal enzyme since it is involved in the unique thiol-based metabolism observed in the Trypanosomatidae ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Diameters of the circular profiles of spherical mitochondria in parenchymal cells of the zona fasciculata in rat adrenal cortex were measured for intact controls and for the regenerating adrenal cortex on electron micrographs recorded at random. The diameter data were then processed by Bachs method which deals with the sphere size distribution. The structural parameters of the mitochondria were computed with the aid of an electronic computer. The total number of mitochondria in all the parenchymal cells of the zona fasciculata were calculated. The surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane was then determined stereologically. Biochemical parameters were obtained for the protein, the phospholipid, and the cytochrome P-450 content, per averaged mitochondrion. The number of cytochrome P-450 molecules contained in the inner membrane was determined in terms of the unit surface area and of the unit amount of phospholipid.
ATCC holdings include genera such as Crithidia, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Leptomonas, Euglena, Naegleria, Trichomonas, and Giardia.
Objective 1: Improve the production and management of non-Apis bees such as blue orchard bees, bumble bees, and alfalfa leafcutting bees for crop pollination by increasing knowledge of bee nutritional needs and environmental effects on bee physiology (especially on diapause and overwintering). Sub-Objective 1.1: Identify the pollen and nectar requirements for maintaining non-Apis bee fitness, in both native and managed ecosystems. Sub-Objective 1.2: Develop a better understanding of the environmental factors that affect diapause in non-Apis bees, and develop methods to improve winter survival. Objective 2: Identify environmental (e.g. poor nutrition) and biological factors associated with bee declines (non-Apis species and the honey bee) and develop methods to diagnose and control non-Apis mortality, such as pollen ball and chalkbrood, that are caused by parasites, pathogens (e.g. Crithidia and viruses of bumble bees), and pesticides. Sub-Objective 2.1: For non-Apis bees, develop methods to ...
Detection of non coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules is a major bioinformatics challenge. This challenge is particularly difficult when attempting to detect H/ACA molecules which are involved in converting uridine to pseudouridine on rRNA in trypanosomes, because these organisms have unique H/ACA molecules (termed H/ACA-like) that lack several of the features that characterize H/ACA molecules in most other organisms. We present here a computational tool called Psiscan, which was designed to detect H/ACA-like molecules in trypanosomes. We started by analyzing known H/ACA-like molecules and characterized their crucial elements both computationally and experimentally. Next, we set up constraints based on this analysis and additional phylogenic and functional data to rapidly scan three trypanosome genomes (T. brucei, T. cruzi and L. major) for sequences that observe these constraints and are conserved among the species. In the next step, we used minimal energy calculation to select the molecules that are predicted
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 has evolutionarily conserved roles in cell signaling and metabolism and is a recognized drug target in neurological pathologies, most prominently bipolar disorder. More recently it has been suggested that GSK3 may be a target for the treatment of trypanosomatid parasite infections, e.g. w
Several thousand people poured into the streets of Haitis capital on Sunday to protest the government of President Michel Martelly.
And the most interesting part of all, its the Japanese Cultural Week! There will be workshops for each day like Ikebana (10th), Sa-dou (11th), Sushi Making Workshop (12th), Origami Workshop (14th), Japanese Film Event (Free movies people!), Japanese Cultural Night (14th March, bus provided, free admission for night event in the Dataran Dewan Canselor!) and exhibition will be held from 10th till 13th, 10am-4pm ...
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the
G.L. Russo, M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo. The pleiotropic flavonoid quercetin: from its metabolism to the inhibition of protein kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Food Funct. 5:2393-401 (2014). T.N. Newman, E. Liverani, E. Ivanova., G.L. Russo, N. Carpino, D. Ganea, F. Safadi, S.P. Kunapuli and A.Y. Tsygankov. Members of the novel UBASH3/STS/TULA family of cellular regulators suppress T-cell-driven inflammatory responses in vivo. Immunology and Cell Biology 1 14; (2014). M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo, S. Bilotto, I. Tedesco, G. Maiani, G. L. Russo. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by quercetin enhances CD95-mediated apoptosis in a human thymus-derived T cell lineOriginal Research Article. Food Res Int. 63: 244 251 (2014). G. L. Russo, M. Russo, I. Castellano, A. Napolitano, A. Palumbo. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line. Marine Drugs 47:132-6 (2014). Russo G. L., Russo M, Spagnuolo C, Tedesco I, Bilotto S, Iannitti R, Palumbo R. Quercetin: a pleiotropic ...
RNH1 - RNH1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 (RNH1), transcript variant 8 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
"Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata". J. Biol. ... "Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ... Comini M, Menge U, Wissing J, Flohé L (February 2005). "Trypanothione synthesis in crithidia revisited". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (8 ...
"Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...
Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthase from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1: 874-883. PMID ...
... including those from Crithidia fasciculata, Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. The structures ... "Purification and characterization of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata, a newly discovered member of the ...
In a traditional Crithidia fasciculata kDNA network, initiation of replication is promoted by the unlinking of kDNA minicircles ... The best studied kDNA structure is that of Crithidia fasciculata, a catenated disk of circular kDNA maxicircles and minicircles ...
Crithidia fasciculata, a trypanosomatid parasite of mosquitos. Glassberg continued his scientific work as one of the founders ... "Isolation and partial characterization of mutants of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata and their use in detecting ...
... has also been used as an alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor in Crithidia fasciculata, which is a ...
... crithidia MeSH B01.500.841.750.443.950.450.868.110.350 --- crithidia fasciculata MeSH B01.500.841.750.443.950.450.868.488 --- ...
... is a species of parasitic excavates. C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host ... C. fasciculata have low host species specificity and can infect many species of mosquito. C. fasciculata is found in two ... ISBN 0-486-65126-6. Awadelkariem, FM; Hunter, KJ; Kirby, GC; Warhurst, DC (February 1995). "Crithidia fasciculata as Feeder ... "An Insight into the Proteome of Crithidia fasciculata Choanomastigotes as a Comparative Approach to Axenic Growth, Peanut ...
... mellificae, is a parasite of the bee. Other species include C. fasciculata, C. deanei, C. desouzai, C. oncopelti, C. ... C. deanei is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. It is not typical of ... Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common ... Crithidia is a genus of trypanosome Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They ...
Samuti esinevad mitokondriaalsed nukleoidid protistides Physarum polycephalum[20] ja Crithidia fasciculate[21]. Nukleoidid on ...
The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel ... The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpellicular microtubules, the ... In vitro translation products from polyadenylated RNA from C. fasciculata were also examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide ... Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: ... Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata. ...
Crithidia fasciculata is a species of parasitic excavates. C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host ... C. fasciculata have low host species specificity and can infect many species of mosquito. C. fasciculata is found in two ... ISBN 0-486-65126-6. Awadelkariem, FM; Hunter, KJ; Kirby, GC; Warhurst, DC (February 1995). "Crithidia fasciculata as Feeder ... "An Insight into the Proteome of Crithidia fasciculata Choanomastigotes as a Comparative Approach to Axenic Growth, Peanut ...
Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Sandra L. OZA, Mark R. ... Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Sandra L. OZA, Mark R. ... In Crithidia fasciculata, two distinct ATP-dependent ligases, glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC 6.3.1.8) and ... Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata Message Subject (Your Name ...
Crithidia RBP33 protein is a phosphoprotein. (A) Western blotting of wild-type (WT) Crithidia and Crithidia cells transformed ... Cell cycle regulation of RPA1 transcript levels in the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3281-3289. ... Crithidia fasciculata cycling sequence binding proteins (CSBP) have been shown to bind with high specificity to sequence ... Preparation of whole-cell extracts from C. fasciculata.Fifty milliliters of Crithidia cultures grown to a density of ∼2 × 107 ...
... by high performance liquid chromatography throughout the growth cycle of the insect trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. The ... Glutathione and Glutathione-Spermidine Conjugates during Growth of the Insect Trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata * HELEN SHIM ... by high performance liquid chromatography throughout the growth cycle of the insect trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. The ...
Crithidia fasciculata Leger (ATCC® 12858™) ATCC® Number: 12858™ Organism: Crithidia fasciculata Strain: Noller ...
Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron ... Crithidia fasciculata Fragment: RESIDUES 14-165 Gene Name(s): txnII Metabolic Pathways ... TRYPAREDOXIN II FROM C.FASCICULATA SOLVED BY MR. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1oc8/pdb ...
Crithidia fasciculata. 652. P90518. GSP_CRIFA. Glutathionylspermidine synthase. Glutathionylspermidine synthase, EC 6.3.1.8 ...
1991) Transition-state analysis of nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochemistry 30(44):10788-10795. ...
"Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata". J. Biol. ... "Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ... Comini M, Menge U, Wissing J, Flohé L (February 2005). "Trypanothione synthesis in crithidia revisited". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (8 ...
"Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...
Crithidia fasciculata. Bacillus subtilis. Bacillus coli. Bacillus welchii. Bacterium orleanense. Bacterium ascendens. Bacterium ...
Alcolea PJ, Alonso A, Garcia-Tabares F, Torano A, Larraga V (2014a) An insight into the proteome of Crithidia fasciculata ... and Crithidia fasciculata show different expression patterns.. Keywords. Leishmania donovani Constitutive proteins 2DE MALDI- ...
Growth-phase dependent substrate adhesion in Crithidia fasciculata. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52(1): 17-22. ...
Duschak VG, Cazzulo JJ (1990) The histones of the insect trypanosomatid,Crithidia fasciculata. Biochim Biophys Acta 1040:159- ...
Application of magnetically induced hyperthermia in the model protozoan Crithidia fasciculata as a potential therapy against ...
Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthase from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1: 874-883. PMID ...
A new expression vector for Crithidia fasciculata and Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol 120: 195-204. [ Links ]. TZINIA AK AND ... Occurrence of N-acetyl- and N-O-diacetyl-neuraminic acid derivatives in wild and mutant Crithidia fasciculata. Parasitol Res 81 ... Identification of a surface metalloproteinase on 13 species of Leishmania isolated from humans, Crithidia fasciculata, and ... The C. fasciculata gene homologue is arranged as a multicopy family comprised of approximately 7 distinct genes, where the ...
A β-like DNA polymerase from the mitochondrion of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. J. Biol. Chem. 269:8165-8171. ... Localization of type II DNA topoisomerase to two sites at the periphery of the kinetoplast DNA of Crithidia fasciculata. Cell ... Kinetoplast DNA replication: mechanistic differences between Trypanosoma brucei and Crithidia fasciculata. J. Cell Biol. 126: ... A mitochondrial DNA primase from the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. J. Biol. Chem. 272:20787-20792. ...
Nucleus-encoded histones and associated with kinetoplast DNA in the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata XU C. W. ...
Crithidia fasciculata; Hs, Homo sapiens; Mm, Mus musculus; Rn, Rattus norvegicus; Tcr, Trypanosoma cruzi; CV, cowpox virus; FPV ... Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata. J Biol ... Characterization of recombinant glutathioninylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochem J. 2002, 364: ...
Crithidia fasciculata (2) * Felis catus (2) * Alphapapillomavirus 9 (1) * Toxoplasma gondii (1) ...
Westermann, S.: Reinigung und Charakterisierung von Tubulin Polyglutamylase aus Crithidia fasciculata. Dissertation, Hannover ( ... Westermann, S.; Schneider, A.; Horn, E. K.; Weber, K.: Isolation of tubulin polyglutamylase from Crithidia; binding to ... as a polypeptide copurifying with tubulin polyglutamylation activity in Crithidia. Journal of Cell Science 115 (24), S. 5003 - ...
1979) The ribosomal RNA of the trypanosomatid protozoan Crithidia fasciculata: physical characteristics and methylated ... of theCrithidia fasciculata rRNA is conserved compared to 3.0% of human and 2.1% of yeast rRNA (34). snoRNAs appear to have two ...
