Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Commonly observed BASE SEQUENCE or nucleotide structural components which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE or a SEQUENCE LOGO.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An order of strictly anaerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Members exhibit heterotropic growth by sulfur respiration. There is a single family THERMOCOCCACEAE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A congenital abnormality in which the occipitofrontal circumference is greater than two standard deviations above the mean for a given age. It is associated with HYDROCEPHALUS; SUBDURAL EFFUSION; ARACHNOID CYSTS; or is part of a genetic condition (e.g., ALEXANDER DISEASE; SOTOS SYNDROME).
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A genus of gram-positive, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacteria in the family BACILLACEAE.
Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.
Genus of bacteria in the family PASTEURELLACEAE, comprising multiple species that do not ferment trehalose. Species include MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis, and M. varigena.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Hampshire" is a geographical location and not a medical term or concept, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It is a state in the northeastern United States, known for its scenic beauty and the White Mountains. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or healthcare services in the state of New Hampshire, I would be happy to help with those!
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Repair of DNA DAMAGE by exchange of DNA between matching sequences, usually between the allelic DNA (ALLELES) of sister chromatids.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
An enzyme that activates histidine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
(Note: I believe there might be some confusion in your question as "Pennsylvania" is a place, specifically a state in the United States, and not a medical term. However, if you're asking for a medical condition or concept that shares a name with the state of Pennsylvania, I couldn't find any specific medical conditions or concepts associated with the name "Pennsylvania." If you have more context or clarification regarding your question, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.)
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.

Sequence- and structure-specific RNA processing by a CRISPR endonuclease. (1/48)


A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA repair. (2/48)


CRISPR immunity relies on the consecutive binding and degradation of negatively supercoiled invader DNA by Cascade and Cas3. (3/48)


Csy4 relies on an unusual catalytic dyad to position and cleave CRISPR RNA. (4/48)


Function and regulation of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) / CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. (5/48)


Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus. (6/48)


RcsB-BglJ-mediated activation of Cascade operon does not induce the maturation of CRISPR RNAs in E. coli K12. (7/48)


Comparative analysis ofCas6b processing and CRISPR RNA stability. (8/48)

The prokaryotic antiviral defense systems CRISP R (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISP Rassociated) employs short crRNAs (CRISP R RNAs) to target invading viral nucleic acids. A short spacer sequence of these crRNAs can be derived from a viral genome and recognizes a reoccurring attack of a virus via base complementarity. We analyzed the effect of spacer sequences on the maturation of crRNAs of the subtype I-B Methanococcus maripaludis C5 CRISP R cluster. The responsible endonuclease, termed Cas6b, bound non-hydrolyzable repeat RNA as a dimer and mature crRNA as a monomer. Comparative analysis of Cas6b processing of individual spacer-repeat-spacer RNA substrates and crRNA stability revealed the potential influence of spacer sequence and length on these parameters. Correlation of these observations with the variable abundance of crRNAs visualized by deep-sequencing analyses is discussed. Finally, insertion of spacer and repeat sequences with archaeal poly-T termination signals is suggested to be prevented in archaeal CRISP R/Cas systems.  (+info)

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a bacterial defense system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as plasmids and phages, by incorporating short sequences of the invasive genetic material into their own genome. These sequences are then used to recognize and destroy subsequent invasions by identical or similar genetic elements. The CRISPR system consists of two main components: the CRISPR array, which contains the repeats and spacers, and the Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins, which provide the enzymatic activity for interference.

The CRISPR array is a stretch of DNA in the bacterial genome that contains repetitive sequences interspaced with unique sequences known as "spacers". The repeats are typically palindromic, meaning they read the same backwards as forwards, and are usually 24-48 base pairs long. The spacers are derived from the genetic material of previous invasions by viruses or plasmids, and are used to recognize and target similar sequences in future invaders.

The Cas proteins associated with the CRISPR array provide the enzymatic activity for interference. They can be classified into several different types based on their sequence and domain organization. The most well-studied type is Cas9, which uses a guide RNA derived from the CRISPR array to recognize and cleave specific sequences in the target DNA. This system has been harnessed as a powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms, including humans.

In summary, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a bacterial defense system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements by incorporating short sequences of the invasive genetic material into their own genome and using them to recognize and destroy subsequent invasions by identical or similar genetic elements. The CRISPR system consists of two main components: the CRISPR array, which contains the repeats and spacers, and the Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins, which provide the enzymatic activity for interference.

Inverted repeat sequences in a genetic context refer to a pattern of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) where a specific sequence appears in the reverse complementary orientation in the same molecule. This means that if you read the sequence from one end, it will be identical to the sequence read from the other end, but in the opposite direction.

For example, if a DNA segment is 5'-ATGCAT-3', an inverted repeat sequence would be 5'-GTACTC-3' on the same strand or its complementary sequence 3'-CAGTA-5' on the other strand.

These sequences can play significant roles in genetic regulation and expression, as they are often involved in forming hairpin or cruciform structures in single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules. They also have implications in genome rearrangements and stability, including deletions, duplications, and translocations.

CRISPR-associated proteins, often abbreviated as Cas proteins, are a type of enzyme that are involved in the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) immune system found in bacteria and archaea. The CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity to these single-celled organisms by providing protection against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and plasmids.

The Cas proteins play a crucial role in the CRISPR-Cas system by cleaving invading nucleic acids at specific sequences, guided by small RNA molecules known as CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). These crRNAs are derived from short sequences of DNA that are integrated into the CRISPR array during a previous infection. The Cas proteins use these crRNAs to recognize and cleave complementary sequences in the invading nucleic acids, thereby providing immunity against future infections by the same genetic element.

There are several different types of CRISPR-Cas systems, each with their own distinct set of Cas proteins and mechanisms for target recognition and cleavage. The most well-known and widely used CRISPR-Cas system is Type II, which includes the Cas9 protein. This system has been adapted for use in a variety of genome editing applications, including gene therapy, crop modification, and basic research.

CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems found in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR stands for "Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats," which are repeating sequences of DNA found in the genomes of these microorganisms. Cas stands for "CRISPR-associated proteins," which work together with the CRISPR sequences to provide immunity against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and plasmids.

The CRISPR-Cas system functions by incorporating short segments of DNA from invading genetic elements into the CRISPR array within the microorganism's genome. These incorporated sequences are then transcribed and processed into small RNA molecules called guide RNAs. The Cas proteins, in complex with the guide RNA, recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the invading genetic element, leading to its cleavage and degradation.

The CRISPR-Cas system has been harnessed for use as a powerful tool in genome editing, allowing researchers to precisely modify DNA sequences in various organisms, including humans. This technology holds great promise for treating genetic diseases, improving crops, and developing new therapies for infectious diseases.

Intergenic DNA refers to the stretches of DNA that are located between genes. These regions do not contain coding sequences for proteins or RNA and thus were once thought to be "junk" DNA with no function. However, recent research has shown that intergenic DNA can play important roles in the regulation of gene expression, chromosome structure and stability, and other cellular processes. Intergenic DNA may contain various types of regulatory elements such as enhancers, silencers, insulators, and promoters that control the transcription of nearby genes. Additionally, intergenic DNA can also include repetitive sequences, transposable elements, and other non-coding RNAs that have diverse functions in the cell.

Streptococcus thermophilus is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It is a species of streptococcus that is mesophilic, meaning it grows best at moderate temperatures, typically between 30-45°C. S. thermophilus is commonly found in milk and dairy products and is one of the starter cultures used in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. It is also used as a probiotic due to its potential health benefits, such as improving lactose intolerance and enhancing the immune system. S. thermophilus is not considered pathogenic and does not normally cause infections in humans.

A guide RNA (gRNA) is not a type of RNA itself, but rather a term used to describe various types of RNAs that guide other molecules to specific target sites in the genome or transcriptome. The most well-known example of a guide RNA is the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) used in the CRISPR-Cas system for targeted gene editing.

The crRNA contains a sequence complementary to the target DNA or RNA, and it guides the Cas endonuclease to the correct location in the genome where cleavage and modification can occur. Other types of guide RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific mRNA targets for degradation or translational repression.

Overall, guide RNAs play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including gene regulation, genome editing, and defense against foreign genetic elements.

Archaeal RNA refers to the Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that are present in archaea, which are a domain of single-celled microorganisms. RNA is a nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, gene expression, and regulation of cellular activities.

Archaeal RNAs can be categorized into different types based on their functions, including:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): It carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where it is translated into proteins.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): It helps in translating the genetic code present in mRNA into specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): It is a structural and functional component of ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs.
4. Non-coding RNA: These are RNAs that do not code for proteins but have regulatory functions in gene expression and other cellular processes.

Archaeal RNAs share similarities with both bacterial and eukaryotic RNAs, but they also possess unique features that distinguish them from the other two domains of life. For example, archaeal rRNAs contain unique sequence motifs and secondary structures that are not found in bacteria or eukaryotes. These differences suggest that archaeal RNAs have evolved to adapt to the extreme environments where many archaea live.

Overall, understanding the structure, function, and evolution of archaeal RNA is essential for gaining insights into the biology of these unique microorganisms and their roles in various cellular processes.

RNA cleavage is a biological process in which RNA molecules are cut or split into smaller fragments by enzymes known as ribonucleases (RNases). This process can occur co-transcriptionally, during splicing, or as a means of regulation of RNA stability and function. Cleavage sites are often defined by specific sequences or structures within the RNA molecule. The cleavage products may have various fates, including degradation, further processing, or serving as functional RNA molecules.

"Sulfolobus solfataricus" is not a medical term, but rather a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of archaea (single-celled microorganisms) that is thermoacidophilic, meaning it thrives in extremely high temperature and acidic environments. This organism is commonly found in volcanic hot springs and solfataras, which are areas with high sulfur content and acidic pH levels.

While not directly related to medical terminology, the study of extremophiles like "Sulfolobus solfataricus" can provide insights into the limits of life and the potential for the existence of microbial life in extreme environments on Earth and potentially on other planets.

Archaeal viruses are viruses that infect and replicate within archaea, which are single-celled microorganisms without a nucleus. These viruses have unique characteristics that distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. They often possess distinct morphologies, such as icosahedral or filamentous shapes, and their genomes can be composed of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), or single-stranded RNA (ssRNA).

Archaeal viruses have evolved various strategies to hijack the host cell's machinery for replication, packaging, and release of new virus particles. Some archaeal viruses even encode their own proteins for transcription and translation, suggesting a more complex relationship with their hosts than previously thought. The study of archaeal viruses provides valuable insights into the evolution of viruses and their hosts and has implications for understanding the origins of life on Earth.

Pectobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen. These bacteria are known to cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants, including important crops such as potatoes and vegetables. They produce pectinases, enzymes that break down pectin, a major component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and decay of plant tissues.

Some notable species of Pectobacterium include:

* Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora), which is known to cause soft rot in many vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants.
* Pectobacterium atrosepticum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica), which primarily causes blackleg and soft rot diseases in potatoes.
* Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia wasabiae), which is associated with wasabi root rot.

Pectobacterium spp. are typically motile, having a single polar flagellum or multiple lateral flagella. They can survive in soil, water, and plant debris, and can be disseminated through infected seeds, contaminated tools, and irrigation water. Infections caused by Pectobacterium can lead to significant economic losses in agriculture due to reduced crop yield and quality.

An archaeal genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in an archaea, a single-celled microorganism that is found in some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The genome of an archaea contains all the information necessary for its survival, including the instructions for building proteins and other essential molecules, as well as the regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Archaeal genomes are typically circular in structure and range in size from about 0.5 to over 5 million base pairs. They contain genes that are similar to those found in bacteria and eukaryotes, as well as unique genes that are specific to archaea. The study of archaeal genomes has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary history of life on Earth and has helped scientists understand the adaptations that allow these organisms to thrive in such harsh environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Streptococcus Phages" is not a standard medical term. The term "Streptococcus" refers to a genus of gram-positive bacteria that can cause various infections in humans, such as strep throat and skin infections. A "phage," on the other hand, is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.

Therefore, if you are referring to bacteriophages that infect Streptococcus bacteria, then the term would be "Streptococcus phages" or more specifically, the name of the particular phage species that infect Streptococcus bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus phage C1, Streptococcus phage Φ29). However, it's important to note that there are many different types of bacteriophages that can infect various strains of Streptococcus bacteria, so the specific phage would need to be identified.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

DNA cleavage is the breaking of the phosphodiester bonds in the DNA molecule, resulting in the separation of the two strands of the double helix. This process can occur through chemical or enzymatic reactions and can result in various types of damage to the DNA molecule, including single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and base modifications.

Enzymatic DNA cleavage is typically carried out by endonucleases, which are enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific sequences or structures. There are two main types of endonucleases: restriction endonucleases and repair endonucleases. Restriction endonucleases recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, often used in molecular biology techniques such as genetic engineering and cloning. Repair endonucleases, on the other hand, are involved in DNA repair processes and recognize and cleave damaged or abnormal DNA structures.

Chemical DNA cleavage can occur through various mechanisms, including oxidation, alkylation, or hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bonds. Chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, or hydrazine can induce chemical DNA cleavage and are often used in laboratory settings for various purposes, such as DNA fragmentation or labeling.

Overall, DNA cleavage is an essential process in many biological functions, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination. However, excessive or improper DNA cleavage can lead to genomic instability, mutations, and cell death.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Gene expression regulation in archaea refers to the complex cellular processes that control the transcription and translation of genes into functional proteins. This regulation is crucial for the survival and adaptation of archaea to various environmental conditions.

Archaea, like bacteria and eukaryotes, use a variety of mechanisms to regulate gene expression, including:

1. Transcriptional regulation: This involves controlling the initiation, elongation, and termination of transcription by RNA polymerase. Archaea have a unique transcription machinery that is more similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerases than bacterial ones. Transcriptional regulators, such as activators and repressors, bind to specific DNA sequences near the promoter region to modulate transcription.
2. Post-transcriptional regulation: This includes processes like RNA processing, modification, and degradation that affect mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Archaea have a variety of RNA-binding proteins and small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that play crucial roles in post-transcriptional regulation.
3. Translational regulation: This involves controlling the initiation, elongation, and termination of translation by ribosomes. Archaea use a unique set of translation initiation factors and tRNA modifications to regulate protein synthesis.
4. Post-translational regulation: This includes processes like protein folding, modification, and degradation that affect protein stability and function. Archaea have various chaperones, proteases, and modifying enzymes that participate in post-translational regulation.

