A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.
Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.
A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.
Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.

Skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor is involved in calcium signaling in human B lymphocytes. (1/423)

The regulation of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in B cells remains poorly understood and is presently explained almost solely by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ release, followed by activation of a store-operated channel mechanism. In fact, there are reports indicating that IP3 production does not always correlate with the magnitude of Ca2+ release. We demonstrate here that human B cells express a ryanodine receptor (RYR) that functions as a Ca2+ release channel during the B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-stimulated Ca2+ signaling process. Immunoblotting studies showed that both human primary CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells express a 565-kDa immunoreactive protein that is indistinguishable in molecular size and immunoreactivity from the RYR. Selective reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing of cloned cDNA indicated that the major isoform of the RYR expressed in primary CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells is identical to the skeletal muscle type (RYR1). Saturation analysis of [3H]ryanodine binding yielded Bmax = 150 fmol/mg of protein and Kd = 110 nM in DAKIKI cells. In fluo-3-loaded CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells, 4-chloro-m-cresol, a potent activator of Ca2+ release mediated by the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel, induced Ca2+ release in a dose-dependent and ryanodine-sensitive fashion. Furthermore, BCR-mediated Ca2+ release in CD19(+) B cells was significantly altered by 4-chloro-m-cresol and ryanodine. These results indicate that RYR1 functions as a Ca2+ release channel during BCR-stimulated Ca2+ signaling and suggest that complex Ca2+ signals that control the cellular activities of B cells may be generated by cooperation of the IP3 receptor and RYR1.  (+info)

Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. (2/423)

AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of treatment with tolterodine on debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation (an index of CYP2D6 activity), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), omeprazole sulphoxidation (CYP3A4) and caffeine N3-demethylation (CYP1A2). METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers (eight extensive metabolisers [EMs] and four poor metabolisers [PMs] with respect to CYP2D6) received 4 mg tolterodine L-tartrate orally twice daily for 6 days. All subjects were EMs with respect to CYP2C19. The subjects received single oral doses of debrisoquine (10 mg), omeprazole (20 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) for determination of the appropriate metabolic ratios (MR). The drugs were given on separate consecutive days, before, during and after the co-administration of tolterodine. RESULTS: Mean serum tolterodine concentrations were 5-10 times higher in PMs than in EMs. Serum concentrations of the active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite of tolterodine, 5-HM, were not quantifiable in PMs. The mean MR of debrisoquine (95% confidence interval) during tolterodine treatment was 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and did not differ statistically from the values before [0.49 (0.20-1.2)] and after tolterodine administration [0.46 (0.14-1.6)] in EMs. The mean MR of omeprazole hydroxylation and sulphoxidation or caffeine metabolism were not changed in the presence of tolterodine in either EMs or PMs. Debrisoquine and caffeine had no significant effect on the AUC(1,3 h) of either tolterodine or 5-HM, but during omeprazole administration small decreases (13-19%) in these parameters were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Tolterodine, administered at twice the expected therapeutic dosage, did not change the disposition of the probe drugs debrisoquine, omeprazole and caffeine and thus had no detectable effect on the activities of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Alteration of the metabolism of substrates of these enzymes by tolterodine is unlikely to occur.  (+info)

Antimalarial activities of WR-194,965, an alpha-amino-o-cresol derivative. (3/423)

Pilot appraisals of the activities of WR-194,965 and WR-204,165, two closely related o-cresol derivatives (both Mannich bases), in owl monkeys infected with the multidrug-resistant Vietnam Smith strain of Plasmodium falciparum showed that these compounds had similar levels of efficacy. Total course doses effecting 90% cures (CD(90)s) were 27 and 37 mg/kg of body weight for the respective compounds, values almost identical to the CD(90) of mefloquine (a highly promising 4-quinolinemethanol) against infections with the same strain, and the CD(90)s of chloroquine against infections with 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strains. Expanded studies of the activities of WR-194,965 against infections with the Smith strain of P. falciparum and Vietnam Palo Alto strain of P. vivax, designed to guide projected evaluations in human volunteers, showed: (i) that the activity of this compound was a function of total dose administered, with single doses as effective as the same amount delivered in three or seven successive daily fractions; (ii) that all regimens effected rapid clearance of parasitemia; and (iii) that based on CD(90)s, this agent was twice as active against infections with the Palo Alto strain of P. vivax as against the Smith strain of P. falciparum. These findings, together with results of preclinical pharmacological studies pursued elsewhere, provided support for studies in human volunteers now underway.  (+info)

4-chloro-m-cresol triggers malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine at doses greatly exceeding those found in drug preparations. (4/423)

BACKGROUND: Chlorocresols are used as preservatives in numerous commercial drugs that have been shown to induce myoplasmic Ca2+ release; the most potent isoform is 4-chloro-m-cresol. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the in vivo effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol on swine susceptible to malignant hyperthermia and (2) contrast in vivo versus in vitro dose-response curves. METHODS: Susceptible swine (weight: 38.5 kg+/-3.55 kg) were anesthetized and monitored for variations in physiological responses, including end-tidal CO2, heart rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and temperatures. In the first animals studied, 4-chloro-m-cresol, at equivalent cumulative doses of 0.14, 0.28, 0.57, 1.14, 2.27, 4.54, and 9.08 mg/kg (n = 3; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 micromol) were administered, and in a second group, larger doses were used: 1.14, 3.41, 7.95, 17.04 (n = 4), and/or 35.22 (n = 1) mg/kg (100, 300, 700, 1,500, and/or 3,100 micromol). For comparison, in vitro rectus abdominis muscle preparations obtained from normal and susceptible swine were exposed to 4-chloro-m-cresol, at cumulative concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 micromol; standard caffeine and halothane contracture testing was also performed. RESULTS: Episodes of malignant hyperthermia were not triggered in response to administration of low doses of 4-chloro-m-cresol, but transient cardiovascular reactions (e.g., tachycardia, arrhythmias, and hypotension) were observed. Subsequently, episodes in these animals were triggered when halothane (0.87; 1 MAC) and succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) were given. Animals administered the higher doses of 4-chloro-m-cresol all had fulminant episodes of malignant hyperthermia that were fatal, when equivalent cumulative concentrations were greater than 1,500 micromol. The levels of 4-chloro-m-cresol in the plasma rapidly decreased: e.g., 5 min postadministration of the 1,500-micromol dose, the mean plasma level was only 52+/-18 micromol (n = 4). Hemolysis was detected following 4-chloro-m-cresol administration at concentrations > 200 micromol. In vitro, muscle from susceptible animals elicited contractures > 200 mg at 50-micromol bath concentrations of 4-chloro-m-cresol (n = 29), whereas normal muscle did not elicit such contractures until bath concentrations were > 800 micromol (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS: 4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine, but only when serum concentrations are far above those likely to be encountered in humans. A relatively low concentration of 4-chloro-m-cresol, 50 micromol, is sufficient to activate sarcoplasmic [Ca+2] release in vitro (e.g., contractures); this same bolus dose administered in vivo (0.57 mg/kg) has minimal effects due to the rapid decrease in its plasma levels.  (+info)

4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine. (5/423)

BACKGROUND: 4-Chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) induces marked contractures in skeletal muscle specimens from individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MHS). In contrast, 4-CmC induces only small contractures in specimens from normal (MHN) patients. 4-CmC is a preservative within a large number of commercially available drug-preparations (e.g., insulin, heparin, succinylcholine), and it has been suggested that 4-CmC might trigger malignant hyperthermia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 4-CmC in vivo and in vitro in the same animals. METHODS: After approval of the animal care committee, six Pietrain MHS and six control (MHN) swine were anesthetized with azaperone 4 mg/kg intramuscularly and metomidate 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally. After endotracheal intubation, lungs were mechanically ventilated (inspired oxygen fraction 0.3) and anesthesia was maintained with etomidate 2.5 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and fentanyl 50 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1). Animals were surgically prepared with arterial and central venous catheters for measurement of hemodynamic parameters and to obtain blood samples. Before exposure to 4-CmC in vivo, muscle specimens were excised for in vitro contracture tests with 4-CmC in concentrations of 75 and 200 microM. Subsequently, pigs were exposed to cumulative administration of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 mg/kg 4-CmC intravenously. If an unequivocal episode of malignant hyperthermia occurred, as indicated by venous carbon dioxide concentration > or = 70 mmHg, pH < or = 7.25, and an increase of temperature > or = 2 degrees C, the animals were treated with dantrolene, 3.5 mg/kg. RESULTS: All MHS swine developed malignant hyperthermia after administration of 4-CmC in doses of 12 or 24 mg/kg. Venous carbon dioxide concentration significantly increased and pH significantly decreased. Temperature increased in all MHS animals more than 2 degrees C. Blood lactate concentrations and creatine kinase levels were significantly elevated. All MHS swine were treated successfully with dantrolene. In contrast, no MHN swine developed signs of malignant hyperthermia. After receiving 4-CmC in a concentration of 48 mg/kg, however, all MHN animals died by ventricular fibrillation. The in vitro experiments showed that both concentrations of 4-CmC produced significantly greater contractures in MHS than in MHN specimens. CONCLUSIONS: 4-CmC is in vivo a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in swine. However, the 4-CmC doses required for induction of malignant hyperthermia were between 12 and 24 mg/kg, which is about 150-fold higher than the 4-CmC concentrations within clinically used preparations.  (+info)

