Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)
'Prisoners,' in a medical context, refer to individuals who are incarcerated and may face challenges in accessing adequate healthcare services due to various systemic and individual barriers, which can significantly impact their health status and outcomes.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The killing of one person by another.
Programs in which participation is required.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.
Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.
A compulsion to set fires.
Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The killing of infants at birth or soon after.
A written agreement for the transfer of patients and their medical records from one health care institution to another.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.
A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
The application of pathology to questions of law.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.
The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)
The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

A large specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a prostitute. (1/174)

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially.  (+info)

The adoption of wraparound services among substance abuse treatment organizations serving criminal offenders: The role of a women-specific program. (2/174)


Hurricane Katrina's impact on the mental health of adolescent female offenders. (3/174)


Doing time: a qualitative study of long-term incarceration and the impact of mental illness. (4/174)


Psychopathy and instrumental violence: facet level relationships. (5/174)


Employment services utilization and outcomes among substance abusing offenders participating in California's proposition 36 drug treatment initiative. (6/174)


Attention moderates the fearlessness of psychopathic offenders. (7/174)


Male methamphetamine-user inmates in prison treatment: during-treatment outcomes. (8/174)


A criminal is an individual who has been found guilty of committing a crime or offense, as defined by law. Crimes can range from minor infractions to serious felonies and can include acts such as theft, fraud, assault, homicide, and many others. The legal system determines whether someone is a criminal through a formal process that includes investigation, arrest, charging, trial, and sentencing. It's important to note that being accused of a crime does not automatically make someone a criminal; they are only considered a criminal after they have been found guilty in a court of law.

Criminal law is a system of laws that governs criminal behavior and prescribes punishment for offenses. It defines conduct that is considered illegal and punishable by the state or federal government, and outlines the process for investigating, charging, and trying individuals accused of committing crimes. Criminal laws are designed to protect society from harm and maintain social order.

Crimes can be classified as either misdemeanors or felonies, depending on their severity. Misdemeanors are less serious offenses that are typically punishable by fines, community service, or short jail sentences. Felonies, on the other hand, are more serious crimes that can result in significant prison time and even the death penalty in some jurisdictions.

Examples of criminal offenses include murder, manslaughter, robbery, burglary, theft, assault, battery, sexual assault, fraud, and drug trafficking. Criminal laws vary from state to state and country to country, so it is important to consult with a qualified attorney if you are facing criminal charges.

Criminal psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals who commit crimes. It involves understanding the motives, emotions, and cognitive processes underlying criminal behavior in order to help explain why some people engage in illegal activities. Criminal psychologists may also apply their knowledge to assist in the investigation and prevention of crime, such as by providing profiles of unknown offenders or consulting on jail and prison management.

Criminal psychology is a multidisciplinary field that draws upon various areas of psychology, including developmental, social, cognitive, and forensic psychology, as well as other disciplines such as criminology and sociology. It involves the use of scientific methods to study criminal behavior, including observational studies, surveys, experiments, and case studies.

Criminal psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including law enforcement agencies, forensic hospitals, prisons, and academic institutions. They may also provide expert testimony in court cases or consult with attorneys on legal issues related to criminal behavior.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry that intersects with the law. It involves providing psychiatric expertise to legal systems and institutions. Forensic psychiatrists conduct evaluations, provide treatment, and offer expert testimony in criminal, civil, and legislative matters. They assess issues such as competency to stand trial, insanity, risk assessment, and testamentary capacity. Additionally, they may be involved in the treatment of offenders in correctional settings and providing consultation on mental health policies and laws. Forensic psychiatry requires a thorough understanding of both psychiatric and legal principles, as well as the ability to communicate complex psychiatric concepts to legal professionals and laypersons alike.

The Insanity Defense is a legal concept, rather than a medical one, but it is based on psychological and psychiatric assessments of the defendant's state of mind at the time of the crime. It is used as a criminal defense in which the defendant claims that they should not be held criminally responsible for their actions due to mental illness or disorder that prevented them from understanding the nature and wrongfulness of their behavior.

The specific criteria for an insanity defense vary by jurisdiction, but generally, it requires evidence that the defendant had a severe mental illness or cognitive impairment that significantly affected their ability to appreciate the nature and wrongfulness of their conduct or to conform their behavior to the requirements of the law. If successful, the insanity defense can result in an acquittal, hospitalization, or other dispositions that do not involve incarceration.

It's important to note that the insanity defense is not a determination of whether the defendant is "crazy" or "insane," but rather an assessment of their mental state at the time of the offense and its impact on their legal responsibility for their actions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "prisoners" is not a medical term. It generally refers to individuals who are deprived of their personal freedom and are being held in a prison or jail as a result of being convicted of a crime or while awaiting trial. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Prisons" are not a medical term, but rather a term used to describe facilities where individuals who have been convicted of crimes serve their sentences of incarceration. They are run by correctional systems and law enforcement agencies, not healthcare providers or medical organizations.

However, I can certainly provide information about the potential impact of prisons on health and healthcare. Prisons can have significant effects on the physical and mental health of inmates due to factors such as overcrowding, violence, limited access to healthcare services, and the transmission of infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis C. Additionally, many inmates have underlying health issues that may be exacerbated by incarceration, including substance use disorders, mental illness, and chronic medical conditions.

Therefore, it is important for correctional facilities to provide adequate healthcare services to their inmates, not only to meet basic human rights standards but also to promote public health more broadly by reducing the spread of infectious diseases and improving the health outcomes of individuals who will eventually be released back into the community.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Law Enforcement" is a term that refers to the system or agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and safety. It is not a medical term. However, I can provide you with some related terms that are used in the medical field:

* Forensic science: The application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law.
* Forensic psychiatry: A medical subspecialty that deals with the application of clinical psychiatric knowledge to legal issues, such as determining competency to stand trial or assessing criminal responsibility.
* Forensic psychology: The application of psychological principles and methods to legal issues, such as evaluating a defendant's mental state at the time of an offense.
* Medical examiner/Coroner: A physician who investigates and determines the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected or violent death. They are often called upon by law enforcement agencies to assist in death investigations.

Juvenile delinquency is a term used in the legal system to describe illegal activities or behaviors committed by minors, typically defined as individuals under the age of 18. It's important to note that the specific definition and handling of juvenile delinquency can vary based on different jurisdictions and legal systems around the world.

The term is often used to describe a pattern of behavior where a young person repeatedly engages in criminal activities or behaviors that violate the laws of their society. These actions, if committed by an adult, would be considered criminal offenses.

Juvenile delinquency is handled differently than adult offenses, with a focus on rehabilitation rather than punishment. The goal is to address the root causes of the behavior, which could include factors like family environment, social pressures, mental health issues, or substance abuse. Interventions may include counseling, education programs, community service, or, in more serious cases, residential placement in a juvenile detention facility.

However, it's important to remember that the specifics of what constitutes juvenile delinquency and how it's handled can vary greatly depending on the legal system and cultural context.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

A criminal abortion is an illegal abortion, which is a procedure performed with the intent to induce the termination of a pregnancy, carried out in violation of the law. In many jurisdictions, criminal abortions are defined as those performed outside of the legal parameters set forth by the relevant regulations, such as those that require the procedure to be performed by a licensed medical professional, within certain timeframes, and/or for specific reasons.

Criminal abortions may be motivated by various factors, including financial constraints, social stigma, or fear of repercussions. Engaging in criminal abortion practices can result in severe legal consequences, including fines, imprisonment, and in some cases, loss of medical license. It's important to note that the legality and accessibility of abortion vary significantly across different countries and regions, with varying restrictions and requirements.

If you require assistance or advice related to pregnancy termination, it is crucial to consult a licensed healthcare professional or a trusted reproductive health organization in your area to ensure that you receive accurate information and safe care within the legal framework of your jurisdiction.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Criminology is the scientific study of crime, criminals, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. It involves the application of various social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology, to understand and explain these phenomena. The field of criminology also encompasses the development and evaluation of policies and interventions aimed at preventing and controlling crime, as well as understanding the impact of those policies on individuals and communities.

Criminologists may study a wide range of topics related to crime, such as the causes of criminal behavior, the social and economic factors that contribute to crime, the effectiveness of different criminal justice policies and interventions, and the experiences of victims of crime. They may also conduct research on specific types of crime, such as violent crime, property crime, white-collar crime, or cybercrime.

The ultimate goal of criminology is to develop a better understanding of crime and the criminal justice system in order to inform policy and practice, and ultimately reduce crime and improve public safety.

Expert testimony is a type of evidence presented in court by a qualified expert who has specialized knowledge, education, training, or experience in a particular field that is relevant to the case. The expert's role is to provide an objective and unbiased opinion based on their expertise to assist the judge or jury in understanding complex issues that are beyond the knowledge of the average person.

In medical cases, expert testimony may be presented by healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, or other medical experts who have specialized knowledge about the medical condition or treatment at issue. The expert's testimony can help establish the standard of care, diagnose a medical condition, evaluate the cause of an injury, or assess the damages suffered by the plaintiff.

Expert testimony must meet certain legal standards to be admissible in court. The expert must be qualified to testify based on their education, training, and experience, and their opinion must be based on reliable methods and data. Additionally, the expert's testimony must be relevant to the case and not unduly prejudicial or misleading.

