Clinical Enzyme Tests
MAP Kinase Signaling System
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
Protein Kinase C
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
CDC2 Protein Kinase
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
Tissue engineering of functional cardiac muscle: molecular, structural, and electrophysiological studies. (1/79)The primary aim of this study was to relate molecular and structural properties of in vitro reconstructed cardiac muscle with its electrophysiological function using an in vitro model system based on neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, and bioreactors. After 1 wk of cultivation, we found that engineered cardiac muscle contained a 120- to 160-microm-thick peripheral region with cardiac myocytes that were electrically connected through gap junctions and sustained macroscopically continuous impulse propagation over a distance of 5 mm. Molecular, structural, and electrophysiological properties were found to be interrelated and depended on specific model system parameters such as the tissue culture substrate, bioreactor, and culture medium. Native tissue and the best experimental group (engineered cardiac muscle cultivated using laminin-coated scaffolds, rotating bioreactors, and low-serum medium) were comparable with respect to the conduction velocity of propagated electrical impulses and spatial distribution of connexin43. Furthermore, the structural and electrophysiological properties of the engineered cardiac muscle, such as cellularity, conduction velocity, maximum signal amplitude, capture rate, and excitation threshold, were significantly improved compared with our previous studies. (+info)
Peroxynitrite induced nitration and inactivation of myofibrillar creatine kinase in experimental heart failure. (2/79)OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is implicated in the initiation and progression of congestive heart failure, but the putative reactive species and cellular targets involved remain undefined. We have previously shown that peroxynitrite (ONOO(-), an aggressive biological oxidant and nitrating agent) potently inhibits myofibrillar creatine kinase (MM-CK), a critical controller of contractility known to be impaired during heart failure. Here we hypothesized that nitration and inhibition of MM-CK participate in cardiac failure in vivo. METHODS: Heart failure was induced in rats by myocardial infarction (left coronary artery ligation) and confirmed by histological analysis at 8 weeks postinfarct (1.3+/-1.4 vs. 37.7+/-3.2% left ventricular circumference; sham control vs. CHF, n=10 each). RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated significantly increased protein nitration in failing myocardium compared to control (optical density: 0.58+/-0.06 vs. 0.93+/-0.09, sham vs. CHF, P<0.05). Significant decreases in MM-CK activity and content were observed in failing hearts (MM-CK k(cat): 6.0+/-0.4 vs. 3.0+/-0.3 micromol/nM M-CK/min, P<0.05; 6.8+/-1.3 vs. 4.7+/-1.2% myofibrillar protein, P<0.05), with no change in myosin ATPase activity. In separate experiments, isolated rat cardiac myofibrils were exposed to ONOO(-) (2-250 microM) and enzyme studies were conducted. Identical to in vivo studies, selective reductions in MM-CK were observed at ONOO(-) concentrations as low as 2 microM (IC(50)=92.5+/-6.0 microM); myosin ATPase was unaffected with ONOO(-) concentrations as high as 250 microM. Concentration dependent nitration of MM-CK occurred and extent of nitration was statistically correlated to extent of CK inhibition (P<0.001). Immunoprecipitation of MM-CK from failing left ventricle yielded significant evidence of tyrosine nitration. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that cardiac ONOO(-) formation and perturbation of myofibrillar energetic controllers occur during experimental heart failure; MM-CK may be a critical cellular target in this setting. (+info)
Production of recombinant human creatine kinase (r-hCK) isozymes by tandem repeat expression of M and B genes and characterization of r-hCK-MB. (3/79)BACKGROUND: Serum creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) is widely used as a marker of myocardial injury. We prepared recombinant human CK (r-hCK) MB isoenzyme and examined its potential for use as a control material for assay of CK-MB in serum. METHODS: cDNAs encoding CK-M and CK-B subunits were inserted into the same plasmid vector, followed by transformation of Escherichia coli. The resulting three types of CK isoenzymes were purified by conventional chromatography. RESULTS: The ratio of MB to MM to BB was 50:40:10 on the basis of CK activity. Highly purified CK-MB with a specific activity of 533 U/mg was produced in a yield of 5.7 mg/g of packed cells. Purified r-hCK-MB had the isoelectric point (pI 5.3) and molecular size (46 kDa for the subunit) of native CK-MB. Its immunoreactivity in an ELISA using antibody against native heart enzyme was similar to that of cardiac CK-MB. The r-hCK-MB retained >90% activity for at least 4 months at 11 degrees C in a delipidated serum matrix in a liquid form at a concentration of 118 U/L. CONCLUSIONS: r-hCK-MB shows key properties of the native cardiac isoenzyme and may be useful as a control and calibrator for serum assays of CK-MB. (+info)
