A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
A form-species of nitrogen-fixing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.

Isolation of tubulin polyglutamylase from Crithidia; binding to microtubules and tubulin, and glutamylation of mammalian brain alpha- and beta-tubulins. (1/119)

Trypanosomatids have a striking cage-like arrangement of submembraneous microtubules. We previously showed that alpha- and beta- tubulins of these stable microtubules are extensively modified by polyglutamylation. Cytoskeletal microtubular preparations obtained by Triton extraction of Leishmania tarentolae and Crithidia fasciculata retain an enzymatic activity that incorporates radioactive glutamic acid in a Mg2+-ATP-dependent manner into alpha- and beta-tubulins. The tubulin polyglutamylase is extracted by 0.25 M salt. The Crithidia enzyme can be purified by ATP-affinity chromatography, glycerol-gradient centrifugation and ion-exchange chromatography. After extraction from the microtubular cytoskeleton the glutamylase forms a complex with alphabeta tubulin, but behaves after removal of tubulin as a globular protein with a molecular mass of 38x10(3). In highly enriched fractions a corresponding band is the major polypeptide visible in SDS-PAGE. The enzyme from Crithidia recognises mammalian brain tubulin, where it incorporates glutamic acid preferentially into the more acidic variants of both alpha- and beta-tubulins. Synthetic peptides with an oligoglutamyl side chain, corresponding to the carboxy-terminal end of brain alpha- and beta-tubulins, are accepted by the enzyme, albeit at low efficiency. The polyglutamylase elongates the side chain by up to 3 and 5 residues, respectively. Other properties of the tubulin polyglutamylase are also discussed.  (+info)

The kinetoplast structure-specific endonuclease I is related to the 5' exo/endonuclease domain of bacterial DNA polymerase I and colocalizes with the kinetoplast topoisomerase II and DNA polymerase beta during replication. (2/119)

The mitochondrial DNA (kinetoplast DNA) of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata has an unusual structure composed of minicircles and maxicircles topologically interlocked into a single network and organized in a disc-shaped structure at the base of the flagellum. We previously purified a structure-specific endonuclease (SSE1), based on its RNase H activity, that is enriched in isolated kinetoplasts. The endonuclease gene has now been cloned, sequenced, and found to be closely related to the 5' exonuclease domain of bacterial DNA polymerase I proteins. Although the protein does not contain a typical mitochondrial leader sequence, the enzyme is shown to colocalize with a type II DNA topoisomerase and a DNA polymerase beta at antipodal sites flanking the kinetoplast disc. Cell synchronization studies with an epitope-tagged construct show that the localization of the endonuclease to the antipodal sites varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner similar to that of the DNA polymerase beta [Johnson, C. E. & Englund, P. T. (1998) J. Cell Biol. 143, 911-919]. Immunofluorescent localization of SSE1 to the antipodal sites is only observed during kinetoplast replication. Together, these results suggest a point of control for kinetoplast DNA replication through the regulation of the availability of DNA replication proteins and a possible role for the antipodal sites in removal of RNA primers and the repair of gaps in newly replicated minicircles.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a hyperinducible, surface membrane-anchored, class I nuclease of a trypanosomatid parasite. (3/119)

The 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'-NT/NU) is a surface enzyme unique to trypanosomatid parasites. These organisms lack the pathway for de novo purine biosynthesis and thus are entirely dependent upon their hosts to supply this nutrient for their survival, growth, and multiplication. The 3'-NT/NU is involved in the salvage of preformed purines via the hydrolysis of either 3'-nucleotides or nucleic acids. In Crithidia luciliae, this enzyme is highly inducible. For example, in these organisms purine starvation triggers an approximately 1000-fold up-expression of 3'-NT/NU activity. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a gene encoding this intriguing enzyme from C. luciliae (Cl). Sequence analysis showed that the Cl 3'-NT/NU deduced protein possessed five regions, which we defined here as being characteristic of members of the class I nuclease family. Further, we demonstrated that the Cl 3'-NT/NU-expressed protein possessed both 3'-nucleotidase and nuclease activities. Moreover, we showed that the dramatic up-expression of 3'-NT/NU activity in response to purine starvation of C. luciliae was concomitant with the approximately 100-fold elevation in steady-state mRNA specific for this gene. Finally, results of our nuclear run-on analyses demonstrated that such up-regulation in 3'-NT/NU enzyme activity was mediated at the posttranscriptional level.  (+info)

Atypical processing in domain III of 23S rRNA of Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004(T) at a position homologous to an rRNA fragmentation site in protozoa. (4/119)