Overall, expert testimony plays a critical role in medical cases by providing objective and unbiased evidence that can help judges and juries make informed decisions about complex medical issues.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Firearms are not a medical condition or disease, so they do not have a medical definition. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

A firearm is a portable gun, being a weapon consisting of a tube or barrel from which shots, shells, or bullets are discharged by the action of gunpowder or other explosive. Firearms may be manual, semi-automatic, or automatic in their operation and can vary in size, shape, and capacity. They are used for various purposes, including hunting, sport shooting, self-defense, and law enforcement. It is important to note that the possession, use, and regulation of firearms are subject to laws and regulations that vary by country and jurisdiction.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Judicial Role" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a legal term that refers to the role and responsibilities of a judge in the administration of justice. This includes presiding over trials, interpreting and applying laws, and ensuring fair and impartial proceedings.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Police" is not a medical term. It refers to a civil force that maintains order, prevents and detects crime, and enforces laws. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Forensic medicine, also known as legal medicine or medical jurisprudence, is a branch of medicine that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal issues and questions. It involves the examination, interpretation, and analysis of medical evidence for use in courts of law. This may include determining the cause and manner of death, identifying injuries or diseases, assessing the effects of substances or treatments, and evaluating the competency or capacity of individuals. Forensic medicine is often used in criminal investigations and court cases, but it can also be applied to civil matters such as personal injury claims or medical malpractice suits.

Homicide is a legal term used to describe the taking of another human life. It is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a legal concept that may result in criminal charges. In medical terms, it might be referred to as "unnatural death" or "violent death." The term itself does not carry a connotation of guilt or innocence; it simply describes the factual occurrence of one person causing the death of another.

The legal definition of homicide varies by jurisdiction and can encompass a range of criminal charges, from manslaughter to murder, depending on the circumstances and intent behind the act.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mandatory Programs" is not a medical term or concept. It is a more general term that can be used in various contexts, including computer science, law, and policy-making. In the context of medicine or healthcare, it might refer to programs or initiatives that are required by law or regulation, but there is no specific medical definition for this term. If you have a specific context in mind, I'd be happy to help further clarify if I can!

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

The "commitment of the mentally ill" refers to a legal process where a person who is deemed to have a mental illness and poses a danger to themselves or others is involuntarily placed in a psychiatric hospital or treatment facility for their own safety and well-being. The specific criteria and procedures for commitment vary by jurisdiction, but generally require a formal evaluation and court order.

The purpose of commitment is to provide intensive treatment and supervision for individuals who are unable to make informed decisions about their own care due to the severity of their mental illness. This legal process is designed to balance the need to protect the individual's civil liberties with the need to ensure public safety and provide necessary medical treatment.

It's important to note that commitment is typically a last resort, after other less restrictive options have been tried or considered. The goal of commitment is to stabilize the individual's condition and help them develop the skills and resources they need to live safely and independently in the community.

Forensic sciences is the application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law. It involves the use of various scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, physics, and psychology, to assist in the examination of physical evidence, interpretation of crime scene data, and evaluation of behavioral patterns. The goal is to provide objective information that can help establish the facts of a case and contribute to the administration of justice.

Forensic science encompasses several sub-disciplines, including forensic biology (DNA analysis, serology, and forensic anthropology), forensic chemistry (drug analysis, toxicology, and digital forensics), forensic physics (firearms and toolmark identification, ballistics, and digital forensics), and forensic psychology (criminal profiling, eyewitness testimony, and legal psychology).

The ultimate objective of forensic sciences is to provide unbiased, scientifically validated information that can aid in the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases, as well as protect the rights of defendants and promote the integrity of the legal system.

Firesetting behavior is not a medical diagnosis itself, but it is a term used to describe the act of deliberately starting fires. It is often associated with certain mental health conditions, developmental disorders, or substance abuse problems. Firesetting behavior can range from minor incidents, such as lighting candles or matches, to more serious offenses, like arson.

Firesetting behavior can be a symptom of various psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and personality disorders. It can also be associated with substance abuse, cognitive impairments, and traumatic brain injuries. In some cases, firesetting behavior may indicate a cry for help or a maladaptive coping mechanism.

It is essential to assess the underlying causes of firesetting behavior to develop an appropriate treatment plan. This may involve individual therapy, family therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and/or medication management. In severe cases, hospitalization or residential treatment may be necessary. Additionally, fire safety education and community resources can help prevent future incidents.

A crime victim is a person who has suffered direct or threatened physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the commission of a crime. According to the United States Department of Justice, victims of crime may experience a range of negative effects including physical injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and financial losses.

Crime victimization can take many forms, such as assault, robbery, homicide, sexual assault, domestic violence, child abuse, identity theft, and fraud. In addition to the immediate harm caused by criminal acts, victims may also face long-term challenges related to their recovery, including emotional trauma, difficulty trusting others, and economic instability.

Many countries have laws and policies in place to support crime victims and provide them with access to resources and services. These can include victim compensation programs, counseling and therapy services, and legal assistance. In the United States, for example, the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) provides funding for victim services through a federal grant program administered by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC).

Overall, the medical definition of 'crime victims' refers to individuals who have been directly or indirectly harmed by criminal behavior and may require support and resources to help them recover from their experiences.

Infanticide is the act of killing an infant, typically a child under one year of age. In forensic medicine and criminal law, infanticide is often distinguished from homicide in general based on the age of the victim, the mental state of the perpetrator, or other factors.

In some cases, infanticide may be the result of an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, or it may be related to cultural or societal pressures. In other cases, it may be associated with mental illness or other factors that impair the judgment and decision-making abilities of the perpetrator.

It is important to note that infanticide is a criminal offense in most jurisdictions, and those who are accused of committing this act may face severe legal consequences. At the same time, it is also important to recognize the complex social, cultural, and psychological factors that can contribute to this tragic phenomenon, and to work towards preventing it through education, support, and access to resources for new parents.

A "Transfer Agreement" in a medical context typically refers to an arrangement between healthcare facilities or systems that outlines the procedures and conditions for transferring a patient from one facility to another. This may include details such as the responsible parties for the transfer, the mode of transportation, and the specific clinical information related to the patient's condition and treatment needs.

Such agreements can be particularly important in situations where patients require specialized care that is not available at their current facility, or when they need to be transferred to a higher level of care, such as from a hospital to a long-term acute care facility. Transfer agreements help ensure continuity of care and can also establish clear expectations for all parties involved, which can be critical in emergency situations where timely and effective communication is essential.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Portraits as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to portraits, which are visual representations or images of a person, usually showing the face and shoulders. The term "as Topic" indicates that it is the subject or theme being discussed. Therefore, "Portraits as Topic" generally relates to the study, analysis, or discussion of portraits in various contexts, such as art, psychology, sociology, or history. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please don't hesitate to ask!

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Social behavior disorders are a category of mental health conditions that are characterized by significant and persistent patterns of socially disruptive behavior. These behaviors may include aggression, impulsivity, defiance, and opposition to authority, which can interfere with an individual's ability to function in social, academic, or occupational settings.

Social behavior disorders can manifest in a variety of ways, depending on the age and developmental level of the individual. In children and adolescents, common examples include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). Adults with social behavior disorders may exhibit antisocial personality disorder or other related conditions.

It is important to note that social behavior disorders are not the result of poor parenting or a lack of discipline, but rather are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for social behavior disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and social skills training.

Opiate Substitution Treatment (OST) is a medical, evidence-based treatment for opioid dependence that involves the use of prescribed, long-acting opioids to replace illicit substances such as heroin. The aim of OST is to alleviate the severe withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opioid dependence, while also preventing the harmful consequences related to illegal drug use, such as infectious diseases and criminal activity. By providing a stable and controlled dose of a substitute medication, OST can help individuals regain control over their lives, improve physical and mental health, and facilitate reintegration into society. Commonly used medications for OST include methadone, buprenorphine, and slow-release morphine.

Somnambulism is defined as a parasomnia, which is a type of sleep disorder, that involves walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It's more commonly known as sleepwalking. During a sleepwalking episode, a person will have their eyes open and may appear to be awake and aware of their surroundings, but they are actually in a state of low consciousness.

Sleepwalking can range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the house, dressing or undressing, or even leaving the house. Episodes usually occur during deep non-REM sleep early in the night and can last from several minutes to an hour.

Although it is more common in children, especially those between the ages of 3 and 7, somnambulism can also affect adults. Factors that may contribute to sleepwalking include stress, fatigue, fever, certain medications, alcohol consumption, and underlying medical or psychiatric conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or dissociative states.

Most of the time, somnambulism is not a cause for concern and does not require treatment. However, if sleepwalking leads to potential harm or injury, or if it frequently disrupts sleep, medical advice should be sought to address any underlying conditions and ensure safety measures are in place during sleep.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

Dangerous behavior is a term used to describe any action or inaction that has the potential to cause harm, injury, or damage to oneself or others. This can include a wide range of behaviors, such as:

* Physical violence or aggression towards others
* Substance abuse, including alcohol and drug use
* Risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected sex or multiple partners
* Self-harm, such as cutting or burning oneself
* Suicidal ideation or attempts
* Reckless driving or operating machinery while impaired
* Neglecting one's own health or the health of others

Dangerous behavior can be the result of a variety of factors, including mental illness, substance abuse, trauma, environmental factors, and personality traits. It is important to note that dangerous behavior can have serious consequences for both the individual engaging in the behavior and those around them. If you or someone you know is engaging in dangerous behavior, it is important to seek help from a qualified medical professional as soon as possible.

In the context of medical law and ethics, fraud refers to a deliberate and intentional deception or misrepresentation of facts, motivated by personal gain, which is made by a person or entity in a position of trust, such as a healthcare professional or organization. This deception can occur through various means, including the provision of false information, the concealment of important facts, or the manipulation of data.

