Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Streptomyces griseus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Receptor, Muscarinic M1: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.N-Methylscopolamine: A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals: Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.

Expression cloning for arsenite-resistance resulted in isolation of tumor-suppressor fau cDNA: possible involvement of the ubiquitin system in arsenic carcinogenesis. (1/7520)

Arsenic is a human carcinogen whose mechanism of action is unknown. Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that arsenite acts as a comutagen by interfering with DNA repair, although a specific DNA repair enzyme sensitive to arsenite has not been identified. A number of stable arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant sublines of Chinese hamster V79 cells have now been isolated. In order to gain understanding of possible targets for arsenite's action, one arsenite-resistant subline, As/R28A, was chosen as a donor for a cDNA expression library. The library from arsenite-induced As/R28A cells was transfected into arsenite-sensitive As/S5 cells, and transfectants were selected for arsenite-resistance. Two cDNAs, asr1 and asr2, which confer arsenite resistance to arsenite-hypersensitive As/S5 cells as well as to wild-type cells, were isolated. asr1 shows almost complete homology with the rat fau gene, a tumor suppressor gene which contains a ubiquitin-like region fused to S30 ribosomal protein. Arsenite was previously shown to inhibit ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor fau gene product or some other aspect of the ubiquitin system may be a target for arsenic toxicity and that disruption of the ubiquitin system may contribute to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenite.  (+info)

Initiation of DNA replication at the Chinese hamster origin oriGNAI3 relies on local sequences and/or chromatin structures, but not on transcription of the nearby GNAI3 gene. (2/7520)

We recently identified a region of preferential replication initiation, oriGNAI3, near the 3' end of the Chinese hamster GNAI3 gene. oriGNAI3 is co-amplified in mutants selected for AMPD2 amplification, a process generating chromosomal rearrangements. In this report we have taken advantage of cell lines with truncated and translocated amplified units to show that these rearrangements do not alter the function of ori GNAI3. These results indicate that replication initiation at this locus relies essentially on local features. Interestingly, the study of one line in which a rearrangement has disrupted the GNAI3 gene shows that ongoing transcription of this gene is not required for initiation at oriGNAI3. In order to obtain further insight into the sequences and/or chromatin structures required for oriGNAI3 function, we have analyzed the DNase I sensitivity and nucleotide sequence of the region. The features important for replication initiation appear to cluster in a 7-12 kb region which includes oriGNAI3.  (+info)

N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine a fluorescent probe for intracellular thiols and S-nitrosothiols. (3/7520)

The fluorescence emission spectrum of N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine was enhanced approximately 8-fold upon removal of the NO group either by photolysis or by transnitrosation with free thiols like glutathione. The fluorescence enhancement was reversible in that it could be quenched in the presence of excess S-nitrosoglutathione. Attempts were then made to utilize N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine as an intracellular probe of thiols/S-nitrosothiols. Fluorescence microscopy of fibroblasts in culture indicated that intracellular N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine levels reached a maximum within 5 min. N-Dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine fluorescence was directly proportional to intracellular GSH levels, directly determined with HPLC. N-Dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine preloaded cells were also sensitive to S-nitrosoglutathione uptake as the intracellular fluorescence decreased as a function of time upon exposure to extracellular S-nitrosoglutathione.  (+info)

NHE2 contains subdomains in the COOH terminus for growth factor and protein kinase regulation. (4/7520)

The cloned epithelial cell-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 is stimulated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), okadaic acid (OA), and fetal bovine serum (FBS) through a change in maximal velocity of the transporter. In the present study, we used COOH-terminal truncation mutants to delineate specific domains in the COOH terminus of NHE2 that are responsible for growth factor and/or protein kinase regulation. Five truncation mutants (designated by the amino acid number at the truncation site) were stably expressed in NHE-deficient PS120 fibroblasts. The effects of PMA, FGF, OA, FBS, and W-13 [a Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor] were studied. Truncation mutant E2/660, but not E2/573, was stimulated by PMA. OA stimulated E2/573 but not E2/540. FGF stimulated E2/540 but not E2/499. The most truncated mutant, E2/499, was stimulated by FBS. W-13 stimulated the basal activity of the wild-type NHE2. However, W-13 had no effect on E2/755. By monitoring the emission spectra of dansylated CaM fluorescence, we showed that dansylated CaM bound directly to a purified fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase and the last 87 amino acids of NHE2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner, with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a dissociation constant of 300 nM. Our results showed that the COOH terminus of NHE2 is organized into separate stimulatory and inhibitory growth factor/protein kinase regulatory subdomains. This organization of growth factor/protein kinase regulatory subdomains is very similar to that of NHE3, suggesting that the tertiary structures of the putative COOH termini of NHE2 and NHE3 are very similar despite the minimal amino acid identity in this part of the two proteins.  (+info)

The NDUFA1 gene product (MWFE protein) is essential for activity of complex I in mammalian mitochondria. (5/7520)

The MWFE polypeptide of mammalian complex I (the proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase) is 70 amino acids long, and it is predicted to be a membrane protein. The NDUFA1 gene encoding the MWFE polypeptide is located on the X chromosome. This polypeptide is 1 of approximately 28 "accessory proteins" identified in complex I, which is composed of 42 unlike subunits. It was considered accessory, because it is not one of the 14 polypeptides making up the core complex I; a homologous set of 14 polypeptides can make a fully functional proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase in prokaryotes. One MWFE mutant has been identified and isolated from a collection of respiration-deficient Chinese hamster cell mutants. The CCL16-B2 mutant has suffered a deletion that would produce a truncated and abnormal MWFE protein. In these mutant cells, complex I activity is reduced severely (<10%). Complementation with hamster NDUFA1 cDNA restored the rotenone-sensitive complex I activity of these mutant cells to approximately 100% of the parent cell activity. Thus, it is established that the MWFE polypeptide is absolutely essential for an active complex I in mammals.  (+info)

The peroxin Pex14p. cDNA cloning by functional complementation on a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant, characterization, and functional analysis. (6/7520)

Rat cDNA encoding a 376-amino acid peroxin was isolated by functional complementation of a peroxisome-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant, ZP110, of complementation group 14 (CG14). The primary sequence showed 28 and 24% amino acid identity with the yeast Pex14p from Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively; therefore, we termed this cDNA rat PEX14 (RnPEX14). Human and Chinese hamster Pex14p showed 96 and 94% identity to rat Pex14p, except that both Pex14p comprised 377 amino acids. Pex14p was characterized as an integral membrane protein of peroxisomes, exposing its N- and C-terminal parts to the cytosol. Pex14p interacts with both Pex5p and Pex7p, the receptors for peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) and PTS2, respectively, together with the receptors' cargoes, PTS1 and PTS2 proteins. Mutation in PEX14 from ZP161, the same CG as ZP110, was determined by reverse transcription-PCR as follows. A 133-base pair deletion at nucleotide residues 37-169 in one allele created a termination codon at 40-42; in addition to this mutation, 103 base pairs were deleted at positions 385-487, resulting in the second termination immediately downstream the second deletion site in the other allele. Neither of these two mutant forms of Pex14p restored peroxisome biogenesis in ZP110 and ZP161, thereby demonstrating PEX14 to be responsible for peroxisome deficiency in CG14.  (+info)

Characterization of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases involved in the glucuronidation of an antithrombotic thioxyloside in rat and humans. (7/7520)