For still unknown reasons, the 23S rRNA of many alpha-Proteobacteria shows a unique fragmentation pattern compared to other bacteria. The 23S rRNA processing involves RNase III and additional, yet unidentified enzymes. The alpha-proteobacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004(T) possesses two fragmentation sites in its 23S rRNA. The first one harbors an intervening sequence in helix 9 which is cleaved by RNase III. We demonstrate that the mature 5' end of the resulting 2.6-kb rRNA fragment is generated by additional removal of helix 10. A fraction of the 2.6-kb rRNA is further processed in domain III, giving rise to two 1.3-kb rRNA fragments. We mapped the domain III fragmentation site and found it to be at a position which has only been reported for trypanosomatid protozoa. This fragmentation site is also unique in that it lacks an intervening sequence. We found that the simultaneous occurrence of 2.6-kb and 1.3-kb rRNA fragments is not due to interoperonal sequence differences but rather reflects slow processing. The different characteristics of the two fragmentation sites in the 23S rRNA suggest that they are processed by different mechanisms. Interestingly, the amount of 2.6-kb rRNA varies during culture growth. We observed a transient increase in the relative amount of 2.6-kb rRNA fragments during the first hours after inoculation, which points to changes in the ratio of rRNA synthesis rate to domain III processing rate during the growth of a culture.  (+info)

Site-specific interactions of JBP with base and sugar moieties in duplex J-DNA. Evidence for both major and minor groove contacts. (5/119)

Beta-D-Glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, also called base J, is an unusually modified DNA base conserved among Kinetoplastida. Base J is found predominantly in repetitive DNA and correlates with epigenetic silencing of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes. We have previously identified a J-binding protein (JBP) in Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Crithidia, and we have shown that it is a structure-specific binding protein. Here we examine the molecular interactions that contribute to recognition of the glycosylated base in synthetic DNA substrates using modification interference, modification protection, DNA footprinting, and photocross-linking techniques. We find that the two primary requirements for J-DNA recognition include contacts at base J and a base immediately 5' of J (J-1). Methylation interference analysis indicates that the requirement of the base at position J-1 is due to a major groove contact independent of the sequence. DNA footprinting of the JBP.J-DNA complex with 1,10-phenanthroline-copper demonstrates that JBP contacts the minor groove at base J. Substitution of the thymine moiety of J with cytosine reduces the affinity for JBP approximately 15-fold. These data indicate that the sole sequence dependence for JBP binding may lie in the thymine moiety of base J and that recognition requires only two specific base contacts, base J and J-1, within both the major and minor groove of the J-DNA duplex.  (+info)

A single enzyme catalyses formation of Trypanothione from glutathione and spermidine in Trypanosoma cruzi. (6/119)

Protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida differ from other organisms in their ability to conjugate glutathione (l-gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) and spermidine to form trypanothione [N(1),N(8)-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine], a metabolite involved in defense against chemical and oxidant stress and other biosynthetic functions. In Crithidia fasciculata, trypanothione is synthesized from GSH and spermidine via the intermediate glutathionylspermidine in two distinct ATP-dependent reactions catalyzed by glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC ) and trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC ), respectively. Here we have cloned a single copy gene (TcTryS) from Trypanosoma cruzi encoding a protein with 61% sequence identity with CfTryS but only 31% with CfGspS. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with TcTryS were able to synthesize glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione, suggesting that this enzyme is able to catalyze both biosynthetic steps, unlike CfTryS. When cultures were supplemented with aminopropylcadaverine, yeast transformants contained glutathionylaminopropylcadaverine and homotrypanothione [N(1),N(9)-bis(glutathionyl)aminopropylcadaverine], metabolites that have been previously identified in T. cruzi, but not in C. fasciculata. Kinetic studies on recombinant TcTryS purified from Escherichia coli revealed that the enzyme displays high-substrate inhibition with glutathione (K(m) and K(i) of 0.57 and 1.2 mm, respectively, and k(cat) of 3.4 s(-1)), but obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics with spermidine, aminopropylcadaverine, glutathionylspermidine, and MgATP as variable substrate. The recombinant enzyme possesses weak amidase activity and can hydrolyze trypanothione, homotrypanothione, or glutathionylspermidine to glutathione and the corresponding polyamine.  (+info)

Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations. (7/119)

Thirty-six Trypanosomatidae stocks isolated from various hosts and geographical areas in Colombia and 7 others from Bolivia, Chile, Honduras and Panama have been surveyed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Part of the Colombian stocks were previously characterized by morphology and biological behavior as belonging to Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli taxa, others were unknown species. The genetic variability observed at 13 different loci was considerable, since 38 zymodemes could be distinguished and 2 upper branches were observed. The first branch corresponded to T. cruzi and was divided in the two major phylogenetic subdivision of T. cruzi (T. cruzi I, T. cruzi II). The majority of the Colombian T. cruzi stocks (92%) felt into T. cruzi I. Only two stocks, isolated from sylvatic mammals, belonged to T. cruzi II. Among T. cruzi I, we did not observed any additional phylogenetic subdivision and host-dependent genotype specificity. The second branch was genetically very heterogeneous and included all T. rangeli stocks, the stocks isolated from bats and one stock isolated from a sylvatic R. prolixus vector. The stocks belonging to T. rangeli presented only one locus instead of two for the malic enzyme system. Since, the upper level of resolution of the isoenzyme method was exceeded, the current clustering study failed to draw a clear distinction between such a diverse set of Trypanosomatidae species.  (+info)