Overall, gene expression regulation in archaea is a highly dynamic and coordinated process involving multiple layers of control to ensure proper gene expression under changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

A prophage is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) genome that is integrated into the chromosome of a bacterium and replicates along with it. The phage genome remains dormant within the bacterial host until an environmental trigger, such as stress or damage to the host cell, induces the prophage to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter a lytic cycle, during which new virions are produced and released by lysing the host cell. This process is known as lysogeny.

Prophages can play important roles in the biology of their bacterial hosts, such as contributing to genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer, modulating bacterial virulence, and providing resistance to superinfection by other phages. However, they can also have detrimental effects on the host, such as causing lysis or altering bacterial phenotypes in ways that are disadvantageous for survival.

It's worth noting that not all bacteriophages form prophages; some exist exclusively as extrachromosomal elements, while others can integrate into the host genome but do not necessarily become dormant or replicate with the host cell.

Archaeal proteins are proteins that are encoded by the genes found in archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms. These proteins are crucial for various cellular functions and structures in archaea, which are adapted to survive in extreme environments such as high temperatures, high salt concentrations, and low pH levels.

Archaeal proteins share similarities with both bacterial and eukaryotic proteins, but they also have unique features that distinguish them from each other. For example, many archaeal proteins contain unusual amino acids or modifications that are not commonly found in other organisms. Additionally, the three-dimensional structures of some archaeal proteins are distinct from their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts.

Studying archaeal proteins is important for understanding the biology of these unique organisms and for gaining insights into the evolution of life on Earth. Furthermore, because some archaea can survive in extreme environments, their proteins may have properties that make them useful in industrial and medical applications.

Pseudomonas phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. These phages are important in the study of Pseudomonas species, which include several significant human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Phages can be used for therapeutic purposes to treat bacterial infections, including those caused by Pseudomonas. Additionally, they are also useful tools in molecular biology and genetic research.

It's worth noting that while "Pseudomonas phages" refers specifically to phages that infect Pseudomonas bacteria, the term "phage" on its own is used to describe any virus that infects and replicates within a bacterial host.

"Pyrococcus furiosus" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for an extremophilic archaea species. It's a type of microorganism that thrives in extreme environments, particularly high temperature and acidity. "Pyrococcus furiosus" was first isolated from a marine volcanic vent and has since been studied extensively due to its unique biological properties.

In terms of scientific definition:

"Pyrococcus furiosus" is a species of archaea belonging to the order Thermococcales, family Pyrococcaceae. It's a hyperthermophilic organism, with an optimum growth temperature of around 100°C (212°F), and can survive in temperatures up to 106°C (223°F). The cells are irregularly coccoid, about 0.8-1.5 µm in diameter, and occur singly or in pairs.

The organism obtains energy by fermenting peptides and carbohydrates, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and acetate as end products. "Pyrococcus furiosus" has been used as a model system for studying the biochemistry of archaea and extremophiles, including enzymes that function optimally at high temperatures.

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

"Thermoproteus" is not a medical term, but rather a genus name in the field of biology. It refers to a type of archaea, which are single-celled microorganisms that lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Thermoproteus species are extremophiles, meaning they thrive in environments with extreme conditions that are hostile to most life forms. Specifically, Thermoproteus species are hyperthermophiles, as they can grow at temperatures up to 105°C (221°F). They are commonly found in volcanic vents and other hydrothermal systems.

While not directly related to medical science, understanding the biology of extremophiles like Thermoproteus can provide insights into the limits of life and the adaptations that allow organisms to survive under extreme conditions. This knowledge can have implications for fields such as astrobiology and the search for extraterrestrial life.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Post-transcriptional RNA processing refers to the modifications and regulations that occur on RNA molecules after the transcription of DNA into RNA. This process includes several steps:

1. 5' capping: The addition of a cap structure, usually a methylated guanosine triphosphate (GTP), to the 5' end of the RNA molecule. This helps protect the RNA from degradation and plays a role in its transport, stability, and translation.
2. 3' polyadenylation: The addition of a string of adenosine residues (poly(A) tail) to the 3' end of the RNA molecule. This process is important for mRNA stability, export from the nucleus, and translation initiation.
3. Intron removal and exon ligation: Eukaryotic pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) contain intronic sequences that do not code for proteins. These introns are removed by a process called splicing, where the flanking exons are joined together to form a continuous mRNA sequence. Alternative splicing can lead to different mature mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA, increasing transcriptomic and proteomic diversity.
4. RNA editing: Specific nucleotide changes in RNA molecules that alter the coding potential or regulatory functions of RNA. This process is catalyzed by enzymes like ADAR (Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA) and APOBEC (Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Catalytic Polypeptide-like).
5. Chemical modifications: Various chemical modifications can occur on RNA nucleotides, such as methylation, pseudouridination, and isomerization. These modifications can influence RNA stability, localization, and interaction with proteins or other RNAs.
6. Transport and localization: Mature mRNAs are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. In some cases, specific mRNAs are localized to particular cellular compartments to ensure local protein synthesis.
7. Degradation: RNA molecules have finite lifetimes and undergo degradation by various ribonucleases (RNases). The rate of degradation can be influenced by factors such as RNA structure, modifications, or interactions with proteins.

A nucleotide motif is a specific sequence or pattern of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA and RNA) that has biological significance. These motifs can be found in various contexts, such as within a gene, regulatory region, or across an entire genome. They may play a role in regulating gene expression, DNA replication, repair, or other cellular processes.

For example, in the context of DNA, a simple nucleotide motif could be a palindromic sequence (e.g., "CGGCGG") that can form a hairpin structure during transcription or translation. More complex motifs might include cis-regulatory elements, such as promoters, enhancers, or silencers, which contain specific arrangements of nucleotides that interact with proteins to control gene expression.

In the context of RNA, nucleotide motifs can be involved in various post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, such as splicing, localization, stability, and translation. For instance, stem-loop structures or specific sequence elements within RNA molecules might serve as recognition sites for RNA-binding proteins or non-coding RNAs (e.g., microRNAs) that modulate RNA function.

Overall, nucleotide motifs are essential components of the genetic code and play crucial roles in shaping gene expression and cellular functions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Thermococcales is an order of archaea within the Thermococcaceae family, characterized by their ability to thrive in extreme environments with high temperatures and pressures. They are often found in hydrothermal vents and other deep-sea environments. These organisms are known for their ability to produce energy through the process of sulfur reduction, where they oxidize various organic compounds and reduce elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. Thermococcales are also notable for their resistance to radiation and other environmental stressors, making them a subject of interest in astrobiology and the search for extraterrestrial life.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

'Clostridium thermocellum' is a type of anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is known for its ability to produce cellulases and break down cellulose. It is thermophilic, meaning it grows optimally at higher temperatures, typically between 55-70°C. This organism is of interest in the field of bioenergy because of its potential to convert plant biomass into useful products such as biofuels. However, it's important to note that this bacterium can also produce harmful metabolic byproducts and can be potentially pathogenic to humans.

'Haloferax mediterranei' is not a medical term, but a species name in the field of microbiology. It refers to a type of archaea (a single-celled microorganism) that is halophilic, meaning it thrives in high-salt environments. The species was first isolated from a solar saltern in Alicante, Spain, and is known for its ability to produce and degrade various biopolymers, making it of interest in biotechnological applications. It's not directly related to human health or medicine, but understanding the diversity and characteristics of different microorganisms can have broader implications for fields such as environmental science and infectious disease research.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyrococcus abyssi" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually the scientific name of an organism, specifically a species of archaea (single-celled microorganisms).

"Pyrococcus abyssi" is a hyperthermophilic archaeon, first isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, that grows optimally at a temperature of around 98°C. This organism has great biotechnological potential due to its ability to produce various enzymes that function optimally under extreme conditions.

I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any further questions or concerns about biology, microbiology, or other scientific topics, please don't hesitate to ask!

Archaeal DNA refers to the genetic material present in archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms lacking a nucleus. Like bacteria, archaea have a single circular chromosome that contains their genetic information. However, archaeal DNA is significantly different from bacterial and eukaryotic DNA in terms of its structure and composition.

Archaeal DNA is characterized by the presence of unique modifications such as methylation patterns, which help distinguish it from other types of DNA. Additionally, archaea have a distinct set of genes involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, many of which are more similar to those found in eukaryotes than bacteria.

One notable feature of archaeal DNA is its resistance to environmental stressors such as extreme temperatures, pH levels, and salt concentrations. This allows archaea to thrive in some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth, including hydrothermal vents, acidic hot springs, and highly saline lakes.

Overall, the study of archaeal DNA has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary history of life on Earth and the unique adaptations that allow these organisms to survive in extreme conditions.

'Erwinia amylovora' is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is a plant pathogen and the causative agent of fire blight, a destructive disease affecting members of the Rosaceae family, including apple and pear trees. The bacteria are capable of producing various virulence factors, such as cell wall-degrading enzymes and toxins, which contribute to their ability to cause disease in plants.

The bacteria typically enter the plant through wounds or natural openings, such as flowers, and then spread through the vascular system, causing wilting, discoloration, and death of infected tissues. In severe cases, fire blight can lead to the death of entire trees or orchards. The disease is difficult to control once it becomes established in an area, and management strategies typically involve a combination of cultural practices, such as pruning and sanitation, and the use of protective chemicals.

In addition to its economic impact on agriculture, 'Erwinia amylovora' has also been studied as a model organism for understanding plant-pathogen interactions and the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis.

Prokaryotic cells are simple, single-celled organisms that do not have a true nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. They include bacteria and archaea. The genetic material of prokaryotic cells is composed of a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm, along with small, circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Prokaryotic cells have a rigid cell wall, which provides protection and support, and a flexible outer membrane that helps them to survive in diverse environments. They reproduce asexually by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Compared to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and have a simpler structure.

Macrocephaly is a medical term that refers to a condition where an individual has an abnormally large head size. It is typically defined as a head circumference (the measurement of the head's perimeter) that is more than two standard deviations above the average for age, gender, and height.

Macrocephaly can be caused by various factors, including genetic disorders, brain abnormalities, developmental delays, and hydrocephalus (the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). In some cases, macrocephaly may not indicate any underlying medical condition, and the person's head size may remain proportionate to their body as they grow.

It is essential to monitor individuals with macrocephaly for any associated neurological or developmental issues and provide appropriate medical interventions if necessary.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, is the movement of genetic material between organisms in a manner other than from parent to offspring (vertical gene transfer). In horizontal gene transfer, an organism can take up genetic material directly from its environment and incorporate it into its own genome. This process is common in bacteria and archaea, but has also been observed in eukaryotes including plants and animals.

Horizontal gene transfer can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Transformation: the uptake of free DNA from the environment by a cell.
2. Transduction: the transfer of genetic material between cells by a virus (bacteriophage).
3. Conjugation: the direct transfer of genetic material between two cells in physical contact, often facilitated by a conjugative plasmid or other mobile genetic element.

Horizontal gene transfer can play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of organisms, allowing them to acquire new traits and functions rapidly. It is also of concern in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and antibiotic resistance, as it can facilitate the spread of genes that confer resistance or other undesirable traits.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 is a strain of the bacterium E. coli that is commonly used in scientific research. It was originally isolated from the human intestine and has been well-studied due to its relatively harmless nature compared to other strains of E. coli that can cause serious illness.

The "K12" designation refers to a specific set of genetic characteristics that distinguish this strain from others. It is a non-pathogenic, or non-harmful, strain that is often used as a model organism in molecular biology and genetics research. Researchers have developed many tools and resources for studying E. coli K12, including a complete genome sequence and extensive collections of mutant strains.

E. coli K12 is not typically found in the environment and is not associated with disease in healthy individuals. However, it can be used as an indicator organism to detect fecal contamination in water supplies, since it is commonly present in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

"Haloarcula" is a genus of archaea, which are single-celled microorganisms that lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. This genus belongs to the family Halobacteriaceae and is characterized by its ability to thrive in extremely salty environments, such as salt lakes and salt mines. The cells of Haloarcula species are typically pink or red due to the presence of carotenoid pigments, which help protect the organisms from high levels of solar radiation.

Haloarcula species are heterotrophic, meaning they obtain energy by consuming organic matter. They are also aerobic, requiring oxygen to grow and metabolize nutrients. Like other members of the domain Archaea, Haloarcula species have a unique cell wall structure and genetic material that is distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes.

It's important to note that "Haloarcula" is a medical definition in the sense that it refers to a specific genus of archaea that can have implications for human health, particularly in the context of environmental health and microbial ecology. However, Haloarcula species are not typically associated with human diseases or infections.

Metagenomics is the scientific study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. This field of research involves analyzing the collective microbial genomes found in a variety of environments, such as soil, ocean water, or the human gut, without the need to culture individual species in a lab. By using high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and computational tools, metagenomics allows researchers to identify and study the functional potential and ecological roles of diverse microbial communities, contributing to our understanding of their impacts on ecosystems, health, and disease.

"Sulfolobus" is a genus of archaea, which are single-celled microorganisms that share characteristics with both bacteria and eukaryotes. These archaea are extremophiles, meaning they thrive in extreme environments that are hostile to most other life forms. Specifically, Sulfolobus species are acidothermophiles, capable of growing at temperatures between 75-85°C and pH levels near 3. They are commonly found in volcanic hot springs and other acidic, high-temperature environments. The cells of Sulfolobus are typically irregular in shape and have a unique system for replicating their DNA. Some species are capable of oxidizing sulfur compounds as a source of energy.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Interspersed Repeats or Interspersed Repetitive Sequences (IRSs) are repetitive DNA sequences that are dispersed throughout the eukaryotic genome. They include several types of repeats such as SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements), LINEs (Long INterspersed Elements), and LTR retrotransposons (Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons). These sequences can make up a significant portion of the genome, with varying copy numbers among different species. They are typically non-coding and have been associated with genomic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolution of genomes.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Endoribonucleases are enzymes that cleave RNA molecules internally, meaning they cut the phosphodiester bond between nucleotides within the RNA chain. These enzymes play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as RNA processing, degradation, and quality control. Different endoribonucleases recognize specific sequences or structural features in RNA substrates, allowing them to target particular regions for cleavage. Some well-known examples of endoribonucleases include RNase III, RNase T1, and RNase A, each with distinct substrate preferences and functions.

Geobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria that are thermophilic, meaning they thrive at relatively high temperatures, typically between 45-70°C. These bacteria are commonly found in hot environments such as volcanic vents, hot springs, and oil fields. They have the ability to break down complex organic matter, making them of interest for potential industrial applications like bioremediation and biofuel production. Some species within this genus can also cause spoilage of canned foods when exposed to high temperatures during processing. It's worth noting that while Geobacillus spp. are generally not harmful to humans, they may be capable of causing infection in immunocompromised individuals.

Rudiviridae is a family of double-stranded, rigid rod-shaped viruses that infect archaea. These viruses have linear genomes and typically measure between 400-700 nanometers in length. They are characterized by their unique tail fibers, which they use to attach to and infect their host cells. Rudiviridae viruses primarily infect hyperthermophilic archaea that live in extreme environments, such as hot springs and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Due to the limited number of studies on these viruses and their hosts, much is still unknown about their biology and ecological significance.

"Mannheimia" is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract of animals and are known to cause various diseases in domestic and wild animals. Some species of Mannheimia can also cause zoonotic infections in humans who come into close contact with infected animals.

The most well-known species of Mannheimia is M. haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and sheep, causing respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and shipping fever. Other species of Mannheimia include M. granulomatis, M. varigena, and M. succiniciproducens, among others.

Mannheimia bacteria are known to produce a variety of virulence factors, including hemolysins, endotoxins, and exotoxins, which contribute to their pathogenicity. Diagnosis of Mannheimia infections typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples, such as respiratory secretions or tissue samples, followed by confirmation using biochemical tests or molecular methods. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics, although the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Mannheimia species is a growing concern.

Rosaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an family of flowering plants. However, many physicians and dermatologists are familiar with some members of this family because they cause several common skin conditions.

Rosaceae refers to a family of plants that include roses, strawberries, blackberries, and many other ornamental and edible plants. Some genera within this family contain species known to cause various dermatologic conditions in humans, particularly affecting the face.

The most well-known skin disorders associated with Rosaceae are:

1. Acne rosacea (or rosacea): A chronic inflammatory skin condition primarily affecting the central face, characterized by flushing, persistent erythema (redness), telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), papules, pustules, and sometimes rhinophyma (enlarged, bulbous nose).
2. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by persistent central facial erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia without papules or pustules.
3. Phymatous rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement, particularly of the nose (rhinophyma).
4. Ocular rosacea: Inflammation of the eyes and eyelids associated with rosacea, causing symptoms like dryness, grittiness, foreign body sensation, burning, stinging, itching, watering, redness, and occasional blurry vision.

While not a medical term itself, Rosaceae is an essential concept in dermatology due to the skin conditions it encompasses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Hampshire" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the 50 states in the United States of America, located in the New England region. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a type of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacterium that is commonly found on the human skin and mucous membranes. It is a part of the normal flora and usually does not cause infection in healthy individuals. However, it can cause serious infections in people with weakened immune systems or when it enters the body through medical devices such as catheters or artificial joints. Infections caused by S. epidermidis are often difficult to treat due to its ability to form biofilms.

Medical Definition: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative coccus that commonly inhabits the skin and mucous membranes. It is a leading cause of nosocomial infections associated with indwelling medical devices and is known for its ability to form biofilms. S. epidermidis infections can cause a range of clinical manifestations, including bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract infections, and device-related infections.

Deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are a group of enzymes that cleave, or cut, the phosphodiester bonds in the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. DNases are classified based on their mechanism of action into two main categories: double-stranded DNases and single-stranded DNases.

Double-stranded DNases cleave both strands of the DNA duplex, while single-stranded DNases cleave only one strand. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, such as DNA replication, repair, recombination, and degradation. They are also used in research and clinical settings for applications such as DNA fragmentation analysis, DNA sequencing, and treatment of cystic fibrosis.

It's worth noting that there are many different types of DNases with varying specificities and activities, and the medical definition may vary depending on the context.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Crenarchaeota is a phylum within the domain Archaea. Members of this group are typically extremophiles, living in harsh environments such as hot springs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and highly acidic or alkaline habitats. They are characterized by their unique archaeal-type rRNA genes and distinct cell wall composition. Some Crenarchaeota have been found to be involved in nitrogen and carbon cycling in various environments, including the ocean and soil. However, much is still unknown about this group due to the difficulty of culturing many of its members in the lab.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

'Hot Springs' are a type of geothermal feature where water is heated by the Earth's internal heat and emerges from the ground at temperatures greater than the surrounding air temperature. The water in hot springs can range in temperature from warm to extremely hot, and it is often rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and sodium.

People have been using hot springs for thousands of years for various purposes, including relaxation, recreation, and therapeutic benefits. The heat and mineral content of the water can help to soothe sore muscles, improve circulation, and promote healing in some cases. However, it is important to note that not all hot springs are safe for bathing, as some may contain harmful bacteria or pollutants. It is always recommended to check with local authorities before using a hot spring for therapeutic purposes.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Recombinational DNA repair is a biological process that takes place in cells to correct damage to the DNA molecule. This type of repair is particularly important in maintaining the stability and integrity of the genetic code, especially in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the DNA.

In recombinational DNA repair, the cell uses a template from a homologous DNA sequence, typically a sister chromatid, to restore the damaged region. The process involves several steps:

1. Resection: The broken ends of the DNA molecule are processed by enzymes that remove nucleotides and create 3' single-stranded overhangs.
2. Recombination: The single-stranded overhangs invade a homologous DNA sequence, forming a displacement loop (D-loop) structure. This invasion is facilitated by recombinase proteins such as Rad51 and Dmc1.
3. Strand exchange: The invading 3' end of the single strand pairs with the complementary sequence in the template DNA, and DNA synthesis occurs using the template to restore the missing genetic information.
4. Resolution: The recombination intermediate is resolved, and the repaired DNA molecule is ligated together. This step can result in different outcomes, including crossover or non-crossover events, depending on the specific mechanisms involved.

Recombinational DNA repair plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability and preventing mutations that could lead to diseases such as cancer. Additionally, this process is exploited in genetic engineering techniques like homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Haloferax volcanii" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a species of archaea (single-celled microorganisms) that is commonly found in extremely salty environments, such as salt lakes and salt mines. The name "Haloferax volcanii" refers to the fact that this organism is halophilic (salt-loving) and was first isolated from a volcanic site.

Here is a brief scientific definition of "Haloferax volcanii":

Haloferax volcanii is a species of halophilic archaea belonging to the family Haloferacaceae. It is a rod-shaped, motile organism that is commonly found in hypersaline environments such as salt lakes and salt mines. The optimum growth temperature for H. volcanii is around 45°C, and it can tolerate a wide range of salinities (up to 3 M NaCl). It has a relatively large genome (around 4 Mb) that contains many genes involved in DNA repair and stress response, making it well-adapted to life in extreme environments. H. volcanii is also known for its ability to form stable triparental mating structures, which are used in genetic studies of archaea.

Gene targeting is a research technique in molecular biology used to precisely modify specific genes within the genome of an organism. This technique allows scientists to study gene function by creating targeted genetic changes, such as insertions, deletions, or mutations, in a specific gene of interest. The process typically involves the use of engineered nucleases, such as CRISPR-Cas9 or TALENs, to introduce double-stranded breaks at desired locations within the genome. These breaks are then repaired by the cell's own DNA repair machinery, often leading to the incorporation of designed changes in the targeted gene. Gene targeting is a powerful tool for understanding gene function and has wide-ranging applications in basic research, agriculture, and therapeutic development.

"Thermotoga neapolitana" is not a medical term, but rather a designation for a specific type of bacteria. It belongs to the genus "Thermotoga," which includes extremophile bacteria that thrive in extremely hot environments, such as hydrothermal vents and hot springs. The species "neapolitana" refers to the fact that this bacterium was first isolated from a hot water vent near Naples, Italy.

These bacteria are known for their ability to break down complex organic compounds into simpler molecules, which they use as a source of energy. They are also capable of surviving in temperatures up to 90°C (194°F) and have been studied for their potential applications in biotechnology, such as the production of biofuels and enzymes that can function at high temperatures.

While "Thermotoga neapolitana" itself is not a medical term, like other bacteria, it has the potential to cause infection under certain circumstances, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or exposed to contaminated equipment or environments. However, such cases are relatively rare and not well-studied.

"Gene knock-in techniques" refer to a group of genetic engineering methods used in molecular biology to precisely insert or "knock-in" a specific gene or DNA sequence into a specific location within the genome of an organism. This is typically done using recombinant DNA technology and embryonic stem (ES) cells, although other techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 can also be used.

The goal of gene knock-in techniques is to create a stable and heritable genetic modification in which the introduced gene is expressed at a normal level and in the correct spatial and temporal pattern. This allows researchers to study the function of individual genes, investigate gene regulation, model human diseases, and develop potential therapies for genetic disorders.

In general, gene knock-in techniques involve several steps: first, a targeting vector is constructed that contains the desired DNA sequence flanked by homologous regions that match the genomic locus where the insertion will occur. This vector is then introduced into ES cells, which are cultured and allowed to undergo homologous recombination with the endogenous genome. The resulting modified ES cells are selected for and characterized to confirm the correct integration of the DNA sequence. Finally, the modified ES cells are used to generate chimeric animals, which are then bred to produce offspring that carry the genetic modification in their germline.

Overall, gene knock-in techniques provide a powerful tool for studying gene function and developing new therapies for genetic diseases.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a standardized method used in microbiology to characterize and identify bacterial isolates at the subspecies level. It is based on the sequencing of several (usually 7-10) housekeeping genes, which are essential for the survival of the organism and have a low rate of mutation. The sequence type (ST) is determined by the specific alleles present at each locus, creating a unique profile that can be used to compare and cluster isolates into clonal complexes or sequence types. This method provides high-resolution discrimination between closely related strains and has been widely adopted for molecular epidemiology, infection control, and population genetics studies of bacterial pathogens.

Gardnerella vaginalis is a gram-variable, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium that is part of the normal microbiota of the human vagina. However, an overgrowth of this organism can lead to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is characterized by a shift in the balance of vaginal flora, resulting in a decrease in beneficial lactobacilli and an increase in Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic bacteria. This imbalance can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with a fishy odor, itching, and burning. It's important to note that while G. vaginalis is commonly associated with BV, its presence alone does not necessarily indicate the presence of the condition.

Endodeoxyribonucleases are a type of enzyme that cleave, or cut, phosphodiester bonds within the backbone of DNA molecules. These enzymes are also known as restriction endonucleases or simply restriction enzymes. They are called "restriction" enzymes because they were first discovered in bacteria, where they function to protect the organism from foreign DNA by cleaving and destroying invading viral DNA.

Endodeoxyribonucleases recognize specific sequences of nucleotides within the DNA molecule, known as recognition sites or restriction sites, and cut the phosphodiester bonds at specific locations within these sites. The cuts made by endodeoxyribonucleases can be either "sticky" or "blunt," depending on whether the enzyme leaves single-stranded overhangs or creates blunt ends at the site of cleavage, respectively.

Endodeoxyribonucleases are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications, including DNA cloning, genome mapping, and genetic engineering. They allow researchers to cut DNA molecules at specific sites, creating defined fragments that can be manipulated and recombined in a variety of ways.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

An INDEL (Insertion/Deletion) mutation is a type of genetic alteration in which a small number of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) are inserted or deleted from a sequence. This can lead to changes in the resulting protein, potentially causing it to be nonfunctional or altered in its activity. INDEL mutations can have various effects on an organism, depending on their location and size. They are implicated in several genetic disorders and diseases, including certain types of cancer.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight mistake in your question. "Archaeal" is not a term used to describe genes but rather a group of single-celled organisms that are classified as archaea.

Archaea are one of the three domains of life, along with bacteria and eukaryotes (which include plants, animals, and fungi). Archaea are unique because they share characteristics with both bacteria and eukaryotes, but they also have many features that are distinctly their own. For example, archaea have a different cell membrane structure than bacteria and eukaryotes, which allows them to thrive in extreme environments such as hot springs, salt mines, and deep-sea vents.

Genes, on the other hand, are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins or performing other important functions in an organism's cells. All living organisms, including archaea, have genes that are passed down from generation to generation. Archaeal genes are made up of the same four nucleotides (A, T, C, and G) as bacterial and eukaryotic genes, and they code for proteins and RNA molecules that are essential for the survival and reproduction of archaea.

So, to summarize, there is no specific definition for "Archaeal genes" because "archaeal" is not a term used to describe genes. However, we can say that archaeal genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins and performing other important functions in archaea.

Histidine-tRNA ligase is an enzyme involved in the process of protein synthesis, specifically during the step of translation. Its primary function is to catalyze the attachment of the amino acid histidine to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule. This enzyme does this by forming a ester bond between the carboxyl group of histidine and the 3'-hydroxyl group of the tRNA, creating a charged histidine-tRNA complex.

The histidine-tRNA ligase enzyme plays a crucial role in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis, as it ensures that only the correct amino acid is attached to its specific tRNA. This helps to prevent errors in the genetic code and contributes to the proper folding and functioning of proteins.

The systematic name for this enzyme is "histidine:tRNA(His) ligase (AMP-forming)" and it belongs to the family of ligases, specifically the aminoacyl-tRNA ligases. The gene that encodes this enzyme in humans is known as HARS1 (Histidyl-tRNA Synthetase 1). Defects or mutations in this gene can lead to various genetic disorders, such as histidinemia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacterium that causes various suppurative (pus-forming) and nonsuppurative infections in humans. It is also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS) due to its ability to produce the M protein, which confers type-specific antigenicity and allows for serological classification into more than 200 distinct Lancefield groups.

S. pyogenes is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. In rare cases, it can lead to invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).

The bacterium is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected skin lesions. Effective prevention strategies include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items, as well as prompt recognition and treatment of infections to prevent spread.

Gene order, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the specific sequence or arrangement of genes along a chromosome. The order of genes on a chromosome is not random, but rather, it is highly conserved across species and is often used as a tool for studying evolutionary relationships between organisms.

The study of gene order has also provided valuable insights into genome organization, function, and regulation. For example, the clustering of genes that are involved in specific pathways or functions can provide information about how those pathways or functions have evolved over time. Similarly, the spatial arrangement of genes relative to each other can influence their expression levels and patterns, which can have important consequences for phenotypic traits.