To investigate the glucuronidation on the hydroxyl group of carbohydrate-containing drugs, the in vitro formation of glucuronides on the thioxyloside ring of the antithrombotic drug, LF 4.0212, was followed in rat and human liver microsomes and with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). The reaction revealed a marked regioselectivity in rat and humans. Human liver microsomes glucuronidated the compound mainly on the 2-hydroxyl position of the thioxyloside ring, whereas rat was able to form glucuronide on either the 2-, 3-, or 4- hydroxyl group of the molecule, although to a lower extent. LF 4.0212 was a much better substrate of human UGT than the rat enzyme (Vmax/Km 30.0 and 0.06 microl/min/mg, respectively). Phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, and clofibrate enhanced the glucuronidation of LF 4.0212 on positions 2, 3, and 4 of the thioxyloside ring, thus indicating that several UGT isoforms were involved in this process. The biosynthesis of the 2-O-glucuronide isomer was catalyzed by the human UGT1A9 and 2B4, but not by UGT1A6 and 2B11. By contrast, the rat liver recombinant UGT1A6 and 2B1 failed to form the 2-O-glucuronide isomers. From all the recombinant UGTs tested, none catalyzed the formation of the 3-O-glucuronide isomer. Interestingly, glucuronidation on the 4-position was found in all the metabolic competent V79 cell lines considered, including the nontransfected V79 cells, suggesting the presence of an endogenous UGT in fibroblasts able to actively glucuronidate the drug. This activity, which was nonsensitive to the inhibitory effect of 7,7,7-triphenylheptanoic acid, a potent UGT inhibitor, could reflect the existence of a different enzyme.  (+info)

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in glycosaminoglycan assembly and glucuronosyltransferase I. (8/7520)

The proteoglycans of animal cells typically contain one or more heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains. These glycosaminoglycans assemble on a tetrasaccharide primer, -GlcAbeta1, 3Galbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Xylbeta-O-, attached to specific serine residues in the core protein. Studies of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in the first or second enzymes of the pathway (xylosyltransferase and galactosyltransferase I) show that the assembly of the primer occurs by sequential transfer of single monosaccharide residues from the corresponding high energy nucleotide sugar donor to the non-reducing end of the growing chain. In order to study the other reactions involved in linkage tetrasaccharide assembly, we have devised a powerful selection method based on induced resistance to a mitotoxin composed of basic fibroblast growth factor-saporin. One class of mutants does not incorporate 35SO4 and [6-3H]GlcN into glycosaminoglycan chains. Incubation of these cells with naphthol-beta-D-xyloside (Xylbeta-O-Np) resulted in accumulation of linkage region intermediates containing 1 or 2 mol of galactose (Galbeta1, 4Xylbeta-O-Np and Galbeta1, 3Galbeta1, 4Xylbeta-O-Np) and sialic acid (Siaalpha2,3Galbeta1, 3Galbeta1, 4Xylbeta-O-Np) but not any GlcA-containing oligosaccharides. Extracts of the mutants completely lacked UDP-glucuronic acid:Galbeta1,3Gal-R glucuronosyltransferase (GlcAT-I) activity, as measured by the transfer of GlcA from UDP-GlcA to Galbeta1,3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol (<0.2 versus 3.6 pmol/min/mg). The mutation most likely lies in the structural gene encoding GlcAT-I since transfection of the mutant with a cDNA for GlcAT-I completely restored enzyme activity and glycosaminoglycan synthesis. These findings suggest that a single GlcAT effects the biosynthesis of common linkage region of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  (+info)