Medical fraud can take many forms, including:

1. Billing fraud: This occurs when healthcare providers submit false claims to insurance companies or government programs like Medicare and Medicaid for services that were not provided, were unnecessary, or were more expensive than the services actually rendered.
2. Prescription fraud: Healthcare professionals may engage in prescription fraud by writing unnecessary prescriptions for controlled substances, such as opioids, for their own use or to sell on the black market. They may also alter prescriptions or use stolen identities to obtain these drugs.
3. Research fraud: Scientists and researchers can commit fraud by manipulating or falsifying data in clinical trials, experiments, or studies to support predetermined outcomes or to secure funding and recognition.
4. Credentialing fraud: Healthcare professionals may misrepresent their qualifications, licenses, or certifications to gain employment or admitting privileges at healthcare facilities.
5. Identity theft: Stealing someone's personal information to obtain medical services, prescription medications, or insurance benefits is another form of medical fraud.

Medical fraud not only has severe legal consequences for those found guilty but also undermines the trust between patients and healthcare providers, jeopardizes patient safety, and contributes to rising healthcare costs.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "war crimes" is a legal concept and does not fall under the category of medical definitions. War crimes are serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in armed conflicts. They include acts such as deliberate attacks on civilians or civilian infrastructure, torture, hostage-taking, and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Formal social control, in the context of medical sociology or health sciences, refers to the systematic mechanisms and processes through which society regulates and guides the behavior of its members in accordance with established laws, rules, and norms, particularly in relation to health and healthcare. This can include various formal institutions and agencies such as governmental bodies, regulatory authorities, professional organizations, and healthcare providers that are responsible for enforcing standards, policies, and regulations aimed at ensuring quality, safety, and effectiveness of healthcare services and products.

Examples of formal social control in healthcare may include licensing and accreditation requirements for healthcare professionals and facilities, clinical guidelines and protocols for diagnosis and treatment, quality improvement initiatives, and regulatory oversight of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. These mechanisms help to maintain order, promote compliance with ethical and professional standards, and protect the public's health and well-being.

Community psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on providing mental health services within the context of a person's community, rather than in a traditional clinical setting such as a hospital or clinic. The goal of community psychiatry is to provide comprehensive, accessible, and personalized mental health care that is integrated into the individual's natural support systems, including their family, friends, and social networks.

Community psychiatrists work closely with other mental health professionals, social workers, and community organizations to develop and implement treatment plans that address the unique needs of each individual. They may provide services in a variety of settings, such as community mental health centers, group homes, schools, and primary care clinics.

The approach of community psychiatry recognizes that mental illness affects not only the individual but also their family, friends, and larger community. Therefore, interventions often focus on improving social determinants of health, such as housing, employment, and education, in addition to providing traditional mental health treatments like medication and therapy.

Overall, community psychiatry aims to reduce stigma around mental illness, improve access to care, and promote recovery and resilience in individuals with mental health conditions.

Counterfeit drugs are defined as medicines that are produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity, or identity, generally made to resemble a genuine drug, in order to mislead the consumer into believing that they are buying an authentic product. These drugs may contain incorrect ingredients, improper dosages, or potentially harmful substances, and can pose serious health risks to consumers. Counterfeit drugs can be found in various forms, including pills, capsules, injectables, and topical creams, and can be purchased through illegal channels such as street vendors, online marketplaces, or unauthorized websites. It is important for consumers to obtain their medications from reputable sources, such as licensed pharmacies and healthcare providers, to ensure that they are receiving safe and effective treatments.

Explosive agents are substances or materials that can undergo rapid chemical reactions, leading to a sudden release of gas and heat, resulting in a large increase in pressure and volume. This rapid expansion creates an explosion, which can cause significant damage to surrounding structures and pose serious risks to human health and safety.

Explosive agents are typically classified into two main categories: low explosives and high explosives. Low explosives burn more slowly than high explosives and rely on the confinement of the material to build up pressure and cause an explosion. Examples of low explosives include black powder, smokeless powder, and certain types of pyrotechnics.

High explosives, on the other hand, decompose rapidly and can detonate with great speed and force. They are often used in military applications such as bombs, artillery shells, and demolitions. Examples of high explosives include TNT (trinitrotoluene), RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine), and PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate).

It is important to note that the handling, storage, and use of explosive agents require specialized training and strict safety protocols, as they can pose significant risks if not managed properly.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "bombs." The term is most commonly used in non-medical contexts to refer to explosive devices or, metaphorically, to something that has a sudden and major impact. If you are looking for information about a specific medical concept or condition, please provide more context or try rephrasing your question. I'm here to help!

Civil rights are a group of rights and protections that guarantee equal treatment to all individuals, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or other characteristics. These rights are enshrined in the laws and constitutions of various countries and include freedoms such as the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to equal protection under the law, and the right to freedom of speech, religion, and assembly.

In the United States, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment, education, and access to public accommodations. Other important civil rights laws in the U.S. include the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which protects the right to vote, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities.

Violations of civil rights can take many forms, including discrimination, harassment, intimidation, and violence. Those whose civil rights have been violated may be entitled to legal remedies, such as damages, injunctions, or orders for relief.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Eugenics is a scientific movement that advocates for the improvement of human genetic qualities through various measures such as controlled breeding, selective immigration, and even forced sterilization. The goal of eugenics is to increase the number of individuals who possess desirable traits and decrease the number of those with undesirable traits in order to improve the overall genetic makeup of the population.

The term "eugenics" was coined by Sir Francis Galton, a British scientist, in 1883. He believed that intelligence and other positive traits were heritable and could be improved through selective breeding. The eugenics movement gained popularity in the early 20th century, particularly in the United States and Germany, where it was used to justify forced sterilization and other coercive measures aimed at controlling the reproduction of certain groups of people.

Today, the concept of eugenics is widely discredited due to its association with discrimination, racism, and human rights abuses. However, the principles of genetics and heredity that underlie eugenics continue to be studied and applied in fields such as medicine and agriculture.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Legal liability, in the context of medical law, refers to a legal obligation or responsibility that a healthcare professional or facility may have for their actions or negligence that results in harm or injury to a patient. This can include failure to provide appropriate care, misdiagnosis, medication errors, or other breaches of the standard of care. If a healthcare provider is found to be legally liable, they may be required to pay damages to the injured party. It's important to note that legal liability is different from medical malpractice, which refers to a specific type of negligence committed by a healthcare professional.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Gunshot wounds are defined as traumatic injuries caused by the penetration of bullets or other projectiles fired from firearms into the body. The severity and extent of damage depend on various factors such as the type of firearm used, the distance between the muzzle and the victim, the size and shape of the bullet, and its velocity.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into two main categories:

1. Penetrating gunshot wounds: These occur when a bullet enters the body but does not exit, causing damage to the organs, tissues, and blood vessels along its path.

2. Perforating gunshot wounds: These happen when a bullet enters and exits the body, creating an entry and exit wound, causing damage to the structures it traverses.

Based on the mechanism of injury, gunshot wounds can also be categorized into low-velocity (less than 1000 feet per second) and high-velocity (greater than 1000 feet per second) injuries. High-velocity gunshot wounds are more likely to cause extensive tissue damage due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the surrounding tissues.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with gunshot wounds, as they may experience significant blood loss, infection, and potential long-term complications such as organ dysfunction or disability. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to control bleeding, remove foreign material, repair damaged structures, and manage infections if present.

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a legal penalty in which a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The crimes that are punishable by death vary by country, but typically include murder, treason, and espionage. In the United States, for example, federal and state laws allow for the use of capital punishment in cases involving murder, terrorism, and certain types of treason.

The methods used to carry out capital punishment also vary by country, but common methods include lethal injection, electrocution, hanging, and firing squad. The use of the death penalty is a controversial issue, with some people arguing that it is a necessary tool for deterring crime and protecting society, while others argue that it is a violation of human rights and that there is a risk of executing innocent people.

Human rights abuses in a medical context can refer to violations of the right to health, which is a fundamental human right recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations. This includes:

* Denial of access to necessary healthcare, including sexual and reproductive health services
* Discrimination in the provision of healthcare based on race, ethnicity, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, or other status
* Use of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment in healthcare settings
* Experimentation on human subjects without their informed consent
* Violation of confidentiality and privacy in the provision of healthcare services
* Inhumane living conditions in places of detention, such as prisons and immigration detention centers, which can lead to negative health outcomes.

Additionally, Human rights abuses can also refer to violations of other human rights that have an impact on a person's health, such as:

* Violence against women, children, LGBTQ+ individuals, minorities and other marginalized groups
* Forced displacement and migration
* Denial of the right to education, food, water and sanitation
* Inhumane working conditions
* Torture and ill-treatment
* Arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances
* Violations of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly.

These abuses can lead to physical and mental health problems, including chronic illnesses, disabilities, and psychological trauma. They can also exacerbate existing health conditions and make it more difficult for individuals to access necessary healthcare services.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Licensure is the process by which a government regulatory agency grants a license to a physician (or other healthcare professional) to practice medicine (or provide healthcare services) in a given jurisdiction. The licensing process typically requires the completion of specific educational and training requirements, passing written and/or practical exams, and meeting other state-specific criteria.

The purpose of licensure is to ensure that healthcare professionals meet minimum standards of competence and safety in order to protect the public. Licensure laws vary by state, so a physician who is licensed to practice medicine in one state may not be able to practice in another state without obtaining additional licensure.

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) is not a medical term per se, but rather a psychological theory developed by George Kelly in the 1950s. It is a theory of personality and psychotherapy that emphasizes an individual's unique way of construing or making sense of their experiences. According to PCT, people are active scientists who constantly test their assumptions about the world through their personal construct systems.

In medical settings, PCT may be used as a framework for understanding patients' perspectives and beliefs about their illnesses and treatments. This can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions to individual patients' needs and improve communication and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. However, it is important to note that PCT is not a widely recognized or established medical concept, but rather a psychological theory that has been applied in various fields, including healthcare.

Biological psychiatry is a branch of medicine that aims to understand and treat mental disorders by studying the biological mechanisms underlying behavior, cognition, and emotion. This can include the study of genetics, neurochemistry, brain structure and function, and other physiological processes that may contribute to the development and expression of mental illnesses.