Overall, gene order is an important aspect of genome biology that continues to be a focus of research in fields such as genomics, genetics, evolutionary biology, and bioinformatics.

"Microcystis" is not a medical term, but a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) commonly found in freshwater environments. Some species of Microcystis can produce toxins called microcystins, which can cause liver damage and other health problems in humans and animals when they consume or come into contact with contaminated water. Therefore, Microcystis blooms in recreational waters or drinking water sources can pose a public health concern.

Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave, or cut, phosphodiester bonds within a polynucleotide chain, specifically within the same molecule of DNA or RNA. They can be found in all living organisms and play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination.

Endonucleases can recognize specific nucleotide sequences (sequence-specific endonucleases) or have no sequence preference (non-specific endonucleases). Some endonucleases generate sticky ends, overhangs of single-stranded DNA after cleavage, while others produce blunt ends without any overhang.

These enzymes are widely used in molecular biology techniques, such as restriction digestion, cloning, and genome editing (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9 system). Restriction endonucleases recognize specific DNA sequences called restriction sites and cleave the phosphodiester bonds at or near these sites, generating defined fragment sizes that can be separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. This property is essential for various applications in genetic engineering and biotechnology.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a type of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). They are characterized by their ability to cause hemorrhagic diarrhea and the presence of a virulence factor known as Shiga toxin or Verocytotoxin. The most well-known serotype of EHEC is O157:H7, but there are other non-O157 serotypes that can also cause human illness.

EHEC infection typically occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with infected animals or their environment. Once ingested, EHEC colonize the intestines and produce Shiga toxins, which can damage the lining of the intestine and cause bloody diarrhea. In severe cases, Shiga toxins can also enter the bloodstream and cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious complication that can lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing EHEC infection involves practicing good food safety habits, such as washing hands thoroughly before preparing or eating food, cooking meats to the recommended internal temperature, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices, and washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating. It is also important to handle and store food properly to prevent cross-contamination with EHEC bacteria.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

Base pairing is a specific type of chemical bonding that occurs between complementary base pairs in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA. In DNA, these bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Adenine always pairs with thymine via two hydrogen bonds, while guanine always pairs with cytosine via three hydrogen bonds. This precise base pairing is crucial for the stability of the double helix structure of DNA and for the accurate replication and transcription of genetic information. In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine and pairs with adenine.

A sequence deletion in a genetic context refers to the removal or absence of one or more nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) from a specific region in a DNA or RNA molecule. This type of mutation can lead to the loss of genetic information, potentially resulting in changes in the function or expression of a gene. If the deletion involves a critical portion of the gene, it can cause diseases, depending on the role of that gene in the body. The size of the deleted sequence can vary, ranging from a single nucleotide to a large segment of DNA.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

'Thermus thermophilus' is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a species of bacteria. It is commonly used in molecular biology and genetics research. Here is the biological definition:

'Thermus thermophilus' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, thermophilic bacterium found in hot springs and other high-temperature environments. Its optimum growth temperature ranges from 65 to 70°C (149-158°F), with some strains able to grow at temperatures as high as 85°C (185°F). The bacterium's DNA polymerase enzyme, Taq polymerase, is widely used in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique for amplifying and analyzing DNA. 'Thermus thermophilus' has a single circular chromosome and can also have one or more plasmids. Its genome has been fully sequenced, making it an important model organism for studying extremophiles and their adaptations to harsh environments.

Bacteriophage lambda, often simply referred to as phage lambda, is a type of virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that integrates its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome as a prophage when it infects the host cell. This allows the phage to replicate along with the bacterium until certain conditions trigger the lytic cycle, during which new virions are produced and released by lysing, or breaking open, the host cell.

Phage lambda is widely studied in molecular biology due to its well-characterized life cycle and genetic structure. It has been instrumental in understanding various fundamental biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA recombination, and lysis-lysogeny decision.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Antibiosis is a type of interaction between different organisms in which one organism, known as the antibiotic producer, produces a chemical substance (known as an antibiotic) that inhibits or kills another organism, called the susceptible organism. This phenomenon was first discovered in bacteria and fungi, where certain species produce antibiotics to inhibit the growth of competing species in their environment.

The term "antibiosis" is derived from Greek words "anti" meaning against, and "biosis" meaning living together. It is a natural form of competition that helps maintain the balance of microbial communities in various environments, such as soil, water, and the human body.

In medical contexts, antibiosis refers to the use of antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthesized artificially that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms. The discovery and development of antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, saving countless lives from bacterial infections that were once fatal.

However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can no longer be killed or inhibited by conventional antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that requires urgent attention and action from healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public.

"Genomic Islands" are horizontally acquired DNA segments in bacterial and archaeal genomes that exhibit distinct features, such as different nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content) and codon usage compared to the rest of the genome. They often contain genes associated with mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, integrases, and phages, and are enriched for functions related to adaptive traits like antibiotic resistance, heavy metal tolerance, and virulence factors. These islands can be transferred between different strains or species through various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), including conjugation, transformation, and transduction, contributing significantly to bacterial evolution and diversity.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

"Gene knockout techniques" refer to a group of biomedical research methods used in genetics and molecular biology to study the function of specific genes in an organism. These techniques involve introducing a deliberate, controlled genetic modification that results in the inactivation or "knockout" of a particular gene. This is typically achieved through various methods such as homologous recombination, where a modified version of the gene with inserted mutations is introduced into the organism's genome, replacing the original functional gene. The resulting organism, known as a "knockout mouse" or other model organisms, lacks the function of the targeted gene and can be used to study its role in biological processes, disease development, and potential therapeutic interventions.

Adaptive immunity is a specific type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, to recognize and respond to specific antigens. This type of immunity is called "adaptive" because it can change over time to better recognize and respond to particular threats.

Adaptive immunity has several key features that distinguish it from innate immunity, which is the other main type of immune response. One of the most important features of adaptive immunity is its ability to specifically recognize and target individual antigens. This is made possible by the presence of special receptors on T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes that can bind to specific proteins or other molecules on the surface of invading pathogens.

Another key feature of adaptive immunity is its ability to "remember" previous encounters with antigens. This allows the immune system to mount a more rapid and effective response when it encounters the same antigen again in the future. This is known as immunological memory, and it is the basis for vaccination, which exposes the immune system to a harmless form of an antigen in order to stimulate the production of immunological memory and protect against future infection.

Overall, adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in protecting the body against infection and disease, and it is an essential component of the overall immune response.

RNA Sequence Analysis is a branch of bioinformatics that involves the determination and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) molecules. This process includes identifying and characterizing the individual RNA molecules, determining their functions, and studying their evolutionary relationships.

RNA Sequence Analysis typically involves the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies to generate large datasets of RNA sequences, which are then analyzed using computational methods. The analysis may include comparing the sequences to reference databases to identify known RNA molecules or discovering new ones, identifying patterns and features in the sequences, such as motifs or domains, and predicting the secondary and tertiary structures of the RNA molecules.

RNA Sequence Analysis has many applications in basic research, including understanding gene regulation, identifying novel non-coding RNAs, and studying evolutionary relationships between organisms. It also has practical applications in clinical settings, such as diagnosing and monitoring diseases, developing new therapies, and personalized medicine.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Molecular typing is a laboratory technique used to identify and characterize specific microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, at the molecular level. This method is used to differentiate between strains of the same species based on their genetic or molecular differences. Molecular typing techniques include methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole genome sequencing (WGS). These techniques allow for high-resolution discrimination between strains, enabling epidemiological investigations of outbreaks, tracking the transmission of pathogens, and studying the evolution and population biology of microorganisms.

"Methanococcus" is a genus of archaea, which are single-celled microorganisms that share some characteristics with bacteria but are actually more closely related to eukaryotes. "Methanococcus" species are obligate anaerobes, meaning they can only survive in environments without oxygen. They are also methanogens, which means they produce methane as a byproduct of their metabolism. These microorganisms are commonly found in aquatic environments such as marine sediments and freshwater swamps, where they play an important role in the carbon cycle by breaking down organic matter and producing methane. Some "Methanococcus" species can also be found in the digestive tracts of animals, including humans, where they help to break down food waste and produce methane as a byproduct.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

A catalytic domain is a portion or region within a protein that contains the active site, where the chemical reactions necessary for the protein's function are carried out. This domain is responsible for the catalysis of biological reactions, hence the name "catalytic domain." The catalytic domain is often composed of specific amino acid residues that come together to form the active site, creating a unique three-dimensional structure that enables the protein to perform its specific function.

In enzymes, for example, the catalytic domain contains the residues that bind and convert substrates into products through chemical reactions. In receptors, the catalytic domain may be involved in signal transduction or other regulatory functions. Understanding the structure and function of catalytic domains is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of protein function and can provide valuable insights for drug design and therapeutic interventions.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Biological adaptation is the process by which a organism becomes better suited to its environment over generations as a result of natural selection. It involves changes in an organism's structure, metabolism, or behavior that increase its fitness, or reproductive success, in a given environment. These changes are often genetic and passed down from one generation to the next through the process of inheritance.

Examples of biological adaptation include the development of camouflage in animals, the ability of plants to photosynthesize, and the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Biological adaptation is an important concept in the field of evolutionary biology and helps to explain the diversity of life on Earth.

"Yersinia pestis" is a bacterial species that is the etiological agent (cause) of plague. Plague is a severe and often fatal infectious disease that can take various forms, including bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues. The bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through the bites of infected fleas, but they can also be spread by direct contact with infected animals or by breathing in droplets from an infected person's cough.

The bacterium is named after Alexandre Yersin, a Swiss-French bacteriologist who discovered it in 1894 during an epidemic of bubonic plague in Hong Kong. The disease has had a significant impact on human history, causing widespread pandemics such as the Justinian Plague in the 6th century and the Black Death in the 14th century, which resulted in millions of deaths across Europe and Asia.

Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, non-motile, coccobacillus that can survive in various environments, including soil and water. It has several virulence factors that contribute to its ability to cause disease, such as the production of antiphagocytic capsules, the secretion of proteases, and the ability to resist phagocytosis by host immune cells.

Modern antibiotic therapy can effectively treat plague if diagnosed early, but without treatment, the disease can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications or death. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with infected animals, using insect repellent and protective clothing in areas where plague is endemic, and seeking prompt medical attention for any symptoms of infection.

Bacterial transformation is a natural process by which exogenous DNA is taken up and incorporated into the genome of a bacterial cell. This process was first discovered in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, who observed that dead virulent bacteria could transfer genetic material to live avirulent bacteria, thereby conferring new properties such as virulence to the recipient cells.

The uptake of DNA by bacterial cells typically occurs through a process called "competence," which can be either naturally induced under certain environmental conditions or artificially induced in the laboratory using various methods. Once inside the cell, the exogenous DNA may undergo recombination with the host genome, resulting in the acquisition of new genes or the alteration of existing ones.

Bacterial transformation has important implications for both basic research and biotechnology. It is a powerful tool for studying gene function and for engineering bacteria with novel properties, such as the ability to produce valuable proteins or degrade environmental pollutants. However, it also poses potential risks in the context of genetic engineering and biocontainment, as transformed bacteria may be able to transfer their newly acquired genes to other organisms in the environment.

High-throughput nucleotide sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS), refers to a group of technologies that allow for the rapid and parallel determination of nucleotide sequences of DNA or RNA molecules. These techniques enable the sequencing of large numbers of DNA or RNA fragments simultaneously, resulting in the generation of vast amounts of sequence data in a single run.

High-throughput sequencing has revolutionized genomics research by allowing for the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes. It has numerous applications in basic research, including genome assembly, gene expression analysis, variant detection, and methylation profiling, as well as in clinical settings, such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, identification of pathogens, and monitoring of cancer progression and treatment response.

Some common high-throughput sequencing platforms include Illumina (sequencing by synthesis), Ion Torrent (semiconductor sequencing), Pacific Biosciences (single molecule real-time sequencing), and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (nanopore sequencing). Each platform has its strengths and limitations, and the choice of technology depends on the specific research question and experimental design.

Molecular sequence annotation is the process of identifying and describing the characteristics, functional elements, and relevant information of a DNA, RNA, or protein sequence at the molecular level. This process involves marking the location and function of various features such as genes, regulatory regions, coding and non-coding sequences, intron-exon boundaries, promoters, introns, untranslated regions (UTRs), binding sites for proteins or other molecules, and post-translational modifications in a given molecular sequence.

The annotation can be manual, where experts curate and analyze the data to predict features based on biological knowledge and experimental evidence. Alternatively, computational methods using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms can be employed for automated annotation. These tools often rely on comparative analysis, pattern recognition, and machine learning techniques to identify conserved sequence patterns, motifs, or domains that are associated with specific functions.

The annotated molecular sequences serve as valuable resources in genomic and proteomic studies, contributing to the understanding of gene function, evolutionary relationships, disease associations, and biotechnological applications.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Genetic techniques refer to a variety of methods and tools used in the field of genetics to study, manipulate, and understand genes and their functions. These techniques can be broadly categorized into those that allow for the identification and analysis of specific genes or genetic variations, and those that enable the manipulation of genes in order to understand their function or to modify them for therapeutic purposes.

Some examples of genetic analysis techniques include:

1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): a method used to amplify specific DNA sequences, allowing researchers to study small amounts of DNA.
2. Genome sequencing: the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome.
3. Genotyping: the process of identifying and analyzing genetic variations or mutations in an individual's DNA.
4. Linkage analysis: a method used to identify genetic loci associated with specific traits or diseases by studying patterns of inheritance within families.
5. Expression profiling: the measurement of gene expression levels in cells or tissues, often using microarray technology.

Some examples of genetic manipulation techniques include:

1. Gene editing: the use of tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 to modify specific genes or genetic sequences.
2. Gene therapy: the introduction of functional genes into cells or tissues to replace missing or nonfunctional genes.
3. Transgenic technology: the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by introducing foreign DNA into their genomes.
4. RNA interference (RNAi): the use of small RNA molecules to silence specific genes and study their function.
5. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs): the creation of stem cells from adult cells through genetic reprogramming, allowing for the study of development and disease in vitro.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Ribonuclease III, also known as RNase III or double-stranded RNA specific endonuclease, is an enzyme that belongs to the endoribonuclease family. This enzyme is responsible for cleaving double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into smaller fragments of approximately 20-25 base pairs in length. The resulting fragments are called small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression through a process known as RNA interference (RNAi).

Ribonuclease III functions by recognizing and binding to specific stem-loop structures within dsRNA molecules, followed by cleaving both strands at precise locations. This enzyme is highly conserved across various species, including bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals, indicating its fundamental role in cellular processes. In addition to its involvement in RNAi, ribonuclease III has been implicated in the maturation of other non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs).

'Structural homology' in the context of proteins refers to the similarity in the three-dimensional structure of proteins that are not necessarily related by sequence. This similarity arises due to the fact that these proteins have a common evolutionary ancestor or because they share a similar function and have independently evolved to adopt a similar structure. The structural homology is often identified using bioinformatics tools, such as fold recognition algorithms, that compare the three-dimensional structures of proteins to identify similarities. This concept is important in understanding protein function and evolution, as well as in the design of new drugs and therapeutic strategies.

Immunity, in medical terms, refers to the body's ability to resist or fight against harmful foreign substances or organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. This resistance is achieved through various mechanisms, including the production of antibodies, the activation of immune cells like T-cells and B-cells, and the release of cytokines and other chemical messengers that help coordinate the immune response.

There are two main types of immunity: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body's first line of defense against infection and involves nonspecific mechanisms such as physical barriers (e.g., skin and mucous membranes), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid and enzymes), and inflammatory responses. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is specific to particular pathogens and involves the activation of T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and remember specific antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). This allows the body to mount a more rapid and effective response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen.

Immunity can be acquired through natural means, such as when a person recovers from an infection and develops immunity to that particular pathogen, or artificially, through vaccination. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of a pathogen or its components, which stimulate the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease. This response provides protection against future infections with that same pathogen.

Virus integration, in the context of molecular biology and virology, refers to the insertion of viral genetic material into the host cell's genome. This process is most commonly associated with retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), which have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that converts their RNA genome into DNA. This DNA can then integrate into the host's chromosomal DNA, becoming a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

This integration is a crucial step in the retroviral life cycle, allowing the virus to persist within the host cell and evade detection by the immune system. It also means that the viral genome can be passed on to daughter cells when the host cell divides.

However, it's important to note that not all viruses integrate their genetic material into the host's genome. Some viruses, like influenza, exist as separate entities within the host cell and do not become part of the host's DNA.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

RNA stability refers to the duration that a ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule remains intact and functional within a cell before it is degraded or broken down into its component nucleotides. Various factors can influence RNA stability, including:

1. Primary sequence: Certain sequences in the RNA molecule may be more susceptible to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases), enzymes that break down RNA.
2. Secondary structure: The formation of stable secondary structures, such as hairpins or stem-loop structures, can protect RNA from degradation.
3. Presence of RNA-binding proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA can either stabilize or destabilize the RNA molecule, depending on the type and location of the protein-RNA interaction.
4. Chemical modifications: Modifications to the RNA nucleotides, such as methylation, can increase RNA stability by preventing degradation.
5. Subcellular localization: The subcellular location of an RNA molecule can affect its stability, with some locations providing more protection from ribonucleases than others.
6. Cellular conditions: Changes in cellular conditions, such as pH or temperature, can also impact RNA stability.

Understanding RNA stability is important for understanding gene regulation and the function of non-coding RNAs, as well as for developing RNA-based therapeutic strategies.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Gene silencing is a process by which the expression of a gene is blocked or inhibited, preventing the production of its corresponding protein. This can occur naturally through various mechanisms such as RNA interference (RNAi), where small RNAs bind to and degrade specific mRNAs, or DNA methylation, where methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule, preventing transcription. Gene silencing can also be induced artificially using techniques such as RNAi-based therapies, antisense oligonucleotides, or CRISPR-Cas9 systems, which allow for targeted suppression of gene expression in research and therapeutic applications.

DNA helicases are a group of enzymes that are responsible for separating the two strands of DNA during processes such as replication and transcription. They do this by unwinding the double helix structure of DNA, using energy from ATP to break the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. This allows other proteins to access the individual strands of DNA and carry out functions such as copying the genetic code or transcribing it into RNA.

During replication, DNA helicases help to create a replication fork, where the two strands of DNA are separated and new complementary strands are synthesized. In transcription, DNA helicases help to unwind the DNA double helix at the promoter region, allowing the RNA polymerase enzyme to bind and begin transcribing the DNA into RNA.

DNA helicases play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the genetic code and are essential for the normal functioning of cells. Defects in DNA helicases have been linked to various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Caspase-9 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the execution phase of programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family, which are characterized by their ability to cleave proteins after an aspartic acid residue. Caspase-9 is activated through a process called cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, which occurs in the mitochondria during apoptosis. Once activated, caspase-9 cleaves and activates other downstream effector caspases, such as caspase-3 and caspase-7, leading to the proteolytic degradation of cellular structures and ultimately resulting in cell death. Dysregulation of caspase-9 activity has been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Antisense RNA is a type of RNA molecule that is complementary to another RNA called sense RNA. In the context of gene expression, sense RNA is the RNA transcribed from a protein-coding gene, which serves as a template for translation into a protein. Antisense RNA, on the other hand, is transcribed from the opposite strand of the DNA and is complementary to the sense RNA.

Antisense RNA can bind to its complementary sense RNA through base-pairing, forming a double-stranded RNA structure. This interaction can prevent the sense RNA from being translated into protein or can target it for degradation by cellular machinery, thereby reducing the amount of protein produced from the gene. Antisense RNA can be used as a tool in molecular biology to study gene function or as a therapeutic strategy to silence disease-causing genes.

A frameshift mutation is a type of genetic mutation that occurs when the addition or deletion of nucleotides in a DNA sequence is not divisible by three. Since DNA is read in groups of three nucleotides (codons), which each specify an amino acid, this can shift the "reading frame," leading to the insertion or deletion of one or more amino acids in the resulting protein. This can cause a protein to be significantly different from the normal protein, often resulting in a nonfunctional protein and potentially causing disease. Frameshift mutations are typically caused by insertions or deletions of nucleotides, but they can also result from more complex genetic rearrangements.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

A Transcription Initiation Site (TIS) is a specific location within the DNA sequence where the process of transcription is initiated. In other words, it is the starting point where the RNA polymerase enzyme binds to the DNA template and begins synthesizing an RNA molecule. The TIS is typically located just upstream of the coding region of a gene and is often marked by specific sequences or structures that help regulate transcription, such as promoters and enhancers.

During the initiation of transcription, the RNA polymerase recognizes and binds to the promoter region, which lies adjacent to the TIS. The promoter contains cis-acting elements, including the TATA box and the initiator (Inr) element, that are recognized by transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. These proteins help position the RNA polymerase at the correct location on the DNA template and facilitate the initiation of transcription.

Once the RNA polymerase is properly positioned, it begins to unwind the double-stranded DNA at the TIS, creating a transcription bubble where the single-stranded DNA template can be accessed. The RNA polymerase then adds nucleotides one by one to the growing RNA chain, synthesizing an mRNA molecule that will ultimately be translated into a protein or, in some cases, serve as a non-coding RNA with regulatory functions.

In summary, the Transcription Initiation Site (TIS) is a crucial component of gene expression, marking the location where transcription begins and playing a key role in regulating this essential biological process.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pennsylvania" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

RNA precursors, also known as primary transcripts or pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs), refer to the initial RNA molecules that are synthesized during the transcription process in which DNA is copied into RNA. These precursor molecules still contain non-coding sequences and introns, which need to be removed through a process called splicing, before they can become mature and functional RNAs such as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), or transfer RNAs (tRNAs).

Pre-mRNAs undergo several processing steps, including 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation, and splicing, to generate mature mRNA molecules that can be translated into proteins. The accurate and efficient production of RNA precursors and their subsequent processing are crucial for gene expression and regulation in cells.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

HEK293 cells, also known as human embryonic kidney 293 cells, are a line of cells used in scientific research. They were originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells and have been adapted to grow in a lab setting. HEK293 cells are widely used in molecular biology and biochemistry because they can be easily transfected (a process by which DNA is introduced into cells) and highly express foreign genes. As a result, they are often used to produce proteins for structural and functional studies. It's important to note that while HEK293 cells are derived from human tissue, they have been grown in the lab for many generations and do not retain the characteristics of the original embryonic kidney cells.

An Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique used to detect and analyze protein-DNA interactions. In this assay, a mixture of proteins and fluorescently or radioactively labeled DNA probes are loaded onto a native polyacrylamide gel matrix and subjected to an electric field. The negatively charged DNA probe migrates towards the positive electrode, and the rate of migration (mobility) is dependent on the size and charge of the molecule. When a protein binds to the DNA probe, it forms a complex that has a different size and/or charge than the unbound probe, resulting in a shift in its mobility on the gel.

The EMSA can be used to identify specific protein-DNA interactions, determine the binding affinity of proteins for specific DNA sequences, and investigate the effects of mutations or post-translational modifications on protein-DNA interactions. The technique is widely used in molecular biology research, including studies of gene regulation, DNA damage repair, and epigenetic modifications.

In summary, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique that detects and analyzes protein-DNA interactions by subjecting a mixture of proteins and labeled DNA probes to an electric field in a native polyacrylamide gel matrix. The binding of proteins to the DNA probe results in a shift in its mobility on the gel, allowing for the detection and analysis of specific protein-DNA interactions.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of an mRNA molecule that do not contain information for protein synthesis. There are two types of UTRs: 5' UTR, which is located at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, and 3' UTR, which is located at the 3' end.

The 5' UTR typically contains regulatory elements that control the translation of the mRNA into protein. These elements can affect the efficiency and timing of translation, as well as the stability of the mRNA molecule. The 5' UTR may also contain upstream open reading frames (uORFs), which are short sequences that can be translated into small peptides and potentially regulate the translation of the main coding sequence.

The length and sequence composition of the 5' UTR can have significant impacts on gene expression, and variations in these regions have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of 5' UTRs is an important area of research in molecular biology and genetics.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A zebrafish is a freshwater fish species belonging to the family Cyprinidae and the genus Danio. Its name is derived from its distinctive striped pattern that resembles a zebra's. Zebrafish are often used as model organisms in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology, genetics, and toxicology studies. They have a high fecundity rate, transparent embryos, and a rapid development process, making them an ideal choice for researchers. However, it is important to note that providing a medical definition for zebrafish may not be entirely accurate or relevant since they are primarily used in biological research rather than clinical medicine.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

A protein subunit refers to a distinct and independently folding polypeptide chain that makes up a larger protein complex. Proteins are often composed of multiple subunits, which can be identical or different, that come together to form the functional unit of the protein. These subunits can interact with each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces, as well as covalent bonds like disulfide bridges. The arrangement and interaction of these subunits contribute to the overall structure and function of the protein.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