Analysis of alpha 1L-adrenoceptor pharmacology in rat small mesenteric artery. (6/423)

1. To illuminate the controversy on alpha 1A- or alpha 1L-adrenoceptor involvement in noradrenaline-mediated contractions of rat small mesenteric artery (SMA), we have studied the effects of subtype-selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists under different experimental conditions. 2. The agonist potency order in rat SMA was: A61603 >> SKF89748-A > cirazoline > noradrenaline > ST-587 > methoxamine. Prazosin antagonized all agonists with a low potency (pA2: 8.29-8.80) indicating the involvement of alpha 1L-rather than alpha 1A-adrenoceptors. 3. The putative alpha 1L-adrenoceptor antagonist JTH-601, but not the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor antagonist chloroethylclonidine (10 microM) antagonized noradrenaline-induced contractions of SMA. The potency of the selective alpha 1D-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 against noradrenaline (pA2 = 6.16 +/- 0.13) and of the selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonist RS-17053 against noradrenaline (pKB = 8.35 +/- 0.10) and against the selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor agonist A-61603 (pKB = 8.40 +/- 0.09) were too low to account for alpha 1D- and alpha 1A-adrenoceptor involvement. 4. The potency of RS-17053 (pKB/pA2's = 7.72-8.46) was not affected by lowering temperature, changing experimental protocol or inducing myogenic tone via KCl or U46619. 5. Selective protection of a putative alpha 1A-adrenoceptor population against the irreversible action of phenoxybenzamine also failed to increase the potency of RS-17053 (pA2 = 8.25 +/- 0.06 against A61603). 6. Combined concentration-ratio analysis demonstrated that tamsulosin, which does not discriminate between alpha 1A- and alpha 1L-adrenoceptors, and RS-17053 competed for binding at the same site in the SMA. 7. In summary, data obtained in our experiments in rat SMA indicate that the alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating noradrenaline-induced contraction displays a distinct alpha 1L-adrenoceptor pharmacology. This study does not provide evidence for the hypothesis that alpha 1L-adrenoceptors represent an affinity state of the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor in functional assays. Furthermore, there is no co-existing alpha 1A-adrenoceptor in the SMA.  (+info)

Intracellular Ca2+ transients in mouse soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading and reloading. (7/423)

The objective of this study was to determine whether altered intracellular Ca(2+) handling contributes to the specific force loss in the soleus muscle after unloading and/or subsequent reloading of mouse hindlimbs. Three groups of female ICR mice were studied: 1) unloaded mice (n = 11) that were hindlimb suspended for 14 days, 2) reloaded mice (n = 10) that were returned to their cages for 1 day after 14 days of hindlimb suspension, and 3) control mice (n = 10) that had normal cage activity. Maximum isometric tetanic force (P(o)) was determined in the soleus muscle from the left hindlimb, and resting free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), tetanic [Ca(2+)](i), and 4-chloro-m-cresol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) were measured in the contralateral soleus muscle by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Unloading and reloading increased resting [Ca(2+)](i) above control by 36% and 24%, respectively. Although unloading reduced P(o) and specific force by 58% and 24%, respectively, compared with control mice, there was no difference in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i). P(o), specific force, and tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) were reduced by 58%, 23%, and 23%, respectively, in the reloaded animals compared with control mice; however, tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) was not different between unloaded and reloaded mice. These data indicate that although hindlimb suspension results in disturbed intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, changes in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) do not contribute to force deficits. Compared with unloading, 24 h of physiological reloading in the mouse do not result in further changes in maximal strength or tetanic [Ca(2+)](i).  (+info)

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release by 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) in intact and chemically skinned ferret cardiac ventricular fibers. (8/423)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) could generate caffeine-like responses in ferret cardiac muscle. The concentration dependence of 4-CmC-mediated release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was studied in intact cardiac trabeculae and saponin-skinned fibers in which the sarcoplasmic reticulum was loaded with Ca(2+). In intact and saponin-skinned preparations isolated from right ventricle, the effect of 4-CmC on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content was estimated by analysis of caffeine contracture after application of chlorocresol. In addition, the effects of 4-CmC on maximal Ca(2+)-activated tension and the Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofibrils were analyzed by using Triton-skinned cardiac fibers. The results show that 4-CmC generates a contractile response in saponin-skinned but not intact fibers. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is implicated in the 4-CmC response; more precisely, in Ca(2+) release via the ryanodine receptor. Moreover, 4-CmC, like caffeine, has effects on maximal Ca(2+)-activated tension and the Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofibrils.  (+info)