Enhanced expression of the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin reduces muscular dystrophy and restores viability in dystrophic mice. (4/79)Muscle fibers attach to laminin in the basal lamina using two distinct mechanisms: the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin. Defects in these linkage systems result in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), alpha 2 laminin congenital muscular dystrophy, sarcoglycan-related muscular dystrophy, and alpha 7 integrin congenital muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the molecular continuity between the extracellular matrix and cell cytoskeleton is essential for the structural and functional integrity of skeletal muscle. To test whether the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin can compensate for the absence of dystrophin, we expressed the rat alpha 7 chain in mdx/utr(-/-) mice that lack both dystrophin and utrophin. These mice develop a severe muscular dystrophy highly akin to that in DMD, and they also die prematurely. Using the muscle creatine kinase promoter, expression of the alpha 7BX2 integrin chain was increased 2.0-2.3-fold in mdx/utr(-/-) mice. Concomitant with the increase in the alpha 7 chain, its heterodimeric partner, beta 1D, was also increased in the transgenic animals. Transgenic expression of the alpha 7BX2 chain in the mdx/utr(-/-) mice extended their longevity by threefold, reduced kyphosis and the development of muscle disease, and maintained mobility and the structure of the neuromuscular junction. Thus, bolstering alpha 7 beta 1 integrin-mediated association of muscle cells with the extracellular matrix alleviates many of the symptoms of disease observed in mdx/utr(-/-) mice and compensates for the absence of the dystrophin- and utrophin-mediated linkage systems. This suggests that enhanced expression of the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin may provide a novel approach to treat DMD and other muscle diseases that arise due to defects in the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. A video that contrasts kyphosis, gait, joint contractures, and mobility in mdx/utr(-/-) and alpha 7BX2-mdx/utr(-/-) mice can be accessed at http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/152/6/1207. (+info)
Muscle-specific overexpression of the adenovirus primary receptor CAR overcomes low efficiency of gene transfer to mature skeletal muscle. (5/79)Significant levels of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer occur only in immature muscle or in regenerating muscle, indicating that a developmentally regulated event plays a major role in limiting transgene expression in mature skeletal muscle. We have previously shown that in developing mouse muscle, expression of the primary Ad receptor CAR is severely downregulated during muscle maturation. To evaluate how global expression of CAR throughout muscle affects Ad vector (AdV)-mediated gene transfer into mature skeletal muscle, we produced transgenic mice that express the CAR cDNA under the control of the muscle-specific creatine kinase promoter. Five-month-old transgenic mice were compared to their nontransgenic littermates for their susceptibility to AdV transduction. In CAR transgenics that had been injected in the tibialis anterior muscle with AdVCMVlacZ, increased gene transfer was demonstrated by the increase in the number of transduced muscle fibers (433 +/- 121 in transgenic mice versus 8 +/- 4 in nontransgenic littermates) as well as the 25-fold increase in overall beta-galactosidase activity. Even when the reporter gene was driven by a more efficient promoter (the cytomegalovirus enhancer-chicken beta-actin gene promoter), differential transducibility was still evident (893 +/- 149 versus 153 +/- 30 fibers; P < 0.001). Furthermore, a fivefold decrease in the titer of injected AdV still resulted in significant transduction of muscle (253 +/- 130 versus 14 +/- 4 fibers). The dramatic enhancement in AdV-mediated gene transfer to mature skeletal muscle that is observed in the CAR transgenics indicates that prior modulation of the level of CAR expression can overcome the poor AdV transducibility of mature skeletal muscle and significant transduction can be obtained at low titers of AdV. (+info)