CRISPR also utilizes single base-pair editing proteins to create specific edits at one or two bases in the target sequence. ... It made CRISPR/Cas9 system even more interesting in gene editing. Inactive dCas9 protein modulate gene expression by targeting ... "Protein tweak makes CRISPR gene editing 4,000 times less error-prone". New Atlas. 2022-03-04. Retrieved 2022-03-07. Kato K, ... Alternative proteins to Cas9 include the following: CRISPR-Cas9 offers a high degree of fidelity and relatively simple ...
Cas9 (or "CRISPR-associated protein 9") is an enzyme that uses CRISPR sequences as a guide to recognize and open up specific ... CRISPR activation Anti-CRISPR CRISPR/Cas Tools CRISPR gene editing The CRISPR Journal DRACO Gene knockout Genetics Genome-wide ... In July 2021, CRISPR gene editing of hiPSC's was used to study the role of MBNL proteins associated with DM1. CRISPR associated ... Most CRISPR-Cas systems have a Cas1 protein. The phylogeny of Cas1 proteins generally agrees with the classification system, ...
Thus, the MS2 protein is engineered to include p65 and HSF1 proteins. The MS2-p65-HSF1 fusion protein interacts with the dCas9- ... CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) is a type of CRISPR tool that uses modified versions of CRISPR effectors without endonuclease ... "CRISPR/Cas9 Guide". Addgene. Ma, J. (August 2011). Transcriptional activators and activation mechanisms. Protein and Cell, 2(11 ... Not only was there a greater CXCR4 protein overexpression but also CXCR4 proteins were active to further travel on the ...
Recently, Vakoc has developed a CRISPR screening approach to identify the protein domains that are most important for cancer ... Rood, Jenny (2015-05-13). "Targeting Protein Domains with CRISPR". The Scientist. Retrieved 2020-05-01. Howley, Elaine K. (2018 ... Vakoc uses CRISPR/Cas9 technology to probe the epigenetic regulation of cancer and to identify new cancer drug targets. In 2011 ... 12). "What's the likelihood that CRISPR will cure Cancer?". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13 ...
CRISPR Medicine. Retrieved 2022-03-13. Mayer, Kevin (2020-07-16). "Tiny Cas Protein, Huge Gene Editing Potential … Thanks, ... He led the discovery of the largest known bacteriophages, the smallest CRISPR gene editing systems, and Borgs in methane- ... S, Robert; ers; relations,, Media (2020-07-16). "Megaphages harbor mini-Cas proteins ideal for gene editing". Berkeley News. ... "News: Tiny but Mighty: How Researchers Found a New Game-Changing CRISPR Tool". ...
CRISPR-associated protein 1 (cas1) is one of the two universally conserved proteins found in the CRISPR prokaryotic immune ... the proteins responsible for the ability of the CRISPR immune system (CRISPR means: clustered regularly interspaced short ... "Researchers discover how CRISPR proteins find their target". 20 July 2017. Rollins, MaryClare F.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Carter, ... Cas1 forms a stable complex with the other universally conserved CRISPR-associated protein, cas2, which is essential to spacer ...
This is a key function in the CRISPR system as it ensures that new spacers area always added at the beginning of the CRISPR ... Following elution, the protein readily binds DNA, indicating the protein's high affinity for DNA. Histone-like proteins were ... Histone-like proteins are present in many Eubacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Archaebacteria. These proteins participate in all DNA- ... Wang SL, Liu XQ (December 1991). "The plastid genome of Cryptomonas phi encodes an hsp70-like protein, a histone-like protein, ...
"CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-72. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5 ... Protein & Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed open access journal covering protein and cell biology. It was established in 2010 and ... "Protein & Cell". 2018 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2019. Liang, Puping; Xu, Yanwen ...
"CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-72. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5 ... In general, only the parts of the gene that code for the expressed protein (exons) and small amounts of the flanking ... On 19 March 2015, scientists urged a worldwide ban on clinical use of methods, particularly the use of CRISPR and zinc finger, ... In February 2016, British scientists were given permission by regulators to genetically modify human embryos by using CRISPR ...
May 2015). "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-372. doi:10.1007/ ... adapted from CRISPR). TALEN and CRISPR are the two most commonly used and each has its own advantages. TALENs have greater ... so that they will overexpress the desired protein. Mass quantities of the protein can then be manufactured by growing the ... In 2015, CRISPR was used to edit the DNA of non-viable human embryos, leading scientists of major world academies to call for a ...
May 2015). "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-372. doi:10.1007/ ... Some are simple structural molecules, like the fibers formed by the protein collagen. Proteins can bind to other proteins and ... without changing the structure of the protein itself). Protein structure is dynamic; the protein hemoglobin bends into slightly ... 2002), I.3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins Archived 1 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine Alberts et al. (2002 ...
May 2015). "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-372. doi:10.1007/ ... The T cells had the PD-1 protein (which stops or slows the immune response) removed using CRISPR-Cas9. A 2016 Cochrane ... "News: Clinical Trial Update: Positive Data for First Ever In Vivo CRISPR Medicine". CRISPR Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2021 ... protein in serum through CRISPR-based inactivation of the TTR gene in liver cells observing mean reductions of 52% and 87% ...
"CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-372. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153- ... TALENs have greater target specificity, while CRISPR is easier to design and more efficient. The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 ... There is also potential to use the silk producing machinery to make other valuable proteins. Proteins expressed by silkworms ... adapted from CRISPR). TALEN and CRISPR are the two most commonly used and each has its own advantages. ...
"CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-72. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5 ... Defying textbook science, amino acids (the building blocks of a protein) can be assembled by another protein and without ... 2 January - A study published in Science shows evidence that a protein partially assembles another protein without genetic ... Researchers identify a protein on tiny particles, GPC1+ crExos, released by pancreatic cancer cells, which may help in ...
"CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-372. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153- ... In general, CRISPR-Cas9 is the most effective gene-editing technique to date. The CRISPR-Cas9 system consists of an enzyme ... "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human zygotes using Cas9 protein". Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 292 (3): 525-533. doi: ... The CRISPR Journal. 3 (5): 365-377. doi:10.1089/crispr.2020.0082. ISSN 2573-1599. PMID 33095042. S2CID 225053656. Ma H, Marti- ...
"CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363-372. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153- ... Methods: CRISPR methods are a popularly used type of the aforementioned process of genome editing. Standing for 'Clustered ... No matter the origins of such variation at the genetic level, it clearly impacts the creation and interaction of proteins, ... Fast-paced developments in the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology has increased both the concerns and relevance of this ...
CRISPR-Cas systems fall into two classes. Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic ... CRISPR-Cas3 is more destructive than the better known CRISPR-Cas9 used by companies like Caribou Biosciences, Editas Medicine, ... Locus develops phage therapies based on CRISPR-Cas3 gene editing technology, as opposed to the more commonly used CRISPR-Cas9, ... Synthego, Intellia Therapeutics, CRISPR Therapeutics and Beam Therapeutics. CRISPR-Cas3 destroys the targeted DNA in either ...
Type-I CRISPR systems are characterized by Cas3, a nuclease-helicase protein, and the multi-subunit Cascade (CRISPR-associated ... CRISPR RNA or crRNA is a RNA transcript from the CRISPR locus. CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic ... Type-VI CRISPR systems are characterized by Cas13, a single effector protein that targets RNA. Like the type-V system, Cas13 ... Type-III CRISPR systems are characterized by Cas10, an RNA cleaving protein. Similar to type-I, a large subunit effector ...
Due to their small genomes and limited number of encoded proteins, viruses exploit host proteins for entry, replication, and ... For a review of CRISPR limitations see Lino et al. (2018) Genome-wide CRISPR screens will ultimately be limited by the ... recent studies have demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 screens are able to achieve highly efficient and complete protein depletion, ... "Discovery of cancer drug targets by CRISPR-Cas9 screening of protein domains". Nature Biotechnology. 33 (6): 661-7. doi:10.1038 ...
CRISPR can be used to target the virus or the host to disrupt genes encoding the virus cell-surface receptor proteins. In ... There are now more publications on CRISPR than ZFN and TALEN despite how recent the discovery of CRISPR is. Both CRISPR and ... Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, the programmed Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be directly introduced into fertilized zygotes to ... Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) process these sequences and cut matching viral DNA sequences. By introducing plasmids ...
Its small size leads to a rapid knock-in of this tag with other proteins through CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Affinity purification ... Protein tags are peptide sequences genetically grafted onto a recombinant protein. Tags are attached to proteins for various ... a protein which binds to immobilized glutathione Green fluorescent protein-tag, a protein which is spontaneously fluorescent ... This tag is used for protein purification of recombinant proteins and its fragments. It can be used in research labs and it is ...
Fusing a fluorescent protein to dCas9 allows for imaging of genomic loci in living human cells. Compared to fluorescence in ... Many bacteria and most archaea have an adaptive immune system which incorporates CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and CRISPR-associated (cas ... The CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) technique was first reported by Lei S. Qi and researchers at the University of California at ... For dCas9 (based on a Type-2 CRISPR system), repression is stronger when the guide RNA is complementary to the non-template ...
October 2015). "CETCh-seq: CRISPR epitope tagging ChIP-seq of DNA-binding proteins". Genome Research. 25 (10): 1581-9. doi: ... DNA-binding proteins and nucleosome position". Nature Methods. 10 (12): 1213-8. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2688. PMC 3959825. PMID ...
September 2021). "Programmable RNA targeting with the single-protein CRISPR effector Cas7-11". Nature. 597 (7878): 720-725. ... As some of these MORF proteins have been shown to interact with members of the PPR family, it is possible MORF proteins are ... More recently, CRISPR-Cas13 fused to deaminases has been employed to direct mRNA editing. In 2022, Cas7-11, better suited for ... Furthermore, it may only require a guide RNA by using the ADAR protein already found in humans and many other eukaryotes' cells ...
The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats - CRISPR associated proteins) system provides adaptive ... PCC6803 contains three different CRISPR-Cas systems: type I-D, and two versions of type III. All three CRISPR-Cas systems are ... SynechoNET: integrated protein-protein interaction database of a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. SynechoNET is ... STRING: STRING is a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions. The interactions include direct (physical) ...
She invented the CRISPR-chip, an electronic sensor that uses CRISPR-Cas to scan genomes and samples of nucleic acid for disease ... For her doctoral research she worked on a microfluidic platform for the extraction of diagnostic plasma proteins. The ... "News: CRISPR-Chip Inventor Kiana Aran Wins Major Women in Science Award". CRISPR Medicine. Retrieved November 3, 2021. "Dr. ... She has demonstrated that the CRISPR-Chip can detect the mutations associated with sickle cell and Duchenne muscular dystrophy ...
May 2019). "Multiplexed detection of proteins, transcriptomes, clonotypes and CRISPR perturbations in single cells". Nature ... March 2017). "Pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell transcriptome readout". Nature Methods. 14 (3): 297-301. doi:10.1038/ ... December 2016). "Dissecting Immune Circuits by Linking CRISPR-Pooled Screens with Single-Cell RNA-Seq". Cell. 167 (7): 1883- ... January 2019). "Coupled Single-Cell CRISPR Screening and Epigenomic Profiling Reveals Causal Gene Regulatory Networks". Cell. ...
In addition to these protein coding genes, Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22 has 36 pseudogenes and a total of 23 CRISPR loci. ... The phylogenetic analysis of nitrogenous and chlorophyll iron proteins suggests that an ancestral iron protein duplicated and ... This strain has the highest number of CRISPR loci of all sequenced isolates to date. It also has a GC-content of 32.04%. The ... 3( Gerday C, Glansdorff N, Eds.).:231-255., Oxford: Eolss Publishers Co Ltd Rath, Devashish (2015). "The CRISPR-Cas immune ...
... can also recruit fusion proteins engineered to bind specific RNA sequences. Recruiting these proteins can allow ... CRISPR-Display is currently limited by the number of available functional RNA motifs and RNA binding protein functions. As more ... CRISPR-Disp modifies the CRISPR/Cas9 technology by using a catalytically inactive, i.e. nuclease deficient, Cas9 mutant (dCas9 ... CRISPR-Display (CRISP-Disp) is a modification of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) ...
In one experiment, researchers used CRISPR to knock out the E-cadherin gene. E-cadherin is a membrane bound protein of ... This shows that CRISPR technology and gene editing are viable options for studying the Red Flour beetle as an insect model ... Efficient CRISPR-mediated gene targeting and transgene replacement in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Development. Good, M.E. ( ... CRISPR technology has been shown to be useful in studying Tribolium castaneum. ...
Tag: plenti crispr v2. IgG antibodies reacting with ghrelin and leptin are correlated with body composition and appetitive ...
Host-Cell Protein Impurity Analysis. May 31, 2018. Insights. Supplement: CRISPR. May 31, 2018 ... The Scoop: CRISPR Patent Case Argued Before Appeals Court. May 31, 2018 ...
CRISPR Tools. CRISPR Tools *Overview. * Knockout Kits * CRISPR/CAS9 Vectors * CRISPRa/CRISPRi ... Recombinant protein of human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), residues 35-680, with C- ...
CRISPR also utilizes single base-pair editing proteins to create specific edits at one or two bases in the target sequence. ... It made CRISPR/Cas9 system even more interesting in gene editing. Inactive dCas9 protein modulate gene expression by targeting ... "Protein tweak makes CRISPR gene editing 4,000 times less error-prone". New Atlas. 2022-03-04. Retrieved 2022-03-07. Kato K, ... Alternative proteins to Cas9 include the following: CRISPR-Cas9 offers a high degree of fidelity and relatively simple ...
We purified proteins from lysed bacteria by using the Ni-NTA protocol (18) and stored aliquots of purified protein at −80°C. ... CRISPR-GBS. The CRISPR-GBS test combines an RPA step and a subsequent T7 transcription and Cas13 detection step, as described ... Development of CRISPR-GBS. Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of CRISPR-based diagnostic for rapid GBS screening. Swab ... To address the unmet clinical needs for GBS screening, we developed CRISPR-GBS, a novel CRISPR/Cas13-based in vitro diagnostic ...
... or protein (BLASTX) sequence databases. Additionally, align a custom nucleotide sequence against a given sequence using BLAST2. ...
CRISPR/Cas9 systems can also be used to introduce, or ... CRISPR Cas9 systems generate knockout cells or animals when co- ... Protein Biology. Research & Disease Areas. Contract Manufacturing. Contract Testing. Custom Products. Digital Solutions for ... Synthetic CRISPR, crRNA, tracrRNA, CRISPR, CRISPRs, Cas9, Crispr RNA, Crispr/Cas System ... CRISPR/Cas9 Products and Services. Design and order CRISPR gRNA, Cas9, screening libraries, controls and companion products. ...
Kindlins are integrin-interacting proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness. of this. Kindlins are integrin- ... The transition from unicellular organisms to multicellular ones required the presence of transmembrane adhesion proteins such ... interacting proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness. of this segment enables K2 but not K3 to localize to ... whereas the intracellular tails of the subunit interact with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins inside the cells. Integrins ...
... simultaneously broadening our understanding of and raising more questions related to the complexities of CRISPR. ... A new study published in Science reveals a membrane protein that enhances anti-viral defense - ... "When we think about CRISPR, we see Cas proteins such as Cas9 or Cas13 as the big hammer doing all the damage, but that might ... CRISPR claimed scientific fame for its ability to quickly and accurately edit genes. But, at the core, CRISPR systems are ...
BioGRID Open Repository of CRISPR Screens (ORCS). * BioGRID CRISPR Screen Phenotypes (1 hit/79 screens) ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. phospholipid transfer protein. Names. lipid ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001420692.1 → NP_001407621.1 phospholipid transfer protein isoform a precursor ... Pltp phospholipid transfer protein [Mus musculus] Pltp phospholipid transfer protein [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:18830 ...
Cas9 is CRISPR-associated protein 9; dCas9, or dead Cas9, is a mutant form of Cas9). The device uses light pulses to induce the ... Only the cells that have been modified to include light-sensitive proteins will be under control of the light. The ability to ... The calcium signals generated by light are used to deliver the genome-engineering tool derived from the CRISPR/Cas9 system to ... "We have screened dozens of engineered proteins and undergone numerous rounds of optimization to make the CaRROT system strictly ...