We,China Cresol 1319-77-3 Suppliers and China Cresol 1319-77-3 Manufacturers, provide Cresol 1319-77-3 product and the products related with China Cresol 1319-77-3 - chinabeidachem
Cresols can penetrate deeply into tissues that are exposed. After Cresols are absorbed, most of the chemical is metabolized by the liver and either the metabolites or the unchanged chemical are excreted by the kidney with trace amounts excreted via the lungs. In vivo, the Cresol isomers are conjugated and excreted as glucuronides and sulfates. Significant amounts of Cresols are secreted in the bile and undergo enterohepatic recirculation. The kidney is the main route for removing cresols. There are no reports that suggest bio-accumulation of cresol within the living system. ...
CIR Safety Review: The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the toxic effects of cresol and isopropyl cresol ingredients were observed at doses higher than would be available from cosmetics and personal care products. In order to ensure that these ingredients are used at a level that would not cause any adverse effects, the CIR Expert Panel recommended an upper concentration limit. Data were available to demonstrate that m-Cresol and o-Cresol when tested at 0.5% do not cause chemical leukoderma (skin whitening). It may be that Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol, p-Chloro-m-Cresol, Chlorothymol, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, o-Cymen-5-ol and Carvacrol do not cause chemical leukoderma at concentrations higher than 0.5%, but data were not available to support that possibility. Therefore, a concentration limitation of 0.5% was chosen to ensure the absence of a chemical leukoderma effect. p-Cresol was shown to cause depigmentation of hair and possibly the skin. In addition, there was a concern that ...
Read about the chemical and physical properties of 1-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-amide. Get 1-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-amide molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
Looking for online definition of 2-Tert-Butyl-4-Methylphenol or what 2-Tert-Butyl-4-Methylphenol stands for? 2-Tert-Butyl-4-Methylphenol is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Indicated for use as a disinfectant and devitalizing solution used as part of endodontic treatment. Lower concentration of active ingredients (formaldehyde and cresol). Less irritating to periapical tissue than the standard formulation of Formo Cresol. Sultan Healthcare, 1 ounce. Satisfaction guaranteed for the value o
Map of Cresol, Terrassa: Locate Terrassa hotels for Cresol based on popularity, price, or availability, and see TripAdvisor reviews, photos, and deals.
Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase: Two pathways fo
3-Amino-4-methylphenol 2836-00-2 NMR spectrum, 3-Amino-4-methylphenol H-NMR spectral analysis, 3-Amino-4-methylphenol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
151677-97-3 - Acetaldehyde, polymer with 2,5-dimethylphenol, formaldehyde, 3-methylphenol and 4-methylphenol - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Criteria for recommended standard occupational exposure to cresol (93516) have been established and are presented. Criteria and recommendations for cresol apply to the o, m, p, isomers or to any combination of the three isomers in a mixture. In addition, these criteria and recommendations will apply to cresylic-acid (93516) mixtures that contain cresol. Occupational injury from cresol exposure is from skin contact and inhalation. Concentrations of cresol in workplace air on a time weighted average 40 hr week can be no more than 10mg/m3. Procedures for the collection and analysis of environmental samples are given. Methods for medical examination and surveillance of workers including types of clinical tests and the frequency with which they must be administered ar presented. Required labels and warnings and their posting regulations are given. Necessary personal protective equipment include items for eye protection, skin protection and respiratory protection. Regulations for informing employees ...
Fmoc-(S)-3-amino-4-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-butyric acid/ACM270065818 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
2-Cyano-3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-N-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-acrylamide | C18H13F3N2O2 | CID 746307 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
In a weight of evidence approach it can be shown that NOEC (EC3) and EC10 values for all cresol isomers are similar and range between 4.6 to 13 mg/L. The toxicity of o-cresol and m-cresol to the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) was determined in a cell multiplication inhibition test according to the guideline DEV L9 (Bringmann 1975, Bringmann and Kuehn 1976, 1978). The following test conditions were met: continuous light, 27°C, with or without neutralization, pH of the neutralized test solution was 7. The relevant nominal 8d-NOEC (EC3) for growth rate was 6.8 mg/L for o-cresol and 13 mg/L for m-cresol. The effects of p-cresol on the green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus was tested according to DIN 38412, part 9 (draft standard for cell multiplication inhibition). Based on nominal concentrations a 48 h-EC50 of 21 mg/L and an EC10 of 4.6 mg/L, both related to growth rate, were determined (Kuehn and Pattard 1990). ...
A fatality due to the ingestion of solution containing phenol and o-cresol is described. The pathological findings were typical of acute substantial poisoning. Blood, urine and stomach content were obtained during post mortem examinations. Phenol and o-cresol were identified using GC/MS. The extractions from autopsy materials were obtained as follows: by gel permeation with cyclohexane/dichloromethane from stomach content, by solid phase extraction (SPE) from urine and by deproteinization with acetonitrile from blood. The phenol and o-cresol concentrations in the samples were found, respectively, as follows: 115.0 and 5.0 μg/g in the stomach contents, 58.3 and 1.9 μg/ml in the blood, 3.3 and 20.5 μg/ml in the urine. Distributions of phenol in fatal poisonings have been reported [J. Forensic Sci. 27 (1982) 729; Forensic Sci. Int. 19 (1982) 177], but, usually, colorimetry was used as the analytical method and it cannot exclude the interference of other phenolic compounds. ...
Humans excrete between 50 to 100 mg of volatile phenols per day, predominantly in the form of 4-cresol and phenol (mainly as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates) with lower amounts of 4-ethylphenol (20). The production of cresols from tyrosine in mammals has been attributed to various species of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides fragilis. Other bacteria such as E. coli are associated with phenol production. Altered levels of 4-cresol metabolites in human urine have been associated with diverse physiological and pathological conditions from weight loss to inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions are also associated with altered microbiota composition, namely a reduction in the diversity of the microbiota because of loss of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides species in the case of inflammatory bowel disease (21) and differences in the ratio of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes species in the case of weight loss (22).. Dietary fiber (complex carbohydrates) can be digested and subsequently ...
Humans excrete between 50 to 100 mg of volatile phenols per day, predominantly in the form of 4-cresol and phenol (mainly as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates) with lower amounts of 4-ethylphenol (20). The production of cresols from tyrosine in mammals has been attributed to various species of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides fragilis. Other bacteria such as E. coli are associated with phenol production. Altered levels of 4-cresol metabolites in human urine have been associated with diverse physiological and pathological conditions from weight loss to inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions are also associated with altered microbiota composition, namely a reduction in the diversity of the microbiota because of loss of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides species in the case of inflammatory bowel disease (21) and differences in the ratio of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes species in the case of weight loss (22).. Dietary fiber (complex carbohydrates) can be digested and subsequently ...
YAO, Haiyan; REN, Yuan; WEI, Chaohai y YUE, Siyang. Biodegradation characterisation and kinetics of m-cresol by Lysinibacillus cresolivorans. Water SA [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.15-20. ISSN 1816-7950.. A novel strain of m-cresol-degrading bacterium, named as Lysinibacillus cresolivorans, was isolated from aerobic sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant. This bacterium is able to utilise m-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. The optimal pH for growth is 6.8 ~ 7.3 and the optimal temperature is 35ºC. Compared to organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources were easily utilised for the m-cresol biodegradation. The degradation rate of m-cresol at different starting concentrations was analysed with zero-order kinetic characteristics. When the initial concentration of m-cresol was 224.2 mg·ℓ-1, the reaction rate reached a maximum at 46.80 mg·(ℓ·h)-1.The cell growth kinetics was also investigated with initial m-cresol concentrations varying from 0 to 1 200 ...
The biocide 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP, CAS number 59-50-7) is a common additive to metal-working fluids (MWF) and building materials. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers previously identified and quantified CMP in a commercial water-soluble MWF, TRIM VX, and demonstrated irritancy and sensitization potential of both TRIM VX and CMP alone after dermal exposu
CAS 69-44-3 o-Cresol,4-((7-chloro-4-quinolyl)amino)-alpha-(diethylamino)-,dihydrochloride * Amodiaquin dihydrochloride * Camoquin hydrochloride * 4-((7-Chloro-4-quinolyl)amino)-alpha-(diethylamino)-o-cresol dihydrochloride * Phenol, 4-((7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)amino)-2-((diethylamino)methyl)-, dihydrochloride msds toxicity property
CAS 49649-27-6 o-Cresol, 4-chloro-alpha-(methylimino)- * 5-Chlor-2-hydroxybenzylidenmethylamin * 4-Chloro-alpha-(methylimino)-o-cresol msds toxicity property
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [A Torremans, R DHooge, G Van de Vijver, B Marescau, R Vanholder, N Lameire, P P De Deyn, P P Van Bogaert].
Tolerance to p-cresol. Strains R20291 and 630 were tested for their in-vitro tolerance to 0.1% p-cresol. * indicates a significant difference p | 0.01 Studen
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
1MXY2UM8NV - IWDCLRJOBJJRNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N - p-Cresol - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The invention provides a process for preparing a .beta.-lactam derivative represented by the formula ##STR1## the process comprising reacting a .beta.-lactam derivative represented by the following formula (II) and having a protected carboxyl group with a cresol; ##STR2## wherein R represents a benzyl group having an electron-donating group as a substituent on the phenyl ring, a diphenylmethyl group which may have an electron-donating group as a substituent on the phenyl ring or a tert-butyl group.
