Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Amide Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Trypanosoma lewisi: A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Costa RicaWeissella: A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.Gastrodia: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE which depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. It is an ingredient of Zhenxuanyin (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Amide Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Leishmania enriettii: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.

Isolation of tubulin polyglutamylase from Crithidia; binding to microtubules and tubulin, and glutamylation of mammalian brain alpha- and beta-tubulins. (1/119)

Trypanosomatids have a striking cage-like arrangement of submembraneous microtubules. We previously showed that alpha- and beta- tubulins of these stable microtubules are extensively modified by polyglutamylation. Cytoskeletal microtubular preparations obtained by Triton extraction of Leishmania tarentolae and Crithidia fasciculata retain an enzymatic activity that incorporates radioactive glutamic acid in a Mg2+-ATP-dependent manner into alpha- and beta-tubulins. The tubulin polyglutamylase is extracted by 0.25 M salt. The Crithidia enzyme can be purified by ATP-affinity chromatography, glycerol-gradient centrifugation and ion-exchange chromatography. After extraction from the microtubular cytoskeleton the glutamylase forms a complex with alphabeta tubulin, but behaves after removal of tubulin as a globular protein with a molecular mass of 38x10(3). In highly enriched fractions a corresponding band is the major polypeptide visible in SDS-PAGE. The enzyme from Crithidia recognises mammalian brain tubulin, where it incorporates glutamic acid preferentially into the more acidic variants of both alpha- and beta-tubulins. Synthetic peptides with an oligoglutamyl side chain, corresponding to the carboxy-terminal end of brain alpha- and beta-tubulins, are accepted by the enzyme, albeit at low efficiency. The polyglutamylase elongates the side chain by up to 3 and 5 residues, respectively. Other properties of the tubulin polyglutamylase are also discussed.  (+info)

The kinetoplast structure-specific endonuclease I is related to the 5' exo/endonuclease domain of bacterial DNA polymerase I and colocalizes with the kinetoplast topoisomerase II and DNA polymerase beta during replication. (2/119)

The mitochondrial DNA (kinetoplast DNA) of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata has an unusual structure composed of minicircles and maxicircles topologically interlocked into a single network and organized in a disc-shaped structure at the base of the flagellum. We previously purified a structure-specific endonuclease (SSE1), based on its RNase H activity, that is enriched in isolated kinetoplasts. The endonuclease gene has now been cloned, sequenced, and found to be closely related to the 5' exonuclease domain of bacterial DNA polymerase I proteins. Although the protein does not contain a typical mitochondrial leader sequence, the enzyme is shown to colocalize with a type II DNA topoisomerase and a DNA polymerase beta at antipodal sites flanking the kinetoplast disc. Cell synchronization studies with an epitope-tagged construct show that the localization of the endonuclease to the antipodal sites varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner similar to that of the DNA polymerase beta [Johnson, C. E. & Englund, P. T. (1998) J. Cell Biol. 143, 911-919]. Immunofluorescent localization of SSE1 to the antipodal sites is only observed during kinetoplast replication. Together, these results suggest a point of control for kinetoplast DNA replication through the regulation of the availability of DNA replication proteins and a possible role for the antipodal sites in removal of RNA primers and the repair of gaps in newly replicated minicircles.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a hyperinducible, surface membrane-anchored, class I nuclease of a trypanosomatid parasite. (3/119)

The 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'-NT/NU) is a surface enzyme unique to trypanosomatid parasites. These organisms lack the pathway for de novo purine biosynthesis and thus are entirely dependent upon their hosts to supply this nutrient for their survival, growth, and multiplication. The 3'-NT/NU is involved in the salvage of preformed purines via the hydrolysis of either 3'-nucleotides or nucleic acids. In Crithidia luciliae, this enzyme is highly inducible. For example, in these organisms purine starvation triggers an approximately 1000-fold up-expression of 3'-NT/NU activity. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a gene encoding this intriguing enzyme from C. luciliae (Cl). Sequence analysis showed that the Cl 3'-NT/NU deduced protein possessed five regions, which we defined here as being characteristic of members of the class I nuclease family. Further, we demonstrated that the Cl 3'-NT/NU-expressed protein possessed both 3'-nucleotidase and nuclease activities. Moreover, we showed that the dramatic up-expression of 3'-NT/NU activity in response to purine starvation of C. luciliae was concomitant with the approximately 100-fold elevation in steady-state mRNA specific for this gene. Finally, results of our nuclear run-on analyses demonstrated that such up-regulation in 3'-NT/NU enzyme activity was mediated at the posttranscriptional level.  (+info)

Atypical processing in domain III of 23S rRNA of Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004(T) at a position homologous to an rRNA fragmentation site in protozoa. (4/119)

For still unknown reasons, the 23S rRNA of many alpha-Proteobacteria shows a unique fragmentation pattern compared to other bacteria. The 23S rRNA processing involves RNase III and additional, yet unidentified enzymes. The alpha-proteobacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004(T) possesses two fragmentation sites in its 23S rRNA. The first one harbors an intervening sequence in helix 9 which is cleaved by RNase III. We demonstrate that the mature 5' end of the resulting 2.6-kb rRNA fragment is generated by additional removal of helix 10. A fraction of the 2.6-kb rRNA is further processed in domain III, giving rise to two 1.3-kb rRNA fragments. We mapped the domain III fragmentation site and found it to be at a position which has only been reported for trypanosomatid protozoa. This fragmentation site is also unique in that it lacks an intervening sequence. We found that the simultaneous occurrence of 2.6-kb and 1.3-kb rRNA fragments is not due to interoperonal sequence differences but rather reflects slow processing. The different characteristics of the two fragmentation sites in the 23S rRNA suggest that they are processed by different mechanisms. Interestingly, the amount of 2.6-kb rRNA varies during culture growth. We observed a transient increase in the relative amount of 2.6-kb rRNA fragments during the first hours after inoculation, which points to changes in the ratio of rRNA synthesis rate to domain III processing rate during the growth of a culture.  (+info)

Site-specific interactions of JBP with base and sugar moieties in duplex J-DNA. Evidence for both major and minor groove contacts. (5/119)

Beta-D-Glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, also called base J, is an unusually modified DNA base conserved among Kinetoplastida. Base J is found predominantly in repetitive DNA and correlates with epigenetic silencing of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes. We have previously identified a J-binding protein (JBP) in Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Crithidia, and we have shown that it is a structure-specific binding protein. Here we examine the molecular interactions that contribute to recognition of the glycosylated base in synthetic DNA substrates using modification interference, modification protection, DNA footprinting, and photocross-linking techniques. We find that the two primary requirements for J-DNA recognition include contacts at base J and a base immediately 5' of J (J-1). Methylation interference analysis indicates that the requirement of the base at position J-1 is due to a major groove contact independent of the sequence. DNA footprinting of the JBP.J-DNA complex with 1,10-phenanthroline-copper demonstrates that JBP contacts the minor groove at base J. Substitution of the thymine moiety of J with cytosine reduces the affinity for JBP approximately 15-fold. These data indicate that the sole sequence dependence for JBP binding may lie in the thymine moiety of base J and that recognition requires only two specific base contacts, base J and J-1, within both the major and minor groove of the J-DNA duplex.  (+info)

A single enzyme catalyses formation of Trypanothione from glutathione and spermidine in Trypanosoma cruzi. (6/119)

Protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida differ from other organisms in their ability to conjugate glutathione (l-gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) and spermidine to form trypanothione [N(1),N(8)-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine], a metabolite involved in defense against chemical and oxidant stress and other biosynthetic functions. In Crithidia fasciculata, trypanothione is synthesized from GSH and spermidine via the intermediate glutathionylspermidine in two distinct ATP-dependent reactions catalyzed by glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC ) and trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC ), respectively. Here we have cloned a single copy gene (TcTryS) from Trypanosoma cruzi encoding a protein with 61% sequence identity with CfTryS but only 31% with CfGspS. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with TcTryS were able to synthesize glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione, suggesting that this enzyme is able to catalyze both biosynthetic steps, unlike CfTryS. When cultures were supplemented with aminopropylcadaverine, yeast transformants contained glutathionylaminopropylcadaverine and homotrypanothione [N(1),N(9)-bis(glutathionyl)aminopropylcadaverine], metabolites that have been previously identified in T. cruzi, but not in C. fasciculata. Kinetic studies on recombinant TcTryS purified from Escherichia coli revealed that the enzyme displays high-substrate inhibition with glutathione (K(m) and K(i) of 0.57 and 1.2 mm, respectively, and k(cat) of 3.4 s(-1)), but obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics with spermidine, aminopropylcadaverine, glutathionylspermidine, and MgATP as variable substrate. The recombinant enzyme possesses weak amidase activity and can hydrolyze trypanothione, homotrypanothione, or glutathionylspermidine to glutathione and the corresponding polyamine.  (+info)

Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations. (7/119)

Thirty-six Trypanosomatidae stocks isolated from various hosts and geographical areas in Colombia and 7 others from Bolivia, Chile, Honduras and Panama have been surveyed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Part of the Colombian stocks were previously characterized by morphology and biological behavior as belonging to Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli taxa, others were unknown species. The genetic variability observed at 13 different loci was considerable, since 38 zymodemes could be distinguished and 2 upper branches were observed. The first branch corresponded to T. cruzi and was divided in the two major phylogenetic subdivision of T. cruzi (T. cruzi I, T. cruzi II). The majority of the Colombian T. cruzi stocks (92%) felt into T. cruzi I. Only two stocks, isolated from sylvatic mammals, belonged to T. cruzi II. Among T. cruzi I, we did not observed any additional phylogenetic subdivision and host-dependent genotype specificity. The second branch was genetically very heterogeneous and included all T. rangeli stocks, the stocks isolated from bats and one stock isolated from a sylvatic R. prolixus vector. The stocks belonging to T. rangeli presented only one locus instead of two for the malic enzyme system. Since, the upper level of resolution of the isoenzyme method was exceeded, the current clustering study failed to draw a clear distinction between such a diverse set of Trypanosomatidae species.  (+info)

Genome scan stratified by the presence of anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) autoantibody in pedigrees multiplex for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) establishes linkages at 19p13.2 (SLED1) and 18q21.1 (SLED2). (8/119)

Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) is arguably one of the most specific autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This antibody is associated with more severe SLE and with glomerulonephritis. From 196 pedigrees multiplex for SLE, we selected those that had any SLE affected positive for anti-dsDNA by the Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast imunofluorescence assay. This stratification strategy tested the hypothesis that anti-dsDNA would identify a more genetically homogeneous group of pedigrees, in which previously undetected linkage effects could be established. A genome screen data for linkage to SLE was available at 307 microsatellite markers for this selected group of 71 pedigrees: 37 European-American, 29 African-American, and five others. The most significant results were obtained at 19p13.2 (LOD(max) = 4.93), named SLED1, in the 37 European-American pedigrees using a dominant model with mixed penetrances (92% for females and 49% for males) at 100% homogeneity (theta = 0). A second linkage effect, SLED2, was established in the 29 African-American pedigrees at 18q21.1 (LOD(max) = 3.40) using a recessive model with 100% penetrance (theta = 0.1). Parametric and non-parametric multipoint analyses were performed, which provided further evidence and support of susceptibility genes residing in these regions. In conclusion, two powerful linkages have been detected with SLE based on the presence of anti-dsDNA. These findings show SLE to be a richly complicated disease phenotype that is now ripe for important new discovery through a genetic approach.  (+info)

*Crithidia

C. deanei is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. It is not typical of ... Crithidia mellificae, is a parasite of the bee. Other species include C. fasciculata, C. deanei, C. desouzai, C. oncopelti, C. ... Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common ... Crithidia is a genus of trypanosome Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They ...

*Crithidia otongatchiensis

... is a species of monoxenous trypanosomatid. It is known to parasitise Brachycera flies, and was first ... Crithidia otongatchiensis at the Encyclopedia of Life. ...

*Crithidia fasciculata

... is a species of parasitic excavates. C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host ... ISBN 0-486-65126-6. Awadelkariem, FM; Hunter, KJ; Kirby, GC; Warhurst, DC (February 1995). "Crithidia fasciculata as Feeder ... "An Insight into the Proteome of Crithidia fasciculata Choanomastigotes as a Comparative Approach to Axenic Growth, Peanut ... and Cellular Adhesion in the Protozoan Parasite Crithidia fasciculata". CURRENT MICROBIOLOGY. 69 (4): 541-8. doi:10.1007/s00284 ...

*Crithidia luciliae

... is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host. As part of the ... Hall, ST; Penny, JI; Gero, AM; Krishna, S (October 1998). "Crithidia luciliae: functional expression of nucleoside and ... Slater NG, Cameron JS, Lessof MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic ...

*Doris Mackinnon

... and Crithidia hystrighopsyllae, n. sp". Parasitology. 2 (3): 288-296. doi:10.1017/S0031182000001736. Mackinnon, D. L. ( ...

*Trypanothione synthase

Comini M, Menge U, Wissing J, Flohé L (February 2005). "Trypanothione synthesis in crithidia revisited". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (8 ... "Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata". J. Biol. ... "Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...

*Anti-nuclear antibody

Crithidia luciliae are haemoflaggelate single celled protists. They are used as a substrate in immunofluorescence for the ... Slater, NG; Cameron, JS; Lessof, MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic ...

*cytochrome c)-lysine N-methyltransferase

Valentine J, Pettigrew GW (1982). "A cytochrome c methyltransferase from Crithidia oncopelti". Biochem. J. 201 (2): 329-38. PMC ...

*Glutathionylspermidine synthase

"Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthetases from Crithidia fasciculata". Protein Sci. 1 (7): 874-83. ...

*H. E. Carter

A novel branched-chain sphingolipid base from Crithidia facsiculata. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 22: 316-320. Carter, H. E ...

*Anti-dsDNA antibodies

Crithidia luciliae is a haemoflagellate protist with an organelle known as the kinetoplast. This organelle contains a high ... The Farr assay is one of the only tests available that detects high avidity antibodies (along with Crithidia luciliae) and also ... ISBN 0-7044-2437-1. Slater NG, Cameron JS, Lessof MH (September 1976). "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence ...

*Bombus muscorum

The presence of Crithidia bombi has been found to be higher in populations with lower genetic diversity. As B. muscorum ... B. muscorum may contract infections of Crithidia bombi, a trypanosome parasite, from infected nest mates or from others while ... Yourth, Christopher P; Schmid-Hempel, Paul (2006-03-22). "Serial passage of the parasite Crithidia bombi within a colony of its ... Infections have been linked to reduced individual and colony fitness, but the specific relationship between Crithidia bombi and ...

*Two-spotted bumble bee

B. bimaculatus can also be infected by Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi. Both are protozoans, but C. bombi is known to ...

*Angomonas deanei

The species name was accepted as Crithidia deanei until 2011, when phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the genus ... d'Avila-Levy CM, Santos LO, Marinho FA, Matteoli FP, Lopes AH, Motta MC, Santos AL, Branquinha MH (2008). "Crithidia deanei: ... "Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of the relationship of Crithidia deanei with its endosymbiont". Eur J Cell Biol. 72 (4 ... "Influence of the endosymbiont of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei on the glycoconjugate expression and on Aedes ...

*Bombus hortorum

... serve as hosts for Crithidia bombi, a widespread gut parasite that is present in many bumblebee species. The ... While inside their host bodies, Crithidia bombi have been discovered to reproduce clonally as well as sexually. After being ... and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.)". Ecology and Evolution ...

*Bombus vosnesenskii

For the Bombus vosnesenskii, parasitic organisms include the phoretic mite species Kuzinia and the protozoan Crithidia bombi. ...

*Leishmania

The four genera Leptomonas, Crithidia, Leishmania, and Endotrypanum form the terminal branches, suggesting a relatively recent ...

*Trypanothione-disulfide reductase

... including those from Crithidia fasciculata, Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. The structures ... "Purification and characterization of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata, a newly discovered member of the ...

*Kinetoplast

In a traditional Crithidia fasciculata kDNA network, initiation of replication is promoted by the unlinking of kDNA minicircles ... The best studied kDNA structure is that of Crithidia fasciculata, a catenated disk of circular kDNA maxicircles and minicircles ...

*Nosema bombi

Crithidia bombi and Nosema bombi" (PDF). Insectes Sociaux. 46 (3): 233-238. doi:10.1007/s000400050139. Oliver Otti & Paul ...

*Jeffrey Glassberg

Crithidia fasciculata, a trypanosomatid parasite of mosquitos. Glassberg continued his scientific work as one of the founders ... "Isolation and partial characterization of mutants of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata and their use in detecting ...

*Agaric acid

... has also been used as an alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor in Crithidia fasciculata, which is a ...

*Trypanosomatida

Epimastigote (crithidial). Epimastigotes are a common form in the insect host and Crithidia and Blastocrithidia, both parasites ... 2015 Genus Crithidia Léger 1902 Genus Leptomonas Kent 1880 Genus Borovskyia Kostygov & Yurchenko 2017 Genus Endotrypanum Mesnil ...

*Social immunity

Colony members of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) defend themselves against the virulent Crithidia bombi parasite ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... crithidia MeSH B01.500.841.750.443.950.450.868.110.350 --- crithidia fasciculata MeSH B01.500.841.750.443.950.450.868.488 --- ...
Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel
Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs. Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee disease transmission networks. Larvae that were artificially inoculated with C. bombi showed no signs of infection seven days after inoculation. However, larvae that received either an artificial inoculation or a contaminated feed from brood-caring workers were able to transmit the parasite to naive workers. These results ...
GRIEMBERG, Gloria et al. Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.66, n.1, pp. 3-8. ISSN 1669-9106.. Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. Other structures such as membrane, flagellum and basal corpuscle can be stained as well, showing what is called atypical fluorescent images. As C. luciliae belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family, which include the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., it was considered that these atypical images could be caused by cross-reactions. Serological studies for Chagas disease were performed in 105 serum samples displaying atypical images. Sixty four percent of the samples from non endemic and 78.3% from endemic areas for Chagas disease ...
Crithidia luciliae is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host.[2] As part of the family of Trypanosomatidae, they are characterised by the presence of a kinetoplast; a complex network of interlocking circular dsDNA molecules. The presence of this kinetoplast means they are important in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythamatosus (SLE). By using C.luciliae as a substrate for immunofluorescence, the organelle can be used to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies, a common feature of the disease.[3][4]. ...
I. Flagella and cell bodies of Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti were irradiated at preselected points with a pulsed ruby laser microbeam. Results were recorded by high-speed cinephotomicrography. A flagellum could be completely amputated at the irradiated point.. 2. The portion of the flagellum between the cell body and the irradiated point beat from the base after irradiation. The amputated portion of the flagellum could beat from either the tip or the irradiated point, and could beat first from the tip and then from the irradiated point or vice versa. Beating could continue for up to ten cycles.. 3. For flagellar activity in this organism neither a unique region of the flagellum nor the cell body is necessary. Wave propagation appears to involve the transmission of a signal at a greater velocity than that of the wave. The results favour a model of bend propagation which allows for a distribution of autonomous initiators along the flagellar length.. ...
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Not to be confused with the fungi genus Chytridium. Crithidia is a genus of trypanosome Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They pass from host to host as cysts in infective faeces and typically, the parasites develop in the digestive tracts of insects and interact with the intestinal epithelium using their flagellum. They display very low host-specificity and a single parasite can infect a large range of invertebrate hosts. At different points in its life-cycle, it passes through amastigote, promastigote, and epimastigote phases; the last is particularly characteristic, and similar stages in other trypanosomes are often called crithidial. Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common species like Bombus terrestris, Bombus muscorum, and Bombus hortorum. The parasites negatively impact reproductive fitness of Bombus queens, as they affect their ovarian development as ...
Phytochemicals produced by plants, including at flowers, function in protection against plant diseases, and have a long history of use against trypanosome infection. Floral nectar and pollen, the sole food sources for many species of insect pollinators, contain phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce trypanosome infection in bumble and honey bees when fed as isolated compounds. Nectar and pollen, however, consist of phytochemical mixtures, which can have greater antimicrobial activity than do single compounds. This study tested the hypothesis that pollen extracts would inhibit parasite growth.Extracts of six different pollens were tested for direct inhibitory activity against cell cultures of the bumble bee trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi. Surprisingly, pollen extracts increased parasite growth rather than inhibiting it. Experimental manipulations of growth media showed that supplemental monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) were sufficient to promote growth, while a common floral
Crithidia confusa ATCC ® PRA-346™ Designation: 320AR Isolation: Intestine of Largus cf. cinctus (Heteroptera), Alajuela Province, Costa Rica, 2009
CO-TWO je praktické kombo CO2 hustilky a klasické mini. Hliníkové tělo v kombinaci s CO2 bombičkou nahustí cyklopneumatiku téměř okamžitě. Dodávaná s duální koncovkou pro galuskové i auto ventilky.
Several species of bumble bees are declining in the United States; these declining populations often show higher prevalence of Nosema bombi, a microsporidian pathogen. To date, surveys of bumble bee pathogens in the United States have only been conducted on workers and males, yet the health of a population is ultimately dependent on the success of colony-founding queens. We conducted a molecular-diagnostic survey of the prevalence of N. bombi and trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia bombi, in six species of spring queens (n = 142) collected in 2011 and 2013 at three sites in central Kansas. Nosema bombi was found in 27% of Bombus pensylvanicus and 13% of B. auricomus but was not found in the other species sampled. Trypanosomatids were only found in B. pensylvanicus (9%) during the May 2013 sampling period. The high prevalence of N. bombi in B. pensylvanicus is consistent with other surveys for this pathogen in other castes, but the high prevalence of N. bombi in B. auricomus is a novel finding. ...
A total of 1940 isolates from gut samples of 60 bumblebees representing Bombus pascuorum, Bombus terrestris, Bombus lucorum and Bombus lapidarius was collected and identified through state-of the-art taxonomic methods. The bacterial species diversity in these Bombus species exceeded that suggested by phylotype analysis through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and revealed that B. pascuorum and B. terrestris had a unique microbiota composition, each. Representatives of most phylotypes reported earlier and detected in the present study were effectively isolated, and included several novel bacterial taxa and species reported for the first time in the bumblebee gut. Isolates were screened in pectin degradation assays and growth inhibition assays against the honeybee pathogens Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius and Ascosphaera apis and the bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi. While inhibitory activity against each of these pathogens was observed, only one single culture was able to degrade ...
Methods A cohort of 36 subjects with active SLE presenting with classical complement activation were enrolled and followed monthly for 1 year. At each study visit blood was collected, serum isolated and frozen until analysis. A total of 371 specimens were collected. Disease activity was scored on the day of each study visit according to the SELENA-SLEDAI method excluding anti-dsDNA or complement components (non-serological [ns] SELENA-SLEDAI). All specimens were tested using four different anti-dsDNA kits; QUANTA Lite, QUANTA Flash, a high Avidity anti-dsDNA ELISA, and the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence assay (CLIFT) (Inova Diagnostics, San Diego, CA). Study visits presenting with inactive disease (ns-SELENA- SLEDAI score=0) were compared to those presenting with active disease (ns-SELENA- SLEDAI,0). The longitudinal data were analyzed using linear mixed effect modeling with the ns-SELENA-SLEDAI as dependent variable and the anti-dsDNA titers as fixed effect predictors. Marginal ...
In addition to these heteroxenous organisms, several genera such as Crithidia, Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, Herpetomonas and Rhynchoidomonas are restricted to a single host from such widely diverse groups of invertebrates as ciliates, rotifers, nematodes, mollusks, annelids and arachnids, but are found predominantly in insects (Wallace 1966, McGhee and Cosgrove 1980, Vickerman 1994). Insect trypanosomatids have been traditionally allocated to distinct genera that were described based on morphological features, host and geographical origin (Wallace et al. 1983, Momen 2001). However, for identification purposes, these criteria proved to be impractical and insufficient, because different genera share the same evolutive forms (Wallace 1966) and because a diverse range of insects and plants can alberg lower trypanosomatids (Catarino et al. 2001). Therefore, the same trypanosomatid species may be recovered from diverse species of insects or plants and the same insect species may harbor various species ...
The most parsimonious tree was obtained via using DHFR-TS sequences of Crithidia fasciculata, a monogenetic trypanosomatid, as outgroup (Fernandes and Beverley
Qualitatively different immune response of the bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, to infection by different genotypes of the trypanosome gut parasite, Crithidia ...
1OC8: Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron Radiation and Evidence for a Conformational Switch Implicated in Function
The deformed wing virus (DWV), known to be ubiquitous in honey bees, has now been detected in bumblebees. In addition, the neogregarine Apicystis bombi has been discovered to be more prevalent than previously thought. Here, we assess for the first time the lethal and sublethal effects of these parasites during single and mixed infections of worker bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, we find that A. bombi exhibits both lethal and sublethal effects. DWV causes lethal effect and may reduce the sub lethal effects imposed by A. bombi. The results show that both parasites have significant, negative effects on bumblebee health, making them potentially of conservation concern. more here: http://graystock.info/publications/single-and-mixed-infections-of-apicystis-bombi-and-deformed-wing-virus-2015/. ...
Researchers recently unearthed the first archaeological evidence of intestinal parasites described by Hippocrates 2,500 years ago.
ATCC holdings include genera such as Crithidia, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Leptomonas, Euglena, Naegleria, Trichomonas, and Giardia.
The test gives an idea of how well foods are digested and absorbed, gives some products of gut fermentation, looks for blood in the stool, gives counts of bacteria and yeast, identifies those bacteria which should not be there and gives a list of antibiotic and anti-fungal preparations, both herbal and drug, to which that micro-organism is sensitive. N.B. If this test is requested as a second or subsequent test on an order, please contact the Office because there will be a small additional interpretation fee due to the complexity of this test result. Please see Ordering Tests for worked examples of how to calculate the costs of tests and their interpretations. The stool analysis is carried out at Genova Diagnostics in the US. Please, note this test does not include looking for gut parasites. For that, see Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis with parasitology or Parasitology. A second test, CDSA 2.0 was then designed with some markers that supersede the original CDSA. CDSA 2.0 does not report ...
Putnick, DL; Bornstein, MH; Lansford, JE; Malone, PS; Pastorelli, C; Skinner, AT; Sorbring, E; Tapanya, S; Uribe Tirado, LM; Zelli, A; Alampay, LP; Al-Hassan, SM; Bacchini, D; Bombi, AS; Chang, L; Deater-Deckard, K; Di Giunta, L; Dodge, KA; Oburu, P. "Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries.." The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 56.8 (August, 2015): 923-932. [doi] [abs] ...
The effects of acriflavine on two species of Trypanosomatidae, Crithidia luciliae and Trypanosoma mega, have been investigated. It has been observed that kinetoplastic (i.e. mitochondrial) DNA is lost in a high percentage of acriflavine-treated cells. Resting flagellates, from stationary-phase or hemin-deficient cultures, are considerably more resistant to the acridine than are flagellates from a log-phase culture. When the kinetoplast has retained some DNA and still remains visible in stained smears, it appears reduced in size, and its ultrastructure is extremely abnormal: the DNA fibrils, clearly visible in normal kinetoplasts, are condensed; they appear as an electron-opaque, apparently homogeneous mass, separated from the membranes by a space of low electron-opacity. Analyses of DNA extracts, with high speed centrifugation in CsCl density gradients, revealed that the satellite band, presumably kinetoplastic DNA, is lost by trypanosomes grown for 5 days in the presence of acriflavine. ...
Objective: An Italian multicentre study was promoted in order to assess the accuracy of four anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody assays for SLE diagnosis and monitoring. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three patients with established SLE according to ACR classification criteria were enrolled from 9 centres. They included 59 patients at first evaluation (disease duration ,12 months) and 164 with longer disease duration (median disease duration 120 months). The sera from 55 healthy subjects and 161 patients with rheumatic, infectious or neoplastic diseases were tested as controls. SLE activity was measured by ECLAM score. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected in serum by means of FarrzymeTM assay, fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (EliATM), Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence (CLIFT) or Farr radioimmunoassay (Farr). Cut-off values of quantitative assays were chosen by ROC curves analysis. Statistics were conducted by SPSS software package. Results: Sensitivity for SLE diagnosis ranged between ...
article{9d3be0e5-e41f-4a44-8c51-3977de05b2b1, abstract = {Mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which catalyses the first step in polyamine biosynthesis, has a very fast turnover. It is degraded by the 26S proteasome in an ubiquitin-independent process and the degradation is stimulated by polyamines in a feedback control of the enzyme. Interestingly, there is a major difference in the metabolic stability between ODCs from various trypanosomatids. Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani both contain stable ODCs, whereas Crithidia fasciculata has an ODC with a rapid turnover. In spite of the difference in stability there is a high degree of sequence homology between C. fasciculata ODC and L. donovani ODC. In the present study we demonstrate that C. fasciculata ODC is rapidly degraded also in mammalian systems like CHO cells and rabbit reticulocyte lysate, suggesting that the degradation signals of the enzyme are recognised by the mammalian systems. L. donovani ODC, on the other hand, is ...
The disinfectants TriGene, bleach, ethanol and liquid hand soap, and water and temperature were tested for their ability to kill bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli and promastigotes of Leishmania major. A 5-min exposure to 0.2% TriGene, 0.1% liquid hand soap and 0.05% bleach (0.05% NaOCl) killed all three trypanosomatids. Ethanol and water destroyed the parasites within 5 min at concentrations of 15-17.5% and 80-90%, respectively. All three organisms were also killed when treated for 5 min at 50°C. The results indicate that the disinfectants, water and temperature treatment (i.e. autoclaving) are suitable laboratory hygiene measures against trypanosomatid parasites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of inhibitor binding free energies by quantum neural networks. Nucleoside analogues binding to trypanosomal nucleoside hydrolase. AU - Braunheim, Benjamin B.. AU - Miles, Robert W.. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. AU - Schwartz, Steven D.. PY - 1999/12/7. Y1 - 1999/12/7. N2 - A computational method has been developed to predict inhibitor binding energy for untested inhibitor molecules. A neural network is trained from the electrostatic potential surfaces of known inhibitors and their binding energies. The algorithm is then able to predict, with high accuracy, the binding energy of unknown inhibitors. IU-nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata and the inhibitor molecules described previously [Miles, R. W. Tyler, P. C. Evans, G. Fumeaux R. H., ParK(i)n, D. W., and Schramm, V. L. (1999) Biochemistry 38, xxxx-xxxx] are used as the test system. Discrete points on the molecular electrostatic potential surface of inhibitor molecules are input to neural networks to identify the ...
Objective 1: Improve the production and management of non-Apis bees such as blue orchard bees, bumble bees, and alfalfa leafcutting bees for crop pollination by increasing knowledge of bee nutritional needs and environmental effects on bee physiology (especially on diapause and overwintering). Sub-Objective 1.1: Identify the pollen and nectar requirements for maintaining non-Apis bee fitness, in both native and managed ecosystems. Sub-Objective 1.2: Develop a better understanding of the environmental factors that affect diapause in non-Apis bees, and develop methods to improve winter survival. Objective 2: Identify environmental (e.g. poor nutrition) and biological factors associated with bee declines (non-Apis species and the honey bee) and develop methods to diagnose and control non-Apis mortality, such as pollen ball and chalkbrood, that are caused by parasites, pathogens (e.g. Crithidia and viruses of bumble bees), and pesticides. Sub-Objective 2.1: For non-Apis bees, develop methods to ...
Gut parasites tend to shed eggs/infectious sections constantly when mature. Other fish definitely investigate the waste o other fish, as few fish have appetite suppression when they are full - when food is abundant (standard in captivity if suitable foods are used), fish will continue eating so long as food is available, even if undigested food is being pushed out the other end. Investigating other fishs waste is actually and effective feeding practice in the wild. There it lack the density we have in captive systems. But it does increase to chance of parasite infestation. In the wild, if that gives the fish the extra nutrition need to reproduce sooner or lager numbers of eggs/sperm, they may increase theor numbers in the next generation even if they may die sooner from parasites. Survival goals in captivity are quite different drom those in the wild ...
The trypanosomatid protists belonging to Order Kinetoplastida are some of the most successful parasites ever known to mankind. Their extreme physiological diversity and adaptability to different environmental conditions and host systems make them some of the most widespread parasites, causing deadly diseases in humans and other vertebrates. This project focuses on their unique mitochondrion, called the kinetoplast, and more specifically involves the characterization of a part of their mitochondrial DNA (also called kinetoplast DNA or kDNA), the maxicircles, which are functional homologs of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA in the kinetoplastid protists. We have sequenced and characterized the maxicircle genomes of 20 new trypanosomatids and compared them with 8 previously published maxicircle genomes of other trypanosomatids. Transcripts of ~13 of the 20 total genes in these maxicircles undergo post-transcriptional modifications involving the insertion and deletion of U residues at precise sites, to yield
Abstract Kinetoplast DNA is the mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatids. This DNA consists primarily of thousands of small minicircles which are linked together to form a giant network. Replication of this DNA involves release of individual minicircles from the network to form free minicircles. The free minicircles then replicate and the two progeny are reattached to the network. When all minicircles within the network have replicated, the double-sized network divides to form two progeny structures which are each identical to the parent network.
Research has confirmed the important connection between our brain and our colon. When we talk about a "gut feeling," its because this connection is genuinely physical.. The brain and the gut are directly connected by the vagus nerve. It extends from the brainstem to the abdomen, and is an open line of communication. Cells in the gut produce the neurotransmitter serotonin.. Research has confirmed the connection between a healthy gut and a reduced risk of Alzheimers disease and dementia,4 as well as how certain gut parasites can compromise brain health.5. In a recent study, scientists transferred gut bacteria from old mice to younger mice. The younger mice developed age-related chronic inflammation as a result.6 Research has helped explain just how this type of long-term inflammation in the gut leads to diminished brain health.7. When dietary factors like lectins make changes to the structure of the gut, especially when they allow bacteria to escape, it results in low-grade inflammation in the ...
Deater Deckard, K; Lansford, JE; Malone, PS; Alampay, LP; Sorbring, E; Bacchini, D; Bombi, AS; Bornstein, MH; Chang, L; Di Giunta, L; Dodge, KA; Oburu, P; Pastorelli, C; Skinner, AT; Tapanya, S; Tirado, LMU; Zelli, A; Al Hassan, SM, The association between parental warmth and control in thirteen cultural groups, Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 25 no. 5 (2011), pp. 791-794, ISSN 0893-3200 [doi] [abs] [child development, mental health, early childhood, family structure, parenting, cross-cultural comparisons ...
To bring promising anti- trypanosomatid drug discovery initiatives forward with the help of key experts in industry and academia to create a unique and powerful drug discovery platform with the common objective of advancing promising laboratory- driven discoveries into clinical utility. EU FP7 work programme : HEALTH.2013.2.3.4-2: Drug development for neglected parasitic diseases. FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1. Duration: 36 months Scientific oordinator Dr. Jane MacDougall PhD [email protected] ...
The list of unique features of the trypanosomatid cell is long, so only the best known oddities will be briefly mentioned here. Kinetoplast (k) DNA in the single mitochondrion of trypanosomatids has a unique structure, being composed of thousands of mutually interlocked minicircles and dozens of maxicircles (Lukes et al., 2005). Perhaps hundred of proteins are required for maintenance and replication of this extremely complicated network. Maxicircles encode homologues of typical mitochondrial genes of other eukaryotes, however, some of them are present in an encrypted form, which means that their transcripts have to undergo RNA editing by the insertions and deletions of uridines in order to become translatable on mitochondrial ribosomes. Information from the exact editing is specified by hundreds of small RNA molecules termed guide RNAs that are encoded by minicircles. Moreover, dozens of proteins, constituting several unique protein complexes, are necessary for the process. It is worth ...
Im bringing home my baby bumblebee (cup hands) Wont my mommy be so proud of me Im bringing home my baby bumble bee Ouch! It stung me! Im squashing up my
The flowers of Ironweed are like crimson torches in the late summer prairie. Named for its tough stem, Ironweed has excellent posture and never slouches in the garden making it an excellent high border garden plant. It attracts late season butterlies and monarchs and an excellent source of seeds for birds in the wildlife garden.
George McGavin championed the bumblebee pointing out that it is a keystone in the ecological network, upon which many other species depend, and that the 25 bumblebee species found in the UK today represent 10% of the global bumblebee fauna ...
A key aspect of thinking systemically about the future is being able to see how rapidly advancing technologies across many fields interrelate. Whatever next Internet-like discontinuity or singularity occurs will influence whatever comes thereafter. It is likely that some high percentage of what are now thought to be expected future advances will recede or be reshaped at minimum, for example ...
Trypanosomatid parasites infect over 21 million people worldwide, with a range of disease phenotypes. Trypanosoma cruzi causes American trypanosomiasis, wherein 30-40% of infected individuals develop disease manifestations, most commonly cardiomyopathy but also digestive megasyndromes. In the case of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis, disease progression can be rapid or slow, with early or late central nervous system involvement. Finally, Leishmania species cause leishmaniasis, a disease that ranges from self-healing but scarring cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis in which parasites disseminate to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. This review highlights parasite factors involved in disease phenotype in all three trypanosomatid diseases, with a particular focus on recent advances using large-scale omics techniques.
Insect-transmitted protozoan parasites cause widespread and debilitating diseases in man and domestic livestock throughout the tropics. Examples of diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites include African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by tsetse flies), Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and kala-azar, espundia and oriental sore (caused by the Leishmania). There are no vaccines against these diseases and most of the available drug treatments are toxic and/or ineffective.. Parasite surface molecules must protect the organisms and enable them to identify, and interact with, cells of both the insect vector and the animal host. Many trypanosomatid parasite surface molecules are either glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored glycoproteins or GPI-related glycolipids (Fig.1).. The parasite GPI biosynthetic pathway, and the pathways that assemble the sugar nucleotides that fuel it and the protein O- and N-glycosylation pathways, are validated targets for ...
Parasites Kinetoplastids cause a number of serious diseases that have contributed to death and health problems in humans. The severity of these infections depends in most cases on the nature of the pathogen, on its different degrees of propagation, and on the expression of the virulence factors involved in the immune evasion mechanisms of the host and on the pathogenesis of infection. These details are determinant in the equilibrium of the pathogen-host interaction and the result of this relation, which can vary from symbiosis, mutualism or parasitism.The objective of this Research Topic is to evaluate the immunological cellular and humoral mechanisms developed by vertebrate hosts and consequently the escape routes that these pathogenic trypanosomatids developed to deceive and escape from protective imune responses. The current issue highlights the research on subversion and modulation of host defense mechanisms associated with the immunopathogenesis of trypanosomatid infections, providing a broad
An assemblage of eukaryotic protists characterized by one or more feeding grooves equipped with undulipodia (flagella) that propel food to the mouth. They include the diplomonads (e.g. Giardia, responsible for giardiasis in humans), other gut parasites or symbionts (retortamonads and oxymonads), trichomonads (such as the human vaginal parasite Trichomonas), and the jakobids (a class of zoomastigotes). Molecular systematics reveals that excavates could be a very early eukaryote lineage, a view supported by their simplified organelles and by the fact that the jakobids have mitochondrial genomes that are remarkably similar to those of bacteria, attesting to the ancient origin of mitochondria as intracellular symbiotic bacteria. ...
As previously described T. cruzi has a single tubular mitochondrion which shares with the similar organelle from mammalian cells some features as the presence of DNA, cristae and a number of enzymes detected in its interior membrane. The Kinetoplast, a fibrous network of DNA which constitutes 20-25% of the total parasite DNA is located at the mitochondrion. Electron microscopy studies have shown that the K-DNA molecules are organized as associated minicircles and maxicircles. Although each Kinetoplast comprises 20.000-25.000 minicircles, the role played by the K-DNA has not been established. However, evidence from the number of base pairs and the coding capability of the mincircles suggest that they would only translate small proteins whose existence and importance have not been yet disclosed. Maxicircles, however, owing to their size and molecular weight are likely to code for enzymes which participate of the parasite metabolism. Whatever its role, K-DNA seems to be essential for the parasite ...
Leaf and fascicle. Inflorescence - Axillary racemes in the upper 2/3 of the stem. Racemes very bracteate and the inflorescence appearing as just axillary flowers. Flowers single from each leaf (bract) axil, 1-2 per node, opposite. Pedicels 3-5mm long, shorter than or equaling the calyx, glabrous, ascending. Axis of the inflorescence angled, puberulent. Flowers - Corolla pink, to +2cm long, 5-lobed. Corolla tube densely antrorse pubescent externally, mostly glabrous internally, contracted in the basal 5mm (the portion surrounded by the calyx). Corolla tube with pink spots and two yellow stripes internally (ventrally). Corolla lobes rounded, with pilose margins, to +1cm broad, 1cm long, spreading, the upper two pilose-bearded at the base internally. Stamens 4, didynamous, mostly included. Filaments pale pink to whitish, pink pilose, to +1cm long, adnate at the apex of the contracted portion of the corolla tube. Anthers whitish, pilose dorsally, +/-3mm long, 1.5mm broad, with two acute basal lobes. ...
Native: indigenous.. Non-native: introduced (intentionally or unintentionally); has become naturalized.. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). State documented: never been documented from the county, but known from the state. May be present. Or, may be restricted to a small area or a habitat (alpine, marsh, etc.), so unlikely found in some counties.. Note: when native and non-native populations both exist in a county, only native status is shown on the map.. ...
Observation - Bombus hypnorum?? - UK and Ireland. Description: Not a great photo, but clearly of a bumblebee with a ginger thorax and black body...
The invention relates to a system for detecting and locating surface discontinuity by a light beam; it is more particularly intended for detecting any discontinuity forming a line on this surface, or any discontinuity forming two opposite lines on this surface. In the latter case, this discontinuity may, for example, be the join defined by the opposite edges of two metal sheets to be welded.
EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.. To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!. ...
The regression discontinuity (RD) design is a valuable tool for identifying electoral effects, but this design is only effective when relevant actors do not hav
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect. T2 - A longitudinal study in nine countries. AU - Lansford, Jennifer E.. AU - Godwin, Jennifer. AU - Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe. AU - Zelli, Arnaldo. AU - Al-Hassan, Suha M.. AU - Bacchini, Dario. AU - Bombi, Anna Silvia. AU - Bornstein, Marc H.. AU - Chang, Lei. AU - Deater-Deckard, Kirby. AU - Di Giunta, Laura. AU - Dodge, Kenneth A.. AU - Malone, Patrick S.. AU - Oburu, Paul. AU - Pastorelli, Concetta. AU - Skinner, Ann T.. AU - Sorbring, Emma. AU - Tapanya, Sombat. AU - Alampay, Liane Peña. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United ...
Luscious images of bumble bees (Bombus species) on vividly-coloured flowers. For stock licensing of photos, please contact Janet Davis.
Luscious images of bumble bees (Bombus species) on vividly-coloured flowers. For stock licensing of photos, please contact Janet Davis.
The adoptable bunnies at the Sonoma Humane Societys Bunny Playground star in this exciting conclusion to the Bumble Bun series that began with "The Flight of the Bumble Bun" and was followed by "The Return of the Bumble Bun." Our hero Jeremys adventures continue and the final mystery of the Bumble Bun is revealed. If you live in Northern California you can visit the Bunny Playground on Saturdays from 2 to 4 p.m. and meet the amazing Jeremy, the other bunny stars, and maybe even… The Bumble Bun!!!!. ...
Detection of non coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules is a major bioinformatics challenge. This challenge is particularly difficult when attempting to detect H/ACA molecules which are involved in converting uridine to pseudouridine on rRNA in trypanosomes, because these organisms have unique H/ACA molecules (termed H/ACA-like) that lack several of the features that characterize H/ACA molecules in most other organisms. We present here a computational tool called Psiscan, which was designed to detect H/ACA-like molecules in trypanosomes. We started by analyzing known H/ACA-like molecules and characterized their crucial elements both computationally and experimentally. Next, we set up constraints based on this analysis and additional phylogenic and functional data to rapidly scan three trypanosome genomes (T. brucei, T. cruzi and L. major) for sequences that observe these constraints and are conserved among the species. In the next step, we used minimal energy calculation to select the molecules that are predicted
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The tiny Bumble Bee Snail benefits most marine reef aquariums in big ways. Heralded for their small size and beautiful coloration, Engina sp. can get into small crevices and tight locations between rockwork. Here, they clean away detritus, including uneaten meaty foods and decomposing organisms. This tiny member of the Buccinidae family also burrows into your sand bed, consumes sand-dwelling worms, and helps aerate your substrate. Plus, with its striking black shell, striped in elegant white to yellow bands, the Bumble Bee Snail is indeed beautiful to observe. For best care, offer ample hiding places with large areas to roam. The Bumble Bee Snail prefers to consume foods off of live rock and deep sand beds where it can forage for food undisturbed. Like other invertebrates, the Bumble Bee Snail is sensitive to copper-based medications, high nitrate levels, and even the slightest fluctuation in water parameters. Though peaceful, keep in mind that the Bumble Bee Snail is a carnivore. If there is ...
All animals are afflicted by a wide range of pests and parasites. Many are relatively benign. But for the honey bee one gut parasite in particular is a major risk, especially as summers become warmer.. Bees are fairly used to parasites. A native single-celled (microsporidian) parasite of the honey bee called Nosema apis has probably co-existed with its host for millions of years. Back in the 1990s Ingemar Fries, a world expert in honey bee pathology, visited Beijing where he came across a subtly different and novel variant of N. apis in the eastern honey bee. He named it Nosema ceranae.. Fries thought nothing more of his scientific paper describing the species, until the same parasite was found a decade later in western honey bees (the species native to Europe) in Spain, Taiwan and Vietnam.. This prompted a team of scientists, including me, to search for the parasite in honey bees across the world. If a recently discovered virus had jumped species and was spreading globally, that was big news ...
Review for Bumble and bumble, Bumble and Bumble Super Rich Conditioner, Conditioner. Read more Bumble and bumble product reviews at Total Beauty. (Page3) of results
Bumble Bee Sexy Costume Adult Size in Sexy Insects: Adult sexy bumble bee costume features yellow and black striped tube dress, stinger, bee wings and antenna headpiece.

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A. Anatomia dhe fiziologjia 1. Korteksi (pjesa e jashtme) ka 3 shtresa; duke filluar nga jashtë ato janë: a. Zona glomerulosa, e cila prodhon hormonin mineralokortikoid. Zona glomeruloza është nën kontrollin e sistemit reninë-angiotensinë-aldosteron. b. Zona fasciculata prodhon glukokortikoidët. Zona fasciculata është nën kontrollin e hormonit ACTH të prodhuar prej hipofizës. c. Zona reticularis prodhon…
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 has evolutionarily conserved roles in cell signaling and metabolism and is a recognized drug target in neurological pathologies, most prominently bipolar disorder. More recently it has been suggested that GSK3 may be a target for the treatment of trypanosomatid parasite infections, e.g. w
There are 70 calories in 1 serving, 1/4 cup (2 oz) of Bumble Bee Medium Shrimp: Deveined or Regular. Youd need to walk 18 minutes to burn 70 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Scientists aim to describe a single tree of life that reflects the evolutionary relationships of living things. However, evolutionary relationships are a matter of ongoing discovery, and there are different opinions about how living things should be grouped and named. EOL reflects these differences by supporting several different scientific classifications. Some species have been named more than once. Such duplicates are listed under synonyms. EOL also provides support for common names which may vary across regions as well as languages.. ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Bombus terricola, abdomen segment 2 light, UGCA195784 image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Bombus fervidus, abdomen segment 4 light, UGCA195772 image
Bumblebee bats eat insects such as beetles and spiders, and they are actually known as the hog-nosed bat. The term bumblebee bat is a nickname for the bat due to its small stature that is similar...
|p|HISTORY Created out of necessity by Bb.Editorial Stylists, Classic Hairspray, our strongest aerosol, is a controlling substance designed to hold the toughest styles and tame wayward manes. An indispensable tool, Classic Hairspray is weightless, brushab
Op zoek naar alle evenementen in Monthey? Of je er nu al lang of maar net woont, of enkel op doorreis bent, op Eventbrite vind je altijd iets interessants.
Op zoek naar evenementen in Saint-Charles-Borromée morgen? Of je er nu al lang of net woont, of enkel op doorreis bent, op Eventbrite vind je altijd iets interessants.
Trypanosomes contain a unique form of mitochondrial DNA called kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Several proteins are essential for network replication, and most of these localize to the antipodal sites or the kinetoflagellar zone. Essential components for kDNA synthesis include three mitochondrial DNA polymerases TbPOLIB, TbPOLIC, and TbPOLID). In contrast to other kDNA replication proteins, TbPOLID was previously reported to localize throughout the mitochondrial matrix. This spatial distribution suggests that TbPOLID requires redistribution to engage in kDNA replication. Here, we characterize the subcellular distribution of TbPOLID with respect to the Trypanosoma brucei cell cycle using immunofluorescence microscopy. Our analyses demonstrate that in addition to the previously reported matrix localization, TbPOLID was detected as discrete foci near the kDNA. TbPOLID foci colocalized with replicating minicircles at antipodal sites in a ...
Besides size, another way that you can tell how Bumble Bee is different from Honey Bee is that Bumble Bees nest is a mess. Bumble Bees have fewer members in their colonies than Honey Bee. Also, They do not store large amounts of honey. Unlike Honey Bees, Bumble Bees rarely sting unless their nest is threatened ...
Sergeant First Class Carmen Russo performs The Trombone Meets The Bumblebee with The U.S. Army Field Band, Major Scott McKenzie conducting. The Trombone Meets The Bumblebee is an original Army Field Band arrangement by Master Sergeant Jay Norris, drawing from Rimsky-Korsakovs Flight of the Bumblebee and themes from Bizets Carmen. Performed at Linganore High School, Frederick, Maryland, on May 29th, 2013. http://www.armyfieldband.com
Bumblebees have been dying out all around the world for over a century. Now, scientists are gathering alarming news that these lovable, fuzzy pollinators may not be around for much longer if current statistics continue. In the past few decades scientific studies have found that increasing numbers of bumblebee colonies are disappearing.
Book now at Bumble in Los Altos, CA. Explore menu, see photos and read 188 reviews: I was shocked to see the horrible decline at Bumble! I will never step foot in there again! #1: We had reservation at 1pm and arrived at 12:20; we we...
Epigenetic events regulate the activities of genes without changing the DNA sequence. Different genes are expressed depending on the methyl-marks attached to DNA itself and by changes in the structure and/or composition of chromatin. 3 Comments. ...
A study of a simple marine animal suggests that the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians may have had three germ layers instead of two.. 0 Comments. ...
En välvandrad stig. A Well trodden path. Korp Raven Utsikt över älvdalen. Looking out over the river valley. Japp, det är stigen. Yeah, th ...
Wild bees, such as bumblebees, don't get as much love as honeybees, but they should. They play just as crucial a role in pollinating many fruits,
The same viruses that scientists say are responsible for colony collapse disorder in honeybees are being found in wild bumblebee specimens.
Bumblebees have the trouble of retaining far too much water, and require quick and effective ways to void it - with interesting behavioural consequences
Officer Christine Allenberg filed charges against Ronnie & Sarah Crapps of Springfield for failing to provide adequate sustenance and care for their pit bull. The dog was emaciated and had multiple infections and illnesses when surrendered to a humane society in western MA. Arraignment 1/30 ...
Publications:. 1.Ghobakhloo N, Motazedian MH, Naderi S, Ebrahimi S. Frequency isolation of Crithidia ssp from cutaneous lesions of immune-competent patients suspicious to leishmaniasis in Iran. (in press in Tropical Medicine and International Health). 2. Ghobakhloo N, M H Motazedian, B Pourmohammadi, Z Yourselfi. Evaluation of correlation between the in vitro susceptibility of field isolates of Leishmania major and clinical outcomes of meglumine antimoniate therapy in Fars province, Iran. Arthropod Vector Born Disease. 2017; 11(1): 132-138.. 3. Ghobakhloo N, Motazedian MH, Fardaei M. Expression analysis of multiple genes may involve in antimony resistance among leishmania major clinical isolates from Fars province, Central, Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2016; 11(2): 168-176.. ...
Leishmania is a group of trypanosomatid protozoan parasites that exist in two morphological forms: a promastigote form within their insect vector and an amastigote form in the mammalian host. To study gene expression in these two distinct lifecycle forms, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments were used to determine the copy number of control gene transcripts in the two lifecycle form populations. The goal of the current study was to clone the β-tubulin gene from Leishmania donovani and evaluate its role as a reference control for RT-qPCR gene expression studies.
HMG1 and 2 (high mobility group proteins 1 and 2; renamed HMGB1 and 2) contain two DNA-binding HMG-box domains (A and B) and a long acidic C-terminal domain. They bind DNA without sequence specificity, but have a high affinity for bent or distorted DNA, and bend linear DNA. The individual A and B boxes (which, although broadly similar, show both structural and functional differences) exhibit many of the structure-specific properties of the whole protein. The acidic tail modulates the affinity of the tandem HMG boxes in HMG1 and 2 for a variety of DNA targets, including four-way junctions, but not distorted DNA minicircles, to which the proteins bind with very high affinity. HMG1 and 2 appear to play important architectural roles in the assembly of nucleoprotein complexes in a variety of biological processes, for example V(D)J recombination, the initiation of transcription, and DNA repair. ...
Trypanosomatids are unicellular parasites that cause devastating diseases in both humans and animals. They include Trypanosoma brucei, two subspecies of which cause human sleeping sickness, and Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., which are responsible for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, respectively. The treatment of these diseases is still unsatisfactory, and new drugs are urgently needed (1).. In addition to their clinical importance, some trypanosomatids are highly accessible experimental model systems for investigating general biological processes. Moreover, trypanosomatids appear to have diverged from all other eukaryotes very early in evolution and therefore show many unique features, some of which might reflect primitive traits that were present in the universal ancestor of all eukaryotes (2).. Many of these features concern the mitochondrion. Its genome consists of two genetic elements, maxi- and minicircles, which are highly topologically interlocked and localized to a discrete ...
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New research has cracked the old puzzle of why bees and other insects are so good at flying, paving the way for aircraft just a few centimetres wide to be built.
Diet has a significant effect on pathogen infections in animals and the consumption of secondary metabolites can either enhance or mitigate infection intensity. Secondary metabolites, which are common
Bumblebees are familiar and charismatic insects, occurring throughout much of the world. They are increasingly being used as a model organism for studying a wide range of ecological and behavioural concepts, such as social organization, optimal foraging theories, host-parasite interactions, and pollination.
Definition of bents in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is bents? Meaning of bents as a legal term. What does bents mean in law?

Inmunofluorescencia con Crithidia luciliae para la detección de anticuerpos anti-ADN: Imágenes atípicas y su relación con...Inmunofluorescencia con Crithidia luciliae para la detección de anticuerpos anti-ADN: Imágenes atípicas y su relación con...

Palabras clave : Chagas disease; leishmaniasis; Crithidia luciliae; anti-DNA antibodies. · resumen en Español · texto en ... GRIEMBERG, Gloria et al. Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical ... Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0025-76802006000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata...Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata...

The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel ... The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpellicular microtubules, the ... Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: ... Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata. ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/tubulin-heterogeneity-in-the-trypanosome-crithidia-fasciculata

Larvae act as a transient transmission hub for the prevalent bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi - Research - Royal Holloway,...Larvae act as a transient transmission hub for the prevalent bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi - Research - Royal Holloway,...

Larvae act as a transient transmission hub for the prevalent bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi. / Folly, Arran; Koch, Hauke; ... Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee ... Larvae act as a transient transmission hub for the prevalent bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi ...
more infohttps://pure.royalholloway.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/larvae-act-as-a-transient-transmission-hub-for-the-prevalent-bumblebee-parasite-crithidia-bombi

Crithidia luciliae - WikipediaCrithidia luciliae - Wikipedia

Crithidia luciliae. Crithidia luciliae is a flagellate parasitic excavates known to use the housefly Musca domestica as a host. ... Hall, ST; Penny, JI; Gero, AM; Krishna, S (October 1998). "Crithidia luciliae: functional expression of nucleoside and ... "The Crithidia luciliae kinetoplast immunofluorescence test in systemic lupus erythematosus". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 25 (3): 480-6 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crithidia_luciliae&oldid=816544062" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crithidia_luciliae

Crithidia confusa Maslov and Lukes ATCC ® PRA-346™Crithidia confusa Maslov and Lukes ATCC ® PRA-346™

Crithidia confusa ATCC ® PRA-346™ Designation: 320AR Isolation: Intestine of Largus cf. cinctus (Heteroptera), Alajuela ... Crithidia confusa Maslov and Lukes (ATCC® PRA-346™) Strain Designations: 320AR / Depositor: D Maslov / Biosafety Level: 1 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Protozoa/Protozoa_Alphanumeric/PRA-346.aspx

Crithidia - WikipediaCrithidia - Wikipedia

C. deanei is atypical of the Crithidia genus, and it has been argued not a member of the Crithidia at all. It is not typical of ... Crithidia mellificae, is a parasite of the bee. Other species include C. fasciculata, C. deanei, C. desouzai, C. oncopelti, C. ... Crithidia bombi is perhaps the most well documented species and is the most prevalent parasite of bumblebees, including common ... Crithidia is a genus of trypanosome Euglenozoa. They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crithidia

