Criminology: The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.Fraser Syndrome: Rare autosomal recessive congenital malformation syndrome characterized by cryptophthalmos, SYNDACTYLY and UROGENITAL ABNORMALITIES. Other anomalies of bone, ear, lung, and nose are common. Mutations on FRAS1 and FREM2 are associated with the syndrome.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Syndactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.PrisonersDirectories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Small Business: For-profit enterprise with relatively few to moderate number of employees and low to moderate volume of sales.DirectorySociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Delegation, Professional: The process of assigning duties to a subordinate with lesser qualifications.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.

Comparison of PowerPlex 16, PowerPlex1.1/2.1, and ABI AmpfISTR Profiler Plus/COfiler for forensic use. (1/21)

AIM: Several amplification and detection formats for the analysis of short tandem repeat loci are readily available to the forensic laboratory. Careful consideration must be given to the throughput, sensitivity, concordance, data interpretation, facility requirements, and costs of operation. The Pennsylvania State Police DNA Laboratory sought to establish that of any of the amplification or detection formats generally used in the United States generates concordant results and that the use of several formats within one laboratory provides a solution to the interpretation of difficult evidentiary samples. METHODS: Validation work consisting of sensitivity, precision, mixture, and substrate studies was performed by use of each of three detection formats (ABI Prism(r)310 Genetic Analyzer, ABI Prism(r)377 DNA Sequencer, and the Hitachi FMBIO(r)II Fluorescent Scanner) and three amplification systems (GenePrint(r) PowerPlex 16, GenePrint(r) PowerPlex 1.1/2.1, and AmpflSTR ProfilerPlus/COfiler). The results generated in each of the formats were compared, along with the problems incurred. RESULTS: All allele calls were concordant, with the exception of primer region variants, and all detection systems were sensitive and reliable. Even with the use of multiple formats, a general protocol can be written with only one set of interpretation guidelines. CONCLUSION: National databases can be used with input data from any of these formats. The use of several detection formats allowed the forensic scientist to select a system, based on sample quality, quantity, and throughput requirements. Interpretation issues resulting from complex mixtures, degraded samples, rare microvariants, internal primer variants, unusual heterozygote ratios, above or below ladder alleles, and potential tri-alleles can be verified.  (+info)

Interpretation of complex forensic DNA mixtures. (2/21)

Forensic evidentiary samples routinely contain DNA from multiple contributors. The interpretation of these mixtures can be a challenging task for the DNA scientist. Several approaches are discussed (no calculation- qualitative statement; probability of exclusion; likelihood ratio estimates; presumptive genotype assignment based on peak heights), which have been employed to assess the significance of an inclusion/match when DNA mixtures have been detected in casework samples. These statistical approaches are discussed in light of technical challenges that can arise when evaluating evidentiary samples.  (+info)

Implementation of forensic DNA analysis on casework evidence at the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office Crime Laboratory: historical perspective. (3/21)

Palm Beach County is the largest of the 64 counties in the state of Florida, USA, with most of the area uninhabited and the population concentrated near the coastal region. The Serology/DNA Section of the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office (PBSO) Crime Laboratory serves a community of approximately one million residents, and an additional million tourists visit Palm Beach County every year. In addition to the unincorporated county regions, there are thirty-four city police agencies, the Florida State Highway Patrol, several university security agencies, the local Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the county Medical Examiners Office that all use the PBSO Serology/DNA Laboratory for the analysis of casework evidence. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide laboratories that are in the process of initiating DNA analysis on casework with practical information regarding the decision-making processes that occurred during the development of the DNA testing program at PBSO. Many of the concerns addressed in the early 1990's are still a guide to the development of a quality forensic DNA analysis program in the year 2001. Issues, such as personnel, laboratory space, internal standard operating procedures, implementation of DNA analysis on casework evidence, and building a relationship with law enforcement personnel are discussed.  (+info)

Establishing a large DNA data bank using the PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.1 systems. (4/21)