Biological psychiatrists use a variety of approaches to understand and treat mental disorders, including psychopharmacology (the use of medications to treat psychiatric symptoms), neurostimulation techniques (such as electroconvulsive therapy or transcranial magnetic stimulation), and behavioral interventions (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy).

The ultimate goal of biological psychiatry is to develop more effective treatments for mental illnesses by gaining a deeper understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that contribute to their development and expression.

Coercion, in a medical context, refers to the use of threat, manipulation, or intimidation to force someone to make a specific healthcare decision that they might not have made willingly or that is against their better judgment. This can occur in various situations, such as when a patient is pressured to undergo a treatment they do not fully understand or agree with, or when a healthcare provider makes decisions on behalf of an incapacitated patient without considering their previously expressed wishes or values. Coercion undermines the principles of informed consent and autonomy and can lead to negative outcomes for patients, including decreased trust in their healthcare providers and poorer health outcomes.

Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to cognitive and behavioral processes. It involves understanding how damage to different parts of the brain can affect various mental abilities such as memory, attention, language, perception, and problem-solving.

Neuropsychologists often work with patients who have neurological conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke, or epilepsy to evaluate their cognitive and behavioral strengths and weaknesses. They use various assessment tools and techniques, including neuropsychological tests, interviews, and observations, to make these evaluations.

The findings from a neuropsychological evaluation can help in several ways, such as:

1. Diagnosing neurological conditions or monitoring the progression of a known condition.
2. Developing treatment plans that take into account the individual's cognitive and behavioral strengths and weaknesses.
3. Providing recommendations for rehabilitation or accommodations in daily life, education, or work settings.
4. Monitoring changes in cognitive function over time to assess the effectiveness of treatments or the progression of a condition.
5. Conducting research to better understand the relationship between brain structure and function and behavior.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

In medical terms, "punishment" is a consequence or intervention that is intended to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable behavior occurring again in the future. It is often used in the context of behavioral therapy and modification, particularly for addressing maladaptive behaviors in individuals with developmental disorders, mental health conditions, or substance use disorders.

Punishment can take various forms, such as response cost (removal of a positive reinforcer), time-out (removal of access to reinforcement), or aversive stimuli (presentation of an unpleasant stimulus). However, it is important to note that punishment should be used judiciously and ethically, with careful consideration given to the potential negative consequences such as avoidance, escape, or aggression. Additionally, positive reinforcement (rewarding desirable behaviors) is generally considered a more effective and sustainable approach to behavior change than punishment alone.

Sex offenses are criminal acts that involve sexual misconduct or non-consensual sexual contact with another person. These crimes can range from non-contact offenses such as exhibitionism and voyeurism, to forcible rape and sexual assault. Sex offenses also include the crime of sexual abuse, which involves engaging in sexual contact with a minor or vulnerable adult who is unable to give consent due to age, disability, or incapacitation.

The legal definition of sex offenses varies by jurisdiction, but generally includes any form of unwanted sexual touching, forced penetration, or exploitation of another person for sexual gratification without their consent. In addition, some sex offenses may involve the production, distribution, or possession of child pornography, as well as other forms of sexual exploitation.

Those convicted of sex offenses often face severe penalties, including lengthy prison sentences, fines, and mandatory registration as a sex offender. The stigma associated with being labeled a sex offender can also have long-lasting consequences on an individual's personal and professional life, making it difficult to find employment or housing.

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

Forensic pathology is a subspecialty of pathology that focuses on determining the cause and manner of death by examining a corpse. It involves applying scientific knowledge and techniques to investigate criminal or suspicious deaths, often in conjunction with law enforcement agencies. A forensic pathologist performs autopsies (postmortem examinations) to evaluate internal and external injuries, diseases, and other conditions that may have contributed to the individual's death. They also collect evidence such as tissue samples, which can be used for toxicological, microbiological, or histological analysis. The information gathered by forensic pathologists is crucial in helping to establish the facts surrounding a person's death and assisting legal proceedings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "student dropouts" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to students who leave school or university before completing their course of study. This can have various social, psychological, and educational implications, but it does not fall under the category of medical definitions.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Intergenerational relations, in the context of healthcare and social sciences, refer to the interactions, relationships, and connections between different generations within a family or society. These relations can encompass various aspects such as communication, support, values, and attitudes. In the medical field, intergenerational relations may be studied to understand the impact of health policies, healthcare practices, and disease prevalence across different age groups. It can also help in identifying and addressing health disparities and creating age-friendly healthcare systems.

Echolalia is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in neurology and psychology. It refers to the repetition of words or phrases spoken by another person, mimicking their speech in a near identical manner. This behavior is often observed in individuals with developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Echolalia can be either immediate or delayed. Immediate echolalia occurs when an individual repeats the words or phrases immediately after they are spoken by someone else. Delayed echolalia, on the other hand, involves the repetition of words or phrases that were heard at an earlier time.

Echolalia is not necessarily a pathological symptom and can be a normal part of language development in young children who are learning to speak. However, when it persists beyond the age of 3-4 years or occurs in older individuals with developmental disorders, it may indicate difficulties with initiating spontaneous speech or forming original thoughts and ideas.

In some cases, echolalia can serve as a communication tool for individuals with ASD who have limited verbal abilities. By repeating words or phrases that they have heard before, they may be able to convey their needs or emotions in situations where they are unable to generate appropriate language on their own.

Medical malpractice is a legal term that refers to the breach of the duty of care by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor, nurse, or hospital, resulting in harm to the patient. This breach could be due to negligence, misconduct, or a failure to provide appropriate treatment. The standard of care expected from healthcare providers is based on established medical practices and standards within the relevant medical community.

To prove medical malpractice, four key elements must typically be demonstrated:

1. Duty of Care: A healthcare provider-patient relationship must exist, establishing a duty of care.
2. Breach of Duty: The healthcare provider must have failed to meet the standard of care expected in their field or specialty.
3. Causation: The breach of duty must be directly linked to the patient's injury or harm.
4. Damages: The patient must have suffered harm, such as physical injury, emotional distress, financial loss, or other negative consequences due to the healthcare provider's actions or inactions.

Medical malpractice cases can result in significant financial compensation for the victim and may also lead to changes in medical practices and policies to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

Biometric identification is the use of automated processes to identify a person based on their unique physical or behavioral characteristics. These characteristics, known as biometrics, can include fingerprints, facial recognition, iris scans, voice patterns, and other distinctive traits that are difficult to replicate or forge. Biometric identification systems work by capturing and analyzing these features with specialized hardware and software, comparing them against a database of known individuals to find a match.

Biometric identification is becoming increasingly popular in security applications, such as access control for buildings and devices, border control, and law enforcement. It offers several advantages over traditional methods of identification, such as passwords or ID cards, which can be lost, stolen, or easily replicated. By contrast, biometric traits are unique to each individual and cannot be easily changed or duplicated.

However, there are also concerns around privacy and the potential for misuse of biometric data. It is important that appropriate safeguards are in place to protect individuals' personal information and prevent unauthorized access or use.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

A halfway house, also known as a sober living house or transitional housing, is not strictly a medical term but a social service concept. However, it does have significant relevance to the medical field, particularly in mental health and substance abuse treatment. A halfway house is a supervised residential facility that provides intermediate-term housing and support services for individuals who are transitioning from institutionalized settings such as hospitals, prisons, or rehabilitation centers back into the community.

The primary goal of halfway houses is to promote the reintegration of residents into society by offering a structured living environment, counseling, vocational training, and other support services that help them develop the necessary skills for independent living. Halfway houses often have rules and regulations in place to ensure the safety and well-being of their residents, including mandatory curfews, drug testing, and participation in therapy or counseling sessions.

In the context of mental health and substance abuse treatment, halfway houses can play a crucial role in supporting individuals as they navigate their recovery journey. They provide a safe and stable living environment that allows residents to focus on their treatment while gradually adjusting to life outside of an institutional setting. This transitional period is essential for many individuals, as it helps them build confidence, develop coping strategies, and establish healthy routines before fully reintegrating into society.

In summary, a halfway house is a supportive residential facility that offers intermediate-term housing and support services to individuals transitioning from institutionalized settings back into the community. While not a medical term per se, it has significant relevance to mental health and substance abuse treatment by providing a structured living environment and essential support services during the critical transitional period.

Forensic genetics is a branch of forensic science that involves the use of genetic methods and technologies to establish identity or determine relationships between individuals in legal investigations. It primarily deals with the analysis of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples collected from crime scenes, victims, or suspects to generate profiles that can be compared in order to identify individuals or link them to evidence.

Forensic genetics also includes other applications such as:

1. Parentage testing: Determining biological relationships between family members, often used in cases of disputed paternity or immigration cases.
2. Disaster victim identification: Identifying victims in mass disasters by comparing DNA samples from recovered remains with those from relatives.
3. Ancestry analysis: Inferring an individual's geographical origin or population affiliations based on their genetic markers.
4. Forensic phenotyping: Predicting physical traits like appearance, hair color, and eye color from DNA samples to assist in identifying unknown individuals.

The main goal of forensic genetics is to provide unbiased, scientific evidence that can aid in criminal investigations and legal proceedings while adhering to strict ethical guidelines and quality standards.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Mental competency, also known as mental capacity, is a legal term that refers to a person's ability to make informed decisions and understand the nature and consequences of their actions. In a medical context, mental competency is often assessed in patients who are making decisions about their own medical care, such as whether to consent to a particular treatment or procedure.