Overexpression of the LAR (leukocyte antigen-related) protein-tyrosine phosphatase in muscle causes insulin resistance. (6/79)Previous reports indicate that the expression and/or activity of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) LAR are increased in insulin-responsive tissues of obese, insulin-resistant humans and rodents, but it is not known whether these alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress human LAR, specifically in muscle, to levels comparable to those reported in insulin-resistant humans. In LAR-transgenic mice, fasting plasma insulin was increased 2.5-fold compared with wild-type controls, whereas fasting glucose was normal. Whole-body glucose disposal and glucose uptake into muscle in vivo were reduced by 39-50%. Insulin injection resulted in normal tyrosyl phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in muscle of transgenic mice. However, phosphorylation of IRS-2 was reduced by 62%, PI3' kinase activity associated with phosphotyrosine, IRS-1, or IRS-2 was reduced by 34-57%, and association of p85alpha with both IRS proteins was reduced by 39-52%. Thus, overexpression of LAR in muscle causes whole-body insulin resistance, most likely due to dephosphorylation of specific regulatory phosphotyrosines on IRS proteins. Our data suggest that increased expression and/or activity of LAR or related PTPs in insulin target tissues of obese humans may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. (+info)
Screening of dystrophin gene deletions in Egyptian patients with DMD/BMD muscular dystrophies. (7/79)Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations within the dystrophin gene. Our study has identified 100 Egyptian families collected from the Human Genetics Clinic, National Research Center, Cairo. All cases were subjected to complete clinical evaluation pedigree analysis, electromyography studies, estimation of serum creatine phosphokinase enzyme (CPK) levels and DNA analysis. Multiplex PCR using 18 pairs of specific primers were used for screening of deletion mutations within the dystrophin gene. A frequency of 55% among the families. Sixty per cent of detected deletions involved multiple exons spanning the major or the minor hot spot of the dystrophin gene. The remainder 40% which mainly involved exon 45. Comparing these findings with frequencies of other countries it was found that our figures fall within the reported range of 40%- distribution of deletions in our study and other different studies was variable and specific ethnic differences do not apparently account for specific deletions. In addition this study concluded that employment of the 18 exon analysis is a cost effective and a highly accurate (97% to launch a nationwide program. (+info)
Electrophoresis of creatine kinase isoforms: a highly sensitive fluorescence scanning method. (8/79)OBJECTIVE: To develop an agarose electrophoretic method for creatine kinase (CK) isoforms, using highly sensitive fluorescence scanning. METHODS: A discontinuous buffer system was used. Electrophoresis on agarose gel was performed under constant current and low voltage. CK isoforms were separated within 30 minutes and detected by fluorescence scanning. RESULTS: There were no significant differences when the activities of CK-MM were between 853.0 U/L and 14.0 U/L and those of CK-MB between 152.0 U/L and 2.4 U/L. The detection limits of stain method for CK-MM and CK-MB isoforms were 36.0 U/L and 12.3 U/L, respectively; while those of fluorescence method were 12.0 U/L and 2.1 U/L. The experimental results showed good precision for CK-MM isoforms, as well for CK-MB isoforms and isoenzymes. CONCLUSION: An agarose electrophoretic method has been developed to measure CK isoenzymes and isoforms clinically. This method is rapid, simple, sensitive, highly reproducible and inexpensive. It is suitable for general laboratories. (+info)
Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.
Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:
1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.
If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.
1. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration.
2. Myopathy: A condition where the muscles become damaged or diseased, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and muscle stiffness.
4. Rhabdomyolysis: A condition where the muscle tissue is damaged, leading to the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream and potentially causing kidney damage.
5. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis: Inflammatory conditions that affect the muscles and skin.
6. Muscle strain: A common injury caused by overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers.
7. Cervical dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles.
8. Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.