Genome scan stratified by the presence of anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) autoantibody in pedigrees multiplex for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) establishes linkages at 19p13.2 (SLED1) and 18q21.1 (SLED2). (8/119)

Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) is arguably one of the most specific autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This antibody is associated with more severe SLE and with glomerulonephritis. From 196 pedigrees multiplex for SLE, we selected those that had any SLE affected positive for anti-dsDNA by the Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast imunofluorescence assay. This stratification strategy tested the hypothesis that anti-dsDNA would identify a more genetically homogeneous group of pedigrees, in which previously undetected linkage effects could be established. A genome screen data for linkage to SLE was available at 307 microsatellite markers for this selected group of 71 pedigrees: 37 European-American, 29 African-American, and five others. The most significant results were obtained at 19p13.2 (LOD(max) = 4.93), named SLED1, in the 37 European-American pedigrees using a dominant model with mixed penetrances (92% for females and 49% for males) at 100% homogeneity (theta = 0). A second linkage effect, SLED2, was established in the 29 African-American pedigrees at 18q21.1 (LOD(max) = 3.40) using a recessive model with 100% penetrance (theta = 0.1). Parametric and non-parametric multipoint analyses were performed, which provided further evidence and support of susceptibility genes residing in these regions. In conclusion, two powerful linkages have been detected with SLE based on the presence of anti-dsDNA. These findings show SLE to be a richly complicated disease phenotype that is now ripe for important new discovery through a genetic approach.  (+info)

Crithidia is a genus of protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These parasites are primarily found in the digestive tracts of insects, particularly blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and reduviid bugs. They are transmitted to the insect through the ingestion of infected prey, such as other insects.

Crithidia species are closely related to Trypanosoma species, which can cause serious diseases in humans and animals, such as sleeping sickness and Chagas disease. However, Crithidia species are not typically considered to be human pathogens, although there have been rare cases of human infection reported in the literature.

In general, Crithidia species are studied for their potential use as model organisms in research on topics such as evolution, genetics, and cell biology. They are also used in forensic entomology to help estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) in cases of insect-associated death investigations.

'Crithidia fasciculata' is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the order Trypanosomatida and family Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of insects, particularly mosquitoes and other blood-sucking dipterans. They are non-pathogenic to humans but have been widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of molecular biology, genetics, and cell biology.

The cells of 'Crithidia fasciculata' are elongated and slender, typically measuring 15-30 micrometers in length and 2-3 micrometers in width. They possess a single flagellum that emerges from the anterior end of the cell and is used for locomotion. The cells also contain a distinct kinetoplast, a unique structure found within the mitochondrion that contains DNA.

'Crithidia fasciculata' has been used as a model organism to study various aspects of trypanosome biology, including the mechanisms of gene expression, protein trafficking, and cell division. Additionally, it has been used in studies on the development of new drugs and therapies for treating trypanosomiasis, a group of diseases caused by infection with parasites of the genus Trypanosoma.

The kinetoplast is a unique structure found in the single, mitochondrion of certain protozoan parasites, including those of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania. It consists of a network of circular DNA molecules that are highly concentrated and tightly packed. These DNA molecules contain genetic information necessary for the functioning of the unique mitochondrion in these organisms.

The kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is organized into thousands of maxicircles and minicircles, which vary in size and number depending on the species. Maxicircles are similar to mammalian mitochondrial DNA and encode proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, while minicircles contain sequences that code for guide RNAs involved in the editing of maxicircle transcripts.

The kDNA undergoes dynamic rearrangements during the life cycle of these parasites, which involves different morphological and metabolic forms. The study of kDNA has provided valuable insights into the biology and evolution of these important pathogens and has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Trypanosomatina is not considered a medical term, but it is a taxonomic category in the field of biology. Trypanosomatina is a suborder that includes unicellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the order Kinetoplastida. Some notable members of this suborder include genera such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which are medically important parasites causing diseases in humans and animals.

Trypanosoma species are responsible for various trypanosomiases, including African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi). Leishmania species cause different forms of leishmaniasis, a group of diseases affecting the skin, mucous membranes, or internal organs.

In summary, while not a medical term itself, Trypanosomatina is a biology taxonomic category that includes several disease-causing parasites of medical importance.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Amide synthases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of amide bonds between two molecules. Specifically, they facilitate the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine to produce an amide. This process is also known as amide bond formation or amide synthesis.

In the context of medical research and therapeutic development, amide synthases are important for understanding the biosynthesis of various endogenous compounds, such as peptides and proteins, as well as for developing methods to synthesize novel drugs and pharmaceutical agents.

There are several types of amide synthases, including:

1. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS): These enzymes catalyze the formation of complex peptides without the involvement of ribosomes. They typically consist of multiple modules, each of which is responsible for adding a single amino acid to the growing peptide chain.
2. Amidotransferases: These enzymes transfer an amino group from a donor molecule (usually glutamine) to a carboxylic acid, resulting in the formation of an amide bond. They are involved in various metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules.
3. Amide synthetases involved in lipid metabolism: These enzymes catalyze the formation of amide bonds between fatty acids and various amine-containing molecules, such as sphingosine or serine, during the biosynthesis of complex lipids like sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids.

