A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Heart failure affects mitochondrial but not myofibrillar intrinsic properties of skeletal muscle. (1/49)

BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure (CHF) induces abnormalities in skeletal muscle that are thought to in part explain exercise intolerance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these changes actually result in contractile or metabolic functional alterations and whether they are muscle type specific. METHODS AND RESULTS: With a rat model of CHF (induced by aortic banding), we studied mitochondrial function, mechanical properties, and creatine kinase (CK) compartmentation in situ in permeabilized fibers from soleus (SOL), an oxidative slow-twitch muscle, and white gastrocnemius (GAS), a glycolytic fast-twitch muscle. Animals were studied 7 months after surgery, and CHF was documented on the basis of anatomic data. Alterations in skeletal muscle phenotype were documented with an increased proportion of fast-type fiber and fast myosin heavy chain, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratio, and decreased citrate synthase activity. Despite a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in SOL, no change was observed in contractile capacity or calcium sensitivity. However, muscles from CHF rats exhibited a dramatic decrease in oxidative capacities (oxygen consumption per gram of fiber dry weight) of 35% for SOL and 45% for GAS (P:<0.001). Moreover, the regulation of respiration with ADP and mitochondrial CK and adenylate kinase was impaired in CHF SOL. Mitochondrial CK activity and content (Western blots) were dramatically decreased in both muscles. CONCLUSIONS: CHF results in alterations in both mitochondrial function and phosphotransfer systems but unchanged myofibrillar function in skeletal muscles, which suggests a myopathy of metabolic origin in CHF.  (+info)

Changes in mRNA expression profile underlie phenotypic adaptations in creatine kinase-deficient muscles. (2/49)

We have studied the mechanisms that regulate the remodeling of the glycolytic, mitochondrial and structural network of muscles of creatine kinase M (M-CK)/sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (ScCKmit) knockout mice by comparison of wild-type and mutant mRNA profiles on cDNA arrays. The magnitudes of changes in mRNA levels were most prominent in M-CK/ScCKmit (CK(-/-)) double mutants but did never exceed those of previously observed changes in protein level for any protein examined. In gastrocnemius of CK(-/-) mice we measured a 2.5-fold increase in mRNA level for mitochondrial encoded cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-III which corresponds to the increase in protein content. The level of the nuclear encoded mRNAs for COX-IV, H(+)-ATP synthase-C, adenine nucleotide translocator-1 and insulin-regulatable glucose transporter-4 showed a 1.5-fold increase, also in agreement with protein data. In contrast, no concomitant up-regulation in mRNA and protein content was detected for the mitochondrial inorganic phosphate-carrier, voltage-dependent anion channel and certain glycolytic enzymes. Our results reveal that regulation of transcript level plays an important role, but it is not the only principle involved in the remodeling of mitochondrial and cytosolic design of CK(-/-) muscles.  (+info)

Mitochondrial creatine kinase: properties and function. (3/49)

This review describes properties of mitochondrial creatine kinase from heart and skeletal muscle studied in the author's group at the Department of Biochemistry of Moscow State University. The results are compared to the data in the literature. The author's point of view on the physiological role of mitochondrial creatine kinase is presented.  (+info)

Multiple interference of anthracyclines with mitochondrial creatine kinases: preferential damage of the cardiac isoenzyme and its implications for drug cardiotoxicity. (4/49)

Anthracyclines are among the most efficient drugs of cancer chemotherapy, but their use is limited by a significant risk of cardiotoxicity, which is still far from being understood. This study investigates whether impairment of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK), a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism, could be involved in anthracycline cardiotoxicity. We have analyzed the effects of three anthracyclines, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and idarubicin, on two MtCK isoenzymes, sarcomeric/cardiac sMtCK and ubiquitous uMtCK, from human and chicken. Using surface plasmon resonance, gel filtration, and enzyme assays, we have quantified properties that are of basic importance for MtCK functioning in vivo: membrane binding, octameric state, and enzymatic activity. Anthracyclines significantly impaired all three properties with differences in dose-, time-, and drug-dependence. Membrane binding and enzymatic activity were already affected at low anthracycline concentrations (5-100 microM), indicating high clinical relevance. Effects on membrane binding were immediate, probably because of competitive binding of the drug to cardiolipin. In contrast, dissociation of MtCK octamers into dimers, enzymatic inactivation and cross-linking occurred only after hours to days. Different protection assays suggest that the deleterious effects were caused by oxidative damage, mainly affecting the highly susceptible MtCK cysteines, followed by generation of free oxygen radicals at higher drug concentrations. Enzymatic inactivation occurred mainly at the active site and involved Cys278, as indicated by experiments with protective agents and sMtCK mutant C278G. All anthracycline effects were significantly more pronounced for sMtCK than for uMtCK. These in vitro results suggest that sMtCK damage may play a role in anthracycline cardiotoxicity.  (+info)

Expression of creatine kinase isoenzyme genes during postnatal development of rat brain cerebellum: evidence for transcriptional regulation. (5/49)

Transcription and accumulation of brain-type creatine kinase (CKB) mRNA and its protein was examined during postnatal development of rat brain cerebellum, the brain region containing highest CKB mRNA in the adult. CKB protein was extremely low at day 1, increased about 10-fold until week 4 and remained constant until week 10. This time course was paralleled by cerebellar CKB mRNA, which was also extremely low at day 1 and increased 5-fold during the first 3 weeks and then remained constant. High levels of CKB protein were also detected in cultured primary cerebellar granular neurons. Nuclear run-on assays directly showed that CKB mRNA accumulation during postnatal cerebellar development was due to increased transcription. When compared with cerebrum and whole brain, cerebellar CKB mRNA accumulation during postnatal development was temporally delayed. Analysis of myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)-2 and Sp1, factors known to initiate or sustain CKB transcription in tissues other than brain, revealed that MEF-2 in cerebellum was low at week 1 but increased 3.5-fold by week 7, while Sp1 remained unchanged. The increase in CKB protein during cerebellar postnatal development was coincident with that of the ubiquitous mitochondrial CK protein and mRNA, indicating that a functional phosphocreatine energy shuttle probably exists for efficient ATP regeneration in the cerebellum. This should be beneficial for the many energy-demanding requirements during cerebellar development, as indicated by the observed temporal co-expression of CKB with myelin basic protein, which is involved in axon myelination by oligodendrocytes.  (+info)

Mitochondrial creatine kinase is critically necessary for normal myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolism. (6/49)

The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. To address the question as to whether this alteration is due to a decrease in total CK activity below a critical threshold or due to the specific loss of ScCKmit, we studied isolated perfused hearts with selective loss of ScCKmit (ScCKmit(-/-), remaining total CK activity approximately 70%) using (31)P NMR spectroscopy at two different workloads. LV performance in ScCKmit(-/-) hearts (n = 11) was similar compared with wild-type hearts (n = 9). Phosphocreatine/ATP, however, was significantly reduced in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts (1.02 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.54 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). In parallel, free [ADP] was higher (144 +/- 11 vs. 67 +/- 7 microM, P < 0.01) and free energy release for ATP hydrolysis (DeltaG(ATP)) was lower (-55.8 +/- 0.5 vs. -58.5 +/- 0.5 kJ/mol, P < 0.01) in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts. These results demonstrate that M- and B-CK containing isoenzymes are unable to fully substitute for the loss of ScCKmit. We conclude that ScCKmit, in contrast to M-CK, is critically necessary to maintain normal high-energy phosphate metabolite levels in the heart.  (+info)

Differential effects of peroxynitrite on human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes. Inactivation, octamer destabilization, and identification of involved residues. (7/49)

Creatine kinase isoenzymes are very susceptible to free radical damage and are inactivated by superoxide radicals and peroxynitrite. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of peroxynitrite on enzymatic activity and octamer stability of the two human mitochondrial isoenzymes (ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (sMtCK)), as well as of chicken sMtCK, and identified the involved residues. Inactivation by peroxynitrite was concentration-dependent and similar for both types of MtCK isoenzymes. Because peroxynitrite did not lower the residual activity of a sMtCK mutant missing the active site cysteine (C278G), oxidation of this residue is sufficient to explain MtCK inactivation. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed oxidation of Cys-278 and further revealed oxidation of the C-terminal Cys-358, possibly involved in MtCK/membrane interaction. Peroxynitrite also led to concentration-dependent dissociation of MtCK octamers into dimers. In this study, ubiquitous uMtCK was much more stable than sarcomeric sMtCK. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed chemical modifications in peptide Gly-263-Arg-271 located at the dimer/dimer interface, including oxidation of Met-267 and nitration of Trp-268 and/or Trp-264, the latter being a very critical residue for octamer stability. These data demonstrate that peroxynitrite affects the octameric state of MtCK and confirms human sMtCK as the generally more susceptible isoenzyme. The results provide a molecular explanation of how oxidative damage can lead to inactivation and decreased octamer/dimer ratio of MtCK, as seen in neurodegenerative diseases and heart pathology, respectively.  (+info)

Protective effect of creatine against inhibition by methylglyoxal of mitochondrial respiration of cardiac cells. (8/49)

Previous publications from our laboratory have shown that methylglyoxal inhibits mitochondrial respiration of malignant and cardiac cells, but it has no effect on mitochondrial respiration of other normal cells [Biswas, Ray, Misra, Dutta and Ray (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 343-348; Ray, Biswas and Ray (1997) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 171, 95-103]. However, this inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is not significant in cardiac tissue slices. Moreover, post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) of cardiac cells could almost completely protect the mitochondrial respiration against the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal. A systematic search indicated that creatine present in cardiac cells is responsible for this protective effect. Glutathione has also some protective effect. However, creatine phosphate, creatinine, urea, glutathione disulphide and beta-mercaptoethanol have no protective effect. The inhibitory and protective effects of methylglyoxal and creatine respectively on cardiac mitochondrial respiration were studied with various concentrations of both methylglyoxal and creatine. Interestingly, neither creatine nor glutathione have any protective effect on the inhibition by methylglyoxal on the mitochondrial respiration of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. The creatine and glutathione contents of several PMS, which were tested for the possible protective effect, were measured. The activities of two important enzymes, namely glyoxalase I and creatine kinase, which act upon glutathione plus methylglyoxal and creatine respectively, were also measured in different PMS. Whether mitochondrial creatine kinase had any role in the protective effect of creatine had also been investigated using 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an inhibitor of creatine kinase. The differential effect of creatine on mitochondria of cardiac and malignant cells has been discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of methylglyoxal.  (+info)

Background: Mitochondria play crucial roles in cell signaling events, interorganellar communication, aging, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitochondrial impairment has been shown to accelerate or modulate cancer progression. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is predominantly localized in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and catalyzes the reversible exchange of high-energy phosphate between adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine. However, little is known about its expression and function in human prostate cancer progression.. Method: We investigated the expression of uMtCK in 148 prostate carcinoma tissues and matched normal tissue by immunohistochemistry. The expression and localization of uMtCK and hexokinase II, a marker of glycolysis, were examined in prostate carcinoma cell lines using western blot and immunofluorescence.. Results: MtCK expression was significantly lower in high Gleason grade carcinoma compared with normal prostate or low grade ...
We have investigated the role of the protein ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) in the formation and stabilization of inner and outer membrane contact sites. Using liver mitochondria isolated from transgenic mice, which, unlike control animals, express uMtCK in the liver, we found that the enzyme was associated with the mitochondrial membranes and, in addition, was located in membrane-coated matrix inclusions. In mitochondria isolated from uMtCK transgenic mice, the number of contact sites increased 3-fold compared with that observed in control mitochondria. Furthermore, uMtCK-containing mitochondria were more resistant to detergent-induced lysis than wild-type mitochondria. We conclude that octameric uMtCK induces the formation of mitochondrial contact sites, leading to membrane cross-linking and to an increased stability of the mitochondrial membrane architecture.. ...
The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. To address the question as to whether this alteration is due to a decrease in total CK activity below a critical threshold or due to the specific loss of ScCKmit, we studied isolated perfused hearts with selective loss of ScCKmit (ScCKmit(-/-), remaining total CK activity approximately 70%) using (31)P NMR spectroscopy at two different workloads. LV performance in ScCKmit(-/-) hearts (n = 11) was similar compared with wild-type hearts (n = 9). Phosphocreatine/ATP, however, was significantly reduced in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts (1.02 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.54 +/
Identification of cardiolipin as the membrane receptor of mitochondrial creatine kinase and determination of the transverse distribution of cardiolipin accross the inner mitochondrial ...
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The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytoarchitectural and metabolic adaptations in muscles with mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase deficiencies. AU - Steeghs, Karen. AU - Oerlemans, Frank. AU - De Haan, Arnold. AU - Heerschap, Arend. AU - Verdoodt, Lia. AU - De Bie, Martine. AU - