A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE which depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. It is an ingredient of Zhenxuanyin (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.

Isolation of tubulin polyglutamylase from Crithidia; binding to microtubules and tubulin, and glutamylation of mammalian brain alpha- and beta-tubulins. (1/119)

Trypanosomatids have a striking cage-like arrangement of submembraneous microtubules. We previously showed that alpha- and beta- tubulins of these stable microtubules are extensively modified by polyglutamylation. Cytoskeletal microtubular preparations obtained by Triton extraction of Leishmania tarentolae and Crithidia fasciculata retain an enzymatic activity that incorporates radioactive glutamic acid in a Mg2+-ATP-dependent manner into alpha- and beta-tubulins. The tubulin polyglutamylase is extracted by 0.25 M salt. The Crithidia enzyme can be purified by ATP-affinity chromatography, glycerol-gradient centrifugation and ion-exchange chromatography. After extraction from the microtubular cytoskeleton the glutamylase forms a complex with alphabeta tubulin, but behaves after removal of tubulin as a globular protein with a molecular mass of 38x10(3). In highly enriched fractions a corresponding band is the major polypeptide visible in SDS-PAGE. The enzyme from Crithidia recognises mammalian brain tubulin, where it incorporates glutamic acid preferentially into the more acidic variants of both alpha- and beta-tubulins. Synthetic peptides with an oligoglutamyl side chain, corresponding to the carboxy-terminal end of brain alpha- and beta-tubulins, are accepted by the enzyme, albeit at low efficiency. The polyglutamylase elongates the side chain by up to 3 and 5 residues, respectively. Other properties of the tubulin polyglutamylase are also discussed.  (+info)

The kinetoplast structure-specific endonuclease I is related to the 5' exo/endonuclease domain of bacterial DNA polymerase I and colocalizes with the kinetoplast topoisomerase II and DNA polymerase beta during replication. (2/119)

The mitochondrial DNA (kinetoplast DNA) of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata has an unusual structure composed of minicircles and maxicircles topologically interlocked into a single network and organized in a disc-shaped structure at the base of the flagellum. We previously purified a structure-specific endonuclease (SSE1), based on its RNase H activity, that is enriched in isolated kinetoplasts. The endonuclease gene has now been cloned, sequenced, and found to be closely related to the 5' exonuclease domain of bacterial DNA polymerase I proteins. Although the protein does not contain a typical mitochondrial leader sequence, the enzyme is shown to colocalize with a type II DNA topoisomerase and a DNA polymerase beta at antipodal sites flanking the kinetoplast disc. Cell synchronization studies with an epitope-tagged construct show that the localization of the endonuclease to the antipodal sites varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner similar to that of the DNA polymerase beta [Johnson, C. E. & Englund, P. T. (1998) J. Cell Biol. 143, 911-919]. Immunofluorescent localization of SSE1 to the antipodal sites is only observed during kinetoplast replication. Together, these results suggest a point of control for kinetoplast DNA replication through the regulation of the availability of DNA replication proteins and a possible role for the antipodal sites in removal of RNA primers and the repair of gaps in newly replicated minicircles.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a hyperinducible, surface membrane-anchored, class I nuclease of a trypanosomatid parasite. (3/119)

The 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'-NT/NU) is a surface enzyme unique to trypanosomatid parasites. These organisms lack the pathway for de novo purine biosynthesis and thus are entirely dependent upon their hosts to supply this nutrient for their survival, growth, and multiplication. The 3'-NT/NU is involved in the salvage of preformed purines via the hydrolysis of either 3'-nucleotides or nucleic acids. In Crithidia luciliae, this enzyme is highly inducible. For example, in these organisms purine starvation triggers an approximately 1000-fold up-expression of 3'-NT/NU activity. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a gene encoding this intriguing enzyme from C. luciliae (Cl). Sequence analysis showed that the Cl 3'-NT/NU deduced protein possessed five regions, which we defined here as being characteristic of members of the class I nuclease family. Further, we demonstrated that the Cl 3'-NT/NU-expressed protein possessed both 3'-nucleotidase and nuclease activities. Moreover, we showed that the dramatic up-expression of 3'-NT/NU activity in response to purine starvation of C. luciliae was concomitant with the approximately 100-fold elevation in steady-state mRNA specific for this gene. Finally, results of our nuclear run-on analyses demonstrated that such up-regulation in 3'-NT/NU enzyme activity was mediated at the posttranscriptional level.  (+info)

Atypical processing in domain III of 23S rRNA of Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004(T) at a position homologous to an rRNA fragmentation site in protozoa. (4/119)

For still unknown reasons, the 23S rRNA of many alpha-Proteobacteria shows a unique fragmentation pattern compared to other bacteria. The 23S rRNA processing involves RNase III and additional, yet unidentified enzymes. The alpha-proteobacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004(T) possesses two fragmentation sites in its 23S rRNA. The first one harbors an intervening sequence in helix 9 which is cleaved by RNase III. We demonstrate that the mature 5' end of the resulting 2.6-kb rRNA fragment is generated by additional removal of helix 10. A fraction of the 2.6-kb rRNA is further processed in domain III, giving rise to two 1.3-kb rRNA fragments. We mapped the domain III fragmentation site and found it to be at a position which has only been reported for trypanosomatid protozoa. This fragmentation site is also unique in that it lacks an intervening sequence. We found that the simultaneous occurrence of 2.6-kb and 1.3-kb rRNA fragments is not due to interoperonal sequence differences but rather reflects slow processing. The different characteristics of the two fragmentation sites in the 23S rRNA suggest that they are processed by different mechanisms. Interestingly, the amount of 2.6-kb rRNA varies during culture growth. We observed a transient increase in the relative amount of 2.6-kb rRNA fragments during the first hours after inoculation, which points to changes in the ratio of rRNA synthesis rate to domain III processing rate during the growth of a culture.  (+info)

Site-specific interactions of JBP with base and sugar moieties in duplex J-DNA. Evidence for both major and minor groove contacts. (5/119)

Beta-D-Glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, also called base J, is an unusually modified DNA base conserved among Kinetoplastida. Base J is found predominantly in repetitive DNA and correlates with epigenetic silencing of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes. We have previously identified a J-binding protein (JBP) in Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Crithidia, and we have shown that it is a structure-specific binding protein. Here we examine the molecular interactions that contribute to recognition of the glycosylated base in synthetic DNA substrates using modification interference, modification protection, DNA footprinting, and photocross-linking techniques. We find that the two primary requirements for J-DNA recognition include contacts at base J and a base immediately 5' of J (J-1). Methylation interference analysis indicates that the requirement of the base at position J-1 is due to a major groove contact independent of the sequence. DNA footprinting of the JBP.J-DNA complex with 1,10-phenanthroline-copper demonstrates that JBP contacts the minor groove at base J. Substitution of the thymine moiety of J with cytosine reduces the affinity for JBP approximately 15-fold. These data indicate that the sole sequence dependence for JBP binding may lie in the thymine moiety of base J and that recognition requires only two specific base contacts, base J and J-1, within both the major and minor groove of the J-DNA duplex.  (+info)

A single enzyme catalyses formation of Trypanothione from glutathione and spermidine in Trypanosoma cruzi. (6/119)

Protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida differ from other organisms in their ability to conjugate glutathione (l-gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) and spermidine to form trypanothione [N(1),N(8)-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine], a metabolite involved in defense against chemical and oxidant stress and other biosynthetic functions. In Crithidia fasciculata, trypanothione is synthesized from GSH and spermidine via the intermediate glutathionylspermidine in two distinct ATP-dependent reactions catalyzed by glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC ) and trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC ), respectively. Here we have cloned a single copy gene (TcTryS) from Trypanosoma cruzi encoding a protein with 61% sequence identity with CfTryS but only 31% with CfGspS. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with TcTryS were able to synthesize glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione, suggesting that this enzyme is able to catalyze both biosynthetic steps, unlike CfTryS. When cultures were supplemented with aminopropylcadaverine, yeast transformants contained glutathionylaminopropylcadaverine and homotrypanothione [N(1),N(9)-bis(glutathionyl)aminopropylcadaverine], metabolites that have been previously identified in T. cruzi, but not in C. fasciculata. Kinetic studies on recombinant TcTryS purified from Escherichia coli revealed that the enzyme displays high-substrate inhibition with glutathione (K(m) and K(i) of 0.57 and 1.2 mm, respectively, and k(cat) of 3.4 s(-1)), but obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics with spermidine, aminopropylcadaverine, glutathionylspermidine, and MgATP as variable substrate. The recombinant enzyme possesses weak amidase activity and can hydrolyze trypanothione, homotrypanothione, or glutathionylspermidine to glutathione and the corresponding polyamine.  (+info)

Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations. (7/119)

Thirty-six Trypanosomatidae stocks isolated from various hosts and geographical areas in Colombia and 7 others from Bolivia, Chile, Honduras and Panama have been surveyed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Part of the Colombian stocks were previously characterized by morphology and biological behavior as belonging to Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli taxa, others were unknown species. The genetic variability observed at 13 different loci was considerable, since 38 zymodemes could be distinguished and 2 upper branches were observed. The first branch corresponded to T. cruzi and was divided in the two major phylogenetic subdivision of T. cruzi (T. cruzi I, T. cruzi II). The majority of the Colombian T. cruzi stocks (92%) felt into T. cruzi I. Only two stocks, isolated from sylvatic mammals, belonged to T. cruzi II. Among T. cruzi I, we did not observed any additional phylogenetic subdivision and host-dependent genotype specificity. The second branch was genetically very heterogeneous and included all T. rangeli stocks, the stocks isolated from bats and one stock isolated from a sylvatic R. prolixus vector. The stocks belonging to T. rangeli presented only one locus instead of two for the malic enzyme system. Since, the upper level of resolution of the isoenzyme method was exceeded, the current clustering study failed to draw a clear distinction between such a diverse set of Trypanosomatidae species.  (+info)

Genome scan stratified by the presence of anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) autoantibody in pedigrees multiplex for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) establishes linkages at 19p13.2 (SLED1) and 18q21.1 (SLED2). (8/119)

Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) is arguably one of the most specific autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This antibody is associated with more severe SLE and with glomerulonephritis. From 196 pedigrees multiplex for SLE, we selected those that had any SLE affected positive for anti-dsDNA by the Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast imunofluorescence assay. This stratification strategy tested the hypothesis that anti-dsDNA would identify a more genetically homogeneous group of pedigrees, in which previously undetected linkage effects could be established. A genome screen data for linkage to SLE was available at 307 microsatellite markers for this selected group of 71 pedigrees: 37 European-American, 29 African-American, and five others. The most significant results were obtained at 19p13.2 (LOD(max) = 4.93), named SLED1, in the 37 European-American pedigrees using a dominant model with mixed penetrances (92% for females and 49% for males) at 100% homogeneity (theta = 0). A second linkage effect, SLED2, was established in the 29 African-American pedigrees at 18q21.1 (LOD(max) = 3.40) using a recessive model with 100% penetrance (theta = 0.1). Parametric and non-parametric multipoint analyses were performed, which provided further evidence and support of susceptibility genes residing in these regions. In conclusion, two powerful linkages have been detected with SLE based on the presence of anti-dsDNA. These findings show SLE to be a richly complicated disease phenotype that is now ripe for important new discovery through a genetic approach.  (+info)

Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel
Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs. Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee disease transmission networks. Larvae that were artificially inoculated with C. bombi showed no signs of infection seven days after inoculation. However, larvae that received either an artificial inoculation or a contaminated feed from brood-caring workers were able to transmit the parasite to naive workers. These results ...
GRIEMBERG, Gloria et al. Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.66, n.1, pp. 3-8. ISSN 1669-9106.. Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. Other structures such as membrane, flagellum and basal corpuscle can be stained as well, showing what is called atypical fluorescent images. As C. luciliae belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family, which include the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., it was considered that these atypical images could be caused by cross-reactions. Serological studies for Chagas disease were performed in 105 serum samples displaying atypical images. Sixty four percent of the samples from non endemic and 78.3% from endemic areas for Chagas disease ...
Crithidia luciliae is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host.[2] As part of the family of Trypanosomatidae, they are characterised by the presence of a kinetoplast; a complex network of interlocking circular dsDNA molecules. The presence of this kinetoplast means they are important in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythamatosus (SLE). By using C.luciliae as a substrate for immunofluorescence, the organelle can be used to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies, a common feature of the disease.[3][4]. ...
I. Flagella and cell bodies of Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti were irradiated at preselected points with a pulsed ruby laser microbeam. Results were recorded by high-speed cinephotomicrography. A flagellum could be completely amputated at the irradiated point.. 2. The portion of the flagellum between the cell body and the irradiated point beat from the base after irradiation. The amputated portion of the flagellum could beat from either the tip or the irradiated point, and could beat first from the tip and then from the irradiated point or vice versa. Beating could continue for up to ten cycles.. 3. For flagellar activity in this organism neither a unique region of the flagellum nor the cell body is necessary. Wave propagation appears to involve the transmission of a signal at a greater velocity than that of the wave. The results favour a model of bend propagation which allows for a distribution of autonomous initiators along the flagellar length.. ...
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Not to be confused with the fungi genus Chytridium. Crithidia is a genus of trypanosome Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They pass from host to host as cysts in infective faeces and typically, the parasites develop in the digestive tracts of insects and interact with the intestinal epithelium using their flagellum. They display very low host-specificity and a single parasite can infect a large range of invertebrate hosts. At different points in its life-cycle, it passes through amastigote, promastigote, and epimastigote phases; the last is particularly characteristic, and similar stages in other trypanosomes are often called crithidial. Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common species like Bombus terrestris, Bombus muscorum, and Bombus hortorum. The parasites negatively impact reproductive fitness of Bombus queens, as they affect their ovarian development as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of Mitochondria from Protozoa and Algae. AU - Buetow, D. E.. PY - 1970/1/1. Y1 - 1970/1/1. N2 - This chapter discusses the preparation of mitochondria from protozoa and algae. The isolation and properties of mitochondria from various higher plants and from the tissues of animals are extensively studied. Oxidative phosphorylation has been observed in cell-free systems isolated from bacteria, yeast, and Neurospora. Until recently there was little success in the isolation of mitochondria from protozoa and algae. This chapter brings together the recently developed techniques on these latter cell types. So far, tightly coupled mitochondria have been isolated only from Tetrahymena pyriformis and from Prototheca zopfii. A wide variety of techniques for determining yields of mitochondria1 protein are available. Two commonly used techniques are those of Lowry et al. and Gornall et al. The trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata has been used recently in mitochondria studies by ...
Phytochemicals produced by plants, including at flowers, function in protection against plant diseases, and have a long history of use against trypanosome infection. Floral nectar and pollen, the sole food sources for many species of insect pollinators, contain phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce trypanosome infection in bumble and honey bees when fed as isolated compounds. Nectar and pollen, however, consist of phytochemical mixtures, which can have greater antimicrobial activity than do single compounds. This study tested the hypothesis that pollen extracts would inhibit parasite growth.Extracts of six different pollens were tested for direct inhibitory activity against cell cultures of the bumble bee trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi. Surprisingly, pollen extracts increased parasite growth rather than inhibiting it. Experimental manipulations of growth media showed that supplemental monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) were sufficient to promote growth, while a common floral
Crithidia confusa ATCC ® PRA-346™ Designation: 320AR Isolation: Intestine of Largus cf. cinctus (Heteroptera), Alajuela Province, Costa Rica, 2009
Anti-Nuclear Antibodies HEp-2 (ANA-HEp-2), HEp-2 Cells; Anti-nDNA Antibodies (nDNA), Crithidia Luciliae; Anti-Endomysium Antibodies (AEA), Monkey Esophagus; Anti-Thyroid Antibodies (ATA), Monkey Thyroid; Autoantibodies RL/RK/RS, Rat Liver/Kidney/Stomach; Autoantibodies MsL/MsK/MsS Mouse Liver/Kidney/Stomach; Autoantibodies RL/RKm/RS Rat Liver / Kidney (with medulla/Stomach); Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibodies (ASMA) RatStomach; Anti-Gliadin Antibodies (AGA) Rat Kidney; Anti-Mitochondrial Antibodies (AMA) Rat Kidney; Autoantibodies RK/RS Rat Kidney / Stomach; Autoantibodies MsK/MsS Mouse Kidney / Stomach; Anti-Nuclear Antibodies RL (ANA-RL) Rat Liver. Cells Slides Boxes: ANA-HEp-2 Anti-nDNA Antibodies (nDNA ...
CO-TWO je praktické kombo CO2 hustilky a klasické mini. Hliníkové tělo v kombinaci s CO2 bombičkou nahustí cyklopneumatiku téměř okamžitě. Dodávaná s duální koncovkou pro galuskové i auto ventilky.
Several species of bumble bees are declining in the United States; these declining populations often show higher prevalence of Nosema bombi, a microsporidian pathogen. To date, surveys of bumble bee pathogens in the United States have only been conducted on workers and males, yet the health of a population is ultimately dependent on the success of colony-founding queens. We conducted a molecular-diagnostic survey of the prevalence of N. bombi and trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia bombi, in six species of spring queens (n = 142) collected in 2011 and 2013 at three sites in central Kansas. Nosema bombi was found in 27% of Bombus pensylvanicus and 13% of B. auricomus but was not found in the other species sampled. Trypanosomatids were only found in B. pensylvanicus (9%) during the May 2013 sampling period. The high prevalence of N. bombi in B. pensylvanicus is consistent with other surveys for this pathogen in other castes, but the high prevalence of N. bombi in B. auricomus is a novel finding. ...
A total of 1940 isolates from gut samples of 60 bumblebees representing Bombus pascuorum, Bombus terrestris, Bombus lucorum and Bombus lapidarius was collected and identified through state-of the-art taxonomic methods. The bacterial species diversity in these Bombus species exceeded that suggested by phylotype analysis through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and revealed that B. pascuorum and B. terrestris had a unique microbiota composition, each. Representatives of most phylotypes reported earlier and detected in the present study were effectively isolated, and included several novel bacterial taxa and species reported for the first time in the bumblebee gut. Isolates were screened in pectin degradation assays and growth inhibition assays against the honeybee pathogens Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius and Ascosphaera apis and the bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi. While inhibitory activity against each of these pathogens was observed, only one single culture was able to degrade ...
Methods A cohort of 36 subjects with active SLE presenting with classical complement activation were enrolled and followed monthly for 1 year. At each study visit blood was collected, serum isolated and frozen until analysis. A total of 371 specimens were collected. Disease activity was scored on the day of each study visit according to the SELENA-SLEDAI method excluding anti-dsDNA or complement components (non-serological [ns] SELENA-SLEDAI). All specimens were tested using four different anti-dsDNA kits; QUANTA Lite, QUANTA Flash, a high Avidity anti-dsDNA ELISA, and the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence assay (CLIFT) (Inova Diagnostics, San Diego, CA). Study visits presenting with inactive disease (ns-SELENA- SLEDAI score=0) were compared to those presenting with active disease (ns-SELENA- SLEDAI,0). The longitudinal data were analyzed using linear mixed effect modeling with the ns-SELENA-SLEDAI as dependent variable and the anti-dsDNA titers as fixed effect predictors. Marginal ...
In addition to these heteroxenous organisms, several genera such as Crithidia, Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, Herpetomonas and Rhynchoidomonas are restricted to a single host from such widely diverse groups of invertebrates as ciliates, rotifers, nematodes, mollusks, annelids and arachnids, but are found predominantly in insects (Wallace 1966, McGhee and Cosgrove 1980, Vickerman 1994). Insect trypanosomatids have been traditionally allocated to distinct genera that were described based on morphological features, host and geographical origin (Wallace et al. 1983, Momen 2001). However, for identification purposes, these criteria proved to be impractical and insufficient, because different genera share the same evolutive forms (Wallace 1966) and because a diverse range of insects and plants can alberg lower trypanosomatids (Catarino et al. 2001). Therefore, the same trypanosomatid species may be recovered from diverse species of insects or plants and the same insect species may harbor various species ...
The most parsimonious tree was obtained via using DHFR-TS sequences of Crithidia fasciculata, a monogenetic trypanosomatid, as outgroup (Fernandes and Beverley
Qualitatively different immune response of the bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, to infection by different genotypes of the trypanosome gut parasite, Crithidia ...
1OC8: Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron Radiation and Evidence for a Conformational Switch Implicated in Function
The deformed wing virus (DWV), known to be ubiquitous in honey bees, has now been detected in bumblebees. In addition, the neogregarine Apicystis bombi has been discovered to be more prevalent than previously thought. Here, we assess for the first time the lethal and sublethal effects of these parasites during single and mixed infections of worker bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, we find that A. bombi exhibits both lethal and sublethal effects. DWV causes lethal effect and may reduce the sub lethal effects imposed by A. bombi. The results show that both parasites have significant, negative effects on bumblebee health, making them potentially of conservation concern. more here: http://graystock.info/publications/single-and-mixed-infections-of-apicystis-bombi-and-deformed-wing-virus-2015/. ...
Researchers recently unearthed the first archaeological evidence of intestinal parasites described by Hippocrates 2,500 years ago.
ATCC holdings include genera such as Crithidia, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Leptomonas, Euglena, Naegleria, Trichomonas, and Giardia.
The test gives an idea of how well foods are digested and absorbed, gives some products of gut fermentation, looks for blood in the stool, gives counts of bacteria and yeast, identifies those bacteria which should not be there and gives a list of antibiotic and anti-fungal preparations, both herbal and drug, to which that micro-organism is sensitive. N.B. If this test is requested as a second or subsequent test on an order, please contact the Office because there will be a small additional interpretation fee due to the complexity of this test result. Please see Ordering Tests for worked examples of how to calculate the costs of tests and their interpretations. The stool analysis is carried out at Genova Diagnostics in the US. Please, note this test does not include looking for gut parasites. For that, see Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis with parasitology or Parasitology. A second test, CDSA 2.0 was then designed with some markers that supersede the original CDSA. CDSA 2.0 does not report ...
Putnick, DL; Bornstein, MH; Lansford, JE; Malone, PS; Pastorelli, C; Skinner, AT; Sorbring, E; Tapanya, S; Uribe Tirado, LM; Zelli, A; Alampay, LP; Al-Hassan, SM; Bacchini, D; Bombi, AS; Chang, L; Deater-Deckard, K; Di Giunta, L; Dodge, KA; Oburu, P. Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries.. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 56.8 (August, 2015): 923-932. [doi] [abs] ...
The effects of acriflavine on two species of Trypanosomatidae, Crithidia luciliae and Trypanosoma mega, have been investigated. It has been observed that kinetoplastic (i.e. mitochondrial) DNA is lost in a high percentage of acriflavine-treated cells. Resting flagellates, from stationary-phase or hemin-deficient cultures, are considerably more resistant to the acridine than are flagellates from a log-phase culture. When the kinetoplast has retained some DNA and still remains visible in stained smears, it appears reduced in size, and its ultrastructure is extremely abnormal: the DNA fibrils, clearly visible in normal kinetoplasts, are condensed; they appear as an electron-opaque, apparently homogeneous mass, separated from the membranes by a space of low electron-opacity. Analyses of DNA extracts, with high speed centrifugation in CsCl density gradients, revealed that the satellite band, presumably kinetoplastic DNA, is lost by trypanosomes grown for 5 days in the presence of acriflavine. ...
Objective: An Italian multicentre study was promoted in order to assess the accuracy of four anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody assays for SLE diagnosis and monitoring. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three patients with established SLE according to ACR classification criteria were enrolled from 9 centres. They included 59 patients at first evaluation (disease duration ,12 months) and 164 with longer disease duration (median disease duration 120 months). The sera from 55 healthy subjects and 161 patients with rheumatic, infectious or neoplastic diseases were tested as controls. SLE activity was measured by ECLAM score. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected in serum by means of FarrzymeTM assay, fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (EliATM), Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence (CLIFT) or Farr radioimmunoassay (Farr). Cut-off values of quantitative assays were chosen by ROC curves analysis. Statistics were conducted by SPSS software package. Results: Sensitivity for SLE diagnosis ranged between ...
Flowering strips - pollinator-friendly rows of plants that increase foraging habitat for bees - can help offset pollinator decline but may also bring risks of higher pathogen infection rates for pollinators foraging in those strips.. Researchers from North Carolina State University and the University of Massachusetts Amherst show that flowering strip plants generally benefitted bee colony reproduction by adding floral resources for common eastern bumble bees (Bombus impatiens). The results came with a tradeoff, however, as bumble bees exposed to certain plants showed higher rates of infection by a bee pathogen acquired on flowers - Crithidia bombi, which is associated with reduced bee-foraging abilities as well as mortality in food-compromised bees.. The study showed that certain high-infection plants doubled C. bombi infection intensity when compared with low-infection plant species. Bees feeding mostly on canola plants - a major bee foraging plant and important U.S. crop - showed infection ...
article{9d3be0e5-e41f-4a44-8c51-3977de05b2b1, abstract = {Mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which catalyses the first step in polyamine biosynthesis, has a very fast turnover. It is degraded by the 26S proteasome in an ubiquitin-independent process and the degradation is stimulated by polyamines in a feedback control of the enzyme. Interestingly, there is a major difference in the metabolic stability between ODCs from various trypanosomatids. Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani both contain stable ODCs, whereas Crithidia fasciculata has an ODC with a rapid turnover. In spite of the difference in stability there is a high degree of sequence homology between C. fasciculata ODC and L. donovani ODC. In the present study we demonstrate that C. fasciculata ODC is rapidly degraded also in mammalian systems like CHO cells and rabbit reticulocyte lysate, suggesting that the degradation signals of the enzyme are recognised by the mammalian systems. L. donovani ODC, on the other hand, is ...
The disinfectants TriGene, bleach, ethanol and liquid hand soap, and water and temperature were tested for their ability to kill bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli and promastigotes of Leishmania major. A 5-min exposure to 0.2% TriGene, 0.1% liquid hand soap and 0.05% bleach (0.05% NaOCl) killed all three trypanosomatids. Ethanol and water destroyed the parasites within 5 min at concentrations of 15-17.5% and 80-90%, respectively. All three organisms were also killed when treated for 5 min at 50°C. The results indicate that the disinfectants, water and temperature treatment (i.e. autoclaving) are suitable laboratory hygiene measures against trypanosomatid parasites.
By Kaelynn Parker and Abigail Delapenha. Faculty mentor: Professor Swati Agrawal. Crithidia fasciculata belongs to a group of parasites called kinetoplastids that comprise many important human pathogens. Evidence of apoptosis has been found in these parasites with pathways that appear to be different than in mammalian cells. Therefore, careful characterization of these pathways can provide ways to manipulate parasite infection which could be used to create better treatments for these diseases. In this study, potential apoptosis genes conserved across all kinetoplastid parasites were identified using gene prediction programs in Tri-TrypDB and BLAST searches. Homologous genes were identified in C. fasciculata and a comprehensive q-PCR analysis showed differential upregulation upon induction of apoptosis. One of the genes significantly changed was Bax1 inhibitory gene (Bax1i), an inhibitor of the putative apoptosis promoting Bax1. In order to characterize this gene further we made gene modification ...
By Kaelynn Parker and Abigail Delapenha. Faculty mentor: Professor Swati Agrawal. Crithidia fasciculata belongs to a group of parasites called kinetoplastids that comprise many important human pathogens. Evidence of apoptosis has been found in these parasites with pathways that appear to be different than in mammalian cells. Therefore, careful characterization of these pathways can provide ways to manipulate parasite infection which could be used to create better treatments for these diseases. In this study, potential apoptosis genes conserved across all kinetoplastid parasites were identified using gene prediction programs in Tri-TrypDB and BLAST searches. Homologous genes were identified in C. fasciculata and a comprehensive q-PCR analysis showed differential upregulation upon induction of apoptosis. One of the genes significantly changed was Bax1 inhibitory gene (Bax1i), an inhibitor of the putative apoptosis promoting Bax1. In order to characterize this gene further we made gene modification ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of inhibitor binding free energies by quantum neural networks. Nucleoside analogues binding to trypanosomal nucleoside hydrolase. AU - Braunheim, Benjamin B.. AU - Miles, Robert W.. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. AU - Schwartz, Steven D.. PY - 1999/12/7. Y1 - 1999/12/7. N2 - A computational method has been developed to predict inhibitor binding energy for untested inhibitor molecules. A neural network is trained from the electrostatic potential surfaces of known inhibitors and their binding energies. The algorithm is then able to predict, with high accuracy, the binding energy of unknown inhibitors. IU-nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata and the inhibitor molecules described previously [Miles, R. W. Tyler, P. C. Evans, G. Fumeaux R. H., ParK(i)n, D. W., and Schramm, V. L. (1999) Biochemistry 38, xxxx-xxxx] are used as the test system. Discrete points on the molecular electrostatic potential surface of inhibitor molecules are input to neural networks to identify the ...
Objective 1: Improve the production and management of non-Apis bees such as blue orchard bees, bumble bees, and alfalfa leafcutting bees for crop pollination by increasing knowledge of bee nutritional needs and environmental effects on bee physiology (especially on diapause and overwintering). Sub-Objective 1.1: Identify the pollen and nectar requirements for maintaining non-Apis bee fitness, in both native and managed ecosystems. Sub-Objective 1.2: Develop a better understanding of the environmental factors that affect diapause in non-Apis bees, and develop methods to improve winter survival. Objective 2: Identify environmental (e.g. poor nutrition) and biological factors associated with bee declines (non-Apis species and the honey bee) and develop methods to diagnose and control non-Apis mortality, such as pollen ball and chalkbrood, that are caused by parasites, pathogens (e.g. Crithidia and viruses of bumble bees), and pesticides. Sub-Objective 2.1: For non-Apis bees, develop methods to ...
Gut parasites tend to shed eggs/infectious sections constantly when mature. Other fish definitely investigate the waste o other fish, as few fish have appetite suppression when they are full - when food is abundant (standard in captivity if suitable foods are used), fish will continue eating so long as food is available, even if undigested food is being pushed out the other end. Investigating other fishs waste is actually and effective feeding practice in the wild. There it lack the density we have in captive systems. But it does increase to chance of parasite infestation. In the wild, if that gives the fish the extra nutrition need to reproduce sooner or lager numbers of eggs/sperm, they may increase theor numbers in the next generation even if they may die sooner from parasites. Survival goals in captivity are quite different drom those in the wild ...
Abstract. We show using PCR that psbC, atpA and petB genes are present in the plastid DNA minicircles from the dinoflagellate… Expand ...
Lansford, JE; Woodlief, D; Malone, PS; Oburu, P; Pastorelli, C; Skinner, AT; Sorbring, E; Tapanya, S; Tirado, LMU; Zelli, A; Al-Hassan, SM; Alampay, LP; Bacchini, D; Bombi, AS; Bornstein, MH; Chang, L; Deater-Deckard, K; Di Giunta, L; Dodge, KA, A longitudinal examination of mothers and fathers social information processing biases and harsh discipline in nine countries., Development and Psychopathology, vol. 26 no. 3 (August, 2014), pp. 561-573, ISSN 0954-5794 [doi] [abs] [parenting ...
Glycerol sa používa o. i. v kozmetických výrobkoch, hlavne ako prísada v hydratačných krémoch a mydlách, ako prísada do zubných pást, pri výrobe plastických hmôt hlavne ako zmäkčovadlo, liečiv, žuvačiek, pást, farbív a výbušnín. Používa sa tiež pri výrobe bezvodého etanolu pre odstránenie prímesi vody. Je súčasťou nemrznúcich zmesí, väčšinou v kombinácii s etylénglykolom. V potravinárskom priemysle sa užíva ako prísada pre úpravu nápojov a mene kvalitných vín, ako sladidlo napr. v šľahačkách v bombičkách, ako zmäkčovadlo želé a iných cukroviniek a pod. Ako súčasť potravín má označenie E 422. V lekárstve sa užíva pri liečbe opuchov mozgu ako prísada infúzií, na znižovanie vnútroočného tlaku, pri zápchach, na zmäkčenie stolice vo forme glycerínových čípkov alebo ako súčasť klystíru. ...
This node is fictional. Refer to Continental Class Space Battleships. The discontinuity drive a/k/a D generator is what propels a Continenta...
The trypanosomatid protists belonging to Order Kinetoplastida are some of the most successful parasites ever known to mankind. Their extreme physiological diversity and adaptability to different environmental conditions and host systems make them some of the most widespread parasites, causing deadly diseases in humans and other vertebrates. This project focuses on their unique mitochondrion, called the kinetoplast, and more specifically involves the characterization of a part of their mitochondrial DNA (also called kinetoplast DNA or kDNA), the maxicircles, which are functional homologs of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA in the kinetoplastid protists. We have sequenced and characterized the maxicircle genomes of 20 new trypanosomatids and compared them with 8 previously published maxicircle genomes of other trypanosomatids. Transcripts of ~13 of the 20 total genes in these maxicircles undergo post-transcriptional modifications involving the insertion and deletion of U residues at precise sites, to yield
When you want sustained transgene expression without introducing any foreign DNA-such as for model animal and gene therapy development-Minicircle Technology is a great gene expression option. Produced as small excised, circular DNA fragments from a parental plasmid, the non-viral, episomal Minicircle expression cassette is free of any bacterial plasmid DNA sequences, and comes with a variety of promoter and reporter combinations. Their small size facilitates more efficient transfection than whats possible with standard-sized plasmids, and, while Minicircles do not replicate with the host cell, expression lasts for 14 days or longer in dividing cells, and can continue for months in non-dividing cells.. Product Note:. Parental minicircle plasmids and the ZYCY10P3S2T Producer Bacterial Strain are available for purchase by not-for-profit researchers only. Commercial users may purchase pre-made, ready-to-transfect minicircle DNA only. SBI also offers custom parental plasmid cloning and minicircle ...
Abstract Kinetoplast DNA is the mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatids. This DNA consists primarily of thousands of small minicircles which are linked together to form a giant network. Replication of this DNA involves release of individual minicircles from the network to form free minicircles. The free minicircles then replicate and the two progeny are reattached to the network. When all minicircles within the network have replicated, the double-sized network divides to form two progeny structures which are each identical to the parent network.
Many trypanosomatid protozoa are important human or animal pathogens. The well defined morphology and precisely choreographed division of trypanosomatid cells makes morphological analysis a powerful tool for analyzing the effect of mutations, chemical insults and changes between lifecycle stages. High-throughput image analysis of micrographs has the potential to accelerate collection of quantitative morphological data. Trypanosomatid cells have two large DNA-containing organelles, the kinetoplast (mitochondrial DNA) and nucleus, which provide useful markers for morphometric analysis; however they need to be accurately identified and often lie in close proximity. This presents a technical challenge. Accurate identification and quantitation of the DNA content of these organelles is a central requirement of any automated analysis method. We have developed a technique based on double staining of the DNA with a minor groove binding (4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)) and a base pair intercalating
Research has confirmed the important connection between our brain and our colon. When we talk about a gut feeling, its because this connection is genuinely physical.. The brain and the gut are directly connected by the vagus nerve. It extends from the brainstem to the abdomen, and is an open line of communication. Cells in the gut produce the neurotransmitter serotonin.. Research has confirmed the connection between a healthy gut and a reduced risk of Alzheimers disease and dementia,4 as well as how certain gut parasites can compromise brain health.5. In a recent study, scientists transferred gut bacteria from old mice to younger mice. The younger mice developed age-related chronic inflammation as a result.6 Research has helped explain just how this type of long-term inflammation in the gut leads to diminished brain health.7. When dietary factors like lectins make changes to the structure of the gut, especially when they allow bacteria to escape, it results in low-grade inflammation in the ...
If you are looking for track and cross country adventure. The Kootenays offers a Motocross track and cross country off road motorcycle facility, with 18 km of single track. Offering 3 loops for the intermediate to difficult. Located on Beavervale Creek Forest Service Road,on the Bombi Summit 4Km from the Salmo side, 21 km from the Castlegar side. Day Passes available. Check out the West Kootenay Recreational Dirt Bike & ATV Society for more information about membership and scheduled events.. ...
Morris JC, Drew ME, Klingbeil MM, Motyka SA, Saxowsky TT, Wang Z, Englund PT. 2001. Replication of kinetoplast DNA: an update for the new millennium.. Int J Parasitol. 31(5-6):453-8. ...
To bring promising anti- trypanosomatid drug discovery initiatives forward with the help of key experts in industry and academia to create a unique and powerful drug discovery platform with the common objective of advancing promising laboratory- driven discoveries into clinical utility. EU FP7 work programme : HEALTH.2013.2.3.4-2: Drug development for neglected parasitic diseases. FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1. Duration: 36 months Scientific oordinator Dr. Jane MacDougall PhD [email protected] ...
The list of unique features of the trypanosomatid cell is long, so only the best known oddities will be briefly mentioned here. Kinetoplast (k) DNA in the single mitochondrion of trypanosomatids has a unique structure, being composed of thousands of mutually interlocked minicircles and dozens of maxicircles (Lukes et al., 2005). Perhaps hundred of proteins are required for maintenance and replication of this extremely complicated network. Maxicircles encode homologues of typical mitochondrial genes of other eukaryotes, however, some of them are present in an encrypted form, which means that their transcripts have to undergo RNA editing by the insertions and deletions of uridines in order to become translatable on mitochondrial ribosomes. Information from the exact editing is specified by hundreds of small RNA molecules termed guide RNAs that are encoded by minicircles. Moreover, dozens of proteins, constituting several unique protein complexes, are necessary for the process. It is worth ...
Im bringing home my baby bumblebee (cup hands) Wont my mommy be so proud of me Im bringing home my baby bumble bee Ouch! It stung me! Im squashing up my
The flowers of Ironweed are like crimson torches in the late summer prairie. Named for its tough stem, Ironweed has excellent posture and never slouches in the garden making it an excellent high border garden plant. It attracts late season butterlies and monarchs and an excellent source of seeds for birds in the wildlife garden.
CONICET Digital, el repositorio institucional del CONICET, un servicio gratuito para acceder a la producción científico-tecnológica de investigadores, becarios y demás personal del CONICET.
George McGavin championed the bumblebee pointing out that it is a keystone in the ecological network, upon which many other species depend, and that the 25 bumblebee species found in the UK today represent 10% of the global bumblebee fauna ...
Kinetoplast DNA is the remarkable mitochondrial DNA in trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa. These parasites cause majojr human diseases. The DNA is orga...
A key aspect of thinking systemically about the future is being able to see how rapidly advancing technologies across many fields interrelate. Whatever next Internet-like discontinuity or singularity occurs will influence whatever comes thereafter. It is likely that some high percentage of what are now thought to be expected future advances will recede or be reshaped at minimum, for example ...
... and Crithidia hystrighopsyllae, n. sp". Parasitology. 2 (3): 288-296. doi:10.1017/S0031182000001736. Mackinnon, D. L. ( ...
Comini M, Menge U, Wissing J, Flohé L (February 2005). "Trypanothione synthesis in crithidia revisited". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (8 ... "Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata". J. Biol. ... "Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...
... s are parasitised by tracheal mites, Locustacarus buchneri; protozoans including Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi; ...
Valentine J, Pettigrew GW (1982). "A cytochrome c methyltransferase from Crithidia oncopelti". Biochem. J. 201 (2): 329-38. PMC ...
"Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...
A novel branched-chain sphingolipid base from Crithidia facsiculata. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 22: 316-320. Carter, H. E ...
Crithidia luciliae is a haemoflagellate protist with an organelle known as the kinetoplast. This organelle contains a high ... The Farr assay is one of the only tests available that detects high avidity antibodies (along with Crithidia luciliae) and also ... ISBN 0-7044-2437-1. Slater NG, Cameron JS, Lessof MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence ...
The presence of Crithidia bombi has been found to be higher in populations with lower genetic diversity. As B. muscorum ... B. muscorum may contract infections of Crithidia bombi, a trypanosome parasite, from infected nest mates or from others while ... Yourth, Christopher P; Schmid-Hempel, Paul (2006-03-22). "Serial passage of the parasite Crithidia bombi within a colony of its ... Infections have been linked to reduced individual and colony fitness, but the specific relationship between Crithidia bombi and ...
B. bimaculatus can also be infected by Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi. Both are protozoans, but C. bombi is known to ...
Additionally, Crithidia trypanosomes are important parasites of Bumblebees implicated in colony collapse disorder. Hamilton; et ...
It is therefore suggested to reassign Wallaceina species either to Crithidia brevicula (for Wallaceina brevicula, W. inconstans ... Crithidia, Leptomonas, Herpetomonas, and Rhynchoidomonas. Wallaceina is characterized by endomastigote morphological forms, ... "Morphological Discordance of the New Trypanosomatid Species Phylogenetically Associated with the Genus Crithidia". Protist. 159 ...
In addition to Leptomonas, one-host trypanosomatids from insects have been traditionally placed in genera Crithidia, ... "Morphological Discordance of the New Trypanosomatid Species Phylogenetically Associated with the Genus Crithidia". Protist. 159 ...
Laird, Marshall (1959-10-01). "Blastocrithidia n.g. (Mastigophora: Protomonadina) for Crithidia (in part), with a subarctic ... one-host trypanosomatids from hemipteran and dipteran insects have been traditionally placed in genera Crithidia, Leptomonas, ... "Morphological Discordance of the New Trypanosomatid Species Phylogenetically Associated with the Genus Crithidia". Protist. 159 ...
The species name was accepted as Crithidia deanei until 2011, when phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the genus ... d'Avila-Levy CM, Santos LO, Marinho FA, Matteoli FP, Lopes AH, Motta MC, Santos AL, Branquinha MH (2008). "Crithidia deanei: ... "Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of the relationship of Crithidia deanei with its endosymbiont". Eur J Cell Biol. 72 (4 ... "Influence of the endosymbiont of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei on the glycoconjugate expression and on Aedes ...
"Ultrastructure of symbiotic bacteria in normal and antibiotic-treated Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti". The ...
Her dissertation at UC Berkeley compared the life cycle Crithidia and Trypanosoma within invertebrate hosts. When McCulloch ... A comparison of the life cycle of Crithidia with that of Trypanosoma in the invertebrate host. Berkeley: [s.n.] doi:10.5962/bhl ...
... serve as hosts for Crithidia bombi, a widespread gut parasite that is present in many bumblebee species. The ... While inside their host bodies, Crithidia bombi have been discovered to reproduce clonally as well as sexually. After being ... and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.)". Ecology and Evolution ...
For the Bombus vosnesenskii, parasitic organisms include the phoretic mite species Kuzinia and the protozoan Crithidia bombi. ...
The four genera Leptomonas, Crithidia, Leishmania, and Endotrypanum form the terminal branches, suggesting a relatively recent ...
... is a genus of trypanosomatid parasite that infects mushroom-feeding Drosophila, similar to Crithidia parasites of ...
... and Crithidia". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e20656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020656. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3110205. PMID 21687739. "Beverly ...
... including those from Crithidia fasciculata, Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. The structures ... "Purification and characterization of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata, a newly discovered member of the ...
In a traditional Crithidia fasciculata kDNA network, initiation of replication is promoted by the unlinking of kDNA minicircles ... The best studied kDNA structure is that of Crithidia fasciculata, a catenated disk of circular kDNA maxicircles and minicircles ...
Crithidia bombi and Nosema bombi" (PDF). Insectes Sociaux. 46 (3): 233-238. doi:10.1007/s000400050139. Oliver Otti & Paul ...
Crithidia fasciculata, a trypanosomatid parasite of mosquitos. Glassberg continued his scientific work as one of the founders ... "Isolation and partial characterization of mutants of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata and their use in detecting ...
... has also been used as an alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor in Crithidia fasciculata, which is a ...
Giemsa染色下的枯西氏锥虫(Cruzi crithidia). 读音. */ˈtʃɑːɡəs/ ...
Epimastigote (crithidial). Epimastigotes are a common form in the insect host and Crithidia and Blastocrithidia, both parasites ... Lukeš 2012 Genus Crithidia Léger 1902 Genus Leptomonas Kent 1880 Genus Lotmaria Schwarz 2015 Clade Leishmaniatae Maslov & Lukeš ...
... complementation of an Escherichia coli ribonuclease H mutation by a cloned genomic fragment from trypanosomatid Crithidia ... complementation of an Escherichia coli ribonuclease H mutation by a cloned genomic fragment from trypanosomatid Crithidia ...
Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthase from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1: 874-883. PMID ...
Crithidia luciliae. Crithidia luciliae is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host. ... Hall, ST; Penny, JI; Gero, AM; Krishna, S (October 1998). "Crithidia luciliae: functional expression of nucleoside and ... "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic lupus erythematosus". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 25 (3): 480-6 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crithidia_luciliae&oldid=816544062" ...
Crithidia fasciculata is a species of parasitic excavates. C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host ... ISBN 0-486-65126-6. Awadelkariem, FM; Hunter, KJ; Kirby, GC; Warhurst, DC (February 1995). "Crithidia fasciculata as Feeder ... "An Insight into the Proteome of Crithidia fasciculata Choanomastigotes as a Comparative Approach to Axenic Growth, Peanut ... and Cellular Adhesion in the Protozoan Parasite Crithidia fasciculata". Current Microbiology. 69 (4): 541-8. doi:10.1007/s00284 ...
Crithidia otongatchiensis is a species of monoxenous trypanosomatid. It is known to parasitise Brachycera flies, and was first ... "Crithidia otongatchiensis" at the Encyclopedia of Life v t e. ...
Crithidia confusa ATCC ® PRA-346™ Designation: 320AR Isolation: Intestine of Largus cf. cinctus (Heteroptera), Alajuela ... Crithidia confusa Maslov and Lukes (ATCC® PRA-346™) Strain Designations: 320AR / Depositor: D Maslov / Biosafety Level: 1 ...
Micromanipulation of the Flagellum of Crithidia Oncopelti Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of ... 1. The behaviour of the flagellum of Crithidia oncopelti when subjected to constriction and dissection by a microprobe was ...
The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility of Crithidia deanei, a endosymbiont-bearing monoxenous ... DAvila-Levy, C.M., Santos, L.O., Marinho, F.A. and Matteoli, F.P. (2008) Crithidia deanei: Influence of parasite gp63 ... Santos, D. , Bourguignon, S. , Castro, H. , Miranda, A. , Vieira, R. , Corte-Real, S. and Bastos, O. (2010) Crithidia deanei ... The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility of Crithidia deanei, a endosymbiont-bearing monoxenous ...
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Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence technique.. Aarden LA, ...
I. Flagella and cell bodies of Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti were irradiated at preselected points with a pulsed ruby laser ... The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti ... The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti ... The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti ...
We help labs improve the way autoimmune patients are diagnosed, monitored, and treated. As innovators, we stay at the forefront of biomarker and assay development to ensure both labs and clinicians have the tools they need to provide an early and accurate diagnosis ...
Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Sandra L. OZA, Mark R. ... Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Sandra L. OZA, Mark R. ... In Crithidia fasciculata, two distinct ATP-dependent ligases, glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC 6.3.1.8) and ... Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata Message Subject (Your Name ...
Crithidia bombi is a prevalent endoparasite of bumblebees that is transmitted both horizontally between and vertically within ... Crithidia bombi is a prevalent endoparasite of bumblebees that is transmitted both horizontally between and vertically within ... Colony success of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, in relation to infections by two protozoan parasites, Crithidia bombi and ... Key words: Parasite, host reproductive success, virulence, colony size, Bombus terrestris, Crithidia bombi, Nosema bombi. ...
Palabras clave : Chagas disease; leishmaniasis; Crithidia luciliae; anti-DNA antibodies. · resumen en Español · texto en ... GRIEMBERG, Gloria et al. Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical ... Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular ...
Crithidia RBP33 protein is a phosphoprotein. (A) Western blotting of wild-type (WT) Crithidia and Crithidia cells transformed ... Crithidia RBP45 and RBP33 genes were cloned from a Crithidia genomic library probed with PCR-amplified L. tarantolae gene ... A) Rabbit antibody developed against T. brucei PABP detects the Crithidia PABP in Western blot analysis of Crithidia total cell ... However, this Crithidia PABP shows only a 33% sequence identity with the L. major PAB-I protein described by Bates et al. (2). ...
... sequences that may contribute to their identity in the three Crithidia spp. are noted. ... Crithidia spp.) are most homologous to that of Bordetella spp. This finding extends the polyphyletic origin of endosymbionts ... A Study of Genetic Polymorphism of Crithidia in Isfahan , Iran. *Monir Doudi, Marziyeh Karami, Gilda Eslami, Mahbubeh Setorki ... The Bacterium Endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei Undergoes Coordinated Division with the Host Cell Nucleus. *Maria Cristina ...
Crithidia luciliae[edit]. Immunofluorescence staining pattern of anti-dsDNA antibodies on C. luciliaesubstrate. The kinetoplast ... Crithidia luciliae are haemoflaggelate single celled protists. They are used as a substrate in immunofluorescence for the ... "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic lupus erythematosus". Clinical and Experimental ...
The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel ... The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpellicular microtubules, the ... Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: ... Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata. ...
Endotrypanum schaudinni and Crithidia fasciculata. The donor molecule for the relevant arabinosyltransferases is known to be ... Structural studies on a lipoarabinogalactan of Crithidia fasciculata. Schneider P., Treumann A., Milne KG., McConville MJ., ... Animals, Carbohydrate Conformation, Carbohydrate Sequence, Crithidia fasciculata, Galactans, Lipopolysaccharides, Mass ... Endotrypanum schaudinni and Crithidia fasciculata. The donor molecule for the relevant arabinosyltransferases is known to be ...
Kobayashi S, Imai E, Tachibana H, Fujiwara T, Takeuchi T. Entamoeba dispar: Cultivation with sterilized Crithidia fasciculata. ... keywords = "Crithidia fasciculata, Entamoeba dispar, Hydrogen peroxide",. author = "Seiki Kobayashi and Eiko Imai and Hiroshi ... Kobayashi, S, Imai, E, Tachibana, H, Fujiwara, T & Takeuchi, T 1998, Entamoeba dispar: Cultivation with sterilized Crithidia ... Entamoeba dispar : Cultivation with sterilized Crithidia fasciculata. In: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 1998 ; Vol. 45, ...
... were measured by high performance liquid chromatography throughout the growth cycle of the insect trypanosomatid Crithidia ... Levels of Polyamines, Glutathione and Glutathione-Spermidine Conjugates during Growth of the Insect Trypanosomatid Crithidia ... were measured by high performance liquid chromatography throughout the growth cycle of the insect trypanosomatid Crithidia ...
Workers were starved for 2.5 h, and then presented with 10 µl of Crithidia solution (1000 cells µl−1) to take up per os. After ... e) Crithidia experimental infections. Experimental infections (four offspring per mother) occurred between 14.30 and 15.30. ... As described earlier, the priming is of antibacterial activity within the haemocoel, while Crithidia infects the gut. This ... This increased susceptibility will have an impact on offspring, given the serious fitness consequences of Crithidia infection ( ...
Crithidia oncopelti (Noguchi and Tilden) Hanson and McGhee (ATCC® 30264™) ATCC® Number: 30264™ Organism: Crithidia oncopelti ...
Larvae act as a transient transmission hub for the prevalent bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi. / Folly, Arran; Koch, Hauke; ... Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee ... Larvae act as a transient transmission hub for the prevalent bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi ...
and its trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi as our study case. The natural infections of C. bombi were genotyped with a novel ... Probing Mixed-Genotype Infections II: High Multiplicity in Natural Infections of the Trypanosomatid, Crithidia bombi, in Its ...
Comprehensive Bee Pathogen Screening in Belgium Reveals Crithidia mellificae as a New Contributory Factor to Winter Mortality a ... Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is a parasite of bumblebees. Crithidia mellificae, is a ... C. deanei is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. It is also not ... Comprehensive Bee Pathogen Screening in Belgium Reveals Crithidia mellificae as a New Contributory Factor to Winter Mortality a ...
Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron ... We report the structure of a Crithidia fasciculata tryparedoxin isoform (CfTryX2) in two crystal forms and compare them with ... The High Resolution Crystal Structure of Recombinant Crithidia Fasciculata Tryparedoxin-I. Alphey, M.S., Leonard, G.,& ...
Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron ... Crithidia fasciculata Fragment: RESIDUES 14-165 Gene Name(s): txnII Metabolic Pathways ...
DAPI dsDNA Crithidia luciliae (CLIFT) Kit by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This kit aids in the qualitative and/or ... Automation using NOVA View and the NOVA Lite DAPI dsDNA Crithidia luciliae Kit can significantly improve laboratory turnaround ... NOVA Lite® DAPI dsDNA Crithidia luciliae Kit for NOVA View® Receives FDA Clearance. ... ... NOVA Lite® DAPI dsDNA Crithidia luciliae Kit for NOVA View® Receives FDA Clearance ...
European propolis is highly active against trypanosomatids including Crithidia fasciculata.Aug 05, 2019. ...
  • Crithidia fasciculata is a species of parasitic excavates. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host life cycle with insect host, in the case of C. fasciculata this is the mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Insight into the Proteome of Crithidia fasciculata Choanomastigotes as a Comparative Approach to Axenic Growth, Peanut Lectin Agglutination and Differentiation of Leishmania spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crithidia fasciculata cycling sequence binding proteins (CSBP) have been shown to bind with high specificity to sequence elements present in several mRNAs that accumulate periodically during the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata. (mysciencework.com)
  • The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpellicular microtubules, the axonemal microtubules, and the nonpolymerized cytoplasmic pool protein. (mysciencework.com)
  • Structural studies on a lipoarabinogalactan of Crithidia fasciculata. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The monosaccharide D-arabinopyranose has only been found in glycoconjugates of the trypanasomatid parasites Leishmania major, Endotrypanum schaudinni and Crithidia fasciculata. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T[SH] 2 ] were measured by high performance liquid chromatography throughout the growth cycle of the insect trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The inosine-uridine nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata. (yu.edu)
  • We report the structure of a Crithidia fasciculata tryparedoxin isoform (CfTryX2) in two crystal forms and compare them with structures determined previously. (rcsb.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Inosine - uridine nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata. (elsevier.com)
  • Se ensayaron varias aminoisoxazolil-1,2-naftoquinomas sobre la formación de anión superóxido (O2) y peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2) por Crithidia fasciculata y Leptomonas seymouri. (bvsalud.org)
  • C. fasciculata y L. seymouri contenían superóxido dismutasa , enzima esencial para la formación de peróxidos como consecuencia del ciclo redox de las quinonas , y también catalasa , cuya actividad fue seis veces mayor en C. fasciculata. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sequences of Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri are included as references. (cdc.gov)
  • and Crithidia fasciculata (accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2 non- Leishmania trypanosomatids ( Leptomonas seymore and Crithidia fasciculata ) were included in the phylogenetic tree because they were previously described as co-infecting parasites in human leishmaniasis cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers found that the parasitic genome was quite unlike Leishmania but more like Crithidia fasciculata , another parasite which is known to infect only insects. (news-medical.net)
  • Reinigung und Charakterisierung von Tubulin Polyglutamylase aus Crithidia fasciculata. (mpg.de)
  • It is also worth mentioning that some trypanosomatids, such as Trypanosoma brucei , Leishmania tarentolae and Crithidia fasciculata represent model species that are amenable to a number of molecular biology methods, can be cultivated in cheap media at high density, and do not pose any risk for the investigator. (tolweb.org)
  • The structure of the kinetoplast DNA network of Crithidia fasciculata revealed by atomic force microscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Histone H1 proteins have been described in different trypanosomatids like Crithidia fasciculata ( 7 ), Trypanosoma cruzi ( 1 ), Trypanosoma brucei ( 4 ), Leishmania major ( 9 ), and Leishmania braziliensis ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • value for acivicin that yielded the 50% growth inhibition of logarithmically growing Crithidia fasciculata in a serum-free medium at 27^゚C was 1.5 uM, and the value for allopurinol was 10 uM. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Aoki, T.: 'Mechanism of growth inhibition by acivicin and allopurinol, singly and in combination, of Crithidia fasciculata' Proc. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Crithidia luciliae is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence technique. (nih.gov)
  • Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Crithidia luciliae -a monoflagellate protozoan,containing a giant mitochondrion. (abcam.com)
  • Critical differences between the methods measuring anti-dsDNA were found regarding disease specificity and ability to reflect disease activity and the results suggests the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) for diagnostic purposes and a bead-based multiplex assay (FIDIS) for monitoring of disease activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Strong staining of the kinetoplasts is evident with Crithidia whereas with the two other preparations the staining is less evident since the kinetoplast lies close to the nuclei and both appear equally fluorescent, which is not the case with Crithidia luciliae. (docme.ru)
  • Crithidia luciliae and Trypanosoma lewisi. (docme.ru)
  • Crithidia bombi is a prevalent endoparasite of bumblebees that is transmitted both horizontally between and vertically within colonies of its host, the bumble bee Bombus terrestris , and to the next generation. (springer.com)
  • Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee disease transmission networks. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • and its trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi as our study case. (ethz.ch)
  • Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is a parasite of bumblebees . (beekeepingforums.com)
  • All of the bees were carrying an intestinal parasite called Crithidia bombi . (discovermagazine.com)
  • Whenever a bee drank from a manipulated flower, he captured the bee and examined her gut for Crithidia bombi parasites. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We conducted a molecular-diagnostic survey of the prevalence of N. bombi and trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia bombi, in six species of spring queens (n = 142) collected in 2011 and 2013 at three sites in central Kansas. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility of Crithidia deanei, a endosymbiont-bearing monoxenous trypanossomatid, infect BALB/c mice under or not Dexamethasone treatment. (scirp.org)
  • Santos, D.O., Bourguignon, S.C. and Castro, H. C. (2004) Infection of mouse dermal fibroblasts by the monoxenous trypanosomatid Protozoa Crithidia deanei and Her- petomonas roitmani. (scirp.org)
  • In endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids, like Crithidia deanei, this process is more complex, as each daughter cell contains only a single symbiotic bacterium, indicating that the prokaryote must replicate synchronically with the host protozoan. (jove.com)
  • Biological activities of essential oil obtained from Cymbopogon citrates on Crithidia deanei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They also colonize different insects - Leishmania is carried by female sandflies, but Crithidia by Anopheles and Culex mosquito species. (news-medical.net)
  • The study raises fears that Crithidia infection may become more common as an untreatable disease, either by itself or as part of a combined infection with Leishmania , while it remains untreatable at present. (news-medical.net)
  • Since in several developing countries Trypanosoma organisms are used as substrate for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease, we have compared the Crithidia method with two other hemoflagellates, namely Trypanosoma and Leishmania. (docme.ru)
  • In Figures 1 to 3 we present the indirect immunofluorescence preparation of SLE patients with high levels of antibodies to DNA using as organisms Crithidia, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania, respectively. (docme.ru)
  • We recommend a follow-up study to verify the possibility of Crithidia / Leishmania co-infection and the capacity of Crithidia to cause leishmaniasis-like disease as a single infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Crithidia otongatchiensis is a species of monoxenous trypanosomatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of endosymbionts from the trypanosomatid protozoa (Crithidia spp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to Varroa destructor , the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae in summer are also predictive markers of winter mortality, with a negative synergy being observed between the two in terms of their effects on colony mortality. (beekeepingforums.com)
  • Peak infection of common honey bee viruses and Nosema occurred in the summer, whereas levels of the trypanosomatid Crithidia mellificae and Lake Sinai virus 2, a novel virus, peaked in January. (ucsf.edu)
  • Some Crithidia parasites are known to parasitize anopheline mosquitoes. (news-medical.net)
  • They found that both groups of mice developed liver infection with Crithidia , and in addition, skin lesions appeared with the parasites isolated from the patient's skin. (news-medical.net)
  • Molecular survey for the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) trypanosome parasites Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim . (cabi.org)
  • We read with interest the recent article describing involvement of Crithidia -related parasites in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Fouts DL, Manning JE, Wolstenholme DR: Physicochemical properties of kinetoplast DNA crithidia acantocephalic. (docme.ru)
  • Crithidia lucilia is a hemoflagellate protozoa that has an organelle called a kinetoplast which contains a high-concentration native double-stranded DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comprehensive Bee Pathogen Screening in Belgium Reveals Crithidia mellificae as a New Contributory Factor to Winter Mortality a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. (beekeepingforums.com)
  • Crithidia mellificae , is a parasite of the bee . (beekeepingforums.com)
  • Crithidia mellificae, and bacteria. (ucsf.edu)
  • Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. (ugent.be)
  • Within the last 100 years, the genera Leptomonas , Crithidia , Blastocrithidia , Wallaceina and Herpetomonas have been described based on the presence and/or combination of morphs in their life cycles. (tolweb.org)
  • 1. The behaviour of the flagellum of Crithidia oncopelti when subjected to constriction and dissection by a microprobe was investigated. (biologists.org)
  • I. Flagella and cell bodies of Crithidia ( Strigomonas ) oncopelti were irradiated at preselected points with a pulsed ruby laser microbeam. (biologists.org)
  • Isozyme analysis of mMDH in Crithidia asclepii and C. oncopelti by means of electrophoresis and densimetry method suggests the diploidness and genetic exchange in these organisms. (zin.ru)
  • 16S ribosomal DNA sequence identities of beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts in three Crithidia species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Over the last few decades, from 1980 onwards, people have been observed to have leishmaniasis along with other protozoan infections that are more typically found in insects, such as the parasite Crithidia. (news-medical.net)
  • is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. (beekeepingforums.com)
  • Identification of CfNek, a novel member of the NIMA family of cell cycle regulators, as a polypeptide copurifying with tubulin polyglutamylation activity in Crithidia. (mpg.de)
  • Crithidia organisms incubated with lupus sera and stained with fluorescein labeled antihuman IgG. (docme.ru)
  • 207 It is our impression that of the three hemoflagellates tested, only the Crithidia organisms (as was previously suggested by Aarden) are a substrate that with indirect immunofluorescence will provide a method readily reproducible in most clinical laboratories. (docme.ru)
  • Crithidia and viruses of bumble bees), and pesticides. (usda.gov)
  • Biased base transitions and compensatory mutations of the symbionts' sequences that may contribute to their identity in the three Crithidia spp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Publications] AOKI,Takashi: 'Mechanism of growth inhibition by acivicin and allopurinol,singly and in combination of Crithidia fasciculate' Proceedings(Program and Abstracts)of the 8th International Congress of Protozoology. (nii.ac.jp)