A determination of mental competency typically involves an evaluation of a person's ability to:

* Understand and retain information about their medical condition and the proposed treatment
* Evaluate the risks and benefits of different treatment options
* Make and communicate a clear and consistent decision based on this information
* Understand the potential consequences of their decision

Mental competency can be affected by various factors, including mental illness, cognitive impairment, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. A healthcare provider may seek a formal evaluation of a patient's mental competency if there are concerns about their ability to make informed decisions about their care. This evaluation may involve input from psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health professionals.

It is important to note that mental competency is not the same as legal competency, which refers to a person's ability to understand and participate in legal proceedings. A person may be deemed mentally competent for medical purposes but not for legal purposes, or vice versa.

Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another being. In a medical or clinical context, empathy refers to the healthcare provider's capacity to comprehend and respond to a patient's emotional experiences, perspectives, and concerns. Empathy involves not only cognitive understanding but also the emotional resonance with the patient's situation. It is a crucial component of the physician-patient relationship, fostering trust, satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and better healthcare outcomes.

Rape is a legal term and its exact definition varies by jurisdiction. However, in general, rape is a type of sexual assault involving sexual penetration without the consent of the victim. This can include vaginal, anal, or oral penetration with any body part or object. In many places, rape also includes situations where the victim is unable to give consent due to factors such as age, mental incapacity, or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol. It's important to note that force, threat of force, or coercion do not necessarily have to be present for the act to be considered rape, and lack of consent is the crucial factor.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "security measures" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a more general term that can be applied to various fields, including healthcare, and refers to the steps or actions taken to protect individuals, data, or systems from harm or unauthorized access. In a medical context, security measures might include things like physical security measures to protect patients and staff (such as locks on doors and surveillance cameras), as well as cybersecurity measures to protect patient data (such as encryption and firewalls).

Residential treatment, also known as inpatient treatment, refers to a type of healthcare service in which patients receive 24-hour medical and psychological care in a residential setting. This type of treatment is typically provided for individuals who require a higher level of care than what can be provided on an outpatient basis. Residential treatment programs may include a variety of services such as medical and psychiatric evaluations, medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and recreational activities. These programs are often used to treat various mental health conditions including substance use disorders, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and other serious mental illnesses. The goal of residential treatment is to provide a safe and structured environment where patients can focus on their recovery and develop the skills they need to manage their condition and improve their overall quality of life.

Deinstitutionalization is a social policy aimed at transitioning individuals with mental illness or developmental disabilities out of long-term institutional care and reintegrating them into community-based settings. This process typically involves the closure of large institutions, such as psychiatric hospitals and state-run developmental centers, and the development of community-based services, such as group homes, supported housing, and case management.

The goal of deinstitutionalization is to provide individuals with disabilities more autonomy, dignity, and quality of life while also promoting their inclusion in society. However, it has been a controversial policy, with some critics arguing that insufficient community-based services have led to homelessness, incarceration, and other negative outcomes for some individuals who were deinstitutionalized.

Deinstitutionalization became a significant social movement in many developed countries during the mid-to-late 20th century, driven by changing attitudes towards disability, human rights advocacy, and evidence of the harmful effects of institutionalization. However, its implementation has varied widely across different regions and populations, with varying degrees of success.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