9. Oculopharyngeal myopathy: A condition characterized by weakness of the muscles used for swallowing and eye movements.
10. Inclusion body myositis: An inflammatory condition that affects the muscles, leading to progressive muscle weakness and wasting.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of muscular diseases that can affect individuals. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options. It's important for individuals experiencing muscle weakness or wasting to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate care.
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Levels of creatine kinase2
- Other indicators of myocardial damage included abnormal levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme and phosphocreatine kinase. (cdc.gov)
- The Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program (NSQAP) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced a set of seven prototype dried blood spot (DBS) reference materials spiked with varying levels of creatine kinase MM isoform (CK-MM). These DBS were evaluated over a 3-week period by CDC, NYS, and RTI, all using the same CK-MM isoform-specific fluoroimmunoassay. (cdc.gov)
- Functional properties of in situ mitochondria and of mitochondrial creatine kinase were studied in saponin-skinned fibers taken from normal and M-creatine kinase-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
- In mutant fast-twitch muscle, a decrease rather than increase in mitochondrial sensitivity to ADP occurred, but creatine still had no effect. (elsevier.com)
- I extracted and purified mitochondrial Creatine Kinase (CK). (victorjtemple.com)
- I also determined the mode of interaction between mitochondrial CK (Mit-CK) and the mitochondrial membrane, and the kinetic parameters of bound and unbound forms of the enzyme. (victorjtemple.com)
- CKB, which has both a cytosolic and mitochondrial form, is responsible for the transformation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thus maintains ATP reserves through phosphocreatine production. (proquest.com)
- In addition, levels of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase), phosphorylated AMPK and uMtCK (ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase) were assessed as measures of brain energy homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is important for host cell invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
- An in vitro kinase assay was performed to assess the phosphorylation activities of a novel CaMK-like protein in T. gondii by using purified proteins with various concentrations of calcium, calmodulin antagonists, or T. gondii glideosome proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect the localization of this protein kinase by using the antibodies against this protein and organellar maker proteins of T. gondii . (biomedcentral.com)
- Our data improve our understanding of T. gondii motility and infection, the interaction between parasite protein kinases and glideosomes, and drug targets for protozoan diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additional T. gondii protein kinases are involved in host manipulation, cell cycle regulation, and functions required for growth, stress responses, and the transition from tachyzoite to bradyzoite [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- 14-3-3-γ belongs to a highly conserved protein family mainly expressed in the brain where it regulates diverse functions by binding to kinases, signaling proteins, hydroxylases, and about 170 other ligands (Umahara et al. (proquest.com)
- Complete blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase (CK), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals were previously evaluated (baseline), and at 0, 30 and 120 min. (bvsalud.org)
- The proposed mechanisms of such rapid receptor desensitization include receptor phosphorylation by either cAMP-dependent protein kinase or the specific beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK), leading to functional uncoupling from adenylyl cyclase and sequestration of the receptors away from the cell surface. (jci.org)
- These measurements showed that a moderate amount of protein, carbohydrates, and some fat consumption were sufficient for the creatine kinase in the blood to increase as compared to that in the overreaching cycle, letrozole assessment report public. (luciasalvi.ca)
- The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Drugs which require thymidine kinase (TK) for activity are ineffective in vitro. (pipoforex.com)
- CK stands for creatine kinase , an enzyme that leaks out of damaged muscle. (mda.org)
- Muscle creatine kinase-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
- Dive into the research topics of 'Muscle creatine kinase-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
- In the overreaching cycle, in contrast, there was no significant change in the muscle creatine kinase level between the fasting and the overreaching cycle, letrozole public assessment report. (luciasalvi.ca)