Incubation of adriamycin resistant Chinese hamster lung cells with low levels of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) results in a major increase in the cellular accumulation of drug. When resistant cells are prelabeled with [32Pi] and thereafter treated with NEM there also occurs a selective superphosphorylation of an 180K plasma membrane glycoprotein (P-180). This phosphorylation reaction occurs at both serine and threonine residues. In similar experiments with drug sensitive cells only minor levels of this protein can be detected. Detailed studies have established that in cells which have reverted to drug sensitivity there is a parallel loss in the presence of phosphorylated P-180. Also in cells which have undergone partial reversion to drug sensitivity there is a correlation between levels of superphosphorylated P-180 and adriamycin resistance. These results provide evidence that adriamycin resistance is dependent on the presence of P-180. The results also suggest that the biological activity of this protein is
Used for carcinoma cells, rat skeletal myoblasts, Chinese hamster lung cells, and rat, rabbit, and chicken embryos. Corning™ cellgro™ DMEM/Hams Medium F-12 Mix is based on Hams F-10 medium with increased concentrations of choline, inositol, putrescine, and several amino acids. X6 500 mL Hams F-12 Medium w L-glut ...
N,N,N,N-tetramethyl ethanediamine (TMEDA, 99.86% pure) was tested for its potentials to induce chromosome aberrations in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with and without metabolic activation according to OECD TG 473 in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice. TMEDA was tested at concentrations of 500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 micrograms/mL in both with and without activation. It produced a positive response in this system with or without metabolic activation, but only at the highest concentration 5,000 micrograms/mL However, according to the OECD guidelines TG 473, the compound is considered to be negative in the CHO chromosomal aberration assay, since the compound is not clastogenic at 0.01M (1,140 micrograms/mL). A confirmatory chromosome aberration assay was performed without activation also showed negative at concentrations up to 3,000 micrograms/mL but positive at the highest concentration.
We have isolated three independent Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants (B3853, I223, and M311) with temperature-sensitive, pleiotropic defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Activities affected at 41 degrees C include uptake via the D-mannose 6-phosphate receptor, accumulation of Fe from diferric transferrin, uptake of alpha 2-macroglobulin, compartmentalization of newly synthesized acid hydrolases, resistance to ricin, and sensitivity to diphtheria and Pseudomonas toxins and modeccin. The three mutants also displayed decreased sialylation of some secreted glycoproteins at 41 degrees C, reminiscent of the nonconditional mutant DTG1-5-4 that showed both endocytic and Golgi-associated defects (Robbins, A.R., C. Oliver, J.L. Bateman, S.S. Krag, C.J. Galloway, and I. Mellman, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1296-1308). Phenotypic changes were detectable within 30 min after transfer of the mutants to 41 degrees C; maximal alteration of most susceptible functions was obtained 4 h after temperature shift. At ...
L-Histidine markedly increased the growth- and DNA synthesis-inhibitory effects elicited by hydrogen peroxide in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. DNA single-strand breakage was also higher in the presence of the amino acid and, in addition, these breaks were characterized by a slower rate of repair, compared with that of the breaks generated by the oxidant alone. In the presence of L-histidine, hydrogen peroxide also produced DNA double-strand breakage, a lesion that cannot be detected in cells treated with even exceedingly high concentrations of the oxidant alone. Data reported herein suggest that the L-histidine-mediated increase of the cytotoxic response of cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells to hydrogen peroxide may be at least partially dependent on the formation of DNA double-strand breaks. ...
The present study aimed to submit the transglutaminase (TGase) from a |I|Bacillus circulans|/I| strain isolated from the Amazon environment to |I|in vivo|/I| and |I|in vitro|/I| toxicological evaluations in order to assess its safety in food. The |I| in vivo|/I| assay was assessed using male Wistar rats in a subacute 14 day oral feeding test using a liquid enzyme preparation administered to 150 U kg b.wt. day|SUP|-1|/SUP|. The evaluation of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenic effects of this microbial TGase was carried out using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts cultured cells. No evidence of short term |I|in vivo|/I| toxicity was found for the enzymatic preparation in the subacute 14 day oral toxicity study using white Wistar rats models, daily treated with 150 U kg b.wt. day|SUP|-1 |/SUP|of TGase preparation. Furthermore, there were no statistical differences between the groups for relative weight gain and for hematological and clinical chemistry values. Histopathological examination of liver,
Metabolic cooperation assays were conducted with Chinese-hamster-V79 cells at three separate laboratories using standardized protocols and chemicals of known tumor promoting activity. Each laboratory used identical lots of test chemicals, solvents, serum, medium, and trypsin as well as a standard protocol. The chemicals to be tested were either known tumor promoters or had related chemical structu
Posted on small animals bit, but thought Id ask here. Im 14 weeks and as DP works away, Ive been cleaning out my DDa hamster cage all of this pre
BioAssay record AID 41661 submitted by ChEMBL: Beta-3 agonist efficacy in an adenylate cyclase assay performed on chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human Beta-3 adrenergic receptor; Inactive.
Substrate effects on the activation kinetics of Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase by p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB) have been studied. On the basis of the kinetic equation of substrate reaction in the presence of pCMB, all modification kinetic constants for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate binary and ternary complexes have been determined. The results of the present study indicate that the modification of Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase by pCMB shows single-phase kinetics, and that changes in the enzyme activity and tertiary structure proceed simultaneously during the modification process. Both substrates, NADPH and 7,8-dihydrofolate, protect dihydrofolate reductase against modification by pCMB. In the presence of a saturating concentration of NADPH, the value of kcat for 7,8-dihydrofolate in the enzyme-catalysed reaction increased four-fold on modification of Cys-6, accompanied by a two-fold increase in Km for the modified enzyme. The utilization of the binding energy of a ...
COUPLING OF MUSCARINIC M1, M2 AND M3 ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTORS, EXPRESSED IN CHINESE-HAMSTER OVARY CELLS, TO PERTUSSIS-TOXIN-SENSITIVE INSENSITIVE GUANINE-NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING ...
BioAssay record AID 4623 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]5-HT from human 5-hydroxytryptamine 1D receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells).
The effect of hyperosmolarity on transient recombinant protein production in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was investigated. Addition of 90 mM NaCl to the production medium ProCHO5 increased the volumetric yield of recombinant antibody up to 4-fold relative to transfection in ProCHO5 alone. Volumetric yields up to 50 mg l(-1) were achieved in a 6 day batch culture of 3 l. In addition, hyperosmolarity reduced cell growth and increased cell size. The addition of salt to cultures of transiently transfected CHO cells is a simple and cost-effective method to increase TGE yields in this host. Zhang, Xiaowei; Garcia, Isabel Fernandez; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L.; Wurm, Florian M.
Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adhering CHO cell culture - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi, I am totally new to CHO (chinese hamster ovary) cell culture, and to make things worse, I am in charge now of five different mutant CHO cell lines received by donation (4 day-travel and customs) . So the thing is that to not make mistakes I am growing them in a rich Hams F12 medium containing 10% FBS, pen-streptomycin, glutamine, and non essential amino-acids. They grow quite well according to their passage number,...
Recombinant Mouse Itga4&Itgb1 (Accession # AAH68313 (Integrin alpha 4) & P09055 (Integrin beta 1)) was produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived.
I am trying to determine the best dose of hygromycin that i can use to select my transfected colonies. (working with chinese hamster cell lines). I have tried several concentrations (from 50-250 microgram per ml) on my host cells and changing the media plus antibiotic every 1-2 days. Each time the media has turned yellow and lots of dead cells but still surviving colonies can be seen. How could we know if the cell death is because of the overgrowth of the culture and consequent bad condition or because of the antibiotic?. ...
CGEN-15001T is a novel B7/CD28-like immune checkpoint target candidate discovered by Compugen.. Studies testing the immune function of CGEN-15001T, as a membrane bound protein or using a recombinant fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of CGEN-15001T, showed it is capable of inhibiting T cell activation, promoting a Th1 to Th2 shift, and potentially inducing immune tolerance. CGEN-15001T is expressed in subpopulations of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in both tumor and normal tissue samples.. In August 2013, Compugen signed a research and discovery collaboration and license agreement with Bayer HealthCare for the development and commercialization of antibody-based therapeutics for cancer immunotherapy against CGEN-15001T. After achieving all preclinical stage milestones, this program was transferred to Bayer for further development. To date, preclinical activities are on track, and pivotal toxicity studies and GMP clinical trial material production are ongoing.. ...