In the early 1990's, the importance of establishing a DNA Data Bank of convicted sex offender samples for comparison to unsolved cases became apparent to the Virginia Division of Forensic Science to help identify potential perpetrators. Ultimately, through the expansion of the data basing law to include all convicted offenders and juveniles convicted of a crime that would be considered a felony if tried as an adult, the Division has successfully used the DNA Data Bank to aid the law enforcement community in solving crimes where the victim was unable to identify the perpetrator. As the number of offender sample analyses has increased, in combination with the number of analyses of cases where a suspect could not be identified, the number of DNA Data Bank hits has also significantly increased. Initially, in 1997, when the Division converted its DNA Data Bank program from the restriction fragment length polymorphism technology to the short tandem repeat technology, one offender hit occurred on average for every 2,900 convicted offender samples that were entered into the Data Bank. However, by December 31, 2000, one DNA Data Bank hit occurred on average for every 700 samples entered into the Data Bank.  (+info)

Identification of missing persons: the Spanish "Phoenix" program. (5/21)

In 1999, Spain was the first country to officially start a National Program to try to identify cadavers and human remains which could not be identified by the use of traditional forensic approaches. This attempt is called "Phoenix Program". Two independent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) databases were generated, which can automatically compare and match identical or similar sequences. One is the Reference Database, with mtDNA sequences from maternal relatives of missing persons, who provide the samples (buccal swabs) voluntarily; the other is the Questioned Database, comprised of mtDNA data of unknown remains and cadavers. Although the first phase of the program (typing of all unidentified human remains) will probably not be completed until December 2003, positive identifications are being made in the interim. To date, more than 1,200 families have contacted Phoenix, and at least 280 reference samples and 48 questioned evidences have been analyzed. When mtDNA matches are found, another independent analysis is performed as a part of the quality control mechanism. Once a match is confirmed (so far in 6 cases), an attempt is made to analyze short tandem repeat (STR) loci. We call for international collaboration to make this effort valuable worldwide.  (+info)

Mass identification of persons missing from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia: structure, function, and role of the International Commission on Missing Persons. (6/21)

The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass human identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is currently working to streamline current technology as well as employ new technology in its efforts to assist in identifying missing individuals. ICMP will continue to act as a link between the family associations in the region and will synchronize the work of the DNA identification process in the countries affected by the war in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. In the longer term, ICMP seeks to contribute to the closure of the missing persons issue, to raise awareness of the human dimension of the missing persons tragedy, and to preserve a shared and common memory of the missing in the former Yugoslavia.  (+info)

The Green Revolution: botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement. (7/21)

Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of published forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases include the analysis of wood evidence in the Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapping, the use of pollen in establishing the location of a sexual assault, and pollen analysis to determine the time of year for burial in a mass grave. Additional cases discuss the use of plant growth rates to determine the time of a body deposit in a field, the use of diatoms to link individuals to a crime scene, and plant DNA typing to match seedpods to a tree under which a body was discovered. New DNA methods in development for plant species identification and individualization for forensic applications are also discussed. These DNA methods may be useful for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns.  (+info)

The one that did not get away: individual assignment using microsatellite data detects a case of fishing competition fraud. (8/21)

Assignment of an individual to the population from which it most probably originated based on its multilocus genotype has been widely applied in recent years. In this study, individual assignment based on microsatellite data was used to identify a case of fishing competition fraud. Despite the fact that the true population of origin was most probably not among the reference populations, recent modifications of the assignment tests were used in confidently excluding (p < 0.0001) the possibility of a 5.5 kg salmon (Salmo salar) originating from the fishing competition location, Lake Saimaa (south-east Finland). In fact, the probability of the suspect salmon originating from one of the regions that supply most of Finland's fish markets was found to be over 600 times higher than it originating from Lake Saimaa. When presented with this evidence, the offender confessed to purchasing the salmon at a local fish shop and criminal charges were laid. This study emphasizes the potential practical application of the individual assignment procedure, in particular the usefulness of confidently excluding populations as the origin of an individual. A similar strategy could be also used, for example in suspected cases of illegal poaching, in order to assign or exclude individuals from originating from a claimed population.  (+info)