Transverse intensity patterns imaged at the input or output surfaces, demonstrating the giant and isotropic self-defocusing effect in the m-cresol/nylon solution. (a) The focused Gaussian beam (12μm FWHM) at the input of the sample. (b) The output (33μm FWHM) due to normal diffraction after propagating 2mm in our sample at a power less than 1mW. (c) The output (219μm FWHM) due to strong defocusing nonlinearity at a power of 30mW. (d) The input dark cross (38 μm stripe width) created by using an amplitude mask of two thin wires. (e) Linear diffraction output after 5mm propagation in the sample at a power less than 1mW. (f) At a power of 100mW, the output profile shows that Y-junctions of diverging solitons are created with little variation between the horizontal and vertical directions ...
2,6-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-p-cresol 91-04-3 NMR spectrum, 2,6-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-p-cresol H-NMR spectral analysis, 2,6-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-p-cresol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Absorption: In a study with 14C-tolterodine solution in healthy volunteers who received a 5 mg oral dose, at least 77% of the radiolabeled dose was absorbed. Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) determined after dosage of tolterodine immediate release are dose-proportional over the range of 1 to 4 mg. Based on the sum of unbound serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT (active moiety), the AUC of tolterodine extended release 4 mg daily is equivalent to tolterodine immediate release 4 mg (2 mg bid). Cmax and Cmin levels of tolterodine extended release are about 75% and 150% of tolterodine immediate release, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations of tolterodine extended release are observed 2 to 6 hours after dose administration. Effect of Food: There is no effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine extended release. Distribution: Tolterodine is highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily α1-acid glycoprotein. Unbound concentrations of tolterodine average ...
Absorption: In a study with 14C-tolterodine solution in healthy volunteers who received a 5 mg oral dose, at least 77% of the radiolabeled dose was absorbed. Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) determined after dosage of tolterodine immediate release are dose-proportional over the range of 1 to 4 mg. Based on the sum of unbound serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT (active moiety), the AUC of tolterodine extended release 4 mg daily is equivalent to tolterodine immediate release 4 mg (2 mg bid). Cmax and Cmin levels of tolterodine extended release are about 75% and 150% of tolterodine immediate release, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations of tolterodine extended release are observed 2 to 6 hours after dose administration.. Effect of Food: There is no effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine extended release.. Distribution: Tolterodine is highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily α1-acid glycoprotein. Unbound concentrations of tolterodine average ...
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Cresol is a methyl substituted, hydroxylated aromatic hydrocarbon that occurs in three isomeric forms. Cresols are refined from coal tar or petroleum; they can also be synthesized. Cresols are toxic to both fauna and flora. Poisoning of humans has resulted from inhalation, ingestion, and absorption of cresol through skin and mucous membranes. Cresol affects the central nervous system, the kidneys, liver, lungs, heart, and stomach. Some fatalities and also carcinogenicity have been attributed to cresol. The principal sources of cresol emissions to the atmosphere are the production of cresols and the production of coke. Adsorption onto activated carbon is the best method for controlling the emission of cresol vapors into the atmosphere ...
Cresol is a methyl substituted, hydroxylated aromatic hydrocarbon that occurs in three isomeric forms. Cresols are refined from coal tar or petroleum; they can also be synthesized. Cresols are toxic to both fauna and flora. Poisoning of humans has resulted from inhalation, ingestion, and absorption of cresol through skin and mucous membranes. Cresol affects the central nervous system, the kidneys, liver, lungs, heart, and stomach. Some fatalities and also carcinogenicity have been attributed to cresol. The principal sources of cresol emissions to the atmosphere are the production of cresols and the production of coke. Adsorption onto activated carbon is the best method for controlling the emission of cresol vapors into the atmosphere ...
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Cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients, is not fully explained by traditional risk factors. To help define non-traditional risk factors, we determined the association of predialysis total p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippurate with cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, and first cardiovascular event in the 1,273 participants of the HEMO Study. The results were adjusted for potential demographic, clinical, and laboratory confounders. The mean age of the patients was 58 years, 63% were Black and 42% were male. Overall, there was no association between the solutes and outcomes. However, in sub-group analyses, among patients with lower serum albumin (under 3.6 g/dl), a twofold higher p-cresol sulfate was significantly associated with a 12% higher risk of cardiac death (hazard ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.27) and 22% higher risk of sudden cardiac death (1.22, 1.06-1.41). Similar trends were also noted with indoxyl ...
Part I: placebo to tolterodine tartrate 4 mg capsule once a day (qd) for 7 days. Part IIa: placebo to tolterodine tartrate 4 mg capsule qd for 7 days. Part IIb: single dose placebo to tolterodine tartrate 4 mg capsule ...
This study reviews the literature evidence up until June 30, 2013, for the biologic and/or toxic effects of two prototype protein-bound uremic toxins: indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. In total, 27 studies from all over the world were retained, with the principal topics being endothelial and proximal tubular cell dysfunction, although insulin resistance, functional status of cardiac cells, leukocyte dysfunction, coagulation disturbances, and pharmacodynamics were also covered. A quality assessment identified 11 of 27 (41%) studies with a score of at least 4 points from a possible maximum of 5 points. The majority of the changes found affects mechanisms that are essential to the pathophysiology of the uremic syndrome and its subsequent deleterious impact on prognosis.. Endothelial dysfunction,26-30,33 smooth muscle cell lesions,46,51 coagulation disturbances,46 leukocyte activation,30,31 cross-talk of leukocytes and endothelium,30 cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy,35,49 and insulin ...
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Nominated Substances: 2-Acetylamino-4-methylphenol, N-Acetyl-m-aminophenol, 5-(4-Aminobenzamido)-2,3-cresotic acid, 2-Amino-4-chloro-5-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-4-chloro-6-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-6-chloro-4-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-4-chlorophenol, 6-Amino-4-chloro-1-phenol-2-sulfonic acid, 5-Amino-o-cresol, 2-Amino-4,6-dichlorophenol, 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrophenol, 4-Amino-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-diphenylamine, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol, 3-Amino-4-methylphenol, 2-Amino-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenol, 2-Amino-3-nitro-4-methylphenol, 2-Amino-5-nitro-4-methylphenol, 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-6-nitro-1-phenol-4-sulfonic acid, 6-Amino-4-nitro-1-phenol-2-sulfonic acid, 3-Aminophenol, p-Aminophenol, 2-Amino-1-phenol-4-sulfonic acid, 3-Amino-5-sulfosalicylic acid, 5-Amino-3-sulfosalicylic acid, 2-Amino-3,4,6-trichlorophenol, 4-(3-Carbazoylamino)phenol, 4-Chloro-2-(2,4-dinitroanilino)phenol, 5-Diethylamino-2-nitroso-4-methylphenol, 5-Diethylamino-2-nitrosophenol, 3-Diethylaminophenol, 3-Dimethylamino-4-methylphenol, ...
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) increased DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, 3a, and 3b expression in vitro. (a) Compared with HK2 cells without IS/
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Volatile constituents of beechwood creosote were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major volatile constituents of creosote were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol; 25.2%) 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (4-methylguaiacol; 21.4%), 3-methylphenol (m-cresol; 8.3%) 4-methylphenol (p-cresol; 7.9%) 2-methylphenol (o-cresol; 4.6%) and phenol (2.8%). The antiox ...
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Thymol; p-Cymen-3-ol; Thyme camphor; 2-Isopropyl-5-methylphenol; 3-Hydroxy-p-cymene; 3-Methyl-6-isopropylphenol; 5-Methyl-2-isopropylphenol; 6-Isopropyl-m-cresol; 6-Isopropyl-3-methylphenol; m-Cresol, 6-isopropyl-; p-Cymene, 3-hydroxy-; Isopropyl cresol; Phenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-; Thymic acid; 3-p-Cymenol; 5-Methyl-2-isopropyl-1-phenol; 5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)phenol; Isopropyl-m-cresol; m- ...
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An attempt was made to isolate and identify those organisms associated with cresol metabolism in the industrial waste waters of Kelly Air Force Base. Results of this work are presented in addition to preliminary studies on the metabolism of cresol oxidation by these organisms. (Author)*Industries
Does being in the sun at the beach or playing sports in the sun in the , heat affect insulin ? Ginny who Has to stay out of the sun. ----- Yes, the sun will affect insulin. First there is the heat from the sun which will affect its viability. Then there is the effect of the sunlight on the cresol preservative, not on the insulin crystals. The sunlight tends to turn the cresol a not-lovely shade of brown. I guess Lilly Co. figures no one wants to inject a brown insulin, so they warn us to avoid sunlight on insulin. George ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] send a DONATION http://www.Insulin-Pumpers.org/donate.shtml ...
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p-Chlorocresol (p-chloro-m-cresol; PCMC; brand name: Preventol CMK) is a chlorinated phenol which is used as an antiseptic and preservative. It forms colourless, dimorphous crystals at room temperature and is only slightly soluble in water. For use as a disinfectant such as a hand wash, it is commonly dissolved in alcohol in combination with other phenols. It is a moderate allergen for sensitive skin. Cresol Susan C Smolinske (1992), Handbook of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Excipients, p. 87 C. Glen Mayhall (2004), Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, p. 1741 Howard I. Maibach (2001), Toxicology of Skin, p. 339 ...
The present invention includes methods for removing mineral acids, mineral salts and contaminants, such as metal impurities, ash, terpenoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, proteins, and other inorganic products, from a lignocellulosic feedstock stream containing organic acids, carbohydrates, starches, polysaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, sugars, sugar alcohols, phenols, cresols, and other oxygenated hydrocarbons, in a manner that maintains a portion of the organic acids and other oxygenated hydrocarbons in the product stream.
Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and insulin resistance - a lowered level of response to insulin circulating in the blood - is an important cardiovascular risk factor in these patients. Its not clear why patients with CKD often develop insulin resistance, but the retention of compounds that are normally removed from the blood and excreted in the urine may play a role. One such compound is p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a toxin that is produced by gut bacteria. PCS is retained in CKD patients, and it is poorly removed by most dialysis techniques.. Read more. ...
A delayed peripheral neuropathy of the dying back or peripheral axonopathy variety predominates. Between 10 and 40 days after exposure, abrupt onset of flaccid paralysis is noted. This may be followed by lower extremity spasticity with clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonus, and a peculiar spastic gait. In severe cases the full extent of paralysis may not be reached until after 2 to 3 months. Recovery is variable. Mortality is usually low and approximately 5% of victims may remain paralyzed. TOCP produced toxic effects on both male and female REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS when Long-Evans rats were given doses of 0 to 400 mg/kg by gavage prior to, and during breeding. Spermatotoxic effects, includes reduced motility, concentration, velocity, and abnormal morphology. Damage to ovarian and uterine tissue also 1999 ...
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3-Indoxyl sulfate is a commonly used chromogenic substrate for arylsulfatase, yielding a blue precipitate upon cleavage. Free Shipping within the Continental USA ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol Butylated hydroxytoluene Propofol (Structural isomer) Fiege H (2000). "Cresols and Xylenols". Ullmann's ...
... "p-Cresol". Organic Syntheses. 3: 37. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.003.0037.. ...
W. W. Hartman (1923). "p-Cresol". Organic Syntheses. 3: 37. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.003.0037.; Collective Volume, 1, p. 175 Römpp ...
... is produced from m-cresol and propene in the gas phase: C7H8O + C3H6 ⇌ C10H14O Ancient Egyptians used thyme for ... Mukhopadhyay, Asim Kumar (2004). Industrial Chemical Cresols and Downstream Derivatives. New York: CRC Press. pp. 99-100. ISBN ...
The same year saw the expansion of para-cresol production and an establishment of 22000 square feet research facility for API( ... Gujarat Aromatics had an expertise in the production of mixed cresols out of toluene which unfortunately had no market demand. ... Mukhopadhyay, Asim Kumar (20 December 2004). Industrial Chemical Cresols and Downstream Derivatives. CRC Press. ISBN ... of non-benzidine dyestuffs with a capacity of 1700 tonnes per annum was commissioned and the manufacture of para-cresol was ...
For industrial applications the chemical is synthesized from p-cresol using aromatic substitution with bromine followed by ... Asim Kumar Mukhopadhyay (2004). Industrial Chemical Cresols and Downstream Derivatives. New York: CRC Press. p. 81. ISBN ...
The EPA has classified o-cresol, m-cresol, and p-cresol as Group C: possible human carcinogens. Exposure to 26% Creolin ... o-Cresol is used as a solvent, disinfectant, and chemical intermediate. m-Cresol is used to produce certain herbicides, as a ... For cresol bactericides or disinfectants the mechanism of action is due to the destruction of bacterial cell membranes. The ... p-Cresol is used largely in the formulation of antioxidants and in the fragrance and dye industries. ...
Earlier formulations of Lysol contained cresol, a compound that can induce abortions, and it was widely used by women who could ... The original formulation of Lysol contained cresols. This formulation may still be available commercially in some parts of the ...
... or m-cresol purple, also called m-cresolsulfonphthalein is a triarylmethane dye and a pH indicator. It is ... "m-Cresol Purple 857890". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 2017-07-30. Loucaides, Socratis; Rèrolle, Victoire M. C; Papadimitriou, ... "Characterization of meta-Cresol Purple for spectrophotometric pH measurements in saline and hypersaline media at sub-zero ...
Cresol Resin "Sunlight and Firelight , StoryTrax". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-06-22. Musée McCord ...
It is compounded of phenols such as guaiacol, cresol, xylenol and creosol (not to be confused with cresol). Wood-tar creosote ... cresol and xylenol; the rest being a combination of monophenols and polyphenols. Pitch is a name for any of a number of ...
The majority of the cresol is excreted unchanged in urine; however, some of the p-cresol and o-cresol is excreted as a ... o-Cresol may be a less sensitive marker of toluene exposure than hippuric acid. o-Cresol excretion may be an unreliable method ... Urinary o-cresol may be more reliable for the biomonitoring of toluene exposure because, unlike hippuric acid, o-cresol is not ... CYP2E1 catalyses the formation of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol, while CYP2B6 produces comparatively little p-cresol. It is ...
... is prepared by chlorination of m-cresol. With LD50(oral, rat) of 5129 mg/kg, it is weakly toxic. Cresol Susan C ... It is a monochlorinated m-cresol. It is a white or colorless solid that is only slightly soluble in water. As a solution in ...
P-cresol was seen to be the easiest to degrade through the sulfate-enriched environment, while m-cresol and o-cresol where ... Cresol (m-, p-, and o-), phenol, guaiacol, and xylenol (1,3,4- and 1,3,5-) all are acute aquatic hazards[citation needed] prior ... An example of the oxidation of p-cresol and phenol can be seen in the figures below: This reaction shows the oxidation of p- ... Wang F, Yang G, Zhang W, Wu W, Xu J (June 2004). "Oxidation of p-Cresol to p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde with Molecular Oxygen in the ...
Volkova was the first to synthesize para-tricresol phosphate from para-cresol, which is currently used as a plasticizer ... By reacting toluene sulfonic acids with the base, Volkova obtained the corresponding cresols, thereby facilitating the sulfonic ... She was the first chemist to synthesize para-tricresol phosphate from para-cresol, a component of plasticizer. Volkova was the ... Synthesized para-tricresol phosphate from para-cresol; Discovered the structure of toluene sulfonic acids; Discovered that ...
Cresol is used for leathery or medicinal flavoring. Butyraldehyde is used for chocolate flavoring. Isoamyl acetate is used for ... cresol, butyraldehyde, and isoamyl acetate. Sugars are frequently used in e-liquids to provide a sweet flavor. Diacetyl, ...
In place of phenol itself, they are often produced from cresols (methylphenols). The polymerization is brought to completion ...
These residue contains a few percent by weight of xylenols as well as cresols and phenol. The main xylenols in such tar are the ... Together with cresols and cresylic acid, xylenols are an important class of phenolics with great industrial importance. They ... Helmut Fiegein "Cresols and Xylenols" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007; Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002 ...
It can be produced by carboxylation of o-cresol. 4-Methylsalicylic acid 6-Methylsalicylic acid Takayuki Iijima; Tatsuaki ...
Chemically, AMC is derivative of m-cresol, with a pentyl group attached to the sixth carbon atom. The pure substance melts at ... Oxford JS, Lambkin R, Gibb I, Balasingam S, Chan C, Catchpole A (2005). "A throat lozenge containing amyl meta cresol and ... C. E. Coulthard (1931). "The Disinfectant and Antiseptic Properties of Amyl-meta-cresol". J Exp Patho. 12 (5): 331-336. PMC ...
Train 192 was transporting chlorine gas, sodium hydroxide and cresol. One of 192's tank cars (loaded with 90 tons of chlorine) ...
The most predominant component was the phenolic compound m-cresol. The authors of the study suggest that the chemically complex ...
A novel glycyl radical enzyme catalysing the formation of p-cresol". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (5): 1363-72. doi:10.1046/j.1432- ... D'Ari L, Barker HA (1985). "p-Cresol formation by cell-free extracts of Clostridium difficile". Arch. Microbiol. 143 (3): 311-2 ...
Related ligands can be prepared more efficiently using para-cresol. It is used to mobilize metal ions analogously to the use of ...
Bamberger rearrangement Claisen rearrangement Cresol Fries rearrangement Polyphenol "Front Matter". Nomenclature of Organic ...
These raw materials include lemongrass oil, m-Cresol and ethyl acetylacetate. Electrolytes for cattle are part of a nutritional ...
... "p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Disease". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 5 ... heart disease and type 2 diabetes while both heart and kidney disease events can be predicted by high free p-Cresol levels. ...
A common plastic used for this is epoxy-cresol-novolak (ECN). Both materials offer usable mechanical strength, moisture and ...
"Identification of para-Cresol as a Growth Factor for Methanoplanus endosymbiosus". Appl Environ Microbiol. 57 (4): 976-80. doi: ...
The compound is synthesized by bromination of cresol purple (m-cresolsulfonphthalein). It is used as a pH indicator and as a ...
Cresols, when breathed at very high levels, may cause irritation of the nose and throat. These chemicals have been found in at ... Exposure to cresols occurs mainly from breathing air containing car exhaust, breathing air from homes heated with coal or wood ... ortho-cresol (o-cresol), meta-cresol (m-cresol, and para-cresol (p-cresol). These forms occur separately or as a mixture. ... o-Cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, and mixed cresols have been found in at least 210, 22, 310, and 70 of the 1,678 current or former ...
Toxicological profile for Cresols. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
o-cresol, p-cresol, phenol Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F ... cresol. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0155". National Institute for Occupational ... It is a derivative of phenol and is an isomer of p-cresol and o-cresol.[3] ... This residue contains a few percent by weight of phenol and isomeric cresols. In the cymene-cresol process, toluene is ...
There are three forms (isomers) of cresol: ortho-cresol (o-cresol), meta-cresol (m-cresol), and para-cresol (p-cresol). These ... Dihydroxytoluene Trihydroxytoluene o-CRESOL (ICSC) m-CRESOL (ICSC) p-CRESOL (ICSC) Pubchem. "o-cresol". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih. ... Cresols have an odor characteristic to that of other simple phenols, reminiscent to some of a "coal tar" smell. The name cresol ... Derivatives of p-cresol include: Butylated hydroxytoluene, a common antioxidant Derivatives of o-cresol include: Indo-1, a ...
Cresol Red does not inhibit Taq polymerase to the same degree as other common loading dyes. Cresol red can also be used as an ... Cresol red (full name: o-cresolsulfonephthalein) is a triarylmethane dye frequently used for monitoring the pH in aquaria. ... Cresol red can be used in many common molecular biology reactions in place of other loading dyes. ... Cresol Red at OpenWetWare life scientists wiki. ...