MGAT1 adds N-acetylglucosamine to the Man5GlcNAc2 (Man5) structure. Goh et al. reported increased sialylation after restoring MGAT1 function in MGAT1 deficient CHO cells.
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Eukaryotic expression vectors have been used successfully in viral LT-expressing cell lines (ie. COS) to clone cDNAs encoding proteins that can be detected through their bio-activity or reactivity with specific antibodies. Since Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have been used extensively for the is... DRIVER (Chinese) ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Qiang Li, Xianghua Liu, Yanhua Wu, Jian An, Saiyin Hexige, Yichen Ling, Mingjun Zhang, Xianmei Yang, Long Yu].
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Forms part of a macromolecular complex that catalyzes the attachment of specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs during protein synthesis. Modulates the secretion of AIMP1 and may be involved in generation of the inflammatory cytokine EMAP2 from AIMP1.
Homo sapiens X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 2 (XRCC2), mRNA. (H00007516-R02) - Products - Abnova
Homo sapiens X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 3 (XRCC3), mRNA. (H00007517-R02) - Products - Abnova
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Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are an epithelial cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, often used in biological and medical research and commercially in the production of therapeutic proteins. They have found wide use in studies of genetics, toxicity screening, nutrition and gene expression, particularly to express recombinant proteins. CHO cells are the most commonly used mammalian hosts for industrial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. The Chinese hamster had been used in research since 1919 where they were used in place of mice for typing pneumococci. They were subsequently found to be excellent vectors for transmission of kala-azar (a.k.a. visceral leishmaniasis), facilitating leishmania research. In 1948, the Chinese hamster was first used in the United States for breeding in research laboratories. In 1957, Theodore T. Puck obtained a female Chinese hamster from Dr. George Yerganians laboratory at the Boston Cancer Research Foundation and used it to ...
Mometasone furoate increased chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary-cell assay, but did not increase chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell assay. Mometasone furoate was not mutagenic in the Ames
Cabral, F; Gottesman, M M.; Zimmerman, S B.; and Steinert, P M., "Intermediate filaments from chinese hamster ovary cells contain a single protein. Comparison with more complex systems from baby hamster kidney and mouse epidermal cells." (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 19 ...
Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells (regramostim), Escherichia coli (molgramostim) and yeast (sargramostim) on priming peripheral blood progenitor cells for use with autologous bone marrow after high-dose chemotherapy.
BGI, the giant genomics institute located in Shenzhen, and GT Life Sciences of San Diego have published their collaborative study on the genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cell line in Nature Biotechnology. Over 70% of the recombinant therapeutic proteins sold today are manufactured using mammalian cells, primarily CHO cell lines. GT Life Sciences uses a metabolic modeling platform to design new products and processes for the life sciences field. It says a better understanding of the genome will speed development of new recombinant protein therapies. More details.... Share this with colleagues:   var switchTo5x=true;stLight.options({publisher:d7871f5b-67bc-4d30-b66f-1465d0b97213});
Compare X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 Biomolecules from Aviva Systems Biology from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Anti-Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Host Cell Proteins (CHO-HCPs) IgG, aff pure Antibodies 800-140-11A-100 Anti-Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Host Cell Proteins (CHO-HCPs) IgG, aff pure Antibodies 800-140-11A-100
The Antibody Labs proprietary cell line development technology enables drug developers to move seamlessly from preclinical discovery to manufacture of the biologic for clinical testing. BESTcell clonal Chinese hamster ovary cell lines can be rapidly generated to enable preclinical testing of multiple biologic drug candidates. After selection of the final candidate, the respective cell line can be used to manufacture master cell banks. This revolutionary approach shortens timelines and reduces the reproducibility risk associated with changing the source of the biologic during research and development.
Proteolytic processing of PA triggers partitioning of the anthrax toxin into lipid rafts. (A) Wild-type CHO cells were incubated for 1 h at 4°C with 500 ng/ml
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Sundaram, H., Strange, Philip G. (1994) Characterisation of the human brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Biochemical Society Transactions, 22 (1). S75-S75. ISSN 0300-5127. (doi:10.1042/bst022075s) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
A blog by a hamster fanatic written for other hamster fanatics. Journeying my researching, owning, showing and breeding of hamsters.
A blog by a hamster fanatic written for other hamster fanatics. Journeying my researching, owning, showing and breeding of hamsters.
The Cantering Chef has baked up something unique for your horse! His tasty horse cookies combine the freshest natural ingredients, including scrumptious rolled oats and molasses. C...
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ഒരു അപൂരിത ആലിഫാറ്റിക ആൽഡിഹൈഡ്. ഫോർമുല, CH2 = CH - CHO. നിറമില്ലാത്ത ദ്രവവസ്തു. തിളനില 53oC. അസഹ്യമായ ഗന്ധമുണ്ട്. ജലത്തിൽ അലിയും. വെറുതെ വച്ചിരുന്നാൽതന്നെ പോളിമറീകരിച്ചു വെളുത്ത പൊടിയായി മാറുന്നു. അക്രൊലീൻ ആൽഡിഹൈഡിന്റെയും ഒലിഫീനിന്റെയും രാസഗുണധർമങ്ങൾ പ്രദർശിപ്പിക്കുന്നു. അക്രൊലീന്റെ നിരോക്സീകരണംവഴി പല യൗഗികങ്ങളും ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കാം. മഗ്നീഷ്യം അമാൽഗം, സോഡിയം അമാൽഗം, അലൂമിനിയം ഐസൊ ...
About 10% of the Chinese population are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Thus, the development of a highly efficient process for the preparation of a vaccine based on a recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is very important to the Chinese national immunization program. To this end, the ion exchange chromatography recovery of CHO-HBsAg from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line was shown to increase from about 55 to 80% by the addition of 1% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 10,000) to the mobile phase. Furthermore, based on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the intact glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was completely preserved by the addition of PEG. In the absence of PEG the glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was also spread out into the high salt elution fraction. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography with on-line multiangle-laser-light scattering (HPSEC-MALLS) analysis was performed to monitor the status of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Natural Estrogens Induce Modulation of Microtubules in Chinese Hamster V79 Cells in Culture. AU - Aizu-Yokota, Eriko. AU - Susaki, Akiko. AU - Sato, Yoshihiro. PY - 1995/5/1. Y1 - 1995/5/1. N2 - Natural estrogens and their derivatives comprising 30 compounds in total were tested for their ability to induce microtubule disruption in Chinese hamster V79 cells. The cytoplasmic microtubule networks were examined by the indirect immunofluorescence method using anti-β-tubu-lin antibody. The effective concentrations of 17β-estradfol (Ej-Hβ) and 17α-estradiol required for the induction of microtubule distribution in 50% of the cells (EC50) in 1 h were 10 and 9 µm for V79 cells, respectively, and 2-methoxyestradiol showed the strongest activity (ECso 2 µm) among the tested compounds including the catechol estrogens 2-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestrone, and 4-hydroxyestrone. The estrone series of estrogens showed relatively low activity for disruption of ...
Pentachlorophenol (91.6% pure) was tested in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 at doses up to 30 µg/plate with and without induced rat or hamster liver S9; no significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were observed in any of the strain/activation combinations. When tested for cytogenetic effects in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, pentachlorophenol was weakly positive for induction of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations. In the sister chromatid exchange test, a weakly positive response was observed within a concentration range of 3 to 30 µg/mL in the absence of S9; with S9, no induction of sister chromatid exchanges was noted. In the chromosomal aberrations test, pentachlorophenol was negative without S9 but induced small but significant increases in the frequency of aberrant cells in the presence of S9 at doses of 80 and 100 µg/mL. In contrast to the positive in vitro results in the test for induction of chromosomal ...