The Thought Criminals built up a following with performances at mainly inner-city venues. The music of the Thought Criminals, ... ISBN 1-86508-072-1. Wikiquote has quotations related to Thought Criminals. The Thought Criminals' Official Site Complete ... The Thought Criminals were formed in late 1977 with the initial line-up of Roger Grierson (aka Jack Boots; guitar), Rique Lee ... The Thought Criminals were an influential and enterprising Australian punk band based in Sydney. They formed in late 1977 and ...
... may refer to: Silverchair, an Australian rock band formerly named Innocent Criminals Ben Harper and the ... an American rock band featuring Ben Harper This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Innocent Criminals ...
... is the seventh studio album by the American rap metal band Stray from the Path. The album was released on ... "Stray From The Path - Subliminal Criminals". Music Feeds. Retrieved October 4, 2015. Bird, ed. 2016, p. 27 Ryan, Gavin (August ... Subliminal Criminals - Coming August 14". Sumerian Records. June 2, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2015. - "STRAY FROM THE PATH ... "As with previous recent releases from the band Subliminal Criminals wears both its hardcore and RATM influences on its sleeve, ...
... at IMDb Criminals Within at the TCM Movie Database v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... Criminals Within (also issued as Army Mystery) is a 1941 American drama film directed by Joseph H. Lewis and starring Eric ... "Criminals Within". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018. ...
Official website Copyright Criminals PBS page Copyright Criminals at IMDb v t e v t e (All articles with dead external links, ... Copyright Criminals was funded by the Ford Foundation, University of Iowa and John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. It ... Copyright Criminals is a 2009 documentary film directed and produced by Benjamin Franzen examining the creative and the ... Copyright Criminals Charts Hip-Hop's Cultural, Legal Influence Megan Close article in Dubuque Telegraph Herald: Sample Says: ...
"Sex Criminals Vol 6: Six Criminals". Image Comics. "Big Hard Sex Criminals". Image Comics. "Big Hard Sex Criminals Vol. 2: ... "Sex Criminals Vol 3: Three The Hard Way". Image Comics. "Sex Criminals Vol 4: Fourgy!". Image Comics. "Sex Criminals Vol 5: ... Sex Criminals at Image Comics DAN CASEY (August 5, 2013). "Matt Fraction and Chip Zdarsky are "Sex Criminals"". Nerdist. Matt D ... "Sex Criminals, Vol. 1 TP: One Weird Trick". Image Comics. "Sex Criminals, Vol. 2: Two Worlds One Cop". Image Comics. " ...
... is the fifth studio album by American singer-songwriter Randy Newman. Like most of Newman's work, the album ... Enter Little Criminals in the "Artiest of titel" box. Select 1978 in the drop-down menu saying "Alle jaargangen". "American ... ISBN 0-646-11917-6. " - Randy Newman - Little Criminals" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 29, 2021. " ... " - Randy Newman - Little Criminals". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 29, 2021. "Randy Newman Chart History (Billboard ...
... at BBC Online Kitchen Criminals at BBC Online (Use dmy dates from November 2012, Articles with short ... Kitchen Criminals is a BBC television series in which top chefs John Burton Race and Angela Hartnett are given the task of ...
Criminals or The Criminals may also refer to: The Criminals (band), an American punk rock band The Criminals, an earlier punk ... "Criminals" (DMA's song), 2020 "Criminals", by David Cook from the 2015 album Digital Vein Criminal (disambiguation) Crime ( ... Look up criminals in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Criminals are people who commit crime. ... band led by Syl Sylvain The Criminals (film), a 1962 Australian TV movie Criminals (film), a 1975 Indian Malayalam film " ...
"Criminals". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014. Criminals at IMDb v t e ( ... "Criminals". Retrieved 4 October 2014. "Criminals". Archived from the ... Criminals is a 1975 Indian Malayalam film, directed by S. Babu and produced by Salam Karassery. The film stars Adoor Bhasi, ...
J. L. W. (1936). "Criminal Law and Procedure: Habitual Criminal Act: Prior Convictions: Pleading and Trial". Michigan Law ... A Habitual Criminals Act is an act where, after a certain number of convictions for certain crimes, dependent upon severity, a ... The State of Washington defines its habitual criminals act as follows: Every person convicted in this state of any crime of ... Three strikes law Habitual offender Stevenson, S. J. (1986). "The 'habitual criminal' in nineteenth-century England: some ...
"Criminals"". NME. Retrieved 8 July 2020. "Our new single "Criminals" is being premiered today on triplej tune in from 6pm AEST ... "Criminals" is a song by Australian rock band DMA's. The song premiered on Triple J on 5 July 2020 and was released on 7 July ... "Criminals (The Avalanches remix) - Single by DMA's on Apple Music". 19 August 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020 - via Apple Music. " ... "Review: DMA's "Criminals"; A Bold and Successful Experiment". 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2021. " ...
... is the debut album released by the Ghetto Twiinz. It was released on December 17, 1995 by Big Boy ...
November Criminals may refer to: November criminals, a description by advocates of the stab-in-the-back myth of German ... government leaders who signed the Armistice in 1918 The November Criminals, a 2010 novel by Sam Munson November Criminals (film ... a 2017 American crime drama This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title November Criminals. If an ...
The Criminals is a 1962 Australian TV movie. Australian TV drama was relatively rare at the time. In London, a cracksman helps ... "Criminals Live TV". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 September 1962. p. 14. Roberts, Frank (15 September 1962). "REVIEWS TELEVISION ...
Official website Criminals Gone Wild at IMDb Criminals Gone Wild at AllMovie v t e v t e (Articles with short description, ... A sequel called Criminals Gone Wild 2: Menace to Humanity was filmed and planned to be released in 2009 but was cancelled due ... Criminals Gone Wild is a documentary film directed and produced by Ousala Aleem through his Brooklyn-based media studio FD ... The film chronicled the lives of several alleged criminals on rampages of crime sprees of robberies, assaults, carjacks and ...
... is the 97th novel in the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories and was written by Franklin W. Dixon. It was published in ...
"Fun Lovin' Criminals". AllMusic. "Fun Lovin' Criminals, gig review: 'Huey Morgan blends fine guitar work". The Independent. ... Fun Lovin' Criminals are an American rap rock band from New York City. They are best known for their hit "Scooby Snacks", which ... The Fun Lovin' Criminals made no further releases until 2005 album Livin' in the City, still under Sanctuary Records. This was ... The project, dubbed "Criminal Manuvas", was recorded at Maida Vale studios for BBC Radio 6 Music; songs included a reggae ...
World's Dumbest Criminals America's Dumbest Criminals by Daniel Butler, Leland Gregory, and Alan Ray (Rutledge Hill Press, 1995 ... Many criminals put together their game plan beautifully but were tripped up by a simple oversight (such as forgetting to fill ... America's Dumbest Criminals is an American reality series that aired in syndication from September 21, 1996, to May 27, 2000, ... Butler was a co-author of the book America's Dumbest Criminals, which spent four months on The New York Times bestseller list. ...
The Criminals continued as a four-piece and in early 1995 embarked on their first West Coast tour with Area 51, who would ... The Criminals toured behind the release in the summer of 1996. Ross left the band to focus on his grindcore bands (Skaven, ... The Criminals next show was January 17, 2014 at The Hemlock Tavern in San Francisco with original San Francisco punk era band ... The Criminals returned to Catbox Studios in the spring of 1999 to record their second album, Burning Flesh and Broken Fingers. ...
Little Criminals Little Criminals at IMDb (Articles needing additional references from May 2019, All articles needing ... Little Criminals is a 1995 Canadian film. It was directed by Stephen Surjik. The film was shot in Vancouver in the spring of ... In Canada the age of criminal responsibility is twelve. Des takes advantage of this law because he knows that the police cannot ... Des - (Brendan Fletcher) The troubled kid who leads the gang of little criminals Cory - (Myles Ferguson) Des's best friend ...
November Criminals is a 2017 American crime drama film, directed by Sacha Gervasi and written by Gervasi and Steven Knight, and ... November Criminals at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 2017 films, Template ... "November Criminals". Metacritic. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2020. Sheri Linden ( ... "November Criminals (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on August 1, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2020. " ...
... : A Novel. New York: Doubleday, 2010, ISBN 978-0-385-53227-3 Anchor edition of The November Criminals at ... The November Criminals is a novel by Sam Munson published in 2010. The book is the author's first novel; by April 2010, it was ... A film based on the novel, titled November Criminals, was released in 2017. It stars Ansel Elgort and Chloë Grace Moretz in the ... The November Criminals'" Washington Post, May 26, 2010 Review by D G Myers. Commentary, Jun., (2010): 54-55 Jacques Steinberg " ...
... on WTII Records BIOGRAPHY The Thought Criminals on The Thought Criminals Official ... "The Thought Criminals - You're A Moral Liability !". Retrieved 21 June 2020. "The Thought Criminals - No Love Song ... "The Thought Criminals - All The Freaks". Retrieved 21 June 2020. "The Thought Criminals - Die Young: Stay Pretty ... "The Thought Criminals - Suicide Bomber". Retrieved 21 June 2020. "The Thought Criminals - I Wanna Be A Celebrity ...
CS1 Czech-language sources (cs), Articles using small message boxes, Incomplete lists from August 2023, Czech criminals, Lists ... of Czech people, Lists of criminals, Crime in Europe). ...
"Criminals Hall Of Fame Wax Museum". Retrieved 6 August 2010. "The Criminals". Criminals Hall of Fame Wax ... The Criminals Hall of Fame Wax Museum was a wax museum on 5751 Victoria Avenue in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. One of many ... "About the Criminals Hall of Fame Museum". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. ... The museum featured forty wax statues of notorious criminals, from mobsters to serial killers. The museum was created in 1977 ...
Australian criminals, Lists of Australian people, Lists of criminals, Australian crime-related lists, Crime in Oceania). ... R v Dunn [2000] NSWCCA 171 (15 May 2000), Court of Criminal Appeal (NSW, Australia). "Archived copy". Archived from the ... Retrieved 9 May 2008 Hannes v DPP [2006] NSWCCA 373 (24 November 2006), Court of Criminal Appeal (NSW, Australia). Pokies-mad ... Einfeld v R [2010] NSWCCA 87 (5 May 2010), Court of Criminal Appeal (NSW, Australia). Sales, Leigh (29 April 2008). "Former ...
Computer criminals, Computing-related lists, Hacking (computer security), Lists of criminals). ... Convicted computer criminals are people who are caught and convicted of computer crimes such as breaking into computers or ... "Russian Cyber-Criminal Sentenced to 27 Years in Prison for Hacking and Credit Card Fraud Scheme". Perlroth, Nicole (21 April ... "Russian Cyber-Criminal Sentenced to 14 Years in Prison for Role in Organized Cybercrime Ring Responsible for $50 Million in ...
... at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use dmy ... Lux, King of Criminals (German: Lux, der König der Verbrecher) is a 1929 German silent film directed by Edmund Heuberger and ...
The following is a list of Bangladeshi criminals: Ershad Sikder, Ershad Sikder (1955 - 10 May 2004) was a Bangladeshi criminal ... Bangladeshi criminals, Lists of criminals, Bangladesh-related lists, Crime in Bangladesh). ...
... or the court of criminal appeals, if the offense for which the person was acquitted arose out of a criminal episode, as defined ... 3) the person arrested or any other person, when questioned under oath in a criminal proceeding about an arrest for which the ... C) acquitted by the court of criminal appeals or, if the period for granting a petition for discretionary review has expired, ... A) another criminal case, including a prosecution, motion to adjudicate or revoke community supervision, parole revocation ...
The Thought Criminals built up a following with performances at mainly inner-city venues. The music of the Thought Criminals, ... ISBN 1-86508-072-1. Wikiquote has quotations related to Thought Criminals. The Thought Criminals Official Site Complete ... The Thought Criminals were formed in late 1977 with the initial line-up of Roger Grierson (aka Jack Boots; guitar), Rique Lee ... The Thought Criminals were an influential and enterprising Australian punk band based in Sydney. They formed in late 1977 and ...
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UNODC collects data on the criminal justice system and conducts research on issues related to the administration of justice and ... Statistics on prisons and persons detained, on persons arrested, prosecuted and/or convicted and on personnel of the criminal ... Ad hoc committee to elaborate an international convention on countering the use of ICTs for criminal purposes ... Ad hoc committee to elaborate an international convention on countering the use of ICTs for criminal purposes ...
Digest of Criminal Statutes Related to Ethics ...
Criminals may be smart, but with our contemporary industry experience we can help banks outsmart them and stay one step ahead." ... In the midst of COVID-19, in the face of increased criminal activity during these uncertain times, and in response to changing ... But this very feature also makes it increasingly attractive to determined criminals who seek to take advantage of innovations ... The reforms, known as Phase 1.5, increase the resilience of our financial system against criminal threats, while making it ...
To acquire a knowledge relating to international aspects of the criminal law and the criminal procedure. To develop a critical ... It is based on the knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of the criminal law, of the penal procedure and of the ... It is based on the knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of the criminal law, of the penal procedure and of the ... International criminal court) or courts (e.g.: Sierra Leone or Kampuchea). ...