... has role uremic toxin (CHEBI:64584) p-cresol (CHEBI:17847) is a cresol (CHEBI:25399) ... p-cresol (CHEBI:17847) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) p-cresol (CHEBI:17847) has role human metabolite ( ... p-cresol sulfate (CHEBI:82914) has functional parent p-cresol (CHEBI:17847). tolterodine (CHEBI:9622) has functional parent p- ... CHEBI:17847 - p-cresol. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Cresol, p-. CAS No: 106-44-5. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Cresol, p-. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Cresol,p-; Phenol, 4-methyI; NSC 3696; 4-methylphenol ( p-cresol); p-Cresol (4-methylphenol) ... 4-Cresol; 4-Hydroxytoluene; 4-Methylphenol; 1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzene; Paracresol; Cresol, para; Paramethyl phenol; Rcra waste ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations m-cresol (JECFA Evaluation) ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations o-CRESOL (JECFA Evaluation) o-Cresol (SIDS) ...
Cresol intoxication can be fatal, and cause a respiratory failure with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), hepatic, ... We present a case of a female patient who was admitted to the emergency department after ingesting an unknown amount of cresol ... This shows the importance of intensive care in the management of cresol poisoning. ... Cresol is a phenol derivative used as a disinfectant that may cause gastrointestinal corrosive injury, central nervous system, ...
Industrial Chemical Cresols and Downstream Derivatives by Mukhopadhyay, Asim Kumar and a great selection of related books, art ... identifies new and emerging technologies for innovative products in the cresol industry, and emphasizes that cresol isomers and ... identifies new and emerging technologies for innovative products in the cresol industry, and emphasizes that cresol isomers and ... Industrial Chemical Cresols Downstream Derivatives by Mukhopadhyay Asim Kumar. You Searched For: Author/Artist etc.: ...
o-Cresol, Urine. 790592. o-Cresol. mg/l. 13026-0. 790690. o-Cresol, Urine. 790591. o-Cresol, Urine. N/A. ...
China cresol manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese cresol manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & ... M-Cresol Purple , Bromocresol Purple , Bromothymol Blue , Bromocresol Green , Bromophenol Blue City/Province:. Tianjin, Tianjin ... Polyphenolic Antioxidant Butylated Reaction Product of P-Cresol And Dicyclopentadiene (CAS No.68610-51-5) ... Polyphenolic Antioxidant Butylated Reaction Product of P-Cresol And Dicyclopentadiene (CAS No.68610-51-5) ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
o-cresolcresol. CAS Number:. 95-48-7. Molecular formula:. C7H8O. IUPAC Name:. o-cresol. ... o-cresolcresol. CAS Number:. 95-48-7. Molecular formula:. C7H8O. IUPAC Name:. o-cresol. ... 3-CRESOL *3-Cresol *3-HYDROXYTOLUENE *3-METHYLPHENOL *3-Methyl-phenol *Cresol, meta *M-HYDROXYTOLUENE *M-OXYTOLUENE *PHENOL, 3- ... m-cresol EC Number:. 203-577-9. EC Name:. m-cresol. CAS Number:. 108-39-4 Molecular formula:. C7H8O IUPAC Name:. 3-methylphenol ...
ortho-cresol, meta-cresol and para-cresol). Of particular importance to environmental effects are the values for partition ... In order to get a comprehensive data set for p-cresol a read-across from m-cresol is applied, in accordance with the following ... It can be stated that the 3 cresols act as a prime example of substances that are suitable for read-across. Cresols are isomers ... There is no study on chronic toxicity towards terrestrial plants available using p-cresol as test substance and a read-across ...
o-cresol. Regulatory process names 12 Translated names 20 IUPAC names 9 Trade names 5 Other identifiers 2 ...
Cresols. Direct Parent. Para cresols. Alternative Parents. Toluenes / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Organooxygen ... P-Cresol. PDB Entries. 1diq / 1jhu / 1jhv / 3q14 / 4hdm / 4kqj / 4kqk / 5frv / 5k1q / 5tdu … ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as para cresols. These are compounds containing a para cresol ... cresol (CHEBI:17847) / a methylphenol (CPD-108) Targets. Details1. Nicotinate-nucleotide--dimethylbenzimidazole ...
Testing Status of 5-Amino-o-cresol 11462-W. CASRN: 2835-95-2. Formula: C7-H9-N-O. Synonyms/Common Names. *4-Amino-2-hydroxy-1- ... Metabolism and disposition of [14C]5-amino-o-cresol in female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Xenobiotica. Feb 2008; 38(2): 171-184 ... Citation: Disposition of 5-Amino-o-cresol in Female Rats and Mice After Dermal, Oral and Intravenous Administration. November ...
Dimethoxy DI-P-cresol , C16H18O4 , CID 166971 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Cresols (p-Chloro-m-Cresol, Mixed Cresols, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, p-Cresol) and Isopropyl Cresols (Chlorothymol, Thymol, o-Cymen-5 ... It may be that Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol, p-Chloro-m-Cresol, Chlorothymol, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, o- ... p-Chloro-m-Cresol, Chlorothymol, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, o-Cymen-5-ol and Carvacrol were safe at ... p-Cresol was shown to cause depigmentation of hair and possibly the skin. In addition, there was a concern that p-Cresol may be ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Bromo-P-Cresol,25g,CAS 6627-55-0 (46AG59)? Graingers got your back. Price:$138.50. Easy ordering & ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Bromo-P-Cresol, 100g, CAS 6627-55-0 (46AG60)? Graingers got your back. Price:$424.88. Easy ordering & ...
2-bromo-p-cresol, phenol, 2-bromo-4-methyl, 3-bromo-4-hydroxytoluene, 2-bromo-4-methyl-phenol, p-cresol, 2-bromo, pubchem4096, ... 2-bromo-p-cresol, phenol, 2-bromo-4-methyl, 3-bromo-4-hydroxytoluene, 2-bromo-4-methyl-phenol, p-cresol, 2-bromo, pubchem4096, ... 2-bromo-p-cresol, phenol, 2-bromo-4-methyl, 3-bromo-4-hydroxytoluene, 2-bromo-4-methyl-phenol, p-cresol, 2-bromo, pubchem4096, ...
O para-cresol (4-metilfenol) e as guanidinas são compostos envolvidos em uma série de processos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. Em ... O para-cresol (4-metilfenol) e as guanidinas são compostos envolvidos em uma série de processos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. Em ... Para-cresol (4-methylphenol) and guanidino compounds are involved in a series of biochemical and physiological cycles. Under ... Nesse trabalho desenvolveu-se, validou-se e aplicou-se um método para análise de p-cresol e guanidinas em plasma de cães ...
Contact to Para Cresol Exporters in India, Para Cresol Wholesalers, Para Cresol Distributors and Traders from India. ... Search Indian Para Cresol Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - ... Meta Para Cresol / Cresylic Acid, Para cresol, Meta Cresol ... Deals in Cresol, Para cresol, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Meta Para Cresol, Para Chloro Meta Cresol ... Meta Para Cresol, Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT), Para cresol, chlorocresol, Meta Cresol, Para Chloro Meta Cresol... ...
65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cresol Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide ... The price of Cresol in 2016 Major end users of Cresol Potential users of Cresol The main trading companies of Cresol List of ... Cresol Global Market and Forecast Research Table of Contents Part 1: General Information of Cresol Chapter 1: Properties 1.1 ... 2.2 Construction of Industry Chain of Cresol Chapter 3: End User of Cresol List of Tables Manufacturers and capacities of ...
... removal of m-cresol has been performed using photoeletrocatalysis technique at the surface of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film ... 7, 8 and 9, the relative concentration of m-cresol, C/Co, was obtained by evaluating the ratio of m-cresol concentration C at ... The effect of pH on the degradation rate of m-cresol is presented in Fig. 9a (initial m-cresol concentration 5.0 mg L−1 over 1 ... Effect of different initial m-cresol concentration on m-cresol degradation: a 5.0, b 7.0, c 9.0 and d 11.0 mg L−1 on ...
  • It is a derivative of phenol and is an isomer of p -cresol and o -cresol . (wikipedia.org)
  • This residue contains a few percent by weight of phenol and isomeric cresols. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its chemical structure, a molecule of cresol has a methyl group substituted onto the ring of phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresol is a phenol derivative used as a disinfectant that may cause gastrointestinal corrosive injury, central nervous system, cardiovascular disturbances, renal, and hepatic injury following intoxication. (hindawi.com)
  • Cresol, a derivative of phenol is popularly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. (hindawi.com)
  • In its chemical structure, a cresol molecule has a methyl group substituted onto the benzene ring of a phenol molecule, by different arrangement of the -CH3 groups are three structural isomers possible. (europa.eu)
  • Ortho, Meta and Para cresol are stereoisomers and commercially manufactured as phenol derivatives. (sbwire.com)
  • There are two well-known manufacturing processes of cresol i.e. methylation of phenol using methanol and sulfonation of toluene, followed by hydrolysis. (sbwire.com)
  • O- cresol is an isomeric phenol with methyl substituent in the orto position relative to the hydroxyl group. (scielo.cl)
  • and W is the weight, in g, of Cresol taken: not more than 5.0% of phenol (C 6 H 6 O) is found. (drugfuture.com)
  • p-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a phenol. (selfdecode.com)
  • The crystallization behavior of α-phenyl o-cresol (o-benzyl phenol) has been investigated over the range of undercooling up to 90 °C. The growth rate reaches a maximum value of about 10 -3 cm sec -1 at an undercooling of about 30 °C and decreases to about 10 -7 cm sec -1 at the lowest temperature of study. (elsevier.com)
  • In the cymene-cresol process, toluene is alkylated with propylene to give isomers of cymene , which can be oxidatively dealkylated analogous to the cumene process . (wikipedia.org)
  • A cresol that consists of toluene substituted by a hydroxy group at position 4. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • o-Cresol is a minor urinary metabolite of toluene, a widely used chemical with neurotoxicological properties. (hmdb.ca)
  • However manufacturing of cresol from toluene is industrially preferred route. (sbwire.com)
  • Toluene-4-monooxygenase, a three-component enzyme system that catalyzes the oxidation of toluene to p-cresol in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1. (asm.org)
  • The reconstituted enzyme system, in the presence of NADH and Fe2+, oxidized toluene to p-cresol as the first detectable product. (asm.org)
  • Experiments with p-deutero-toluene led to the isolation of p-cresol which retained 68% of the deuterium initially present in the parent molecule. (asm.org)
  • When the reconstituted enzyme system was incubated with toluene in the presence of 18O2, the oxygen in p-cresol was shown to be derived from molecular oxygen. (asm.org)
  • The liver cytochrome P450 metabolizes toluene to benzyl alcohol, but also to o-cresol and p-cresol. (selfdecode.com)