  • Exp Parasitol 83:335-345 Giambiagi-de-Marval M, Lees RA, Monteiro PURSE, Carvalho JFO, Gottesdiener K, de Castro FT, Rondinelli E (1993) The heat-shock reply in Trypanosoma cruzi and Crithidia fasciculata. (hauntershangout.com)
  • A survey of purine- and pyrimidine-metabolising enzymes in promastigotes of L. m. amazonensis, L. donovani and tarentolae, culture forms of Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas muscarum rauscarum and H. m. ingenoplastis and procyclic trypomastigote of Trypanosoma brucei brucei have also been carried out in this study. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Flohé, L. 2003-04-10 00:00:00 Abstract Trypanothione (T(SH)2), the major redox mediator in pathogenic trypanosomatids, is synthetized stepwise by two distinct enzymes in Crithidia fasciculata, while in Trypanosoma cruzi a single enzyme catalyzes both steps. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cytochrome c inhibitors of prokaryotic type translation, or puromycin, oxidase from Crithidia fasciculata has been puri®ed. a general translation inhibitor. (pharmapdf.com)
  • In the present study we demonstrate that C. fasciculata ODC is rapidly degraded also in mammalian systems like CHO cells and rabbit reticulocyte lysate, suggesting that the degradation signals of the enzyme are recognised by the mammalian systems. (lu.se)
  • The degradation of C. fasciculata ODC in the mammalian systems is markedly reduced by inhibition of the 26S proteasome. (lu.se)
  • However, unlike mammalian ODC, C. fasciculata ODC is not downregulated by polyamines. (lu.se)
  • Thus, the turnover of C. fasciculata ODC and L. donovani ODC in the mammalian systems reflects the degradation of the enzyme in the parasites, making such systems potentially useful as complements to parasitic knockout models for further analysis of the mechanisms involved in the rapid degradation of C. fasciculata ODC. (lu.se)
  • On a cellular level, BH 4 has been found to be a growth or proliferation factor for Crithidia fasciculata , haemopoietic cells and various mammalian cell lines. (portlandpress.com)
  • In spite of the difference in stability there is a high degree of sequence homology between C. fasciculata ODC and L. donovani ODC. (lu.se)
  • To overcome the limits of CLIFT and solid phase chromatin assays, we explored the diagnostic potential of an assay based on plasmid DNA containing a highly bent fragment of 211 bp from Crithidia Luciliae minicircles, complexed with histone peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpellicular microtubules, the axonemal microtubules, and the nonpolymerized cytoplasmic pool protein. (mysciencework.com)
  • In vitro translation products from polyadenylated RNA from C. fasciculata were also examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and possessed a protein corresponding to alpha 1/alpha 2 tubulin but lacked any alpha 3 tubulin. (mysciencework.com)
  • Identification of CfNek, a novel member of the NIMA family of cell cycle regulators, as a polypeptide copurifying with tubulin polyglutamylation activity in Crithidia. (mpg.de)
  • Reinigung und Charakterisierung von Tubulin Polyglutamylase aus Crithidia fasciculata. (mpg.de)
  • These results are consistent with the view that acivicin targets GMP and CTP synthetases and that allopurinol targets de novo pyrimidine synthesis in C. Fasciculata. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The best studied kDNA structure is that of Crithidia fasciculata, a catenated disk of circular kDNA maxicircles and minicircles, most of which are not supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a traditional Crithidia fasciculata kDNA network, initiation of replication is promoted by the unlinking of kDNA minicircles via topoisomerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • value for acivicin that yielded the 50% growth inhibition of logarithmically growing Crithidia fasciculata in a serum-free medium at 27^゚C was 1.5 uM, and the value for allopurinol was 10 uM. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] AOKI,Takashi: 'Mechanism of growth inhibition by acivicin and allopurinol,singly and in combination of Crithidia fasciculate' Proceedings(Program and Abstracts)of the 8th International Congress of Protozoology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Aoki, T.: 'Mechanism of growth inhibition by acivicin and allopurinol, singly and in combination, of Crithidia fasciculata' Proc. (nii.ac.jp)