Criminal Justice. Incredibly detailed VR model of Auschwitz helped convict Nazi war criminal VR can be used for more than just ... A new simulation shows how the technology can painstakingly recreate a place -- and test accused war criminals claims they ... Immortality, biotechnology, and the woefully unprepared criminal justice system Heres an interesting thought experiment for ...
... * Residential Counselor I/II(Registered/Certified - Sun Street Centers - Salinas, CA ... criminal justice ... Criminal Justice Insight - You could have relevant experience in corrections, criminal justice , or recovery services. * ... criminal justice agencies, or other services to assist the client and/or family member. Must be able to work collaboratively ... Associates Degree in Criminal Justice , Forensic Science, or a related field; AND four years experience in crime scene ...
Smooth Criminal - siódmy singel wydany z albumu Michaela Jacksona zatytułowanego Bad. Singel został wydany w listopadzie 1988. ... "Smooth Criminal" jest w całości skomponowany przez Michaela Jacksona. Utwór rozpoczyna bicie serca artysty, zarejestrowane ... Zespół rockowy Alien Ant Farm stworzył własną wersję utworu "Smooth Criminal". W teledysku do tej piosenki Michael Jackson i ... Źródło: „" ...
Source for information on Universal Criminal Jurisdiction: Governments of the World: A Global Guide to Citizens Rights and ... or international tribunals with criminal jurisdiction, to prosecute certain crimes recognized under international law, ... Universal Criminal JurisdictionUniversal criminal jurisdiction is the authority of state courts, ... Universal criminal jurisdiction is the authority of state courts, or international tribunals with criminal jurisdiction, to ...
... criminals are finding ways to profit from the coronavirus crisis, European police warn. ... "Criminals are just interested in one question: how can I make more money?," Europol director Catherine De Bolle told AFP in ... Criminals are finding burglary and drug smuggling difficult due to the coronavirus -- so they are going online ... With billions of people under lockdown in their homes and borders shut, police chiefs say criminals are finding it hard to make ...
Cyber Criminals Become More Professional Cyber Criminals Become More Professional. New Internet security threat research ... cyber criminals are now utilizing more professional attack methods, tools. and strategies to conduct malicious activity. ... concludes that cyber criminals are increasingly becoming more professional -. even commercial - in the development, ... detected an increase in cyber criminals leveraging sophisticated toolkits to. carry out malicious attacks. One example of this ...
Module 3: Criminal Justice Response to Migrant Smuggling*Introduction & Learning Outcomes. *Key Issues*Criminal Justice Reponse ... Module 3: Criminal Justice Responses to Wildlife Trafficking*Introduction & Learning Outcomes. *Key Issues*Criminal Justice ... Interconnections between Organized Criminal Groups & Terrorist Groups. *Gangs - Organized Crime & Terrorism: An Evolving ... Module 9: Criminal Justice Responses to Trafficking in Persons*Introduction & Learning Outcomes ...
Learn about criminal law basics and more at FindLaws Criminal Law section. ... The criminal justice system involves many moving parts, including the police who gather evidence, the DAs who prosecute crimes ... Criminal Law Basics: The System and Procedure. The criminal justice system encompasses the entire criminal process itself -- ... This overview discusses various criminal law basics, such as criminal statutes, criminal law procedure, and the potential ...
or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. ...
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Criminal Offense Charges. The University reserves the right to review the case of any student who has been implicated in a ... catalog/colleges/coas/Department-of-Criminology-and-Criminal-Justice.html 380a20fc0a00008c1d658ad90e27a9bd /catalog/colleges/ ... catalog/admissions/all-students/Criminal-Offense.html 3809fee30a00008c1d658ad9d263f12d /catalog/admissions/all-students/Medical ... criminal offense prior to admission to determine eligibility for admission and participation in extracurricular activities. ...
In order to help you reach your goal, the College of Science and the Department of Criminal Justice, Criminology, & Forensic ...
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Marginal note:Causing death by criminal negligence. 220 Every person who by criminal negligence causes death to another person ... Marginal note:Causing bodily harm by criminal negligence. 221 Every person who by criminal negligence causes bodily harm to ... Marginal note:Criminal harassment. (6) Irrespective of whether a murder is planned and deliberate on the part of any person, ... a) the death is caused by that person for the benefit of, at the direction of or in association with a criminal organization; ...
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  • Report (ISTR), Volume XII released today by Symantec Corp. (Nasdaq: SYMC) concludes that cyber criminals are increasingly becoming more professional - even commercial - in the development, distribution and use of malicious code and services. (
  • While cybercrime continues to be driven by financial gain, cyber criminals are now utilizing more professional attack methods, tools and strategies to conduct malicious activity. (
  • During the reporting period of Jan. 1, 2007, through June 30, 2007, Symantec detected an increase in cyber criminals leveraging sophisticated toolkits to carry out malicious attacks. (
  • MPack also exemplifies a coordinated attack, which Symantec reported as a growing trend in the previous volume of the ISTR where cyber criminals deploy a combination of malicious activity. (
  • The spam had cyber-criminals hijack CardioVascularLIVE a lawful Internet site into which they inserted malevolent diversion code. (
  • Remarking about the above scams, Senior Technology Consultant Graham Cluley at Sophos stated that cyber-criminals/scammers had repeatedly proven themselves as devoid of any trepidation regarding abusing news-stories, irrespective of if those were about prominent historical happenings, natural calamities, or famous personalities' demises. (
  • The purpose of a criminal warrant is to authorize law enforcement officials to apprehend and present the taking parent for prosecution. (
  • At the end of both World Wars I (1914-1918) and II (1939-1945) the victorious Allied leaders decided to create tribunals for the prosecution of war criminals, the most notable being the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg. (
  • The presented study reports the relations in the Brazilian penal code concerning to criminal responsibility of the health professionals, analyzing the dental behaviors which, once applied, configure criminal types, subjecting the agent to the prosecution and trial of criminal justice. (
  • Any resulting criminal prosecution from the investigation could have political ramifications. (
  • Generating revenue from their nefarious criminal activities is the name of the game for these highly organized and well-resourced criminal gangs. (
  • By choosing to proactively address any potential weaknesses in its framework, the bank could help reduce the risk that its products and services may be exploited by criminals for nefarious purposes. (
  • Universal criminal jurisdiction is the authority of state courts, or international tribunals with criminal jurisdiction, to prosecute certain crimes recognized under international law , regardless of where the offense occurred or the nationality of either the victim or perpetrator. (
  • The University reserves the right to review the case of any student who has been implicated in a criminal offense prior to admission to determine eligibility for admission and participation in extracurricular activities. (
  • Usually in order to be guilty of criminal trespass, there must be some intent , meaning that accidentally going on another person's property isn't a punishable offense. (
  • Under a Supreme Court ruling , a corporate official may be prosecuted for a criminal misdemeanor offense under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act even without proof that the official acted with intent or actual knowledge of the offense. (
  • The department is one of the participants in Forensic Science , an interdisciplinary major leading to a B.S. The Criminal Justice (B.S.) Degree can be obtained by taking online courses. (
  • The objective of this workshop is to take a closer look at how the United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice can support effective, fair, humane and accountable criminal justice systems. (
  • What every Missouri motorist should know about the state's driving while intoxicated (DWI) laws, including criminal penalties, administrative penalties, and the meaning of 'implied consent. (
  • A provision in the Massachusetts criminal justice reform law signed by Gov. Charlie Baker amends the state's restrictions on the questions employers may ask a job applicant regarding the applicant's criminal history during the hiring process. (
  • The Massachusetts 'ban-the-box' provision was part of legislation enacted to reform the state's criminal offender record information system. (
  • The prosecutor, the laws of the country where your child is located, and the taking parent's behavior will all have an effect on how successful criminal charges are in securing your child's return. (
  • Thus, similar to evidence found at crime scenes, we conclude that structural patterns of criminal networks carry crucial information about illegal activities, which allows machine learning methods to predict missing information and even anticipate future criminal behavior. (
  • All these regularities and patterns have great potential in helping police investigations, serving as predictive features of future criminal behavior, missing links between individuals, and other properties of unlawful associations. (
  • Criminal justice is a multidisciplinary field that draws together perspectives from sociology, political science, psychology, history, philosophy and law in an effort to understand major issues surrounding the causes of criminal behavior, inequalities in the criminal justice system and the organization of criminal justice institutions. (
  • The Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Criminal Justice includes a multidisciplinary faculty from four academic traditions: sociology, anthropology, criminal justice and social work. (
  • The Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Criminal Justice is situated squarely at the crossroads of the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, and the humanities. (
  • Now, the Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice boasts seven degree programs and thousands of alumni. (
  • Faculty members in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice have achieved national and international recognition for their published research and other scholarly activities. (
  • In the UK a barister was struck off for advising (criminal) clients about how to evade "forensic" investigation, and how to throw a bad light on the results if they did find themselves in the dock. (
  • Here, our goal is to fill this gap by presenting a comprehensive investigation of political corruption, criminal police intelligence, and criminal financial networks. (
  • Finally, our investigation shows that one can predict future criminal partners during the growth of political corruption networks. (
  • Azerbaijan said it has launched a criminal investigation into supporters of Turkish preacher Fethullah Gulen, whom Ankara blames for last month's aborted coup. (
  • A new Urban Institute report examines the two types of criminal background checks-FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) background checks and checks from commercial vendors-and finds that both produce incomplete and inaccurate reports. (
  • Minors in Criminal Justice Administration, Criminal Investigation and Homeland Security are also available. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration has launched a criminal investigation into research by a Southern Illinois University professor who injected people with his unauthorized herpes vaccine, Kaiser Health News has learned. (
  • Since the research appears to be an effort to totally evade FDA oversight and is egregious, it makes sense the FDA would investigate it as a criminal matter," said Patricia Zettler, a former FDA lawyer who was told of the criminal investigation by KHN. (
  • Spanish police said there had been a roughly 50 percent drop in criminal offences compared to a year earlier since the country was put on a near total lockdown on March 14. (
  • A new law which allows councils to ban activities in public spaces is leading to 'bizarre new criminal offences', campaigners claim. (
  • But this very feature also makes it increasingly attractive to determined criminals who seek to take advantage of innovations such as digital banking and cryptocurrencies to launder dirty money and finance drugs, sex trafficking, terrorism and worse. (
  • Sixty percent of companies perform criminal background checks to reduce their liability, reduce the risk of theft, minimize threats to the workplace, and promote public safety. (
  • Speak with a Missouri criminal defense attorney if you have additional questions. (
  • The following chart provides a brief overview of criminal trespassing laws in Tennessee as well as links to relevant statutes. (
  • Furthermore, the International Criminal Court's bias contributes to global inequalities, however, the International Criminal Court has the potential to create a fairer international law, ensuring the human right to a fair trial. (
  • Because these restrictions on criminal history questions are so specific, many employers use special, custom forms that describe these restrictions when asking permissible criminal history questions at a later date in the application process. (
  • This paper will give a brief description of the Criminal Justice System and its purpose, and describe the key component of this system. (
  • When US National Security Advisor John "The Walrus" Bolton threatened the International Criminal Court with US Sanctions many of us here in Africa cheered, long having given up hope that the ICC would ever be held to even the slightest account, least of all for its crimes against our continent. (
  • In conclusion, the International Criminal Court is biased towards Africa through selective justice, which violates the human right to a fair trial. (
  • The existence of criminal charges may also negatively impact a foreign court's decision about whether to order or deny your child's return under the Hague Abduction Convention. (
  • The International Criminal Court's bias against the Third World African states in correlation to the human right to a fair trial is investigated. (