Micromanipulation of the Flagellum of Crithidia Oncopelti | Journal of Experimental BiologyMicromanipulation of the Flagellum of Crithidia Oncopelti | Journal of Experimental Biology

Micromanipulation of the Flagellum of Crithidia Oncopelti Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of ... 1. The behaviour of the flagellum of Crithidia oncopelti when subjected to constriction and dissection by a microprobe was ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/60/2/437

Crithidia otongatchiensis - WikipediaCrithidia otongatchiensis - Wikipedia

Crithidia otongatchiensis is a species of monoxenous trypanosomatid. It is known to parasitise Brachycera flies, and was first ... Crithidia otongatchiensis at the Encyclopedia of Life. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crithidia_otongatchiensis

NOVA Lite(R) dsDNA Crithidia luciliae | InovaNOVA Lite(R) dsDNA Crithidia luciliae | Inova

We help labs improve the way autoimmune patients are diagnosed, monitored, and treated. As innovators, we stay at the forefront of biomarker and assay development to ensure both labs and clinicians have the tools they need to provide an early and accurate diagnosis ...
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Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata | Biochemical JournalCharacterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata | Biochemical Journal

Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Sandra L. OZA, Mark R. ... Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata. Sandra L. OZA, Mark R. ... In Crithidia fasciculata, two distinct ATP-dependent ligases, glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC 6.3.1.8) and ... Characterization of recombinant glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase from Crithidia fasciculata Message Subject (Your Name ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/364/3/679

The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti | Journal of Experimental...The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti | Journal of Experimental...

I. Flagella and cell bodies of Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti were irradiated at preselected points with a pulsed ruby laser ... The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti ... The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti ... The Effects of Laser Microbeam Irradiation on the Flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) Oncopelti ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/53/2/401

Immunology of DNA. III. Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence...Immunology of DNA. III. Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence...

Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence technique.. Aarden LA, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/52321?dopt=Abstract

Colony success of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, in relation to infections by two protozoan parasites, Crithidia bombi and...Colony success of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, in relation to infections by two protozoan parasites, Crithidia bombi and...

Crithidia bombi is a prevalent endoparasite of bumblebees that is transmitted both horizontally between and vertically within ... Crithidia bombi is a prevalent endoparasite of bumblebees that is transmitted both horizontally between and vertically within ... Colony success of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, in relation to infections by two protozoan parasites, Crithidia bombi and ... Key words: Parasite, host reproductive success, virulence, colony size, Bombus terrestris, Crithidia bombi, Nosema bombi. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s000400050139

16S ribosomal DNA sequence identities of beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts in three Crithidia species. - Semantic Scholar16S ribosomal DNA sequence identities of beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts in three Crithidia species. - Semantic Scholar

... sequences that may contribute to their identity in the three Crithidia spp. are noted. ... Crithidia spp.) are most homologous to that of Bordetella spp. This finding extends the polyphyletic origin of endosymbionts ... A Study of Genetic Polymorphism of Crithidia in Isfahan , Iran. *Monir Doudi, Marziyeh Karami, Gilda Eslami, Mahbubeh Setorki ... The Bacterium Endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei Undergoes Coordinated Division with the Host Cell Nucleus. *Maria Cristina ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/16S-ribosomal-DNA-sequence-identities-of-in-three-Du-McLaughlin/c02e4650e5d60d2c546bb209ca3e1b78ac8d1305

Presence of a Poly(A) Binding Protein and Two Proteins with Cell Cycle-Dependent Phosphorylation in Crithidia fasciculata mRNA...Presence of a Poly(A) Binding Protein and Two Proteins with Cell Cycle-Dependent Phosphorylation in Crithidia fasciculata mRNA...

Crithidia RBP33 protein is a phosphoprotein. (A) Western blotting of wild-type (WT) Crithidia and Crithidia cells transformed ... Crithidia RBP45 and RBP33 genes were cloned from a Crithidia genomic library probed with PCR-amplified L. tarantolae gene ... A) Rabbit antibody developed against T. brucei PABP detects the Crithidia PABP in Western blot analysis of Crithidia total cell ... However, this Crithidia PABP shows only a 33% sequence identity with the L. major PAB-I protein described by Bates et al. (2). ...
more infohttps://ec.asm.org/content/3/5/1185?ijkey=6e425439bd14c6c2d1ee1ac5511bf73f0e38a535&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Universitätsklinikum Halle(Saale): Anti-dsDNA-Antikörper (crithidia luciliae)Universitätsklinikum Halle(Saale): Anti-dsDNA-Antikörper (crithidia luciliae)

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Probing Mixed-Genotype Infections II: High Multiplicity in Natural Infections of the Trypanosomatid, Crithidia bombi, in Its...Probing Mixed-Genotype Infections II: High Multiplicity in Natural Infections of the Trypanosomatid, Crithidia bombi, in Its...

and its trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi as our study case. The natural infections of C. bombi were genotyped with a novel ... Probing Mixed-Genotype Infections II: High Multiplicity in Natural Infections of the Trypanosomatid, Crithidia bombi, in Its ...
more infohttps://www.research-collection.ethz.ch/handle/20.500.11850/59578

A distinct infection cost associated with trans-generational priming of antibacterial immunity in bumble-bees | Biology LettersA distinct infection cost associated with trans-generational priming of antibacterial immunity in bumble-bees | Biology Letters

Workers were starved for 2.5 h, and then presented with 10 µl of Crithidia solution (1000 cells µl−1) to take up per os. After ... e) Crithidia experimental infections. Experimental infections (four offspring per mother) occurred between 14.30 and 15.30. ... As described earlier, the priming is of antibacterial activity within the haemocoel, while Crithidia infects the gut. This ... This increased susceptibility will have an impact on offspring, given the serious fitness consequences of Crithidia infection ( ...
more infohttp://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/5/6/798

Parasitic Protozoa Page 6Parasitic Protozoa Page 6

Crithidia oncopelti (Noguchi and Tilden) Hanson and McGhee (ATCC® 30264™) ATCC® Number: 30264™ Organism: Crithidia oncopelti ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Protozoa/Parasitic_Protozoa.aspx?dsNav=Nrc:id-1000514

RCSB PDB 









for 1OC8RCSB PDB for 1OC8

Tryparedoxins from Crithidia Fasciculata and Trypanosoma Brucei: Photoreduction of the Redox Disulfide Using Synchrotron ... Crithidia fasciculata Fragment: RESIDUES 14-165 Gene Name(s): txnII Metabolic Pathways ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/biologyAndChemistry.do?structureId=1OC8

Doris Mackinnon - WikipediaDoris Mackinnon - Wikipedia

... and Crithidia hystrighopsyllae, n. sp". Parasitology. 2 (3): 288-296. doi:10.1017/S0031182000001736.. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doris_Mackinnon

annotation:(type:catalytic activity rhea:21272) in UniProtKBannotation:(type:'catalytic activity' rhea:21272) in UniProtKB

Crithidia fasciculata. 652. P90518. GSP_CRIFA. Glutathionylspermidine synthase. Glutathionylspermidine synthase, EC 6.3.1.8 ...
more infohttps://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=annotation%3A%28type%3A%22catalytic+activity%22+rhea%3A21272%29&sort=score

Leptomonas bifurcata ATCC ® PRA-214™Leptomonas bifurcata ATCC ® PRA-214™

Morphological discordance of the new trypanosomatid species phylogenetically associated with the genus Crithidia. Protist 159: ...
more infohttps://atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Protozoa/Parasitic_Protozoa/PRA-214.aspx

Category:Immunology - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Immunology - Wikimedia Commons

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Category:Immunology - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Immunology - Wikimedia Commons

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more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Immunology?uselang=vi
  • Finally, I examined more general aspects of the immune response to Crithidia by characterising the temporal dynamics of immune gene expression throughout infection for the first time in this model host-parasite system. (le.ac.uk)
  • In both experiments, uninfected Bombus impatiens were inoculated with Crithidia and then fed particular diet treatments for 7 days, after which infection levels were assessed. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Top graph) Mean number of Crithidia (2 microliter gut sample) hosted by bees after foraging on one of 14 different flowering plant species. (fredsingerecology.com)
  • Bottom graph) Intensity of infection - Mean number of Crithidia for infected bees only. (fredsingerecology.com)