Cyclohexanone oxime is used primarily as a captive intermediate in the synthesis of caprolactam for the production of polycaprolactam (Nylon-6) fibers and plastics and also in a variety of industrial applications. Cyclohexanone oxime was selected for study because of the potential for human exposure and the interest in oximes as a chemical class. Toxicity studies of cyclohexanone oxime (approximately 99% pure) were carried out in male and female B6C3F1 mice; the compound was administered in drinking water for 2 weeks or 13 weeks. In addition, the genetic toxicity of cyclohexanone oxime was evaluated by determining mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, with and without S9 activation. The frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice from the 13-week study was also determined.. In the 2-week study, groups of five male and five female mice were given ...
The kinetic theory of substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity has been applied to the study of inactivation kinetics of Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase by urea [Tsou (1988) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 61, 381-436]. On the basis of the kinetic equation of substrate reaction in the presence of urea, all microscopic kinetic constants for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate binary and ternary complexes have been determined. The results of the present study indicate that the denaturation of dihydrofolate reductase by urea follows single-phase kinetics, and changes in enzyme activity and tertiary structure proceed simultaneously in the unfolding process. Both substrates, NADPH and 7,8-dihydrofolate, protect dihydrofolate reductase against inactivation, and enzyme-substrate complexes lose their activity less rapidly than the free enzyme.. ...
Download Caffeine-induced alterations in non-histone chromosomal proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cells ebook by Susan Claire HarrisonType: pdf, ePub, zip, txt
Kukkonen JP; G-protein-dependency of orexin/hypocretin receptor signalling in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2016 PubMed Europe PMC ...
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Various Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Mutant Cells Defective in Sterol-dependent Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis and LDL Receptor Expression A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Mazahir Tahir Hasan Dartmouth College and Dartmouth Medical school Hanover, New Hampshire April 1993 ...
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Various Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Mutant Cells Defective in Sterol-dependent Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis and LDL Receptor Expression A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Mazahir Tahir Hasan Dartmouth College and Dartmouth Medical school Hanover, New Hampshire April 1993 ...
We have investigated whether the presence of a DNA repair enzyme, 06-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), affects the nature of spontaneous mutations in a mammalian cell line. We compared spontaneous mutations in the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase gene of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that expressed 14,000 MGMT molecules/cell with those in the parental CHO cells lacking this DNA repair activity. The mutation rate/cell/generation of the two CHO cell lines did not differ significantly. However, DNA sequence analysis of spontaneous mutations in the MGMT-proficient CHO cell line revealed a complex picture. No significant difference from the parental CHO cells was found in the number or type of deletions, frame-shifts, multiple substitutions, or insertions. The frequency of G:C to T:A transversions was elevated in MGMT-proficient CHO cells. Expression of the enzyme considerably reduced G:C to A:T transitions (25% versus 8.3%). This latter result is the first evidence that this ...
The genotoxic potential of acrylamide monomer (AA), a compound familiar as a raw material of polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel, was extensively investigated in vitro. The results were clear cut: AA did not induce any gene mutations in Salmonella/microsome test systems (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537), Escherichia coli/microsome assay (WP2 uvrA-) up to a dose of 50 mg AA/plate, or in HPRT-locus in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells (AA, 1-7 mM, 24 h treatment). On the other hand, AA showed a strong positive response: (a) in a Bacillus subtilis spore-rec assay (DNA damage) at 10-50 mg/disc, (b) to a chromosomal structural change test (AA, 2-5 mM, 24 h treatment), (c) to a polyploidy test (AA, 1-5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells, (d) to a cell transformation assay in mouse BALB/c3T3 cells (AA, 1-2 mM, 72 h treatment). Sister chromatid exchange was also weakly but significantly induced by AA (AA, 1-2.5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells. Carcinogenic potential of AA was ...
Sou SN, Lee K, Nayyar K, Polizzi KM, Sellick C, Kontoravdi Cet al., 2017, Exploring cellular behavior under transient gene expression and its impact on mAb productivity and Fc-glycosylation., Biotechnol Bioeng Transient gene expression (TGE) is a methodology employed in bioprocessing for the fast provision of recombinant protein material. Mild hypothermia is often introduced to overcome the low yield typically achieved with TGE and improve specific protein productivity. It is therefore of interest to examine the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on both the yield and quality of transiently expressed proteins and the relationship to changes in cellular processes and metabolism. In this study, we focus on the ability of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line to galactosylate a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product. Through experimentation and flux balance analysis, our results show that TGE in mild hypothermic conditions led to a 76% increase in qP compared to TGE at 36.5°C in our ...
We have investigated the role of HIF-1 in the cellular response to redox modulation via the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. We demonstrate that manipulation of redox in air, achieved by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase with cyanide, induces HIF-1 mediated transcription in wild-type CHO and HT1080 human tumour cells but not in CHO cells deficient in the oxygen responsive, HIF-1alpha sub-unit of HIF-1. Hypoglycaemia attenuates cyanide-mediated transcription in non-transformed HIF-1 wild-type CHO cells but not the human tumour derived cell line. Cells lacking either HIF-1alpha, or the second composite sub-unit of HIF-1, HIF-1beta, were markedly more sensitive to the combined stress of perturbed redox and hypoglycaemia than wild-type cells. As such conditions together with hypoxia are prevalent in tumours, these data suggest that HIF-1 may have a protective role in adaptation to the tumour micro-environment. In support of this we demonstrate that HIF-1alpha deficient cells are less tumorigenic ...
There are now several examples of single G protein-coupled receptors to which binding of specific agonists causes differential effects on the associated signaling pathways. The dopamine D2 receptor is of special importance because the selective activation of functional pathways has been shown both in vitro and in situ.
I am looking for references to papers containing the time intervals spent in different phases of the cell cycle (ej., G0, G1, S, G2, M for eukaryotes) for different cells. In particular, I am interested in E. coli and CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary cells), but any reference to studies of this kind for any typical cell will be useful.. Ill accept an answer containing a representative sample of references to the literature on this subject. Preferably recent papers (since 2010).. If you can provide the times spent in each phase but dont have references at hand, that will also be useful.. ...
HISTORY The Chinese Hamster, which originated in northern China and Mongolia, belongs to the group of hamsters with rat-like characteristics. This breed was first reported and sold as a pet in Beijing in 1900..... ...
Ku70 antibody [N1N3] (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Ku70 pAb (GTX101848) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Perfusion of an IgG producing CHO cell line was performed in a WAVE Bioreactor™ using either Alternating Tangential Flow or Tangential Flow Filtration. The properties and performances obtained in this bioreactor with both filtration systems were studied.. ...
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In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., anti-inflamatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free-radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the ...
Maurocalcine (MCa), initially identified from a Tunisian scorpion venom, defines a new member of the family of cell penetrating peptides by its ability to efficiently cross the plasma membrane. The initiating mechanistic step required for the cell translocation of a cell penetrating peptide implicates its binding onto cell surface components such as membrane lipids and/or heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Here we characterized the interaction of wild-type MCa and MCa K20A, a mutant analogue with reduced cell-penetration efficiency, with heparin (HP) and heparan sulfates (HS) through surface plasma resonance. HP and HS bind both to MCa, indicating that heparan sulfate proteoglycans may represent an important entry route of the peptide. This is confirmed by the fact that (i) both compounds bind with reduced affinity to MCa K20A and (ii) the cell penetration of wild-type or mutant MCa coupled to fluorescent streptavidin is reduced by about 50% in mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines lacking either all