  • Aggravated criminal trespass is a Class A misdemeanor if committed in a habitation , hospital, or at a public or private school, and a Class B misdemeanor if committed anywhere else. (
  • The new restrictions include an adjusted limitation on asking about misdemeanor convictions and a bar on asking about sealed or expunged criminal records. (
  • Smooth Criminal - siódmy singel wydany z albumu Michaela Jacksona zatytułowanego Bad . (
  • Smooth Criminal" jest w całości skomponowany przez Michaela Jacksona. (
  • Mandeep Saggi (Principal Lawyer) Brampton Criminal Lawyer is a local Brampton Criminal Lawyer. (
  • All three component of the criminal justice system have the same main objective: to ensure the law is respected, and to punish the offenders while protecting the right of citizens. (
  • It defines which actions causing injury or offence to community members are criminal, and offenders may face fines, imprisonment and/or community service as sanctions for their criminal acts. (
  • It will finally examine the question of the individual responsibility for these crimes, implemented by the national (Belgian) penal jurisdictions or by the international penal jurisdictions (International tribunal for Ex-Yugoslavia and Rwanda, International criminal court) or courts (e.g. (
  • There are three components for the criminal justice system is the police, the courts and then corrections. (
  • The criminal justice system is composed of three parts - Police, Courts and Corrections - and all three work together to protect an individual's rights and the rights of society to live without fear of being a victim of crime. (
  • The criminal justice system is comprised of a basic formation, the law enforcement agencies, the courts, and the correctional services. (
  • I Felt I Was Screaming Under the Water': Domestic Violence Victims' Experiences in Iran's Police Departments and Criminal Courts. (
  • We are a state-funded, non-profit organization, that specializes in the provision of outpatient clinical services for those negatively associated with the criminal justice system. (
  • The report surveys the existence and enforcement of criminal defamation laws and other laws criminalizing or restricting speech across the Americas, including their application to growing methods of news dissemination such as the Internet and mobile communications. (
  • A student in the Criminal Justice Administration program may pursue a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree, with concentrations available in either Law Enforcement, Emergency Management or Homeland Security. (
  • This publication makes a notable contribution to our understanding of the chilling effect that criminal defamation laws can have on freedom of expression in the Americas, and it highlights best and worst practices that can guide advocacy efforts for legal reform. (
  • It is based on the knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of the criminal law, of the penal procedure and of the international public law. (
  • they determine criminal cases and decide if an offender is guilty or innocent along with many other things. (
  • The goals of the C3 STH program are to help clients locate secure housing, increase their self-sufficiency, and reduce criminal justice involvement. (
  • Here we explore some of the other hallmarks of basic criminal procedure. (
  • To acquire a knowledge relating to international aspects of the criminal law and the criminal procedure. (
  • Your decision about whether to pursue criminal charges against the taking parent is a difficult one that should be made through consultation with your legal representative and in consideration of its potential impact on other aspects of your efforts to secure your child's return. (
  • The Office of Children's Issues can provide information about U.S. laws that make parental abduction a crime, resources for how to pursue a criminal warrant, and observations about some of the potential consequences of such an action based on knowledge of the laws and/or practices in the country to which your child has been abducted. (
  • In the midst of COVID-19, in the face of increased criminal activity during these uncertain times, and in response to changing regulatory obligations, the time was right to review and assess the bank's operations to make sure it was appropriately identifying potential threats from criminal activity and playing its part in submitting regulatory reports to inform ongoing intelligence efforts. (
  • Britain's criminal lawyers stage walkout in dispute over govt. (
  • To prevent illegal actions on the territory of Azerbaijan by the supporters of the terrorist organization of Fethullah Gulen, the prosecutor-general has launched a criminal case,' spokesman Eldar Sultanov told AFP. (
  • The Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC) is the Australian Government agency responsible for detecting, deterring and disrupting criminal abuse of the financial system to protect Australian communities from serious and organised crime. (
  • Organisations are tackling financial crime amidst tightening regulation, growing customer demands for integrity and increasing criminal sophistication. (
  • In parallel, Deloitte helped to advise on process, system and control changes to enhance its AML/CTF program and make it harder than ever for criminals to launder the proceeds of crime through the bank. (
  • The changes will scrap previous rules where criminals could be granted citizenship if a certain number of years had passed since they finished their sentence, regardless of the type of crime. (
  • UPDATED: Though it has a reputation of upholding international law, Norway has refused to ratify an amendment that adds the crime of aggression to the International Criminal Court. (
  • The Criminal Justice industry offers a rich array of career options for anyone interested in fighting crime and lessening its effects on the innocent. (
  • The criminal justice major offers a liberal arts approach to crime, law and justice that integrates theory, research and legal analysis. (
  • It emphasizes the history of crime and the criminal justice system, the structure of its institutions and problems faced by professionals and leaders at every level, from the halls of Congress to the urban police beat. (
  • In his opening remarks today during a workshop at the 13th UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Doha, RWI's director, Morten Kjaerum , called on states to ensure that the standards meant to promote respect for human rights in the criminal justice system have an impact on prison populations. (
  • Anthropology was added much more recently in 2013 and Criminal Justice quickly followed suit in 2017. (
  • Missouri criminal laws include provisions for violent crimes such as assault and battery, robbery, sexual assault, and the various types of homicide (from involuntary manslaughter to first-degree murder). (
  • In 2010, Massachusetts became the second state in the nation (Hawaii was the first) to ban both public and private employers from requesting criminal record information on initial job applications. (
  • Under Massachusetts law, employers are prohibited from asking for information about an applicant's criminal history on an 'initial written employment application' (this is referred to as the ban-the-box provision). (
  • After the initial written employment application, Massachusetts employers are still restricted on the types of criminal history questions they may ask applicants. (
  • Second, the law prohibits employers from asking applicants for information about a criminal record that has been sealed or expunged. (
  • Following the latest amendments, Massachusetts employers that ask questions regarding criminal history after the initial written employment application as part of their hiring practices and procedures should plan to adjust these questions, if necessary, and ensure key employees in the hiring process are educated about the new limitations. (
  • But flaws in those background checks make them misleading to employers and can create unnecessary barriers to employment for people with criminal records long after those people have served their time. (
  • With billions of people under lockdown in their homes and borders shut, police chiefs say criminals are finding it hard to make money out of "traditional" activities like burglary and drug smuggling. (
  • Criminals are just interested in one question: 'how can I make more money? (
  • Here, by combining graph representation learning and machine learning methods, we show that structural properties of political corruption, police intelligence, and money laundering networks can be used to recover missing criminal partnerships, distinguish among different types of criminal and legal associations, as well as predict the total amount of money exchanged among criminal agents, all with outstanding accuracy. (
  • In addition to being useful in classification tasks, we have also verified that the representations obtained from node2vec predict the total amount of money exchanged among agents of a criminal financial network with excellent accuracy. (
  • The Thought Criminals were an influential and enterprising Australian punk band based in Sydney. (
  • Based on the results, the International Criminal Court has to rely on internationally accepted human rights jurisprudence and operate according to the international communities' requirements in order to end impunity. (
  • The sources familiar with the inquiry said the FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations, which has dozens of offices across the country , began to aggressively pursue the case weeks ago. (
  • If the judge hearing the Hague Abduction Convention case is aware the taking parent faces arrest upon arrival, the judge may deny the return or order it only if the criminal charges are dropped. (
  • Criminal charges may encourage a taking parent to go deeper into hiding to avoid arrest. (
  • The goals of the criminal justice system to arrest a taking parent may be in conflict with your wishes, and once initiated, the prosecutor has control of any and all criminal proceedings. (
  • The purpose was to evaluate survey questions on respondent experiences with the criminal justice system in order to understand the constructs of arrest, conviction, and incarceration. (
  • Even in countries where criminal defamation laws are not actively enforced, their existence continues to have a significant impact on the willingness and ability of individuals and media organizations to discuss key issues, posing as a very tangible threat to freedom of expression. (
  • Criminal charges may adversely affect Hague return proceedings. (
  • Title : Mental competency proceedings in Federal criminal cases Personal Author(s) : Smith, Charles E.;Strawberry, Kenneth R. (
  • 1. Background checks identify people as having criminal histories when they might not. (
  • 2. Background checks identify people as having no criminal history when in fact they might. (
  • Nov. 28, 2011 - PRLog -- A criminal background check has become even more important in this day and age because most people have a hard time trusting a stranger so easily. (
  • According to four people with knowledge about the inquiry, the FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations is looking into whether anyone from SIU or Halford's former company, Rational Vaccines, violated FDA regulations by helping Halford conduct unauthorized research. (
  • Criminal Justice Insight - You could have relevant experience in corrections, criminal justice , or recovery services. (
  • Recent research has shown that criminal networks have complex organizational structures, but whether this can be used to predict static and dynamic properties of criminal networks remains little explored. (
  • While you may request withdrawal of criminal charges against the taking parent, only the entity which issued the charges and/or a judge has the authority do so and may not agree to your request. (
  • You will need to consider your goals and the implications criminal charges may have for you and your child. (
  • Disgraced NY Gov Eliot Spitzer just dodged a big bullet: He won't have to face criminal charges in Hookergate. (
  • Commercial vendors' reports have been criticized for capturing false negatives that indicate a lack of criminal history when there actually is one. (
  • Discover how easy it is to find anyones criminal background check history here today. (
  • Because quite frankly, you never know what type of criminal records history the person has until you perform a detailed background check on the individual. (
  • Pictured is Ten Most Wanted Fugitive William Francis Sutton's criminal history. (
  • We rely on the node2vec 32 method for obtaining vector representations of nodes and edges from these criminal networks, which are then combined with simple machine learning methods in a series of predictive tasks. (
  • The regulator, and the regulated sector including banks and other financial services and gaming organisations, play a key role in outsmarting professional criminals by working together to stay one step ahead. (
  • The reforms, known as Phase 1.5, increase the resilience of our financial system against criminal threats, while making it easier for businesses to understand and comply with increased regulations. (
  • I am cracking down on abuse of the UK's immigration and nationality system, by introducing a tougher threshold so that serious criminals cannot gain British citizenship. (
  • So what can we as customers of shops and other outlets, do to ensure the shops we visit either in person or online protect our information and we can give them our credit cards details without fear they will be sold on to the criminal underworld? (
  • Learn about the constitutional rights that protect criminal defendants. (
  • The criminal justice system consist of a system of laws and processes that protect community members and the public. (
  • The Thought Criminals' Doublethink label evolved from a record label to include agency and PR functions. (
  • The professional should always keep in mind that along with his hand ability, innovative techniques and the best material applied there is Deontology evaluating three areas: civil, ethical-administrative and criminal. (
  • Any criminal who has received a jail sentence of a year or more will face stricter "good character" rules that will allow immigration officials to reject their applications for citizenship. (
  • Recognizing that serious violations of humanitarian law were committed in Rwanda, and acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) by resolution 955 of 8 November 1994. (
  • THE HAGUE - From trafficking dodgy surgical masks to peddling counterfeit medicines and running internet scams, criminals are finding ways to profit from the coronavirus crisis, European police warn. (