  • The obtained alkyl derivatives of para-cresol are important for industry as antioxidants and intermediates. (brillonline.com)
  • It may be that Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol, p-Chloro-m-Cresol, Chlorothymol, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, o-Cymen-5-ol and Carvacrol do not cause chemical leukoderma at concentrations higher than 0.5%, but data were not available to support that possibility. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Studies are needed which would demonstrate a concentrations of use of p-Cresol and Mixed Cresols that would not result in skin whitening. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • In the European Union, p-Chloro-m-Cresol, Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol at concentrations up to 0.2% and o-Cymen-5-ol (4-Isopropyl-m-cresol) at concentrations up to 0.1% are allowed to be used as preservatives (see Annex VI). (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • At baseline, serum levels of the water-soluble solutes urea, creatinine, and phosphate, the middle molecule beta2-microglobulin, total and free concentrations of the protein-bound solute p-cresol, and several risk factors for mortality were evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • The degradation rate of m -cresol at different starting concentrations was analysed with zero-order kinetic characteristics. (scielo.org.za)
  • When the initial concentration of m -cresol was 224.2 mg·ℓ -1 , the reaction rate reached a maximum at 46.80 mg·(ℓ·h) -1 .The cell growth kinetics was also investigated with initial m -cresol concentrations varying from 0 to 1 200 mg·ℓ -1 . (scielo.org.za)
  • The biodegradation kinetics of o -cresol was examined by acclimatized P. putida DSM 548 (pJP4) in batch experiments at varying initial o -cresol concentrations (from 50 to 500 mg/L). The kinetic parameters of o -cresol aerobic biodegradation were estimated by using the Haldane substrate inhibition equation. (scielo.cl)
  • In addition to being highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) cresols cause, even at very low concentrations, adverse effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, lungs, kidney and liver resulting in central nervous system depression ( ATSDR, 2008 ). (scielo.cl)
  • Concentrations of cresol in workplace air on a time weighted average 40 hr week can be no more than 10mg/m3. (cdc.gov)
  • At concentrations encountered during uremia, p-cresol inhibits phagocyte function and decreases leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. (selfdecode.com)
  • The second-order rate constant k increases as the initial pH increased, but decreases with the increasing of initial p-Cresol concentrations. (ukm.my)
  • Cresols may be formed normally in the body from other compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Together with many other compounds, m-cresol is traditionally extracted from coal tar , the volatile materials obtained in the production of coke from (bituminous) coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • m -Cresol is a precursor to numerous compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresols (also hydroxytoluene) are organic compounds which are methylphenols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresols are methylphenol compounds which are naturally occuring or synthetic. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Para-cresol (4-methylphenol) and guanidino compounds are involved in a series of biochemical and physiological cycles. (usp.br)
  • Gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are the most used techniques for separation and quantification of p-cresol and guanidino compounds. (usp.br)
  • There are few studies quantifying the concentration of guanidino compounds and p-cresol in blood of uremic dogs, therefore, a better understanding of the role of these compounds in the metabolism of dogs are needed. (usp.br)
  • Cresols are persistent compounds and are poisonous to a wide range of living beings. (springer.com)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ortho cresols. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are organic compounds containing an ortho-cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene bearing one hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 2, respectively. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cresols are organic compounds which are methylphenols. (hmdb.ca)
  • In the past, cresol solutions have been used as antiseptics in surgery, but they have been largely displaced in this role by less toxic compounds. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are aromatic compounds containing a meta-cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing a methyl group and a hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 3, respectively. (hmdb.ca)
  • Among them, the cresols are highly toxic compounds. (scielo.cl)
  • In this study, we tried to demonstrate that o- cresol, one of the substantially toxic compounds, can be exploited by Pseudomonas putida which is strengthened with transformation of pJP4 from Ralstonia eutropha . (scielo.cl)
  • We as experts bring forth various organic compounds that can be classified under Cresol. (shivshaktiindia.in)
  • U.S. and Western Europe are two leading consumer of cresolic acid and consumption of cresol by this two geographies is expected to grow steadily at a CAGR of 3.0% till 2020. (sbwire.com)
  • 2. 3-Hydroxybenzoic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were isolated as products of m-cresol oxidation by cells inhibited by alphaalpha'-bipyridyl. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, these criteria and recommendations will apply to cresylic-acid (93516) mixtures that contain cresol. (cdc.gov)
  • p-Cresol is one of the metabolites of the amino acid tyrosine, and to a certain extent also of phenylalanine, which are converted to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by intestinal bacteria, before being decarboxylated to p-cresol (putrefaction). (selfdecode.com)
  • It was found that the m -cresol could be degraded more efficiently by this photoelectrocatalytic process than the degradation obtained by photocatalytic oxidation or by electrochemical oxidation or alone. (springer.com)
  • o-Cresol is metabolized by conjugation and oxidation. (hmdb.ca)
  • The same enzyme catalyses both p-cresol hydroxylation and the further oxidation of the product, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. (biochemj.org)
  • The activation of cresols by oxidation involves tyrosinase and thyroid peroxidase, forming a reactive quinone methide. (selfdecode.com)
  • Oxidation of p-Cresol was investigated by using ozonation process. (ukm.my)
  • The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of ozonation on oxidation of micropollutant such as p-Cresol. (ukm.my)
  • Ozonation performance was evaluated based on p-Cresol concentration reduction and chemical oxidation demand (COD) reduction. (ukm.my)
  • The evolution of absorption spectra of p-Cresol degradation suggests that the oxidation of p-Cresol follows three stages mechanisms with cycloaddition as the first step to produce aromatic intermediates followed by ring-opening reactions, degradation of the intermediates, and subsequently achieved mineralization. (ukm.my)
  • Like other types of phenols, they are slowly oxidized by long exposure to air, and the impurities often give samples of cresols a yellowish to brownish red tint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresols have an odor characteristic to that of other simple phenols, reminiscent to some of a "coal tar" smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Intact cells of a non-fluorescent Pseudomonas grown with m-cresol, 2,5-xylenol, 3,5-xylenol, 3-ethyl-5-methylphenol or 2,3,5-trimethylphenol rapidly oxidized all these phenols to completion. (nih.gov)
  • A mixture of the three isomeric methyl phenols, o- , m- , and p- cresol, obtained from coal tar. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ortho cresol has found great application as chemical intermediates, pharmaceutical intermediate, disinfectants and solvent. (sbwire.com)
  • Growing demand for specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals intermediates and industrial lubricants is expected to drive global consumption of cresols. (sbwire.com)
  • o-Cresol is a microbial metabolite that can be found in Pseudomonas (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1016611702882). (hmdb.ca)
  • The enzyme that catalyses the hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol was purified from Pseudomonas putida. (biochemj.org)
  • 4. Cells of a fluorescent Pseudomonas grown with m-cresol oxidized m-cresol, 3,5-xylenol and 3-ethyl-5-methylphenol to completion and oxidized 2,5-xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol partially. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of various parameters, such as m -cresol concentration, pH and applied potential on the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of m -cresol was studied and discussed. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of m -cresol using the TiO 2 thin film-modified carbon sheet photoelectrode was investigated. (springer.com)
  • It was found ozonation at pH11 achieved the highest p-Cresol degradation, with 95.8% of p-Cresol reduced and 96.0% of COD reduced, for an initial 50 mgL-1 of p-Cresol. (ukm.my)
  • The degradation of p-Cresol could be expressed by second-order of kinetic model. (ukm.my)
  • Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobac. (mysciencework.com)
  • were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. (mysciencework.com)
  • p-Cresol sulfate is a microbial metabolite that is found in urine and likely derives from secondary metabolism of p-cresol. (hmdb.ca)
  • 10775436 ). p-Cresol sulfate is the major component of urinary MBPLM (myelin basic protein-like material). (hmdb.ca)
  • p-Cresol sulfate is a small protein-bound molecule that is poorly cleared with dialysis. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cresols undergo oxidative metabolism in the liver and are rapidly eliminated, mostly in the urine, as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. (selfdecode.com)
  • Results of the HEMO Study suggest that p-cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • To help define non-traditional risk factors , we determined the association of predialysis total p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippurate with cardiac death, sudden cardiac death , and first cardiovascular event in the 1,273 participants of the HEMO Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, in prevalent hemodialysis patients participating in a large U.S. hemodialysis trial, uremic solutes p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, hippurate, and phenylacetylglutamine were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are three forms (isomers) of cresol: ortho-cresol (o-cresol), meta-cresol (m-cresol), and para-cresol (p-cresol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresols are isomers and, thus ideally fulfill the recommended criteria of structural similarity. (europa.eu)
  • Concerning aquatic toxicity of the cresols on aquatic species, a large number of experimental results from tests with fish, invertebrates and algae are available, indicating a similar toxicity of all isomers, with p-cresol being slightly more toxic in acute tests: Based on the similarities in the results mentioned above the read-across approach is therefore scientifically justified. (europa.eu)
  • Criteria and recommendations for cresol apply to the o, m, p, isomers or to any combination of the three isomers in a mixture. (cdc.gov)
  • 3) Cresols contain ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers. (shivshaktiindia.in)
  • Cresols are used to dissolve other chemicals, as disinfectants and deodorizers, and to make other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • For cresol bactericides or disinfectants the mechanism of action is due to the destruction of bacterial cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresol solutions are used as household cleaners and disinfectants, perhaps most famously under the trade name Lysol. (hmdb.ca)
  • O- cresol has a wide variety of usages comprising as disinfectants, fumigants in dyes and odors, in photographic developers, in pesticides which are used extensively in agricultural methods, etc. (scielo.cl)
  • Animal studies suggest that cresols probably would not affect reproduction in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Several animal studies suggest that cresols may promote tumor growth. (scielo.cl)
  • Due to the corrosive properties of p-cresol to the skin (R34) it will be allocated to the moderate hazard category for local effects. (europa.eu)
  • m-Cresol is a microbial metabolite that can be found in Lysinibacillus (http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1816-79502011000100003). (hmdb.ca)
  • Furthermore, p-cresol is a metabolite of menthofuran, one of the metabolites of R-(+)-pulegone, which is found in extracts from the plants Mentha pulegium and Hedeoma pulegioides, commonly known as pennyroyal oil and pennyroyal tea. (selfdecode.com)
  • Cresol is a mixture of isomeric cresols obtained from coal tar or from petroleum. (drugfuture.com)
  • We are a reputed organization that caters to the diversified requirements of clients by offering Para Chloro Meta Cresol . (shreejiexports.net)
  • Packed in quality grade materials, Para Chloro Meta Cresol is stored and placed in cool place. (shreejiexports.net)
  • Procedure Place about 2.5 g of Cresol, accurately weighed, in a 250-mL volumetric flask, add 10 mL of sodium hydroxide solution (1 in 10), dilute with water to volume, and mix. (drugfuture.com)
  • Cresol red can be used in many common molecular biology reactions in place of other loading dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresol Red does not inhibit Taq polymerase to the same degree as other common loading dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While para cresol is majorly used for manufacturing of antioxidants, dyes and fragrance chemicals. (sbwire.com)
  • Cresols are a widely occurring natural and manufactured group of chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • In air, cresols quickly break down into other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Animal studies show that cresols may increase the ability of some carcinogenic chemicals to cause tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • Most recently, cresols have been used to create a breakthrough in manufacturing carbon nanotubes at scale that are separated and not twisted, without additional chemicals that change the surface properties of the nanotubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresol is one of the few chemicals that cannot be safely washed off with water . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dihydroxytoluene Trihydroxytoluene o-CRESOL (ICSC) m-CRESOL (ICSC) p-CRESOL (ICSC) Pubchem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresols are found in many foods and in wood and tobacco smoke, crude oil, coal tar, and in chemical mixtures used as wood preservatives. (cdc.gov)
  • Data were available to demonstrate that m-Cresol and o-Cresol when tested at 0.5% do not cause chemical leukoderma (skin whitening). (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Industrially, the use and application of Cresol chemical is vast and varied. (shivshaktiindia.in)
  • If cresol chemical burn is washed off with small amount of water , the involved area may extend. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus cresol chemical burn must be managed with caution if a generous supply of water is not available. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report a case of cresol chemical burn with a review of literatures . (bvsalud.org)
  • Ortho Cresols, Meta Cresols and Para Cresols. (sbwire.com)
  • Most exposures to cresols are at very low levels that are not harmful, but cresols breathed, ingested, or applied to the skin at very high levels, can be very harmful because they are corrosive substances. (cdc.gov)
  • It can be stated that the 3 cresols act as a prime example of substances that are suitable for read-across. (europa.eu)
  • Studies in animals have also found lesions inside the nose and thyroid gland damage in animals eating food containing mostly p -cresol or a mixture of m - and p -cresol. (cdc.gov)
  • These forms occur separately or as a mixture, which can also be called cresol or more specifically, tricresol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cresols is an aromatic organic compound and obtained from coal tar or petroleum as a mixture of three stereoisomers i.e. (sbwire.com)
  • Cresol mixture is industrially preferred preservative, solvent, disinfectant and wood preservative. (sbwire.com)
  • a mixture of o -, m - and p -cresols. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exposure to cresols occurs mainly from breathing air containing car exhaust, air from homes heated with coal or wood, and smoking cigarettes. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term and long-term studies with animals have shown similar effects from exposure to cresols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Criteria for recommended standard occupational exposure to cresol (93516) have been established and are presented. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational injury from cresol exposure is from skin contact and inhalation. (cdc.gov)
  • Cresols can be absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. (selfdecode.com)
  • Breathing air containing cresols is the primary source of exposure. (selfdecode.com)
  • Exposure may also result from drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food and coming into contact with liquids containing cresols. (selfdecode.com)
  • Inhalation of high levels of cresols for a short time results in irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. (cdc.gov)
  • It captures 2-amino-p-cresol hcl market trends, pays close attention to 2-amino-p-cresol hcl manufacturers and names suppliers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • meta -Cresol , also 3-methylphenol , is an organic compound with the formula CH 3 C 6 H 4 (OH). (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of gas-phase alkylation of para-cresol (4-methylphenol) in the presence of an iron catalyst using methanol, ethanol, n- and iso-propanol as alkylating agents are presented. (brillonline.com)
  • The growing demand for antioxidants and preservatives is another accelerator for global market of cresols. (sbwire.com)
  • Cresols are found in many foods and in wood and tobacco smoke, crude oil, coal tar, and in brown mixtures such as creosote and cresylic acids, which are wood preservatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Compared to organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources were easily utilised for the m -cresol biodegradation. (scielo.org.za)
  • Dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) is an organic compound with the structural formula CH3C6H2(NO2)2OH. (chemwatch.net)
  • Urine or blood dosage of cresol were not performed. (hindawi.com)
  • p-Cresol is metabolized through conjugation, mainly sulphation and glucuronization, but removal of the unconjugated p-cresol is, at least in part, via the urine. (selfdecode.com)
  • p-Cresol is a uremic toxin that is at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis in haemodialysis patients, and has been involved in the progression of renal failure. (selfdecode.com)
  • citation needed] About half of the world's supply of cresols are extracted from coal tar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading Manufacturer of meta cresol, meta para cresol, t.b.h.q. antioxidant and p.c.m.c. antioxidant from Ghaziabad. (vdhmenthol.com)
  • Metabolism and disposition of [14C]5-amino-o-cresol in female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments with recombinant P-450s demonstrated cresol metabolism was mediated by several P-450s including CYP2D6, 2C19, 1A2, 1A1, and 2E1. (selfdecode.com)
  • 15687000 ). o-Cresol is used commercially as a disinfectant. (hmdb.ca)
  • Owing to cresol's value added applications such as solvent, disinfectant and preservative, it is expected that the consumption of cresol will grow steadily especially in China and India. (sbwire.com)
  • There is no study on chronic toxicity towards terrestrial plants available using p-cresol as test substance and a read-across from m-cresol is applied. (europa.eu)
  • The toxicity of m-cresol to lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa) was determined according to OECD Guideline 208 in soil. (europa.eu)
  • Several studies of toxicity of m-cresol towards terrestrial plants were found in the literature. (europa.eu)
  • Using soil, short-term toxicity of m-cresol to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was examined. (europa.eu)
  • In a subchronic toxicity study according to OECD TG 408 p-cresol was administered daily to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage at dose levels of 0, 50, 175 , 600 mg/kg bw/day diluted in corn oil (RTI 1988). (europa.eu)
  • Experiments supplementing growth with glucose indicated that this substrate increased the biomass, and also induced the biodegradation of m -cresol. (scielo.org.za)
  • The biodegradation kinetics of o- cresol was investigated. (scielo.cl)
  • o -cresol biodegradation in a batch-recirculation bioreactor system by immobilized P. putida was also studied. (scielo.cl)
  • o- cresol biodegradation was performed by using recombinant P . putida . (scielo.cl)
  • In uremia, modifications in the intestinal flora result in the specific overgrowth of bacteria that are specific p-cresol producers. (selfdecode.com)
  • Anisole converts to cresols under these conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Skin Notation Profile provides the SK assignments and supportive data for dinitro- o -cresol. (cdc.gov)
  • Dinitro cresol is a Dinitrophenol compound. (pesticideinfo.org)
  • Dinitro-orto-cresol. (who.int)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Dinitro-orto-cresol. (who.int)
  • P-Cresol is an end-product of protein breakdown, and an increase of the nutritional protein load in healthy individuals results in enhanced generation and urinary excretion. (selfdecode.com)
  • The administration of antibiotics reduces urinary excretion of p-cresol, as a result of the liquidation of the producing bacteria. (selfdecode.com)
  • Pipet 10 mL of the contents of the tube of formaldehyde-treated Cresol into a 50-mL color-comparison tube marked N 1, and similarly add 10.0 mL of the contents not treated with formaldehyde to a similar tube marked N 2. (drugfuture.com)
  • Lower concentration of active ingredients (formaldehyde and cresol). (plutusdental.com)