  • An integrated Single Honours degree in Forensic Science and Criminology allows you to explore how criminal investigations are conducted, how evidence is collected, analysed and presented, as well as how investigations (and the victims and offenders associated with them) fit into the wider criminal justice system. (
  • About two thirds of your studies will follow the single honours Criminology course, where you will acquire core knowledge in your subject. (
  • Students are able to pursue a range of interests in criminology by undertaking Honours in Socio-Legal Studies. (
  • study with a Bachelor of Criminology and Justice (Honours). (
  • Jill Portnoy is also the only criminologist to apply perspectives from biosocial criminology to the study of extremist propaganda and terrorist radicalization. (
  • This chapter explores how integrating the science of criminal decision making and contemporary biosocial criminology can benefit our understanding of why people make criminal action decisions and the role of biological factors. (
  • It argues that biosocial criminology would benefit from a stronger, more biologically informed model of criminal decision making, which could better explain the role of biological factors in crime causation. (
  • It was his work in biosocial criminology that sensitized him to the fundamental role of political ideology in the social sciences generally and in criminology specifically. (
  • The MSc in Criminology will provide you with an in-depth theoretical and applied understanding of crime, deviance, offenders, and victims and will enable you to focus on your particular area of interest. (
  • Cultural criminology is a theoretical, methodological, and interventionist approach to the study of crime that seeks to understand crime in the context of its culture. (
  • Theoretical Criminology. (
  • In Part Two the aim is to provide students with a thorough familiarity of major ways of thinking about crime, with reference to some of the main theoretical perspectives within criminology. (
  • Criminology fosters theoretical debates and ideas about lawmaking, lawbreaking and the social consequences of both. (
  • Criminology is comprehensive in nature, covering theoretical perspectives, causal factors and rehabilitative efforts. (
  • A theoretical, empirical and applied education in Criminology to develop your knowledge and skills. (
  • Criminology students learn to synthesize existing theoretical knowledge, and research information, and the processes of evaluating arguments and solutions. (
  • It is designed to foster active and critical engagement with theoretical, ethical, and practical concerns of crime and justice in human society, and to prepare students for a variety of career opportunities, as well as for graduate studies in criminology, criminal justice, law, and related fields. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Forensic Criminology are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • Anthropological criminology (sometimes referred to as criminal anthropology , literally a combination of the study of the human species and the study of criminals ) is a field of offender profiling , based on perceived links between the nature of a crime and the personality or physical appearance of the offender. (
  • To study criminology is to embark on a fascinating journey exploring the problem of crime. (
  • We were one of the first universities in the UK to develop criminology as an independent area of study, making us a consistent leader of the industry. (
  • What will you study on the BA Criminology? (
  • criminology, the study of crime, society's response to it, and its prevention, including examination of the environmental, hereditary, or psychological causes of crime, modes of criminal investigation and conviction, and the efficacy of punishment or correction (see prison ) as compared with forms of treatment or rehabilitation. (
  • The study of criminology cultivates critical thinking and informed analysis about the legal system, crim, and systems of punishment and social control. (
  • This is a BPS-accredited joint course of Psychology and Criminology, giving you opportunity to combine these two subjects and gain understanding into the human mind and behaviour, and the study of crime, its causes and prevention. (
  • You might study these and other topics as part of graduate programs in criminology. (
  • Most students earn their criminology masters degree in 1-2 years of full time study. (
  • In your final year of study, you can choose four optional modules from a range of areas, including different forms of work-based learning, and including at least one module from criminology. (
  • Both can be the degree of choice for those pursuing careers in policing, corrections and related fields, but the study of criminology extends far beyond basic police work. (
  • You'll study contemporary debates in criminology and criminal justice, and the psychology of crime, as well as training in research methods and crime mapping techniques. (
  • The criminology and criminal justice course of study is grounded in research methods and criminological theories, focusing on the causes of, and societal responses to, crime and deviant behavior. (
  • Criminology is both a subject of academic study and a field of practice. (
  • The purpose of the minor in Criminology is to provide interested students the opportunity to pursue study of crime and justice in a way that supplements their major area(s) of study. (
  • No more than six credit hours of courses from a major course of study may be used to satisfy the requirements of the Criminology minor. (