- The muscle creatine kinase level at the end of the overreaching cycle was 7 times higher than the muscle creatine kinase level at the beginning of the overreaching cycle in the overreaching cycle group. (luciasalvi.ca)
- Studies have shown that vegetarians do have marginally lower muscle creatine concentra- tions than those who eat meat and fish (Delanghe et al. (pipoforex.com)
- We identified a novel CaMK homolog in T. gondii , T. gondii CaMK-related kinase (TgCaMKrk), which exhibits calmodulin-independent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, given their level of involvement in many aspects of the parasitic life-cycle, the kinases encoded by the parasite genome are obvious potential drug targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- 60 mm Hg in room air) or hypercarbia (alveolar [arterial] carbon dioxide pressure [PaCO 2 ] level of 55 mm Hg) indicate significant respiratory insufficiency. (medscape.com)
- Her creatine kinase level is within the reference range. (medscape.com)
- The same creatine kinase level was determined at the final week of the overreaching cycle, 2nd round of letrozole success stories. (luciasalvi.ca)
- When overreaching (n = 20) was carried out in the absence of food (n = 10), there was no change in the creatine kinase level in the overreaching cycle. (luciasalvi.ca)
- However, after a 4-week fast (n = 10) and after an infusion of 1 g/day of β-alanine plus 1 and 2 g/day of EAAs for 7 days after the fast and 1 and 2 g/day of BIA for the last 4 days of the fasting, creatine kinase level increased in the overreaching cycle by 7%, obat kortikosteroid salep. (luciasalvi.ca)
- NMS, a rare but potentially fatal complication of neuroleptic medications (e.g., antipsychotics, sedatives and antinauseants), is characterized by hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, an elevated creatine kinase level and autonomic instability. (cmaj.ca)
- Laboratory investigation revealed mild leukocytosis (leukocyte count 11.7 х 10 9 /L), with a shift to the left (neutrophil count 9.9 х 10 9 /L). His aspartate aminotransferase level was elevated (82 U/L), and his creatine kinase (CK) level was markedly elevated (1145 U/L), with normal CK MB fraction and cardiac troponin levels. (cmaj.ca)
- The PVA-SNP-cur and PVA-SNP-ba films showed high antioxidant activity of 15.9 and 14.7 Mm/g TEAC, respectively. (articali.app)
- OBJECTIVE: Necroptosis, as a form of regulated cell necrosis, could participate in myocardial oxidative damage. (bvsalud.org)
- Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. (bvsalud.org)
- 1 to 2 grams of EAAs to induce maximal energy mobilization of the heart, and 0.5 g/day of BIA to produce a dose of creatine in the blood with a plasma to creatinine (Cr), and a peak plasma creatine to Cr ratio of 2 to 15, with a half-life of 6 to 8 hours. (luciasalvi.ca)
- His temperature was elevated (38.3°C), and although normotensive (blood pressure 124/84 mm Hg) he had tachycardia (heart rate 128 beats/min) and exhibited Parkinsonian features, including tremor, rigidity and unsteady gait. (cmaj.ca)
- however, no kinase function has been found to be of critical importance in the primary host, felines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Based on reference ranges established by NYS and RTI for their pilot studies, these contrived DBS collectively spanned the CK-MM ranges found in typical newborns and the elevated ranges associated with DMD. (cdc.gov)
- However, calmodulin antagonists had no effect on its kinase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pulse oximetry readings can be misleading in the setting of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure or methemoglobinemia because these devices use only 2 wavelengths of light (the red and the infrared spectrum), which detect oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin only and not any other form of hemoglobin. (medscape.com)
- Results from each laboratory were highly correlated with the relative proportion of CK-MM added to each of the six spiked pools. (cdc.gov)
- Her erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is 26 mm/h (reference range = 0-20 mm/h). (medscape.com)
- This value, usually less than 5-10 mm Hg, may be several hundred mm Hg in the setting of significant pulmonary injury and can be used to assess improvement or deterioration in lung function when measured at a stable fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ). (medscape.com)
- The assessment of creatine kinase (CK), testosterone, and cortisol was carried out at the ninth and tenth weeks during the overreaching cycleand in the final 3 weeks of the overreaching cycle. (luciasalvi.ca)
- As compared to control, in situ mitochondria in transgenic ventricular and slow- twitch muscles showed two times lower K(m) values for ADP, and the presence of creatine only slightly decreased the K(m) values. (elsevier.com)