... anti-CRISPR and anti-restriction proteins.. Bacterial defense systems are under constant selective pressure by bacteriophage ... Phage receptor binding proteins. *Investigating bacterial defense strategies against antimicrobial agents to explore the ... the CRISPR-Cas systems). Conversely, bacteriophages have evolved strategies to evade or counteract many of these defense ... or novel applications of CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing and gene therapy.. By acknowledging that research on bacterial ...
Researchers have shown in a mouse study that the powerful gene editing technique known as CRISPR may provide the means for ... Researchers show how a dual CRISPR RNA method restored dystrophin protein ... Scientists Uncover a Novel Approach to Treating ... They then tested if muscle stem cells in a mouse model of DMD could be edited with CRISPR. Similar to what they found in normal ... "Research has shown that CRISPR can be used to edit out the mutation that causes the early death of muscle cells in an animal ...
Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas genome editing enable efficient targeted modification in most crops, thus promising to accelerate ... Here, we review advances in CRISPR/Cas9 and its variants and examine their applications in plant genome editing and related ... Improving the DNA specificity and applicability of base editing through protein engineering and protein delivery. Nat. Commun. ... Cpf1 is a single RNA-guided endonuclease of a class 2 CRISPR-Cas system. Cell 163:759-71Identifies Cpf1, a CRISPR effector that ...
Through a combination of next-generation sequencing and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing, two sets of researchers homed in ... The gold standard to prove the direct target of a drug typically involves showing that a mutation in a particular protein ... Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 relies on a guide RNA that targets the nuclease to the corresponding DNA segment where it ... Two Research Teams Detail Use of CRISPR-Cas9 Editing to Analyze Drug Targets Jun 17, 2014 , staff reporter ...
Repression of a single protein in ordinary fibroblasts is sufficient to directly convert the cells - abundantly found in ... Innovative antiviral defense with new CRISPR tool. Apr 12, 2024. A new coating method in mRNA engineering points the way to ... Regulating single protein prompts fibroblasts to become neurons. (Nanowerk News) Repression of a single protein in ordinary ... The protein, they determined, functions in a complicated loop that involves a group of transcription factors dubbed REST that ...
We show that the Cas9, Cas1, Cas2, and Csn2 proteins of a Streptococcus thermophilus type II-A CRISPR-Cas system form a complex ... CRISPR and associated Cas proteins function as an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes to combat bacteriophage infection. ... Structure of the DNA-bound spacer capture complex of a Type II CRISPR-Cas system. , Molecular Cell, Vol: 75, Pages: 90-101.e5, ... jats:sec,,jats:title,SUMMARY,/jats:title,,jats:p,Yeast Tel1 and its highly conserved human orthologue ATM are large protein ...
Specific, live-cell detection of extracellular expressed or secreted proteins. ... Quantify HiBiT-tagged proteins expressed on the cell surface. ... Using CRISPR-Cas9, the HiBiT tag can be precisely inserted at ... HiBiT Control Protein. A 20μM solution of purified recombinant 36kDa HaloTag protein fused at its carboxy terminus to the 11- ... Quantify HiBiT-Tagged Proteins Expressed on the Cell Surface. *Specific, live-cell detection of extracellular expressed or ...
CRISPR, CRISPR Revolution, custom DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, edit your DNA, Gene splicing, Genome Editing with CRISPR- ... So either a blue or red protein that we can see under a microscope. And so we do this so that we can follow them in the lab and ... CRISPR biotech startups are springing up around the country and a big industry is on board. Theyve been ramping up CRISPR ... What is so powerful about CRISPR. So what makes it a game changer. Ill start with you George. What is it about CRISPR thats ...
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein systems have ... and sensitive detection of proteins. The precision and sensitivity brought in by CRISPR-dependent detection of proteins will ... CRISPR Technology: Emerging Tools of Genome Editing and Protein Detection By Rita Lakkakul and Pradip Hirapure ... CRISPR technology has seen rapid development in applications ranging from genomic and epigenetic changes to protein ...
A DNA-editing technique called CRISPR keeps popping up in the news, in one medical breakthrough after another. In theory, ... With this information, proteins like Cas9 ("CRISPR associated [protein] 9") can find those intruders the next time they show up ... We cant do CRISPR routinely in humans until we know that its safe, for example. And it may not be easy to get the CRISPR ... Bottom line: CRISPR plants could be in a grocery store near you in a few years, but CRISPR-edited animals face more barriers. ...
A genetic analysis reveals that some olfactory sensilla of Drosophila do not require an abundant odorant binding protein and ... that one such protein may act in gain control. ... Primers #1-3 were used for creating CRISPR Guide chiRNA, ... primers #4-7 were used for constructing the CRISPR donor plasmid, and primers #8-11 were used to verify Obp28a deletion in ...
Agouti Related Protein) CLIA Kit from Gentaur Clia Kits. Cat Number: G-EC-02180. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Can CRISPR CAS edit the human DNA? FDA approves Berkeleys test of CRISPR CAS cloning for sickle cell diseaseYes, the safe ... SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 RBD ELISA Kit , G-EC-02191 ... Rat AgRP (Agouti Related Protein) CLIA Kit , G-EC-02180. Rating ... Rat AgRP (Agouti Related Protein) CLIA Kit , G-EC-02180. Gentaur Clia ...
Title: Depletion of elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing enhances antiviral response ... Depletion of elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing enhances antiviral response in ... Interpretive Summary: Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made by animals to fight viral infections. Interferon response in cells ... Studies in mice suggested that IFNs are regulated by proteins that bind elongation initiation factor 4E (4E-BPs) and control ...
... which is short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9. The CRISPR-Cas9 ... DNA and insert them into their own DNA in a particular pattern to create segments known as CRISPR arrays. The CRISPR arrays ... CRISPR-Cas9 was adapted from a naturally occurring genome editing system that bacteria use as an immune defense. When infected ... CRISPR-Based Technologies for the Manipulation of Eukaryotic Genomes. Cell. 2017 Apr 20;169(3):559. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.04. ...
The CRISPR editor homed in on the target gene in the liver and sliced it, disabling production of the destructive protein. ... A misshapen protein was building up in his body, destroying important tissues, such as nerves in his hands and feet and his ... CRISPR has already been shown to help patients suffering from the devastating blood disorders sickle cell disease and beta ... The advance is being hailed not just for amyloidosis patients but also as a proof-of-concept that CRISPR could be used to treat ...
TTP is phosphorylated extensively in cells and its mRNA destabilization activity is regulated by protein phosphorylation. ... ... family proteins contain conserved tandem CCCH zinc-finger binding to AU-rich elements and C-terminal NOT1-binding domain. ... clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein nuclease; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein ... serves as a hub of protein-protein interactions [11]. Specific mRNAs can be targeted by RNA-binding proteins to recruit ...
... a research team led by Duke Health has demonstrated a way to use CRISPR technology to successfully prevent and treat COVID ... Wang and colleagues focused on a protease -- an enzyme that breaks down protein - called cathepsin L, or CTSL. This protease is ... Tags: Allergy, Antibodies, Asthma, Cancer, Cas13, Coronavirus, CRISPR, DNA, Enzyme, Genes, Hepatitis, Hepatitis B, Infectious ... In what is believed to be a first, a research team led by Duke Health has demonstrated a way to use CRISPR technology to ...
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology is revolutionizing ... We identified 304 proteins. At 24 h, 19 proteins had an abundance equal or greater than 2-fold change, while the levels of 17 ... The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology is revolutionizing ... These encode for the key proteins involved in DNA replication (protein-primed family B DNA polymerase) as well as in virion ...
  • It is based on a simplified version of the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense system. (
  • Knock-out mutations caused by CRISPR-Cas9 result from the repair of the double-stranded break by means of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or POLQ/ polymerase theta-mediated end-joining (TMEJ). (
  • Therefore, genomic engineering by CRISPR-Cas9 gives researchers the ability to generate targeted random gene disruption. (
  • With the discovery of CRISPR and specifically the Cas9 nuclease molecule, efficient and highly selective editing is now a reality. (
  • CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including in medicine and agriculture. (
  • The use of the CRISPR-Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for Breakthrough of the Year in 2015. (
  • ZFNs has a higher precision and the advantage of being smaller than Cas9, but ZFNs are not as commonly used as CRISPR-based methods. (
  • Heritable genome editing in C. elegans via a CRISPR-Cas9 system. (
  • We report the use of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease Cas9 to target genomic sequences in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line using single-guide RNAs that are expressed from a U6 small nuclear RNA promoter. (
  • Genome-wide and high-density CRISPR-Cas9 screens identify point mutations in PARP1 causing PARP inhibitor resistance. (
  • Harnessing the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt latent HIV-1 provirus. (
  • The calcium signals generated by light are used to deliver the genome-engineering tool derived from the CRISPR/Cas9 system to turn on genes. (
  • Here, we review advances in CRISPR/Cas9 and its variants and examine their applications in plant genome editing and related manipulations. (
  • CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants. (
  • CRISPR/Cas9-mediated immunity to geminiviruses: differential interference and evasion. (
  • Efficient targeted multiallelic mutagenesis in tetraploid potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) by transient CRISPR-Cas9 expression in protoplasts. (
  • 2018 . Genome editing in potato via CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein delivery. (
  • 2017 . Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing using a chimeric single-guide RNA molecule. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Through a combination of next-generation sequencing and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing, two sets of researchers homed in on the mechanisms of action for a handful of drugs and uncovered mutations that can lead to resistance to those drugs, as they reported in separate studies in Nature Chemical Biology yesterday. (
  • Both teams turned to CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to inactivate certain genes in mammalian cells and determine whether those mutations led to resistance to the drugs under study. (
  • Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 relies on a guide RNA that targets the nuclease to the corresponding DNA segment where it introduces double-stranded breaks into the DNA, disrupting that gene. (
  • Kapoor and his colleagues developed a method they dubbed DrugTargetSeqR that combines sequencing, computational mutation discovery, and CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing. (
  • To determine whether any of those three kinesin-5 mutations is enough to confer ispinesib resistance, the researchers turned to the CRISPR-Cas9 system. (
  • Similarly, Yan Feng and a team at the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research found a CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approach to be "highly efficient" for searching for drug-resistance alleles or rescuing drug sensitivity. (
  • To validate this, they transfected HCT116 cells with CRISPR-Cas9 constructs targeting HPRT1, which, they reported, led to a marked increase in 6-TG resistance and confirmed the role of HPRT1 in 6-TG-induced cell death. (
  • We show that the Cas9, Cas1, Cas2, and Csn2 proteins of a Streptococcus thermophilus type II-A CRISPR-Cas system form a complex and provide cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of three different assemblies. (
  • With this information, proteins like Cas9 ("CRISPR associated [protein] 9") can find those intruders the next time they show up. (
  • In contrast, porcine cells depleted of 4E-BP1 gene (4E-BP1-/- cells) by a CRISPR/Cas9 system showed increased expression of interferon (IFN a and ß), IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) and significant reduction in VSV titer as compare to 4E-BP1+/+ cells. (
  • What are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? (
  • A well-known one is called CRISPR-Cas9, which is short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9. (
  • The CRISPR-Cas9 system has generated a lot of excitement in the scientific community because it is faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more efficient than other genome editing methods. (
  • CRISPR-Cas9 was adapted from a naturally occurring genome editing system that bacteria use as an immune defense. (
  • Ethical concerns arise when genome editing, using technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, is used to alter human genomes. (
  • Gupta RM, Musunuru K. Expanding the genetic editing tool kit: ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR-Cas9. (
  • Hsu PD, Lander ES, Zhang F. Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering. (
  • This is the first example in which CRISPR-Cas9 is injected directly into the bloodstream - in other words systemic administration - where we use it as a way to reach a tissue that's far away from the site of injection and very specifically use it to edit disease-causing genes," says John Leonard, the CEO of Intellia Therapeutics , which is sponsoring the study. (
  • Knockout of TTP in RAW264.7 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing was created to explore TTP functions. (
  • CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of CHPF and CHPF2 in tumor cells reduced the average molecular weight of cell-surface chondroitin sulfate and resulted in a marked reduction of rVAR2 binding. (
  • With a passion for improving patient outcomes, she has focused her studies on human genetics and cancer research, specifically using CRISPR/Cas9 screening to identify potential targets for developing new leukemia treatments. (
  • With this focus in mind, we used a technique called CRISPR/Cas9 screening, a gene editing research tool, to identify different vulnerabilities within AML that could translate into potential therapeutic targets. (
  • A review of COVID-19: Treatment Strategies and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology approaches to the coronavirus disease. (
  • In other examples, RNA is used for delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 and prime editors, showcasing the potential for rewriting the genetic information. (
  • CRISPR / Cas9 has changed the field of gene editing by making it much simpler and faster to modify DNA sequences with high precision. (
  • Using the novel CRISPR/Cas9-based enChIP technology in combination with SILAC-MS, we have isolated and identified potential regulatory proteins bound to the HIF2A promoter at normoxia and hypoxia. (
  • The projects feature state-of-the-art methods for the investigation of cell biology, such as flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, protein interaction analyses using the proximity-ligation assay and Biacore, and genetic manipulation employing the Cas9/CRISPR system. (
  • The technology behind the tools, CRISPR-Cas9, shows promise in many areas. (
  • One-step generation of mice carrying mutations in multiple genes by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering. (
  • CRISPR claimed scientific fame for its ability to quickly and accurately edit genes. (
  • The CaRROT system (calcium-responsive transcriptional reprogramming tool) can control the transcription of genes within the body with a high degree of precision, including how, when, and where genes create the proteins that perform various cellular functions. (
  • The protein, they determined, functions in a complicated loop that involves a group of transcription factors dubbed REST that silences the expression of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. (
  • Applying CRISPR technology - basically turning down genes to knock out certain misfunctions or, in this case, the function of CTSL - Wang's team created a way to safely initiate CTSL inhibition. (
  • Genes and Chromosomes Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body or the code for functional ribonucleic. (
  • But, at the core, CRISPR systems are immune systems that help bacteria protect themselves from viruses by targeting and destroying viral DNA and RNA. (
  • When they infected E. coli with a phage (virus that attacks bacteria) and deployed the CRISPR-Cas13 system to target and halt infection, they found that Cas13 signals to Csx28 to affect membrane permeability. (
  • This finding is unexpected and raises all kinds of new questions about how bacteria protect themselves and what they are doing to survive infection," noted Mark Dumont, PhD, a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at URMC who has spent his career studying membrane proteins. (
  • To avoid cell death or genomic invasion, bacteria have developed several sophisticated defense strategies, like preventing cell entry (e.g. via receptor masking or variation) and infection (e.g. altruistic suicide and/or dormancy of infected cells to protect the clonal population), or activating cellular immunity comprising both innate mechanisms (e.g. restriction-modification systems) and adaptive mechanisms (e.g. the CRISPR-Cas systems). (