  • Criminology involves the study of crime, and criminal behaviour. (
  • Criminology is the study of criminal behaviour, including the causes, nature and control of such behaviour. (
  • In the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, students study the administration and practices of the police, courts and correctional institutions. (
  • Looking to study a criminology degree at University? (
  • This volume of the series was designed to provide a comprehensive primer on the existing best practices and emerging developments in the study and design research on crime and criminology. (
  • The mission of the criminology program at UT Dallas is to examine the causes and consequences of crime and crime control policies by providing a program of study involving a variety of perspectives, approaches and social science disciplines. (
  • You'll also study modules in criminology, including policing, violence in society and the psychology of terrorism. (
  • Criminology is an interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of crime, deviance, social control, and the legal system. (
  • The first year units lay the foundations to the study of criminology and criminal justice. (
  • Combining sociology with the study of criminology gives you a chance to benefit from the cutting-edge thinking of the University's Centre for Applied Criminology, a research Centre of Excellence. (
  • So basically criminology has four main priorities to study: criminality, the personality of criminals, the reasons and the conditions under which criminality takes place and the possible methods of prevention. (
  • The ABACUS study was commissioned by the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) and involved undertaking a nationwide survey on computer security incidents against businesses. (
  • Historians of modern Russia and the USSR, scholars of gender studies, and those studying criminology will be fascinated by this original study. (
  • Kyle Treiber is University Lecturer in Neurocriminology at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, and Deputy Director of the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). (
  • Not a polemic against liberalism , Conservative Criminology nonetheless focuses on how liberal ideology affects the study of crime and criminals and the policies that criminologist advocate. (
  • ICFC 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Forensic Criminology . (
  • Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), an Italian sociologist working in the late 19th century, is often called "the father of criminology. (
  • There is a 102% pay differential between the highest paid criminology professionals and those in the bottom 10% of the pay bracket. (
  • Police officers and federal agents, corrections and probation officers, crime data analyst investigators and victim advocates - these are among the varied career paths that can be pursued with a Bachelor of Arts in Criminology degree. (
  • 51 State Essay: Dissertation topic ideas in criminology recommended service! (
  • International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(1), 208-228. (
  • What is the behavior / learning theory of criminology? (
  • The behavioral/learning theory of criminology holds that people commit crimes because of the way that their environments have influenced them as they have grown up. (
  • Cesare Beccaria is the father of criminology. (
  • This article relates the development of criminology to developments in crime and justice and to cultural and political changes in the Netherlands. (
  • Nevertheless, these theories have a right to exist and there was a lot of important information that was used in terms of the development of criminology as a science. (
  • Lombroso's theory is the oldest one and it can without a doubt be called the main background data for the whole process of the development of criminology. (
  • Studying cyber criminology has all the more become indispensable. (
  • The book, Cyber Criminology and Technology-Assisted Crime Control: A Reader, comes handy in this respect. (
  • The book is divided into five parts with the first part in two chapters, focusing on introducing the reader to the concept of cyber criminology-its preoccupation, focus and historical evolution. (
  • By this beginning, cyber criminology is contextualised and situated rightly within the global forces that led to its emergence and its growing popularity. (
  • The second segment of part one of the book discusses, in introductory format, some integral aspects of cyber criminology, cyber stalking and cyber bullying, which are also on the rise-their definitions, typologies and various manifestations. (
  • The third and fourth parts of the book are dedicated to the most critical and sophisticated aspects of cyber criminology, cybercrime and cyber terrorism. (
  • As would be expected, following vivid descriptions and lucid explanations of burning issues around cyber criminology, the final part of the book attempt to proffer technological solutions to the problems of cybercrimes. (
  • Feminist Criminology is an innovative journal that is dedicated to research related to women, girls, and crime within the context of a feminist critique of criminology. (
  • Feminist Criminology provides a venue for articles that place women in the center of the research question, answering different questions than the mainstream approach of controlling for sex. (
  • The main aim of Feminist Criminology is to focus on research related to women, girls and crime. (