Understanding the function and regulation of amide synthases is crucial for developing strategies to modulate their activity in various disease contexts, including infectious diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Circular DNA is a type of DNA molecule that forms a closed loop, rather than the linear double helix structure commonly associated with DNA. This type of DNA is found in some viruses, plasmids (small extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in bacteria), and mitochondria and chloroplasts (organelles found in plant and animal cells).

Circular DNA is characterized by the absence of telomeres, which are the protective caps found on linear chromosomes. Instead, circular DNA has a specific sequence where the two ends join together, known as the origin of replication and the replication terminus. This structure allows for the DNA to be replicated efficiently and compactly within the cell.

Because of its circular nature, circular DNA is more resistant to degradation by enzymes that cut linear DNA, making it more stable in certain environments. Additionally, the ability to easily manipulate and clone circular DNA has made it a valuable tool in molecular biology and genetic engineering.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. This parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The life cycle of T. b. brucei involves two main stages: the insect-dwelling procyclic trypomastigote stage and the mammalian-dwelling bloodstream trypomastigote stage.

The distinguishing feature of T. b. brucei is its ability to change its surface coat, which helps it evade the host's immune system. This allows the parasite to establish a long-term infection in the mammalian host. However, T. b. brucei is not infectious to humans; instead, two other subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis.

In summary, Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a non-human-infective subspecies of the parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in animals and serves as an essential model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of related human-infective trypanosomes.

A guide RNA (gRNA) is not a type of RNA itself, but rather a term used to describe various types of RNAs that guide other molecules to specific target sites in the genome or transcriptome. The most well-known example of a guide RNA is the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) used in the CRISPR-Cas system for targeted gene editing.

The crRNA contains a sequence complementary to the target DNA or RNA, and it guides the Cas endonuclease to the correct location in the genome where cleavage and modification can occur. Other types of guide RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific mRNA targets for degradation or translational repression.

Overall, guide RNAs play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including gene regulation, genome editing, and defense against foreign genetic elements.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Trypanosoma lewisi is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. It is primarily found in rats and is transmitted through the bite of fleas. This parasite typically infects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) of rats, causing a benign infection known as "rat trypanosomiasis" or "lewisi disease."

In a medical context, Trypanosoma lewisi is not considered a significant pathogen for humans. However, rare cases of human infections have been reported, usually due to accidental laboratory exposure or through the consumption of contaminated water or food. In these instances, the infection typically resolves on its own without causing severe symptoms or complications.

It's worth noting that Trypanosoma lewisi is often used as a model organism in scientific research related to trypanosomatid biology and parasitology due to its relatively simple life cycle and ease of cultivation in the laboratory.

Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, a group of diseases with various clinical manifestations. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease has a wide geographic distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and Southern Europe.

The Leishmania species have a complex life cycle that involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which is found in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which infects mammalian hosts, including humans. The clinical manifestations of Leishmaniasis depend on the specific Leishmania species and the host's immune response to the infection.

The three main forms of Leishmaniasis are:

1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL): This form is characterized by skin lesions, such as ulcers or nodules, that can take several months to heal and may leave scars. CL is caused by various Leishmania species, including L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica.

2. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL): Also known as kala-azar, VL affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen. VL is caused by L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi species.

3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL): This form affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat, causing destruction of tissues and severe disfigurement. MCL is caused by L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis species.

Prevention and control measures for Leishmaniasis include vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and bed nets.

Euglenozoa is a group of unicellular organisms that includes both free-living and parasitic species. Two major parasitic groups within Euglenozoa are the kinetoplastids, which include organisms such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, and the diplonemids.

Trypanosoma infections can cause diseases such as African sleeping sickness (also known as human African trypanosomiasis) and Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis), while Leishmania infections can cause various forms of leishmaniasis, including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. These diseases are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insect vectors, such as tsetse flies (in the case of African sleeping sickness) or sandflies (in the case of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease).

Diplonemid infections in humans have not been well-studied, and it is currently unclear whether these organisms are capable of causing disease in humans. However, diplonemids have been found to infect a wide range of marine and freshwater organisms, including fish, crustaceans, and other protists.

In general, euglenozoan infections can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific organism involved and the location of the infection within the body. Symptoms may include fever, swelling, skin lesions, anemia, and damage to various organs. Treatment for these infections typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as pentamidine, suramin, or benznidazole, although the specific treatment approach will depend on the organism involved and the severity of the infection.