The development of receptor-defective or -deficient mutants can be applied to the investigation of cell-matrix interactions including cell adherence and spreading. In the present study we developed a series of ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS)-induced Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants, which adhere to fibronectin but have impaired spreading characteristics. Using morphometric analysis, a significant suppression in the degree of cell spreading between the wild-type and the mutant cells (P less than 0.001) was seen. This inability of the mutant cells to spread adequately on fibronectin also resulted in a decreased number and diameter of stress fibers as compared to wild-type cells. The decreased cell spreading of the mutant cells was not due to inherent differences in cell size or volume, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Since integrins, specifically the fibronectin receptor (alpha FN/beta 1), are important in cell adhesion and cell spreading, we carried out a ...
In interphase Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the centrosome is attached to the nucleus very firmly. This nuclear-centrosome complex is isolated as a coherent structure by lysis and extraction of cells with Triton X-100 in a low ionic strength medium. Under these conditions, the ultrastructure of the centrioles attached to the nucleus can be discerned by electron microscopy of whole-mount preparations. The structural changes of the centrioles as a function of the cell cycle were monitored by this technique. Specifically, centriolar profiles were placed into six categories according to their orientation and the length ratio of daughter and parent centrioles. The proportion of centrioles in each category was plotted as a frequency histogram. The morphological changes in the centriole cycle were characterized by three distinguishable events: nucleation, elongation, and disorientation. The progress of centrioles through these stages was determined in synchronous populations of cells starting from ...
A family of 10 thermoresistant cell lines cloned from Chinese hamster cells transfected with a plasmid containing the structural gene for the small human Mr 27,000 heat shock protein (HSP27) was used to assess the putative role of this heat shock protein in chemoresistance. These cells express varying amounts of human HSP27 in addition to the normal level of endogenous hamster HSP27. As previously observed in the case of thermoresistance, a significant positive linear correlation (P , 0.05) was found between cell survival in response to doxorubicin and the total amount of HSP27 expressed. Some clones were also examined for resistance to other drugs and chemicals. A statistically significant increased survival relative to the parental cells was observed following treatment with daunorubicin (three clones studied), colchicine, vincristine, actinomycin D, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite (one clone studied). However, the clone which expressed the highest level of HSP27 was as sensitive as ...
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Overexpressed cyclin E in tumours is a prognosticator for poor patient outcome. Cells that overexpress cyclin E have been shown to be impaired in S-phase progression and exhibit genetic instability that may drive this subset of cancers. However, the
iHOP - Information Hyperlinked over Proteins. iHOP provides the network of genes and proteins as a natural way of accessing the millions of abstracts in PubMed. By employing genes and proteins as hyperlinks between sentences and abstracts, the information in PubMed becomes bound together into one navigable resource. A Gene Network for Navigating the Literature, Nature Genetics 36, 664 (2004). www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Details: The focus of the chefs table series is to encourage social interaction amongst fellow food lovers, with the "Chefs choice" meal being served family style for up to 20 people. The Chefs table will be set in front of the open kitchen and will include a welcome cocktail, prepared table side, as well as intimate interaction with Chef Phillip Bryant and our guest chef throughout the meal. Guests do not know the menu until they are at the Chefs Table ...
The Neddylation pathway was recently validated as a cancer target. The SENP8 protease processes the precursor of Nedd8 and is essential for its activation. Base...
There is no consensus as to whether NA activates the influx of extracellular Ca2+ influx in CHO-α1A, CHO-α1B, and CHO-α1D (Perez et al., 1993; Horie et al., 1995). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that NA induces Ca2+ influx in CHO-α1A, CHO-α1B, and CHO-α1D (Figs. 1 and 4). Moreover, the magnitude of the transient increase and that of the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i were similar in all three cell types (Figs. 1 and 2). These results differ from the previous observation that the level of the NA-induced sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in CHO-α1D was smaller than that in CHO-α1A or CHO-α1B(Horie et al., 1995). However, this report showed that NA induced sustained increase in [Ca2+]i even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ in CHO-α1A or CHO-α1B(Horie et al., 1995). Therefore, we have doubts about their data on monitoring of NA-induced increase in [Ca2+]i.. Because previous reports did not describe what types of Ca2+ channels are activated by NA in CHO-α1A, ...
In an upsetting turn of events, Carla lost her cool during the final challenge of Top Chef. Like many people, I was totally disappointed! It was tough to see
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中西醫結合療法英文翻譯:combined therapy of chinese and western …,點擊查查權威綫上辭典詳細解釋中西醫結合療法英文怎麽說,怎麽用英語翻譯中西醫結合療法,中西醫結合療法的英語例句用法和解釋。
Translate: multiple to Chinese: 多个【名词】1. 【数学】倍数; 2. 【电学】并联;多路系统; 3. 相联成组; 4. 成批生产的艺术品(画、雕塑、工艺品等); 【形容词】1. 多重的;复合的; 2. 倍数的,倍; 3. 【电学】并联的;多路的,复接的; 4. 【植物学】聚花的
Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have 3D printed a lifelike, functional blood vessel network that could pave the way toward artificial organs and regenerative therapies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenicity of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. AU - Inudoh, M.. AU - Nyunoya, H.. AU - Tanaka, T.. AU - Hijikata, M.. AU - Kato, N.. AU - Shimotohno, K.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - A putative second envelope glycoprotein (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was constitutively produced in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transformed with a plasmid expressing E2 protein under the control of an exogenous promoter and a signal sequence. E2 protein that lacked part of the C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with high-mannose type oligosaccharides and retained in the cells. On the other hand, E2 protein lacking the entire C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with complex type oligosaccharides (complex form) and excreted into the culture medium. Immunoreactivity of the high-mannose and complex forms of E2 proteins against sera from HCV infected patients were analyzed. We found that the antigenicity of the ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Orbitally shaken bioreactors (OSRs) support the suspension cultivation of animal cells at volumetric scales up to 200 L and are a potential alternative to stirred-tank bioreactors (STRs) due to their rapid and homogeneous mixing and high oxygen transfer rate. In this study, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line producing a recombinant antibody was cultivated in a 5L OSR and a 3L STR, both operated with or without pH control. Effects of bioreactor type and pH control on cell growth and metabolism and on recombinant protein production and glycosylation were determined. In pH-controlled bioreactors, the glucose consumption and lactate production rates were higher relative to cultures grown in bioreactors without pH control. The cell density and viability were higher in the OSRs than in the STRs, either with or without pH control. Volumetric recombinant antibody yields were not affected by the process conditions, and a glycan analysis of the antibody by mass spectrometry did not reveal major ...
The inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells will prevent them from entering mitosis. Emetine inhibits peptide elongation. When it was added to asynchronous populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the mitotic index decreased sharply 30 to 40 min later. It was found that the inhibitory effect of emetine could be reversed when it was removed and the reversibility was dependent on both the initial concentration of emetine and the pH of the medium. Cell populations that were blocked by emetine for up to 2h showed a four- to fivefold increase in mitotic index approximately 1 h after the emetine was removed. These results indicate that there is a point or period in G2 phase at which critical mitotic proteins are being synthesized, and if their synthesis is interrupted cells will fail to enter mitosis. ...
This study shows that the increase in blood pressure triggered by Ang II infusion can be completely prevented by the administration of soluble human rACE2. We used a highly purified soluble human rACE2 produced in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, which has a calculated half-life in vivo of 8.5 hours (please see the supplementary Methods section). Our protocols involved acute studies in anesthetized animals and studies where rACE2 was given by osmotic minipumps for 3 days to conscious animals. Studies of long duration with human rACE2 administration were precluded because we found that mouse antihuman rACE2 antibodies developed over time, and this resulted in a decrease in serum ACE2 activity despite continued rACE2 infusion (please see the supplementary Results section).. As expected from the known effect of ACE2 on Ang II,2,3 human rACE2 was shown in vitro to cleave a single amino acid phenylalanine from Ang II, which led to the formation of Ang-(1-7). Recombinant ACE2 also acted on Ang I ...