  • Cultural criminology seeks to highlight how power affects constructions of crime, such as laws created, laws broken, and the interplay of moral entrepreneurship, moral innovation, and transgression. (
  • Cultural criminology dates back to the mid-1990s. (
  • New theories of cultural criminology take into account the role of space in the construction of crime, positing, for example, that where an action takes place is as important as the effect of the action in determining criminality. (
  • One of the main tenets of cultural criminology is the role of emotions in crime. (
  • Cultural criminology also studies the role of emotional affect in crime. (
  • have argued that cultural criminology has foregone hard-nosed economic analysis in the interest of a subjective or narrow cultural focus. (
  • Cultural criminology: an investigation. (
  • Cultural Criminology: Theories of Crime. (
  • Maurice Parmelee, seen as the founder of modern criminology in America, also began to reject the theory of anthropological criminology in 1911, which led to its eventual withdrawal from the field of accepted criminology research. (
  • The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and the problems solved by the given branch of knowledge. (
  • As far as research attention is concerned, there are 'evergreens' such as juvenile delinquency or drugs, but we also see the near disappearance of once popular themes such as (sociological analyses of) law enforcement or penality and the emergence of new themes such as organized crime and developmental criminology. (
  • This research contributes to the broader field of developmental criminology, as well as into the etiology of crime. (
  • We hosted the 2018 British Society of Criminology Conference at our City Centre Campus. (
  • The criminology program at Merrimack provides students with an understanding of crime that recognizes the complex relationship between society and its members. (
  • As the number of criminology professionals is increasing in Maine state, the number of students graduating from the only accredited criminology school in Maine state is decreasing. (
  • Masters in criminology programs develop students' understanding of research methods and criminological theories. (
  • Criminology students learn how data are collected and analyzed, how data are used to test hypotheses, and how to evaluate the work presented in research studies and the popular media. (
  • Students who elect the academic exploration program or another major may change to Criminology if they have a cumulative GPA exceeding 2.0 and a GPA exceeding 2.0 in previously taken Criminology major requirements (see list). (
  • The Criminology track allows students to focus on the causes of crime and crime control policy. (
  • Students will learn how to "do" criminology, as well as how to assess existing criminological literature. (
  • For the General Sociology concentration, a total of 6 hours may be selected from courses outside the Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology. (
  • Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law. (
  • The feminist critique of criminology incorporates a perspective that the paths to crime differ for males and females, thus research that uses sex as a control variable often fails to illuminate the factors that predict female criminality. (
  • In the mid-18th century criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law. (
  • Additionally, St. Bonaventure's well-established peer social sciences - sociology, psychology and political science - strongly complement the criminology program. (
  • The Social Policy and Criminology discipline at the OU is recognised nationally and internationally for its distinctive interdisciplinary approach to teaching and research. (
  • Our research catalyses and informs public dialogue and policy change on many issues in Social Policy and Criminology in the UK and internationally. (
  • Criminology is an evolving, multidisciplinary social science which addresses the presence, causes, consequences, and prevention/control of crime in society. (
  • By drawing on social harm perspectives, criminology at Bristol examines conventionally defined crimes along with other problem activities or behaviours that may not be criminalised but still cause extensive harm to individuals and society. (
  • Popular careers for our criminology graduates include policy, research, the police force, social care and welfare. (
  • In 2008 I joined with colleagues Professor Susan Halford (Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology), Professor Catherine Pope (Health Sciences) and Professor Alison Fuller (Education) in establishing the cross-disciplinary Work Future Research Centre . (
  • You'll develop communication and research skills through our wide range of assessments, as well as a clear understanding of social policy and criminology. (
  • Deviant Women" looks at the emergence of criminology in early Soviet Russia, tracing the development of principles and theories - in particular of female deviance - and highlighting the ways in which criminologists were able to conduct innovative social science research under the constraints of Bolshevik ideology. (
  • In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by someone of a higher-level social class. (
  • How is the BA Criminology taught? (
  • The Criminology MA program only provides a non-thesis option and all courses are taught online using WKU's Blackboard Website. (
  • Graduates have continued on to PhD & J.D. programs, taught at the college level, and taken up work in the fields of criminology and sociology in a variety of capacities. (