"Nostoc muscorum" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a type of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). It's commonly found in various environments such as freshwater, soil, and on the surface of rocks. While it doesn't have a direct medical definition, some species of cyanobacteria, including certain strains of Nostoc, can produce toxins that may cause health issues if ingested or come into contact with the skin. However, Nostoc muscorum is not typically considered a harmful species in this regard.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Euglenozoa is a group of primarily unicellular organisms that includes both free-living and parasitic forms. It is a major clade within the eukaryotes, characterized by the presence of unique flagella with specialized structures called mastigonemes. This group includes two main classes: Euglenida, which are mostly free-living and photosynthetic; and Kinetoplastea, which include parasitic forms such as trypanosomes and leishmanias. The members of this group have diverse morphologies and life styles, ranging from free-living heterotrophs to phototrophs, and from parasites that cause serious diseases in humans and other animals to saprophytes.

Helminthiasis, in general, refers to the infection or infestation of humans and animals by helminths, which are parasitic worms. When referring to "Animal Helminthiasis," it specifically pertains to the condition where animals, including domestic pets and livestock, are infected by various helminth species. These parasitic worms can reside in different organs of the animal's body, leading to a wide range of clinical signs depending on the worm species and the location of the infestation.

Animal Helminthiasis can be caused by different types of helminths:

1. Nematodes (roundworms): These include species like Ascaris suum in pigs, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in cats, and Toxocara canis in dogs. They can cause gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
2. Cestodes (tapeworms): Examples include Taenia saginata in cattle, Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats, and Dipylidium caninum in dogs and cats. Tapeworm infestations may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or constipation and may also cause vitamin deficiencies due to the worm's ability to absorb nutrients from the host animal's digestive system.
3. Trematodes (flukes): These include liver flukes such as Fasciola hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle, and schistosomes that can affect various animals, including birds and mammals. Liver fluke infestations may cause liver damage, leading to symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite, and jaundice. Schistosome infestations can lead to issues in multiple organs depending on the species involved.

Preventing and controlling Helminthiasis in animals is crucial for maintaining animal health and welfare, as well as ensuring food safety for humans who consume products from these animals. Regular deworming programs, good hygiene practices, proper pasture management, and monitoring for clinical signs are essential components of a comprehensive parasite control strategy.

C. deanei is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. It is not typical of ... Crithidia mellificae is a parasite of the bee. Crithidia brevicula might incorporate species of the genus Wallaceina ( ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crithidia. "Crithidia" at the Encyclopedia of Life (Articles with short description, ... Crithidia is a genus of trypanosomatid Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. ...
... is a species of parasitic excavates. C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host ... ISBN 0-486-65126-6. Awadelkariem, FM; Hunter, KJ; Kirby, GC; Warhurst, DC (February 1995). "Crithidia fasciculata as Feeder ... "An Insight into the Proteome of Crithidia fasciculata Choanomastigotes as a Comparative Approach to Axenic Growth, Peanut ... and Cellular Adhesion in the Protozoan Parasite Crithidia fasciculata". Current Microbiology. 69 (4): 541-8. doi:10.1007/s00284 ...
... is a species of monoxenous trypanosomatid. It is known to parasitise Brachycera flies, and was first ... "Crithidia otongatchiensis" at the Encyclopedia of Life v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
... is a species of monoxenous trypanosomatid. It is known to parasitise Brachycera flies, and was first found ...
... is a flagellate parasite that uses the housefly, Musca domestica, as a host. As part of the family of ... Hall, ST; Penny, JI; Gero, AM; Krishna, S (October 1998). "Crithidia luciliae: functional expression of nucleoside and ... Slater NG, Cameron JS, Lessof MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic ...
... and Crithidia hystrighopsyllae, n. sp". Parasitology. 2 (3): 288-296. doi:10.1017/S0031182000001736. S2CID 85157434. Mackinnon ...
Comini M, Menge U, Wissing J, Flohé L (February 2005). "Trypanothione synthesis in crithidia revisited". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (8 ... "Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata". J. Biol. ... "Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...
... s are parasitised by tracheal mites, Locustacarus buchneri; protozoans including Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi; ...
Valentine J, Pettigrew GW (1982). "A cytochrome c methyltransferase from Crithidia oncopelti". Biochem. J. 201 (2): 329-38. PMC ...
Crithidia luciliae are haemoflaggelate single celled protists. They are used as a substrate in immunofluorescence for the ... Slater, NG; Cameron, JS; Lessof, MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic ...
d'Avila-Levy CM, Santos LO, Marinho FA, Matteoli FP, Lopes AH, Motta MC, Santos AL, Branquinha MH (2008). "Crithidia deanei: ... As more structural and molecular details were studied, the distinction of A. deanei from other Crithidia species became more ... Angomonas deanei was originally described as Crithidia deanei. In 1973, a Brazilian graduate student Aurora Luiza de Moura ... Sousa, M.A. (1991). "Postnuclear kinetoplast in choanomastigotes of Crithidia deanei Carvalho, 1973. Proposal of a new genus". ...
"Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...
Borovskyia, Crithidia, Leptomonas, Lotmaria, Novymonas, Porcisia, Zelonia, Endotrypanum, Leishmania. CRuMs Brown et al. 2018 [ ...
A novel branched-chain sphingolipid base from Crithidia facsiculata. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 22: 316-320. Carter, H. E ...
Crithidia luciliae is a haemoflagellate protist with an organelle known as the kinetoplast. This organelle contains a high ... The Farr assay is one of the only tests available that detects high avidity antibodies (along with Crithidia luciliae) and also ... ISBN 0-7044-2437-1. Slater NG, Cameron JS, Lessof MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence ...
The presence of Crithidia bombi has been found to be higher in populations with lower genetic diversity. As B. muscorum ... B. muscorum may contract infections of Crithidia bombi, a trypanosome parasite, from infected nest mates or from others while ... Yourth, Christopher P; Schmid-Hempel, Paul (2006-03-22). "Serial passage of the parasite Crithidia bombi within a colony of its ... Infections have been linked to reduced individual and colony fitness, but the specific relationship between Crithidia bombi and ...
B. bimaculatus can also be infected by Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi. Both are protozoans, but C. bombi is known to ...
Additionally, Crithidia trypanosomes are important parasites of Bumblebees implicated in colony collapse disorder. Hamilton; et ...
It is therefore suggested to reassign Wallaceina species either to Crithidia brevicula (for Wallaceina brevicula, W. inconstans ... Crithidia, Leptomonas, Herpetomonas, and Rhynchoidomonas. Wallaceina is characterized by endomastigote morphological forms, ... "Morphological Discordance of the New Trypanosomatid Species Phylogenetically Associated with the Genus Crithidia". Protist. 159 ...
In addition to Leptomonas, one-host trypanosomatids from insects have been traditionally placed in genera Crithidia, ... "Morphological Discordance of the New Trypanosomatid Species Phylogenetically Associated with the Genus Crithidia". Protist. 159 ...
Laird, Marshall (1959-10-01). "Blastocrithidia n.g. (Mastigophora: Protomonadina) for Crithidia (in part), with a subarctic ... one-host trypanosomatids from hemipteran and dipteran insects have been traditionally placed in genera Crithidia, Leptomonas, ... "Morphological Discordance of the New Trypanosomatid Species Phylogenetically Associated with the Genus Crithidia". Protist. 159 ...
"Ultrastructure of symbiotic bacteria in normal and antibiotic-treated Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti". The ...
Her dissertation at UC Berkeley compared the life cycle Crithidia and Trypanosoma within invertebrate hosts. When McCulloch ... A comparison of the life cycle of Crithidia with that of Trypanosoma in the invertebrate host. Berkeley: [s.n.] doi:10.5962/bhl ...
... serve as hosts for Crithidia bombi, a widespread gut parasite that is present in many bumblebee species. The ... While inside their host bodies, Crithidia bombi have been discovered to reproduce clonally as well as sexually. After being ... and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.)". Ecology and Evolution ...
For the Bombus vosnesenskii, parasitic organisms include the phoretic mite species Kuzinia and the protozoan Crithidia bombi. ...
She thus showed that hematin, a chemical substance, could substitute to blood for nutrition of Crithidia fasciculata. This ...
The four genera Leptomonas, Crithidia, Leishmania, and Endotrypanum form the terminal branches, suggesting a relatively recent ...
... is a genus of trypanosomatid parasite that infects mushroom-feeding Drosophila, similar to Crithidia parasites of ...
... complementation of an Escherichia coli ribonuclease H mutation by a cloned genomic fragment from the trypanosomatid Crithidia ...
... and Crithidia". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e20656. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...620656R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020656. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC ...
C. deanei is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. It is not typical of ... Crithidia mellificae is a parasite of the bee. Crithidia brevicula might incorporate species of the genus Wallaceina ( ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crithidia. "Crithidia" at the Encyclopedia of Life (Articles with short description, ... Crithidia is a genus of trypanosomatid Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. ...
Sample type: Serum Test name: Crithidia for dsDNA antibodies Condition / Indication: Investigation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Special precautions & notes: Please see dsDNA antibodies Reference range: Positive or Negative Container: Serum (Gold top) Ideal volume (mL): 2ml Referred outside NBT for analysis? No Discipline: Immunology Turnaround time: 14 working days Method: IIF. ...
Sequences of Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri are included as references. L. (V.) panamensis (GenBank accession no ... KP717894); and Crithidia fasciculata (accession no. Y00055). The 2 non-Leishmania trypanosomatids (Leptomonas seymore and ... Sequences from Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri were included as references. Numbers along branches indicate ... Crithidia fasciculata) were included in the phylogenetic tree because they were previously described as co-infecting parasites ...
... traits of flowers affect the health of bumble bees by modulating the transmission of a harmful pathogen called Crithidia bombi ...
Analysis of the primary structure of the three isoforms of serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Crithidia fasciculata. Ludwig ...
EAA41929 (Giardia lamblia ); DCOR_LEIDO (Leishmania donovani); CAA69402 (Crithidia fasciculata); AAA30218 (Trypanosoma brucei ...
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ All content on this site: Copyright © 2024 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies. For all open access content, the Creative Commons licensing terms apply We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ...
Crithidia spp.) and neogregarines (Apicystis bombi), is shaped by the above-mentioned stressors in two bumblebee species (i.e. ...
... and laboratory findings in patients with recent diagnosis of SLE according to the positivity of anti-dsDNA by the Crithidia ...
quickload/L_passim_Apr_2014/Protein_match_Crithidia.bed.gz added quickload/L_passim_Apr_2014/Protein_match_Crithidia.bed.gz.tbi ... quickload/L_passim_Apr_2014/Exon_Crithidia.bed.gz.tbi added quickload/L_passim_Apr_2014/Expressed_sequence_match_Crithidia.bed. ... Add Lotmaria passim, strain SF, Crithidia mellificae strain SF, whole genome shotgun sequencing project, genome assembly and ... quickload/L_passim_Apr_2014/Exon_Crithidia.bed.gz added ... quickload/L_passim_Apr_2014/match_Crithidia.bed.gz.tbi added ...
... with positive anti-DNAn antibodies on crithidia luciliae was found. This patient had also a cytoplasmic- ANCA (c-ANCA) with a ...
... found to provide a homogeneous nuclear staining design inside a HEp2 immunofluorescent display also to stain crithidia ...
... crithidia) and antibody titres (ELISA) and CCP antibody titres (ELISA) were collected as part of the AVISE testing panel. ...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Crithidia fasciculata , unlike the related Escherichia coli RNase HI, contain a non-RNase H ... Eukaryotic RNases H from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Crithidia fasciculata , unlike the related ... Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Binding Sites, Caulimovirus, Chickens, Consensus Sequence, Conserved Sequence, Crithidia ...
Other cell substrates such as Crithidia luciliae (for the detection of autoantibodies to dsDNA) and human granulocytes (for the ...
7113US [tooltip text="View Product Details" style="light"][icon icon="icon: info" background="#61d3f2" border="1px...
from clinical samples of patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran, indicating that Crithidia spp. are capable of ... major and Crithidia spp. was identified; and in 1.8% of lesions, only Crithidia spp. were found. ... Isolation of Crithidia spp. from lesions of immunocompetent patients with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran Nafiseh ... Isolation of Crithidia spp. from lesions of immunocompetent patients with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran Nafiseh ...
Sequences of Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri are included as references. L. (V.) panamensis (GenBank accession no ... Sequences of Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri are included as references. L. (V.) panamensis (GenBank accession no ... KP717894); and Crithidia fasciculata (accession no. Y00055). The 2 non-Leishmania trypanosomatids (Leptomonas seymore and ... KP717894); and Crithidia fasciculata (accession no. Y00055). The 2 non-Leishmania trypanosomatids (Leptomonas seymore and ...
... including Crithidia. The current study of parasites isolated from a Brazilian patient confirms that Crithidia parasites also ... If Crithidia infections represent an emerging infectious disease in people, there will be an urgent need to develop novel ... They expressed concern that the disease may be mosquito-borne because Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes can host the Crithidia ... To confirm that these Crithidia parasites could infect mammals, the researchers exposed mice to the parasites isolated from the ...
Metabolism of alpha-glyceryl ethers by Crithidia fasciculata. I. Study of the in vivo degradation of exogenous chimyl and batyl ...
Keywords: Brazil; Crithidia-related; Visceral leishmaniasis-like; genome sequencing; parasites; sand flies; vector-borne ... First Evidence of Co-Circulation of Emerging Leishmania martiniquensis, Leishmania orientalis, and Crithidia sp. in Culicoides ... whereas the LVH60 and LVH60a clinical isolates are placed in sister positions with Crithidia fasciculata. LVH60 was isolated ...
Crithidia B01.268.475.868.110.350 Crithidia fasciculata B01.268.475.868.488 Leishmania B01.268.475.868.488.080 Leishmania ...
... and anti-dsDNA were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay on mouse kidney and stomach slides and Crithidia luciliae ...
Crithidia (organism) {56700008 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Crithidia luciliae (organism) {112408003 , SNOMED ...
Crithidia Preferred Term Term UI T009951. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1979). ... Crithidia Preferred Concept UI. M0005332. Registry Number. txid5655. Scope Note. A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the ... Crithidia. Tree Number(s). B01.268.475.868.110. Unique ID. D003421. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D003421 ...
Crithidia Preferred Term Term UI T009951. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1979). ... Crithidia Preferred Concept UI. M0005332. Registry Number. txid5655. Scope Note. A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the ... Crithidia. Tree Number(s). B01.268.475.868.110. Unique ID. D003421. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D003421 ...
... yes crithidia,noun,E0019786,crithidial,adj,E0019787,yes habena,noun,E0030645,habenal,adj,E0030646,yes meiofauna,noun,E0595213, ...
1F targets the catalase gene of Crithidia. Therefore, primers were designed to detect L. infantum and Crithidia sp. LVH60A (a ... and Crithidia spp. These coinfections have been observed in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, indicating that they are not rare ... In addition, qPCR assays identified the co-infection of L. infantum with Crithidia sp. LVH60A in two new VL cases in Brazil, ... This novel qPCR assay was highly accurate in identifying and quantifying L. infantum and Crithidia sp. LVH60A in samples ...
Add Lotmaria passim, strain SF, Crithidia mellificae strain SF, whole genome sho… ...
Sequences of Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri are included as references. L. (V.) panamensis (GenBank accession no ... KP717894); and Crithidia fasciculata (accession no. Y00055). The 2 non-Leishmania trypanosomatids (Leptomonas seymore and ... Sequences from Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri were included as references. Numbers along branches indicate ... Crithidia fasciculata) were included in the phylogenetic tree because they were previously described as co-infecting parasites ...
PMID- 5097846 TI - Flagellar adhesion in Crithidia fasciculata. PMID- 5097848 TI - A novel apparatus for determining odour- ...
... including Crithidia. The current study of parasites isolated from a Brazilian patient confirms that Crithidia parasites also ... If Crithidia infections represent an emerging infectious disease in people, there will be an urgent need to develop novel ...
... including Crithidia. The current study of parasites isolated from a Brazilian patient confirms that Crithidia parasites also ... If Crithidia infections represent an emerging infectious disease in people, there will be an urgent need to develop novel ... They expressed concern that the disease may be mosquito-borne because Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes can host the Crithidia ... To confirm that these Crithidia parasites could infect mammals, the researchers exposed mice to the parasites isolated from the ...
Differentiation, In press Bikenmeyer, L., Sugisaki, H., Ray, D. S., The Majority of Minicircle DNA in Crithidia fasciculata ... Nucl, Acids Res, 13:7107-7118 1985 Birkenmeyer, L., Ray, D. $., Replication of kDNA in Kinetoplasts Isolated from Crithidia ...
... yes crithidia,noun,E0019786,crithidial,adj,E0019787,yes habena,noun,E0030645,habenal,adj,E0030646,yes meiofauna,noun,E0595213, ...
B1.650.388.100.610.233 Crithidia B1.500.841.750.443.950.450.868.110 B1.268.475.868.110 Crithidia fasciculata B1.500.841.750. ...
3903 [tooltip text="View Product Details" style="light"][icon icon="icon: info" background="#61d3f2" border="1px s...
Analysis and Classification of Crithidia Luciliae Fluorescent Images. * Anomaly-Based Detection of IRC Botnets by Means of One- ...
Crithidia Crithidia fasciculata Critical Care Critical Care Nursing Critical Care Outcomes Critical Illness Critical Pathways ...
  • Sequences of Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas seymouri are included as references. (cdc.gov)
  • and Crithidia fasciculata (accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2 non- Leishmania trypanosomatids ( Leptomonas seymore and Crithidia fasciculata ) were included in the phylogenetic tree because they were previously described as co-infecting parasites in human leishmaniasis cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Visitor Scientist (April 1997-June 1997) Field of study: Analysis of the primary structure of the three isoforms of serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Crithidia fasciculata . (vt.edu)
  • Eukaryotic RNases H from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Crithidia fasciculata , unlike the related Escherichia coli RNase HI, contain a non-RNase H domain with a common motif. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Concerning the immunological tests, a very high titer of ANA (homogenous 1/1000) with positive anti-DNAn antibodies on crithidia luciliae was found. (hilarispublisher.com)
  • Other cell substrates such as Crithidia luciliae (for the detection of autoantibodies to dsDNA) and human granulocytes (for the detection of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies, ANCA) are routinely employed in cell-based IIF procedures . (menarinidiagnostics.gr)
  • Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common species like Bombus terrestris, Bombus muscorum, and Bombus hortorum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex, horizontal transmission, and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pour identifier les espèces de Leishmania , des techniques moléculaires ont été appliquées sur des échantillons prélevés chez 64 patients atteints de leishmaniose cutanée orientés vers l'hôpital régional d'Herat en 2013. (who.int)
  • Sur un trypanosomide nouveau d'une nyctéribie et sur les relations des formes Trypanosoma, Herpetomonas, Leptomonas et Crithidia. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have discovered monoxenous trypanosomatids (Leptomonas and Crithidia) in patients with VL. (bvsalud.org)
  • These primers were considered species-specific, based on sequence analysis using genome data retrieved from the TriTryp database and the genome assembling of Crithidia sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • To confirm that these Crithidia parasites could infect mammals, the researchers exposed mice to the parasites isolated from the patient, both intravenously and by injection into the skin, and found that both types of parasite infected the liver. (nih.gov)
  • They expressed concern that the disease may be mosquito-borne because Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes can host the Crithidia parasite. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, the screening of 62 cultured isolates from VL patients using these primers surprisingly revealed that 51 parasite cultures were PCR+ for Crithidia sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • the primer Catalase_LVH60-12060_1F targets the catalase gene of Crithidia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The current study of parasites isolated from a Brazilian patient confirms that Crithidia parasites also can infect people. (nih.gov)
  • in 5.4% of cases, co-infection of L. major and Crithidia spp. (nih.gov)

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