xrs5 is a X-ray sensitive Chinese Hamster Ovary mutant cell line which was derived from CHO-K1 cells by treating the cells with ethyl methanesulphonate and subsequent growth in agar.
LinkedIn: Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, known as CHO, play an important role in modern medicine. NISTs new CHO peptide library will enable better production of treatments for psoriasis, cancer, hemophilia and leukemia.
CHO cells have become the most important cell system for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals. Reasons for that are described in the article The increasing potential of chinese hamster ovary cells. A critical feature of a cell line used for production of therapeutics is to be clonal, which means origination from a single cell, to ensure a homogenous therapeutic product. The demonstration of clonal derivation can be a big effort for the pharmaceutical industry, but does it really ensure a homogenous product quality?. ...
A research team at the Northeast Agricultural University in Harbin managed to breed three transgenic pigs by injecting fluorescent green protein and a "bunch of other junk" into embryonic pigs, said Professor Liu Zhonghua. Liu wore a fancy white lab coat and had multiple degrees adorning his walls, so we assume he must be pretty smart ...
Two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell variants differ substantially in their sensitivity to N-methyl-N -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). The resistant clone (Cl 3) was isolated from the sensitive...
Learn about the latest developments of Sartorius Stedim Cellcas CHO Cell Line Generation platform. Contact our scientists today!
First off, a VERY IMPORTANT NOTE. Mulder is a Roborovski hamster, which is the smallest of the dwarf hamsters. When Scully died, he weighed 22g, or 0.78oz; robos are usually less than 30g, or 1.06oz. Other dwarf hamsters are slightly larger, and can weigh up to 2.5oz. Syrian hamsters, on the other hand, usually weigh 5-7oz. This house is a little less than 450 square inches, which is a decent size for a dwarf hamster, but would be entirely too small for a Syrian hamster. If you need a house for a Syrian hamster, I highly recommend that you consider adapting these instructions for a much larger table, such as the Lack coffee table or two or more connected Lack side tables ...
One Liter of Irvine Scientific BalanCD™ CHO Growth A Medium for use with the CELLine bioreactor flask |p| BalanCD CHO™ Growth A. It is a chemically-defined, no animal- derived media specifically designed for used in CHO cell applications. It
The joy of having a talking hamster is gone in 5 sec. ?Tap? Follow @9gag for more cuteness App?? @9gagmobile ? #9gag #hamster #baby (credit: dragon-i
Freezing medium: Cell medium (F-12 or DMEM/F-12) without selection agents or antibiotics plus 20% FBS and 10% DMSO (dimetylsulfoxide, sterile ...
Chefs discuss the history and meaning of the term Molecular Gastronomy, with Heston Blumenthal, Andoni Luis Aduriz, Ferran Adria, and Harold McGee at Madrid Fusion, on StarChefs.com.
Genus: Cricetulus *Grey dwarf hamster Cricetulus migratorius LR/nt. *Subfamily: Arvicolinae *Genus: Arvicola *Water vole ...
Some people consider the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and the Chinese striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) different ... "Cricetulus ". Taxonomy browser. NCBI. Retrieved 15 November 2015. "Taxonomy of common rodent and rodent-like pets". Rat ... The Chinese striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis), also known as the striped dwarf hamster, is a species of hamster. It is ... The Chinese striped hamster was first described in 1773 as Cricetulus barabensis by the German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas. ...
Cricetus]]'' *''[[Mesocricetus]]'' *''[[Cricetulus]]'' *''[[Phodopus]]'' *STOP: Stop-line: ,Taxobox_section_subdivision, found ...
The long-tailed dwarf hamster (Cricetulus longicaudatus) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found in China ... "Cricetulus longicaudatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T5526A11264404. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS. ...
The grey dwarf hamster, grey hamster or migratory hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) is a species of rodent in the family ... "Cricetulus migratorius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...
Cricetulus sokolovi was previously attributed to C. barabensis obscurus, but was elevated to species status in 1988 due to ... Sokolov's dwarf hamster (Cricetulus sokolovi) is a species of rodent in the hamster and vole family Cricetidae. Previously ... Orlov, V.N. (1988). "A new species of hamsters-Cricetulus sokolovi sp. n.(Rodentia, Cricetidae) from People's Republic of ... Batsaikhan, N. & Smith, A.T. (2016). "Cricetulus sokolovi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e. ...
The Lama dwarf hamster (Cricetulus lama) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found only in the mountains of ... Cricetulus barabensis), but is rather smaller, has a shorter tail and lacks the blackish markings on the dorsal fur and upper ... "Cricetulus lama". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...
The Kam dwarf hamster (Cricetulus kamensis) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found only in the mountains ... "Cricetulus kamensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...
The Tibetan dwarf hamster (Cricetulus alticola) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found not only in Tibet ... The behaviour of the Tibetan dwarf hamster is thought to be similar to that of the Kam dwarf hamster (Cricetulus kamensis) ... Molur, S. (2008). "Cricetulus alticola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for ...
Batsaikhan, A.; Tinnin, D.; Lhagvasuren, B.; Sukhchuluun, G. (2008). "Cricetulus longicaudatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Cricetulus longicaudatus) has recently been added to the list. Three species of snake have been recorded; Pallas's coluber, ...
Thomas described the type specimen in 1905 as Cricetulus campbelli. Synonyms for this species are Phodopus crepidatus and ... Oldfield, Thomas (1905). "A new Cricetulus from Mongolia". Journal of Natural History. 15 (87): 322-323. doi:10.1080/ ...
Some people consider the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and the Chinese striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) different ... The Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus), is a species of hamster originating from the deserts of northern China and Mongolia. ... "Cricetulus," The NCBI taxonomy database. European Molecular Biology network. "SRS db query re 'Chinese hamster'". Columbia ... Russell Tofts, "The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) Archived 2006-07-20 at the Wayback Machine.". Detailed information ...
A species of rodent, Cricetulus sokolovi, was named after him. Also, a species of legless lizard, Ophisaurus sokolovi, was ...
The Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus), although not technically a true "dwarf hamster", is the only hamster with a ... Cricetulus migratorius was their next closest relative, and Tscherskia was basal. Some similar rodents sometimes called " ... The results of another study suggest Cricetulus kamensis (and presumably the related C. alticola) might belong to either this ... Two of the three sampled species within Cricetulus represent the earliest split. This clade contains C. barabensis (and ...
This protein has strong similarity to Mus musculus and Cricetulus griseus proteins. There is evidence for use of multiple ...
Cricetulus griseus Has no visible tail, or at most a very short tail typical of hamsters. Foot pads fur covered. Back without a ... G.S. Miller first described the genus Phodopus in 1910, designating Cricetulus bedfordiae as its type species. (C. bedfordiae ... Species of Phodopus, together with members of the genera Cricetulus, Allocricetulus and Tscherskia are called "dwarf hamsters" ... and Cricetulus). Analysis of chromosomes supports these three lineages. Phodopus is sister to all other Cricetinae (meaning ...
2013). "Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome". Nature ...
Cricetulus griseus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), horse (Equus caballus), the pufferfish(Fugu rubripes), chicken (Gallus gallus), ...
Cricetulus griseus). Homologs have been identified in the closely related Long-tailed Dwarf Hamster (C. longicaudatus). ...
The AHL-1 cells (CCL 195) cell line is derived from the lung of a normal, adult, male Armenian hamster, Cricetulus migratorius ...
Cricetulus Grey dwarf hamster Cricetulus migratorius LR/nt Subfamily: Arvicolinae Genus: Microtus Günther's vole Microtus ...
Cricetulus Grey dwarf hamster Cricetulus migratorius LR/nt Subfamily: Arvicolinae Genus: Clethrionomys Bank vole Clethrionomys ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) Danio rerio (zebrafish) Dictyostelium discoideum AX4 (slime mold) Drosophila melanogaster ...
Cricetulus Tibetan dwarf hamster Cricetulus alticola LR/lc Chinese striped hamster Cricetulus barabensis LR/lc Kam dwarf ... hamster Cricetulus kamensis LR/lc Long-tailed dwarf hamster Cricetulus longicaudatus LR/lc Grey dwarf hamster Cricetulus ... migratorius LR/nt Sokolov's dwarf hamster Cricetulus sokolovi LR/lc Genus: Phodopus Campbell's dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli ...
Cricetulus Chinese striped hamster Cricetulus barabensis LR/lc Genus: Tscherskia Greater long-tailed hamster Tscherskia triton ...
PRJNA72741 Cricetulus griseus. Retrieve all samples from this project. PRJNA69991 Cricetulus griseus strain:CHO K1 cell line. ... Sample from Cricetulus griseus. Identifiers. BioSample: SAMN02981352; GenBank: gb,AFTD00000000.1. Organism. Cricetulus griseus ...
Cricetulus alticola - Tibetan dwarf hamster Cricetulus barabensis - Chinese striped hamster Cricetulus griseus - Chinese ... Kam dwarf hamster Cricetulus lama - Lama dwarf hamster Cricetulus longicaudatus - long-tailed dwarf hamster Cricetulus ... Cricetulus is a genus of rodent in the family Cricetidae (voles and hamsters). It has seven member species. They inhabit arid ... and Cansumys are often called ratlike hamsters and are considered to be members of the genus Cricetulus by many authorities. ...
Cricetulus sp.Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... tr,Q60505,Q60505_9RODE Chinese hamster provirus OS=Cricetulus sp. OX=10031 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Cricetulus griseus References Buck MA, Fraser CM. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes which selectively couple to ...
xrs5 is a X-ray sensitive Chinese Hamster Ovary mutant cell line which was derived from CHO-K1 cells by treating the cells with ethyl methanesulphonate and subsequent growth in agar.
Cricetulus griseus strain:CHO K1 cell line Cricetulus griseus strain:CHO K1 cell line. The Genomic Sequence of the Chinese ... Cricetulus griseus strain:CHO K1 cell line (Chinese hamster). The Genomic Sequence of the Chinese Hamster Ovary 1 (CHO) K1 cell ... Partridge MA et al., "The complete nucleotide sequence of Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) mitochondrial DNA.", DNA Seq, ... Cricetulus griseus[Taxonomy ID: 10029]. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; ...
Cricetulus barabensis griseus. Other names i. ›CHO cell lines. ›Chinese hamsters. ›Cricetulus aureus. ›Cricetulus griseus ( ...
This cell line was produced by cotransfection with neuroleukin and dihydrofolate reductase transcription units. pAdD26SVp(A)3 was constructed by cloning the mouse dihydrofolate reductase cDNA from the plasmid pAdD26-1 into the vector, pSVOd. A 900 bp BclI/PstI fragment of SV40 containing the early polyadenylation site was inserted.
In 1966, E.H.Y. Chu obtained the line from W. Sinclair, and isolated the V79-4 clone. This cell line was developed by Ford and Yerganian in 1958 from lung tissue of a young male Chinese hamster, and was originally designated Strain V. A culture at passage 7 after cloning was submitted to the ATCC in July 1988.
Cricetulus griseus References Esko JD, et al. Animal cell mutants defective in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad ...
This line is a derivative of the CHO-K1 cell line (see ATCC CCL-61). EM9 is a repair deficient mutant derived from AA8 (see ATCC CRL-1859).
KEGG Orthology (KO) - Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) [ Brite menu , Organism menu , Download htext , Download json ] ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). 661. UniRef100_P37880. Cluster: Arginine--tRNA ligase, ... Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). Papio anubis (Olive baboon). Peromyscus maniculatus ... Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). Rhinopithecus bieti (Black snub-nosed monkey) (Pygathrix ... Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from ... tr,G3HAQ2,G3HAQ2_CRIGR Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 OS=Cricetulus griseus GN=EIF6 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from ... Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). Mus caroli (Ryukyu mouse) (Ricefield mouse). And more. ... Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). And more. 858. UniRef50_Q61699. Cluster: Heat shock ... tr,A0A061I835,A0A061I835_CRIGR Heat shock protein OS=Cricetulus griseus GN=H671_4g11775 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database ... tr,G3IE65,G3IE65_CRIGR Homeobox protein SIX1 OS=Cricetulus griseus OX=10029 GN=I79_022008 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org ... sp,P12269,IMDH2_CRIGR Inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 OS=Cricetulus griseus OX=10029 GN=IMPDH2 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database ... tr,G3I2M4,G3I2M4_CRIGR 28S ribosomal protein S17 OS=Cricetulus griseus OX=10029 GN=H671_4g12859 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Cricetulus griseus Cell Type. ovary Cell Line. CHO Cellular Component. nuclear chromosome ... Hans Ris (2011) CIL:35458, Cricetulus griseus, ovary. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL35458 ...
Cricetulus griseus Cell Type. ovary Cell Line. CHO Cellular Component. nuclear chromosome ... Hans Ris (2012) CIL:41706, Cricetulus griseus, ovary. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL41706 ...
Mus furunculus, Cricetulus griseus, Cricetulus manchuricus, Cricetulus mongolicus, Cricetulus obscurus, Cricetulus barabensis ... Genus: Cricetulus. Species. Cricetulus barabensis. Common name. Striped dwarf hamster. Synonyms. ... AnAge entry for Cricetulus barabensis Classification (HAGRID: 02509). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ... The Cricetulus barabensis griseus subspecies is widely used in biomedical research. After females deliver their third litter, ...
Cricetulus griseus Cell Type. epithelial cell Cell Line. CHO Cellular Component. nuclear chromosome kinetochore ... Hans Ris (2012) CIL:41570, Cricetulus griseus, epithelial cell. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL41570 ...
Cricetulus griseus Cell Type. epithelial cell Cell Line. myosin IIA deficient CHO-K1 Cellular Component. myosin IIA/B paxillin ... Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Margaret A. Koach, Leanna Whitmore, Marcelo L. Lamers (2011) CIL:12413, Cricetulus griseus, ...
Cricetulus griseus Cell Type. epithelial cell Cell Line. CHO-K1 Cellular Component. cell-substrate adherens junction focal ... Colin K. Choi, Alan Rick Horwitz (2010) CIL:9530, Cricetulus griseus, epithelial cell. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi: ...
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) (Cricetulus barabensis griseus). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org ... sp,Q9Z2A8,MBTP1_CRIGR Membrane-bound transcription factor site-1 protease OS=Cricetulus griseus OX=10029 GN=MBTPS1 PE=1 SV=2 ...
  • Cricetulus is a genus of rodent in the family Cricetidae (voles and hamsters). (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the genera Allocricetulus, Tscherskia, and Cansumys are often called ratlike hamsters and are considered to be members of the genus Cricetulus by many authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • G.S. Miller first described the genus Phodopus in 1910, designating Cricetulus bedfordiae as its type species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Phodopus is one of three well-supported lineages in Cricetinae, the other two being the genus Mesocricetus and the Cricetus-related group (Cricetus, Tscherskia, Allocricetulus, and Cricetulus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Family: Elephantidae (elephants) Genus: Elephas Indian elephant Elephas maximus indicus EN The treeshrews are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family: Erinaceidae (hedgehogs) Subfamily: Erinaceinae Genus: Erinaceus Amur hedgehog Erinaceus amurensis LR/lc Genus: Hemiechinus Long-eared hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus LR/lc Genus: Mesechinus Daurian hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus LR/lc Hugh's hedgehog Mesechinus hughi VU Subfamily: Galericinae Genus: Hylomys Hainan gymnure Hylomys hainanensis EN Shrew gymnure Hylomys sinensis LR/nt Short-tailed gymnure Hylomys suillus LR/lc The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family: Elephantidae (elephants) Genus: Elephas Asian elephant Elephas maximus EN The order Primates contains humans and their closest relatives: lemurs, lorisoids, monkeys, and apes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family: Ochotonidae (pikas) Genus: Ochotona Black-lipped pika Ochotona curzoniae LR/lc Himalayan pika Ochotona himalayana LR/lc Large-eared pika Ochotona macrotis LR/lc Nubra pika Ochotona nubrica LR/lc Royle's pika Ochotona roylei LR/lc Family: Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Genus: Caprolagus Hispid hare Caprolagus hispidus EN Genus: Lepus Woolly hare Lepus oiostolus LR/lc The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suborder: Odontoceti Superfamily: Platanistoidea Family: Platanistidae Genus: Platanista Ganges and Indus river dolphin Platanista gangetica EN There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus: Equus Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii EN Mongolian wild ass Equus hemionus hemionus NT The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus: Equus Asiatic wild ass, Equus hemionus NT Indian wild ass, Equus hemionus khur NT Persian onager, Equus hemionus onager EN - (extirpated) Family: Rhinocerotidae Genus: Rhinoceros Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis VU - (extirpated) The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family: Cricetidae Subfamily: Arvicolinae (lemmings) Genus: Eolagurus Przewalski's steppe lemming Eolagurus przewalskii LC Subfamily: Cricetinae (hamsters) Genus: Cricetulus Tibetan dwarf hamster Cricetulus alticola LC Kam dwarf hamster Cricetulus kamensis LC Family: Sciuridae Genus: Marmota (marmots) Himalayan marmot Marmota himalayana LC Lagomorpha comprises rabbits, hares and pikas, which differ from rodents by having four incisors in the upper jaw and strictly herbivore diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BioGRID was developed initially as a project at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital but has since expanded to include teams at the Institut de Recherche en Immunologie et en Cancérologie at the Université de Montréal, the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics at Princeton University, and the Wellcome Trust Center for Cell Biology at the University of Edinburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extinct in the wild (EW): 2 species Critically endangered (CR): 205 species Endangered (EN): 474 species Vulnerable (VU): 529 species Near threatened (NT): 343 species Least concern (LC): 3,117 species Data deficient (DD): 783 species As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 3117 least concern mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)