  • Like many biotech techniques, CRISPR was invented by bacteria and creatively repurposed by scientists. (
  • When infected with viruses, bacteria capture small pieces of the viruses' DNA and insert them into their own DNA in a particular pattern to create segments known as CRISPR arrays. (
  • The CRISPR arrays allow the bacteria to "remember" the viruses (or closely related ones). (
  • If the viruses attack again, the bacteria produce RNA segments from the CRISPR arrays that recognize and attach to specific regions of the viruses' DNA. (
  • They create a small piece of RNA with a short "guide" sequence that attaches (binds) to a specific target sequence in a cell's DNA, much like the RNA segments bacteria produce from the CRISPR array. (
  • Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. (
  • Understanding the biochemistry behind the opening and closing of the pore will shed light on how CRISPR-Cas13 uses it as part of its defense and provide a jumping off point for the study of membrane proteins across other CRISPR systems. (
  • 2017 . RNA targeting with CRISPR-Cas13. (
  • The proof-of-concept experiments, conducted in mice, modified a currently available lipid nanoparticle to deliver a specific CRISPR/Cas13 mRNA that generates an inhospitable environment in the lungs for SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • The CRISPR/Cas13, delivered intravenously through a lipid nanoparticle, diminished CTSL in the animals' lungs, which effectively and safely blocked the SARS-CoV-2 virus from entering cells and infecting the host. (
  • CaSilico: A versatile CRISPR package for in silico CRISPR RNA designing for Cas12, Cas13, and Cas14. (
  • CRISPR-cas13 enzymology rapidly detects SARS-CoV-2 fragments in a clinical setting. (
  • A new study published in Science reveals a previously unrecognized player in one such system - a membrane protein that enhances anti-viral defense - simultaneously broadening our understanding of and raising more questions related to the complexities of CRISPR. (
  • A team at the University of Rochester Center for RNA Biology found that a specific Cas protein (Cas13b) not only cuts viral RNA, but communicates with another protein (Csx28) to augment its anti-viral defense. (
  • A virus can't replicate under such unhospitable circumstances, leading to the team's conclusion that Csx28 enhances CRISPR-Cas13b's phage defense. (
  • This finding upends the idea that CRISPR systems mount their defense only by degrading RNA and DNA in cells and really broadens our view of how CRISPR systems may be working," said corresponding author Mitchell O'Connell, PhD , assistant professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) and a member of the UR Center for RNA Biology. (
  • Conversely, bacteriophages have evolved strategies to evade or counteract many of these defense systems, e.g. anti-CRISPR and anti-restriction proteins. (
  • CRISPR-based amplification strategies have been used for accurate estimation of proteins including aptamer-based assay, femtomolar detection of proteins in living cells, immunoassays, and isothermal proximal assay for high throughput. (
  • CRISPR technology incorporating amplification strategies: molecular assays for nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. (
  • Apart from genome editing technology, CRISPR/Cas has also been incorporated in amplified detection of proteins, transcriptional modulation, cancer biomarkers, and rapid detection of POC (point of care) diagnostics for various diseases such as Covid-19. (
  • Therapeutic potentials of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in human viral infections. (
  • CRISPR/Cas: a Nobel Prize award-winning precise genome editing technology for gene therapy and crop improvement. (
  • It's called CRISPR which is short for clustered regularly interspace short palindromic repeats. (
  • The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein systems have transformed the ability to edit, control the genomic nucleic acid and non-nucleic acid target such as detection of proteins. (
  • CRISPR gene editing (pronounced /ˈkrɪspər/ "crisper") is a genetic engineering technique in molecular biology by which the genomes of living organisms may be modified. (
  • Many bioethical concerns have been raised about the prospect of using CRISPR for germline editing, especially in human embryos. (
  • CRISPR/Cas has been widely used as a programmable tool for gene editing and other in vivo applications since 2013 ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • For instance, it has paramount importance to reveal bacterial mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance, or promising approaches for targeted phage therapies against infectious diseases, or novel applications of CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing and gene therapy. (
  • Researchers have shown in a mouse study that the powerful gene editing technique known as CRISPR may provide the means for lifelong correction of the genetic mutation responsible for the disorder. (
  • Researchers at the University of Missouri School of Medicine have shown in a mouse study that the powerful gene editing technique known as CRISPR may provide the means for lifelong correction of the genetic mutation responsible for the disorder. (
  • This finding suggests that CRISPR gene editing may provide a method for lifelong correction of the genetic mutation in DMD and potentially other muscle diseases," Duan said. (
  • Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas genome editing enable efficient targeted modification in most crops, thus promising to accelerate crop improvement. (
  • CRISPR: It's the powerful gene editing technology transforming biomedical research. (
  • The chapter will provide a comprehensive summary of key developments in emerging tools of genome editing and protein detection deploying CRISPR technology, and its future perspectives will be discussed. (
  • A DNA-editing technique called CRISPR keeps popping up in the news, in one medical breakthrough after another. (
  • The approach used a revolutionary gene-editing technique called CRISPR , which allows scientists to make very precise changes in DNA. (
  • But those experiments involve taking cells out of the body, editing them in the lab, and infusing them back in or injecting CRISPR directly into cells that need fixing. (
  • The Trend of CRISPR-Based Technologies in COVID-19 Disease: Beyond Genome Editing. (
  • CRISPR Technology in Gene-Editing-Based Detection and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2. (
  • CRISPR gene editing is used to remove a gene from immune T cells that encodes a protein called PD-1 that tumor cells can use to evade an immune attack. (
  • These encompass cutting-edge techniques such as advanced flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, molecular methodologies, including CRISPR/Cas-9 gene editing, investigations into protein interactions, and specialized assays tailored for β-cell research. (
  • We developed a simple-to-use, rapid, CRISPR-based assay for GBS detection. (
  • TTP is phosphorylated extensively in cells and its mRNA destabilization activity is regulated by protein phosphorylation. (
  • Several ARE-binding proteins have been shown to regulate mRNA turnover/decay [ 8 ], which is initiated by deadenylation via deadenylases including poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) and the polyA nuclease 2 (PAN2)-PAN3 and carbon catabolite repression (CCR4)-negative on TATA-less (NOT) complexes [ 9 ]. (
  • Specific mRNAs can be targeted by RNA-binding proteins to recruit deadenylase complexes for mRNA degradation [ 12 ]. (
  • TTP can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) at serines 52 and 178 in mouse macrophages to allow binding of 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, which inhibits the mRNA destabilizing activity of TTP [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • It is a fantastic recognition of the work that people in our lab have been doing for many years: first on protein synthesis, antibiotics targeting it and antibiotic resistance mechanisms that counter the antibiotics - and more recently, on bacterial viruses, bacteriophages. (
  • CRISPR systems consist of two major components - a guide RNA that targets a specific viral DNA or RNA sequence and a Cas enzyme that cuts the targeted DNA or RNA, preventing a virus from replicating and spreading. (
  • In addition, you will have the opportunity to learn microbiologic and immunologic techniques and to express and purify recombinant proteins. (
  • Proteins in RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN assemblies of CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS that function in targeting DNA of invading viruses and plasmids. (
  • Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made by animals to fight viral infections. (
  • In the early 2000s, German researchers began developing zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), synthetic proteins whose DNA-binding domains enable them to create double-stranded breaks in DNA at specific points. (
  • Whereas methods such as RNA interference (RNAi) do not fully suppress gene function, CRISPR, ZFNs, and TALENs provide full irreversible gene knockout. (
  • Research has shown that CRISPR can be used to edit out the mutation that causes the early death of muscle cells in an animal model," said Dongsheng Duan, PhD, Margaret Proctor Mulligan Professor in Medical Research in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the MU School of Medicine and the senior author of the study. (
  • During the immunization step, new spacers are acquired by the CRISPR machinery, but the molecular mechanism of spacer capture remains enigmatic. (
  • The guide RNA directs the CAS 9 protein to cut both DNA strands precisely at the correct spot like a molecular scalpel. (
  • CRISPR technology has seen rapid development in applications ranging from genomic and epigenetic changes to protein identification throughout the last decade. (
  • Both zinc finger nucleases and TALENs require the design and creation of a custom protein for each targeted DNA sequence, which is a much more difficult and time-consuming process than that of designing guide RNAs. (
  • 2016 . C2c2 is a single-component programmable RNA-guided RNA-targeting CRISPR effector. (
  • This is a major milestone for patients," says Jennifer Doudna of the University of California, Berkeley, who shared a Nobel Prize for her work helping develop CRISPR. (
  • These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. (
  • 2015 . Conferring resistance to geminiviruses with the CRISPR-Cas prokaryotic immune system. (
  • The selected candidate will become an integral part of a research project focused on exploring the non-canonical functions of two complement proteins, C3 and CD59, in the pathophysiology of pancreatic β-cells, particularly in their connection to diabetes development. (
  • Unlocking the Mysteries of the Immune System: new Roles of complement proteins in Diabetes and Cancer. (
  • The extracellular domains of both subunits recognize specific ligands surrounding the cell, whereas the intracellular tails of the subunit interact with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins inside the cells. (
  • Only the cells that have been modified to include light-sensitive proteins will be under control of the light. (
  • A one-time treatment of the muscle stem cells with CRISPR could result in continuous dystrophin expression in regenerated muscle cells. (
  • They then tested if muscle stem cells in a mouse model of DMD could be edited with CRISPR. (
  • Our research shows that CRISPR can be used to effectively edit the stem cells responsible for muscle regeneration. (
  • Nanowerk News ) Repression of a single protein in ordinary fibroblasts is sufficient to directly convert the cells - abundantly found in connective tissues - into functional neurons. (
  • Confocal micrograph of a primary human fibroblast cell grown in culture stained blue for actin, a highly abundant protein that makes up the cytoskeleton of cells. (
  • And it may not be easy to get the CRISPR molecules into all the cells where their target DNA actually lives. (
  • We currently don't know if it's possible to CRISPR all the cells in a person's body. (
  • They plan to extract patients' own blood-producing stem cells, use CRISPR to edit out a defect in those cells' DNA, and then re-introduce the cells into patients' bodies. (
  • Interferon response in cells is regulated by numerous pathways that involve complex protein interactions. (
  • In this case, it's cells in the liver making the destructive protein. (
  • Cytokines are small signaling proteins secreted by cells that can activate host immune responses, play a crucial role in biological processes like wound healing, and can also contribute to the development of diseases like cancer. (
  • Anna Blom and Ben C King have discovered that C3 protein protects insulin-producing cells. (
  • Their research shows that a protein of the immune system protects the insulin-producing cells from inflammation and death. (
  • The protein is secreted from cells and is found in large quantities in the blood. (
  • Now, their latest study in PNAS shows that the protein C3 protects insulin-producing cells from damage and death when it is present inside the cells. (
  • We have chosen a different approach that aims to understand what protects the insulin-producing cells," says Anna Blom, professor of protein chemistry at Lund University, who led the study. (
  • It is already known that a protein called IL-1B can cause inflammation and damage to the insulin-producing cells. (
  • 2019) Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein initiates cancer stem cells through activation of Jagged1-Notch3 signaling. (
  • The precision and sensitivity brought in by CRISPR-dependent detection of proteins will ensure the elimination of current impediments. (
  • The largest subunit of CCR4-NOT, namely CCR4-NOT1 complex subunit 1 (CNOT1), serves as a hub of protein-protein interactions [ 11 ]. (
  • Doctors infused billions of microscopic structures known as nanoparticles carrying genetic instructions for the CRISPR gene-editor into four patients in London and two in New Zealand. (
  • Anders provided examples of RNA therapeutics, including addressing genetic diseases such as amyloidosis by turning off the production of aberrant proteins by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (
  • We have screened dozens of engineered proteins and undergone numerous rounds of optimization to make the CaRROT system strictly responsive to light," said researcher Lian He. (
  • CRISPR and associated Cas proteins function as an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes to combat bacteriophage infection. (
  • Researchers at Lund University have studied a protein called C3, which plays a central role in the body's immune system. (
  • With more study, the researchers hope this stem cell-targeted CRISPR approach may one day lead to long-lasting therapies for children with DMD. (
  • Researchers have to work out the kinks in CRISPR-based approaches. (
  • Even when researchers did a myostatin-blocking CRISPR experiment on 35 dog embryos , only two puppies were born with the desired mutation. (
  • On Saturday, researchers reported the first data indicating that the experimental treatment worked, causing levels of the destructive protein to plummet in Doherty's body and the bodies of five other patients treated with the approach. (
  • CRISPR-based peptide library display and programmable microarray self-assembly for rapid quantitative protein binding assays. (
  • Componentes proteicos de los SISTEMAS CRISPR-CAS, de defensa antiviral en ARCHAEA y BACTERIAS. (
  • Maria Rodriguez Zabala will defend her Ph.D. thesis 'CRISPR Screens Identify Candidate Therapeutic Targets in Leukemia" on Friday, 10 November, 2023. (
  • We demonstrated that CRISPR-GBS is highly sensitive and offered shorter turnaround times and lower instrument demands than PCR-based assays. (
  • Our findings demonstrate that CRISPR-GBS is rapid and easy-to-use, having a low instrument requirement and a level of sensitivity that surpasses PCR-based assays. (
  • Deciphering and targeting host factors to counteract SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus infections: insights from CRISPR approaches. (
  • In partnership with scientists at Cornell, the team discovered that the Csx28 protein forms a pore-like structure (i.e. it has a big hole in it). (
  • Scientists program a guide RNA on a protein called CAS 9. (
  • Jennifer Doud was one of the co-discoverer of the CRISPR technology. (
  • The CRISPR technology is so precise that it can actually edit DNA down to a single letter and multiple edits can be made at once. (
  • But CRISPR is also a new technology, and it's not magic. (
  • In what is believed to be a first, a research team led by Duke Health has demonstrated a way to use CRISPR technology to successfully prevent and treat COVID infections. (
  • Our results suggest that CRISPR technology represents a unique strategy for controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be pursued as a potential approach for treating COVID. (
  • Current protein detection methods incorporate sophisticated instrumentation and extensive sensing procedures with less reliable, quantitative, and sensitive detection of proteins. (
  • It is really impressive that the team identified this pore-like protein that doesn't resemble anything else we've seen before, and now that we know that this mechanism exists people will start to look for it in other systems. (
  • CRISPR/Cas systems are RNA-guided endonucleases exhibiting distinct cleavage activities deployed in the development of analytical techniques. (
  • 2'-O-Methyl modified guide RNA promotes the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination ability of CRISPR-Cas12a systems. (
  • The Application of CRISPR/Cas Systems for Antiviral Therapy. (
  • C3H/HeNSlc mouse with low phospholipid transfer protein expression showed dyslipidemia. (
  • We found very high levels of expression of the central complement protein, C3, and complement inhibitor CD59 in human pancreatic islets. (
  • we found that the expression of cartilage protein COMP is associated with metastases and a poor prognosis for patients with various types of solid cancers. (
  • With the added knowledge of the structure of Csx28, through the use of high-resolution cryo-EM, the team is beginning to probe the function of the protein. (
  • For example, modifying a chemical reaction called methylation can change the function of a gene, causing it to increase or decrease production of certain proteins or to produce different kinds of proteins. (
  • Applications of CRISPR as a potential therapeutic. (
  • CRISPR-Cas orthologues and variants: optimizing the repertoire, specificity and delivery of genome engineering tools. (