Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.

Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus. (1/41)


Protospacer recognition motifs: mixed identities and functional diversity. (2/41)


Cas3 stimulates runaway replication of a ColE1 plasmid in Escherichia coli and antagonises RNaseHI. (3/41)


Diversity of CRISPR systems in the euryarchaeal Pyrococcales. (4/41)


CRISPR-Cas: evolution of an RNA-based adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes. (5/41)


RNA-guided genome editing a la carte. (6/41)


Programmable plasmid interference by the CRISPR-Cas system in Thermococcus kodakarensis. (7/41)


CRISPR-Cas systems preferentially target the leading regions of MOBF conjugative plasmids. (8/41)


CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas proteins) are a group of enzymes that are involved in the CRISPR-Cas immune system, which is found in bacteria and archaea. In this system, the Cas proteins work together to recognize and destroy foreign DNA, such as viruses or plasmids, that have invaded the cell. There are several different types of Cas proteins, each with its own specific function in the CRISPR-Cas system. Some Cas proteins are responsible for recognizing and binding to foreign DNA, while others are responsible for cutting the DNA and destroying it. In recent years, scientists have discovered that some of these Cas proteins can be harnessed for use in gene editing. For example, the Cas9 protein has been used to create targeted double-stranded breaks in DNA, which can then be repaired by the cell's own repair mechanisms. This has led to the development of a new class of gene editing tools known as CRISPR-Cas9, which has revolutionized the field of genetics and has the potential to be used to treat a wide range of diseases.

RNA, Guide, also known as guide RNA or gRNA, is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in the process of gene editing. Specifically, gRNA is used in a technique called CRISPR-Cas9, which allows scientists to make precise changes to the DNA sequence of an organism. In CRISPR-Cas9, the gRNA molecule is designed to bind to a specific sequence of DNA. Once bound, the Cas9 enzyme is recruited to the site, where it can cut the DNA at that location. This allows scientists to insert, delete, or replace specific genes in an organism's genome. Overall, RNA, Guide is a powerful tool in the field of genetics and has the potential to revolutionize the way we treat genetic diseases and develop new therapies.

In the medical field, "DNA, Intergenic" refers to a segment of DNA that is located between two genes and does not code for any functional protein or RNA molecules. Intergenic DNA makes up a significant portion of the human genome, and its function is not well understood. However, it is believed to play a role in regulating gene expression and may be involved in the development and progression of certain diseases.

RNA, Bacterial refers to the ribonucleic acid molecules that are produced by bacteria. These molecules play a crucial role in the functioning of bacterial cells, including the synthesis of proteins, the regulation of gene expression, and the metabolism of nutrients. Bacterial RNA can be classified into several types, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which all have specific functions within the bacterial cell. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is important for the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial infections.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

RNA, Archaeal refers to ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that are found in archaea, which are a group of single-celled microorganisms that are distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. Archaeal RNA molecules play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of gene expression. They are characterized by their unique structural features and their ability to function under extreme environmental conditions, such as high temperatures and acidic pH levels. Understanding the structure and function of archaeal RNA molecules is important for understanding the biology of these microorganisms and for developing new strategies for treating diseases caused by archaeal infections.

In the medical field, "Crk-associated substrate protein" refers to a group of proteins that are involved in cell signaling and adhesion. These proteins are associated with the Crk family of adaptor proteins, which play a role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The Crk-associated substrate proteins include several members, such as Nck, Pak1, and Grb2, which are involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, migration, and survival. These proteins are often dysregulated in various diseases, including cancer, and are therefore being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Overall, the Crk-associated substrate proteins are important regulators of cell signaling and adhesion, and their dysregulation can contribute to the development of various diseases.

DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.

Protein deficiency is a condition in which the body does not receive enough protein to maintain normal bodily functions. Protein is an essential nutrient that is required for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body, including muscles, bones, skin, and organs. Protein deficiency can occur due to a variety of reasons, including poor diet, malnutrition, certain medical conditions, and certain medications. Symptoms of protein deficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, hair loss, skin problems, and anemia. In severe cases, protein deficiency can lead to more serious health problems, such as muscle wasting, organ damage, and even death. Treatment for protein deficiency typically involves increasing protein intake through a balanced diet or supplements, depending on the underlying cause of the deficiency.

This is especially useful for in vivo expression of gene editing systems (i.e. CRISPR/Cas sgRNA) and inhibitory systems. ... "Self-processing of ribozyme-flanked RNAs into guide RNAs in vitro and in vivo for CRISPR-mediated genome editing". Journal of ...
He is recognized for his work on CRISPR-Cas systems, being one of the first scientists to elucidate how these systems work at ... In the Sontheimer lab, Marraffini pioneered the study the molecular mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas systems. Using bacterial genetics ... "RNA-guided editing of bacterial genomes using CRISPR-Cas systems". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (3): 233-239. doi:10.1038/nbt.2508 ... "Multiplex Genome Engineering Using CRISPR/Cas Systems". Science. 339 (6121): 819-823. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..819C. doi:10.1126/ ...
"Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems". Science. 339 (6121): 819-823. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..819C. doi:10.1126/ ... The CRISPR/Cas9 system is based on an adaptive immune system of prokaryotic organisms, and its use for genome editing was first ... system for genome editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short guide RNA (sgRNA) sequence to direct a Streptococcus pyogenes ... To meet these challenges, the Rinn lab therefore developed a synthetic biology approach, using CRISPR/Cas9 system, with the ...
Fye S. "Genetic Rough Draft: Editas and CRISPR". The Atlas Business Journal. Retrieved 19 January 2016. "CRISPR-Cas systems and ... CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing is carried out with a Type II CRISPR system. When utilized for genome editing, this system includes ... CRISPR-Cas systems can also be employed for editing of micro-RNA and long-noncoding RNA genes in plants. Directing edits to ... Javed MR, Sadaf M, Ahmed T, Jamil A, Nawaz M, Abbas H, Ijaz A (December 2018). "CRISPR-Cas System: History and Prospects as a ...
February 2013). "Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems". Science. 339 (6121): 819-23. Bibcode:2013Sci...339.. ... "Lenti-X CRISPR/Cas9 System User Manual" (PDF). Takara Bio USA. Tiscornia G, Singer O, Verma IM (2006). "Production and ... Targeted gene knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 requires the use of a delivery system to introduce the sgRNA and Cas9 into the cell. ... Wang T, Wei JJ, Sabatini DM, Lander ES (January 2014). "Genetic screens in human cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system". Science. ...
A complete CRISPR-Cas locus has at least one gene belonging to the cas core. CRISPR-Cas systems fall into two classes. Class 1 ... CRISPR activation Anti-CRISPR CRISPR/Cas Tools CRISPR gene editing The CRISPR Journal DRACO Gene knockout Genetics Genome-wide ... has acquired a CRISPR-Cas system that targets a V. cholera PICI-like element. The system has 2 CRISPR loci and 9 Cas genes. It ... Moreover, like the bacterial CRISPR-Cas system, ICP1 CRISPR-Cas can acquire new sequences, which allows phage and host to co- ...
CRISPR-Cas systems fall into two classes. Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic ... The 6 system types are divided into 19 subtypes. Many organisms contain multiple CRISPR-Cas systems suggesting that they are ... "Cas3 is a single-stranded DNA nuclease and ATP-dependent helicase in the CRISPR/Cas immune system". The EMBO Journal. 30 (7): ... Class 2 systems use a single large Cas protein for the same purpose. Class 1 is divided into types I, III, and IV; class 2 is ...
"The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA". Nature. 468 (7320): 67-71. Bibcode:2010Natur.468 ... "Multiplex Genome Engineering Using CRISPR/Cas Systems". Science. 339 (6121): 819-823. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..819C. doi:10.1126/ ... "Multiplex Genome Engineering Using CRISPR/Cas Systems". Science. 339 (6121): 819-823. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..819C. doi:10.1126/ ... Based on previous work by the Sylvain Moineau Lab, Zhang began work to harness and optimize the CRISPR system to work in human ...
PCC6803 contains three different CRISPR-Cas systems: type I-D, and two versions of type III. All three CRISPR-Cas systems are ... The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats - CRISPR associated proteins) system provides adaptive ... Scholz I, Lange SJ, Hein S, Hess WR, Backofen R (18 February 2013). "CRISPR-Cas systems in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp ... All cyanobacteria are lacking the type II system, which has been widely adapted for genetic engineering purposes across many ...
"An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems". Nature Reviews Microbiology. Nature Portfolio. 13 (11): 722-736 ...
Type VIII includes the system creTA. In this system, the antitoxin creA serves as a guide RNA for a CRISPR-Cas system. Due to ... This system is regulated by a type II system, mqsRA. socAB is a type VI toxin-antitoxin system that was discovered in ... Type IV toxin-antitoxin systems are similar to type II systems, because they consist of two proteins. Unlike type II systems, ... "Toxin-antitoxin RNA pairs safeguard CRISPR-Cas systems". Science. 372 (6541): eabe5601. doi:10.1126/science.abe5601. ISSN 0036- ...
Many bacteria and most archaea have an adaptive immune system which incorporates CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and CRISPR-associated (cas ... December 2013). "Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas system". Cell. 155 (7): 1479- ... Methods for characterizing, applying, and teaching CRISPR-Cas systems. 172: 61-75. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2019.07.024. PMID ... March 2013). "Efficient genome editing in zebrafish using a CRISPR-Cas system". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (3): 227-229. doi: ...
... systems were first seen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa prophages, which disabled type I-F CRISPR-Cas system, ... F CRISPR-Cas, were found to be very common in Pseudomonadota MGEs. The first inhibitors of a type II CRISPR-Cas system were ... AcrF9Vpa is active against the type I-F CRISPR-Cas system. It also was the ninth anti-CRISPR described for this system, and it ... due to the fact that each anti-CRISPR protein inhibits a specific CRISPR-Cas system. Although not many anti-CRISPR proteins ...
Horvath P, Barrangou R (January 2010). "CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea". Science. 327 (5962): 167-70. ... In 2013, a new technology CRISPR-Cas9, based on a prokaryotic viral defense system, was engineered for editing the genome, and ... A PNA-based system, called a PNAzyme, has a Cu(II)-2,9-dimethylphenanthroline group that mimics ribonucleases for specific RNA ... Others have proposed using the bacteria R-M system as a model for devising human anti-viral gene or genomic vaccines and ...
Nemudryi AA, Valetdinova KR, Medvedev SP, Zakian SM (July 2014). "TALEN and CRISPR/Cas Genome Editing Systems: Tools of ... Sander JD, Joung JK (April 2014). "CRISPR-Cas systems for editing, regulating and targeting genomes". Nature Biotechnology. 32 ... similar to that of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing. Compared to CRISPR/Cas9, the therapeutic applications of this technology are ... This editing system induces a double stranded break in the DNA, using a guide RNA and effector protein Cas9 to break the DNA ...
"The CRISPR-Cas immune system: Biology, mechanisms and applications". Biochimie. 117: 119-128. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.03.025 ... FS406-22 has 36 pseudogenes and a total of 23 CRISPR loci. This strain has the highest number of CRISPR loci of all sequenced ...
Pleckaityte, Milda; Zilnyte, Milda; Zvirbliene, Aurelija (2012). "Insights into the CRISPR/Cas system of Gardnerella vaginalis ...
CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea are adaptive immune systems to protect against deadly consequences from MGEs. Using ... Peters JE, Makarova KS, Shmakov S, Koonin EV (August 2017). "Recruitment of CRISPR-Cas systems by Tn7-like transposons". ... In addition, CRISPR-Cas controls transposable elements for their propagation. MGEs such as plasmids by a horizontal ... researchers found that CRISPR-Cas variants are associated with distinct types of MGEs such as transposable elements. ...
"RNA-guided editing of bacterial genomes using CRISPR-Cas systems". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (3): 233-9. doi:10.1038/nbt.2508. ... CRISPR-associated (cas) genes encode cellular machinery that cuts exogenous DNA into small fragments and inserts them into a ... Gennequin B, Otte DM, Zimmer A (November 2013). "CRISPR/Cas-induced double-strand breaks boost the frequency of gene ... When this CRISPR region of DNA is expressed by the cell, the small RNAs produced from the exogenous DNA inserts serve as a ...
Most archaea have CRISPR-Cas systems as an adaptive defence against viruses. These enable archaea to retain sections of viral ... "Unravelling the structural and mechanistic basis of CRISPR-Cas systems". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 12 (7): 479-92. doi: ... Bacteria also contain a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of viruses that the bacteria have ... This genetic system provides bacteria with acquired immunity to infection. Microbes drive the nutrient transformations that ...
"Efficient genome editing in zebrafish using a CRISPR-Cas system". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (3): 227-229. doi:10.1038/nbt.2501. ... and the RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 system. In addition to demonstrating the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vivo through the ... "New method identifies genome-wide off-target cleavage sites of CRISPR-Cas nucleases". ScienceDaily (Press release). December 16 ... "GUIDE-seq enables genome-wide profiling of off-target cleavage by CRISPR-Cas nucleases". Nature Biotechnology. 33 (2): 187-197 ...
Most archaea have CRISPR-Cas systems as an adaptive defence against viruses. These enable archaea to retain sections of viral ... "Unravelling the structural and mechanistic basis of CRISPR-Cas systems". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 12 (7): 479-92. doi: ... Bacteria also contain a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of viruses that the bacteria have ... The ICTV classification system is used in conjunction with the Baltimore classification system in modern virus classification. ...
The no-SCAR method, as an improvement of the CRISPR/Cas system, will play an important role in modeling human disease using iPS ... "The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA". Nature. 468 (7320): 67-71. Bibcode:2010Natur.468 ... "RNA-guided editing of bacterial genomes using CRISPR-Cas systems". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (3): 233-239. doi:10.1038/nbt.2508 ... the applicability of CRISPR/Cas is further strengthened. To date, CRISPR methods have successfully repaired disease-associated ...
Horvath P, Barrangou R (January 2010). "CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea" (PDF). Science. 327 (5962): 167- ... Replication of virus particles is the stage where a cell uses viral messenger RNA in its protein synthesis systems to produce ... In healthy humans and animals, infections are usually eliminated by the immune system, which can provide lifetime immunity to ...
This includes the CRISPR system of adaptive immunity. In practice, CRISPR/Cas systems act as self-programmable restriction ... However, the core defining features of all CRISPR-Cas systems are the cas genes and their proteins: cas1 and cas2 are universal ... CRISPR-Cas systems are divided into three major types (type I, type II, and type III) and twelve subtypes, which are based on ... Deveau H, Garneau JE, Moineau S (2010-10-13). "CRISPR/Cas system and its role in phage-bacteria interactions". Annual Review of ...
"The ecology and evolution of microbial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences. ... Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, ... For example, different microbial species evolved CRISPR dynamics and functions, allowing a better understanding of human health ...
Sanches-da-Silva GN, Medeiros LF, Lima FM (21 August 2019). "The Potential Use of the CRISPR-Cas System for HIV-1 Gene Therapy ... The first injection of the CRISPR-Cas System was confirmed in March 2020. In May, onasemnogene abeparvovec (Zolgensma) was ... "Delivery of CRISPR/Cas systems for cancer gene therapy and immunotherapy". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Delivery of ... In vivo, gene editing systems using CRISPR have been used in studies with mice to treat cancer and have been effective at ...
A major study in F. t. novicida later demonstrated FtrA to be associated with a CRISPR/Cas system and to repress an endogenous ... Sampson, Timothy R.; Saroj, Sunil D.; Llewellyn, Anna C.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Weiss, David S. (2013). "A CRISPR/Cas system ...
CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats - CRISPR associated systems) is an adaptive immune ... Type-II CRISPR systems are characterized by the single signature nuclease Cas9. In type-II CRISPR systems crRNA and tracrRNA ( ... Not all type-IV systems have a CRISPR locus and therefore do not have crRNA. Type-V CRISPR systems are characterized by Cas12, ... "Type III CRISPR-Cas Systems: Deciphering the Most Complex Prokaryotic Immune System". Biochemistry (Moscow). 86 (10): 1301-1314 ...
Hille F, Charpentier E (November 2016). "CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance". Philosophical Transactions of the ... The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine and the nervous systems. The immune system ... This system does not confer long-lasting immunity against a pathogen. The innate immune system is the dominant system of host ... The immune system is a network of biological systems that protects an organism from diseases. It detects and responds to a wide ...

No data available that match "crispr cas systems"

  • Here, we report a versatile set of plasmids and vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) that allow robust and specific delivery of the two essential CRISPR components - Cas9 and chimeric g(uide)RNA - either alone or in combination. (
  • Here, we employ diverse CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tools to generate a series of targeted lesions within the endogenous cis-regulatory module (CRM) required for kni expression in the L2 vein primordium. (
  • In 2015, researchers reported that they had used components of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system to edit genes so that they could propagate in a "Super-Mendelian" fashion. (
  • NEW YORK - The patenting of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology has never been a clear-cut issue. (
  • The fight over CRISPR patents began in 2012, shortly after University of California, Berkeley researcher Jennifer Doudna and the Broad Institute's Feng Zhang and their colleagues published papers on their discoveries of CRISPR-Cas9 systems. (
  • Just about the only thing the two sides have agreed on since then is that one of them should be able to control the intellectual property rights arising from the discovery of CRISPR-Cas9. (
  • In 2017, New York Law School Associate Professor of Law Jacob Sherkow calculated that the foundational CRISPR-Cas9 patents were worth between $100 million and $265 million . (
  • The proceeding, which was started by the USPTO rather than one of the parties, involves one patent application filed by and 13 patents issued to the Broad in 2014, 2015, and 2017, and 10 patent applications filed by UC Berkeley in 2018, all on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 to edit eukaryotic genomes. (
  • The patent pool would be open to all patent holders worldwide," Neuman said, though it is restricted to patents for Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems, which includes Cas9, Cas12, Cas13, and a few others. (
  • Especially, the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors discovered in 2012 by Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna who won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have not only revolutionized basic science but also resulted in innovative crops and will lead to ground-breaking new medical treatments ( ). (
  • A few investigations aimed at assessing the development and status of this field have been conducted, for example, Qin, Wang, and Ye (2019) conducted a research to reveal the main research hospots of CRISPR/Cas9 by constructing and analyzing core keyword co-occurrence networks. (
  • CRISPR-Cas genome-editing technology can be applied in a number of different ways. (
  • Oleg Dmytrenko, the first author of the study, said that they were exploring CRISPR nucleases that were originally clumped with Cas12a, nucleases that defend bacteria by recognizing and cleaving invasive DNA. (
  • Some of these techniques include novel tools for genetic manipulation, 4,5 approaches for in vitro disease modelling 6-9 and innovative co-culture system with autologous cell types 10,11 or bacteria, 12-14 as well as viral infection models. (
  • Recently, I discovered that certain "jumping genes"- mobile genetic elements found in all domains of life, including bacteria and humans-employ variant CRISPR systems to move themselves from one chromosomal site to another, without making DNA breaks. (
  • Notably, we will use the system to inactivate antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant bacteria and to deliver therapeutic genes into human cells. (
  • One way to do that: a "CRISPR pill" that instructs harmful bacteria to self-destruct. (
  • CRISPR was actually discovered in bacteria. (
  • In fact, the system is an immune defense bacteria use to fend off invading viruses called bacteriophage. (
  • However, researchers have previously shown that using bacteriophages to trigger CRISPR can efficiently kill skin bacteria and might also help combat Shigella sonnei , a diarrheal infection common in the developing world. (
  • The appeal of using CRISPR is that such drugs would be very specific-theoretically, they would kill a single species of germ while leaving beneficial bacteria intact. (
  • Fineran predicts CRISPR will become "a complementary tool in the arsenal against the rise in antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Bacteria and archaea apply CRISPR -Cas surveillance complexes to defend against foreign invaders. (
  • We developed genomic locus proteomics (GLoPro), in which we combine CRISPR-based genome targeting, proximity labeling, and quantitative proteomics to discover proteins associated with a specific genomic locus in native cellular contexts. (
  • Results: We introduce CRISPRcasIdentifier, a new machine learning-based tool that combines regression and classification models for the prediction of potentially missing proteins in instances of CRISPR-Cas systems and the prediction of their respective subtypes. (
  • Conclusions: Overall, our tool greatly extends the classification of CRISPR cassettes and, for the first time, predicts missing Cas proteins and association rules between Cas proteins. (
  • CRISPR-Cas systems have diverse proteins and functions that help protect themselves against foreign invaders. (
  • When CRISPR genome editing was introduced in 2009, plasmids were generously made available by the labs where they were developed so that other researchers around the world could use them to express Cas proteins in CRISPR experiments. (
  • This led them to discover that these nucleases, which they called Cas12a2, do something very different not only from Cas12a but also from any other known CRISPR nucleases. (
  • Modification of existing genes in living animal and human cells is enabled by engineered nucleases such as meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector-based nucleases, and the CRISPR-Cas system. (
  • The contributors cover web-based tools and approaches for designing guide RNAs that precisely target genes of interest, methods for preparing and delivering CRISPR-Cas reagents into cells, and ways to screen for cells that harbor the desired genetic changes. (
  • Background: CRISPR-Cas genes are extraordinarily diverse and evolve rapidly when compared to other prokaryotic genes. (
  • In contrast to other available tools, CRISPRcasIdentifier can both detect cas genes and extract potential association rules that reveal functional modules for CRISPR-Cas systems. (
  • CRISPR is the powerful gene-editing technology already being explored as a way to precisely edit human genes to cure diseases (see "Can CRISPR Save Ben Dupree?" ). (
  • They use this memory, plus a DNA-slicing enzyme known as a Cas to recognize and chop up the genes of invading bacteriophage. (
  • However, recently, the collateral, promiscuous cleavage activities of a unique group of Cas enzymes were discovered and harnessed for in vitro nucleic acid detection ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • This defense is based on a common mechanism, a CRISPR ribonucleic acid (crRNA), a "guide RNA" that helps detect regions of a foreign genome, such as the DNA of a virus, for targeted cleavage. (
  • Structural basis for self-cleavage prevention by tag:anti-tag pairing complementarity in type VI Cas13 CRISPR systems. (
  • These invading genetic elements are captured and integrated into the CRISPR array as spacer elements , guiding sequence-specific DNA / RNA targeting and cleavage. (
  • Recently, in vivo studies have shown that target RNAs with extended complementarity with repeat sequences flanking the target element (taganti-tag pairing) can dramatically reduce RNA cleavage by the type VI-A Cas13a system. (
  • With the rapid increase in newly sequenced archaeal and bacterial genomes, manual identification of CRISPR-Cas systems is no longer viable. (
  • Diverse multiple prophages and CRISPR-Cas systems (class 1 subtype I-B1 and class 2 type V CRISPR-Cas systems) with spacers identical to other C. difficile phages and plasmids were detected in the genomes. (
  • The prokaryote-derived CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a genetic engineering technique in molecular biology by which the genomes of living organisms, including humans, may be modified ( Ledford, 2015 ). (
  • Our new tools and protocols should foster the broad application of CRISPR technology in eukaryotic cells and organisms, and accelerate its clinical translation into humans. (
  • Thus, an automated approach is required for advancing our understanding of the evolution and diversity of these systems and for finding new candidates for genome engineering in eukaryotic models. (
  • CRISPR/Cas has been widely used as a programmable tool for gene editing and other in vivo applications since 2013 ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • Its remarkable ease and efficiency make the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) DNA editing machinery highly attractive as a new tool for experimental gene annotation and therapeutic genome engineering in eukaryotes. (
  • Finally, we provide original evidence that AAV/CRISPR vectors can be exploited for gene engineering in vivo, as exemplified in the liver of adult mice. (
  • Chase Beisel and Oleg Dmytrenko discover Cas12a2, a new type of CRISPR gene scissors. (
  • If CRISPR-Cas plasmids were to be used in humans, these plasmids could pose hazards by integrating a Cas gene into the genome. (
  • CRISPR is a powerful genome editing tool that can be directed to cut and permanently modify a specific target gene. (
  • Now, my lab will dissect the molecular mechanisms of this pathway and leverage these CRISPR systems as a new gene knock-in tool, with fewer negative consequences for the cell. (
  • This cloning pre-requisite significantly hinders the modularity and streamlining capabilities of Cas-directed transposon systems, diminishing their utility for genome engineering. (
  • Dmytrenko added that a CRISPR-based defense mechanism that relies on a single nuclease to recognize the invader and degrade cellular DNA and RNA has not been observed before. (
  • The CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease directed by a crRNA can cut its target like a pair of scissors, a strategy of nature that humans have harnessed in many technologies. (
  • Just last week scientists in Boston showed they could craft CRISPR into cheap, simple diagnostic tests . (
  • CRISPR is a groundbreaking discovery, and we recognized early on that this was an important platform for commercial use and development, and that there would be many patents being filed - and that the patents would, in all likelihood, overlap to some degree," said Kristin Neuman, executive director of biotechnology licensing at MPEG LA. "We also knew that there would be a large market for it. (
  • The impact of recent development of CRISPR on science and biotechnology is immense ( Doudna & Gersbach, 2015 ). (
  • According to the experimental results, CRISPRcasIdentifier presented the best Cas protein identification and subtype classification performance. (
  • CRISPR plasmids expressing Cas enzymes and guide RNAs have been used for several years, but these plasmids have several limitations, including cytotoxicity and unpredictability of expression. (
  • The Cas enzyme and the gRNA bind to form a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and are transported back into the nucleus where genome editing occurs. (
  • Another timing issue caused by plasmids is that Cas enzyme and gRNA can remain active in the cells for prolonged periods. (
  • OTEs occur when the Cas enzyme is directed to the wrong site by the gRNA due to such sequence similarity. (
  • It includes step-by-step protocols for applying CRISPR-Cas-based techniques in various systems, including yeast, zebrafish, Drosophila, mice, and cultured cells (e.g., human pluripotent stem cells). (
  • The genetic changes that are introduced by means of the SDN1 and SDN2 types of CRISPR-Cas technology do not differ from changes that can occur naturally or result from conventional breeding. (
  • Our findings demonstrate that CRISPR-GBS is rapid and easy-to-use, having a low instrument requirement and a level of sensitivity that surpasses PCR-based assays. (
  • These findings reinforce the mechanistic similarities and evolutionary connection between the casposons and the adaptation module of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity systems. (
  • The proposed tool relies not only on the knowledge of manual CRISPR annotation but also on models trained using machine learning. (
  • Consider ribonucleoprotein (RNP) instead of CRISPR plasmids! (
  • Ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-mediated CRISPR genome editing is more effective and avoids the problems associated with using plasmids. (
  • These plasmids have been cited in numerous publications and have helped to advance understanding and applications of CRISPR-Cas genome editing. (
  • Even with cells that can tolerate plasmid transfections, there are other problems associated with the use of plasmids for CRISPR editing, such as complications in the timing of CRISPR experiments. (
  • The Sternberg lab will discover and develop new CRISPR-Cas systems with enhanced efficiency and safety. (
  • A ) When cells are transfected with a CRISPR plasmid, the plasmid is transported into the nucleus where transcription takes place. (
  • The demonstration of what could happen was great, and they used mice because it's a more tractable system, but what we cared about were humans. (
  • For integration into the host chromosome , casposons employ an endonuclease that is homologous to the Cas1 protein involved in proto-spacer integration by the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system. (
  • The development of CRISPR-Cas technology is revolutionizing biology. (
  • 17 This property of rapid regeneration at intestinal stasis makes the intestine a uniquely convenient model system for epithelial cell biology and adult stem cell biology studies both inside and outside the specific context of intestinal function. (
  • Synthetic biology involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems and includes two closely-related capabilities both of which may have wide utility in commerce and medicine. (
  • By far the most widely used genome-editing tool is CRISPR-Cas. (
  • We developed a simple-to-use, rapid, CRISPR-based assay for GBS detection. (
  • We also report a streamlined and economical protocol for detection of CRISPR-induced mutations in less than 3 h. (
  • Featuring contributions from leading figures in the CRISPR-Cas field, this laboratory manual presents a state-of-the-art guide to the technology. (
  • While CRISPR-Cas technology is highly accurate, off-targets can occur. (
  • Authors also describe other applications of the CRISPR-Cas system, including its use for regulating genome activation and repression, and discuss the development of next-generation CRISPR-Cas tools. (
  • Next, mRNA for the Cas enzyme is exported from the nucleus where it is translated into protein. (
  • It intends to bridge statistical and bioinformatic characterization of representative protein-DNA systems with biophysical and biochemical approaches. (
  • Here, we present a system that can robustly integrate a linear DNA payload into the genome of E. coli by employing a Type I-F CRISPR-associated transposon from Vibrio cholerae . (
  • Importantly, it has also been shown that plasmid transfections, specifically in CRISPR experiments, can cause cytotoxicity in embryonic stem cells [ 3 ], which could be of concern to many researchers using this cell type. (
  • Packaging into potent synthetic AAV capsids permits CRISPR delivery even into hard-to-transfect targets, as shown for human T-cells. (
  • studied the evolution of academic research hotspots in CRISPR by analysing the usage of key phrases. (
  • In this article, we present a new perspective on observing and understanding the research topics and their development in CRISPR based on the LDA model and try to illustrate the knowledge transfer trends from research topics to technological fields based on paper-patent citations. (
  • Comparison of events after introducing CRISPR plasmid vs. ribonucleoprotein (RNP) into cells. (
  • This new cell, which is microscopic, will multiply and organize perfectly all distinct tissues to generate a full grown individual with organs and systems as complex as brain and immune system. (
  • After a series of proceedings and appeals in front of the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB), the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit issued a ruling upholding a judgment from the PTAB that gave the Broad and its partners control of key CRISPR patents, leaving UC and its co-litigants in the cold. (
  • 15,16 The development of such techniques as applied to intestinal organoid cultures has vastly increased the utility of this model system for a wide variety of purposes. (
  • In our experimental benchmark on the most recently published and comprehensive CRISPR-Cas system dataset, CRISPRcasIdentifier was compared with recent and state-of-the-art tools. (
  • We demonstrated that CRISPR-GBS is highly sensitive and offered shorter turnaround times and lower instrument demands than PCR-based assays. (
  • Transfecting a plasmid creates a waiting time before the CRISPR genome editing can begin. (
  • The functional casposase target site bears clear resemblance to the leader sequence-repeat junction which is the target for protospacer integration catalyzed by the Cas1-Cas2 adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas. (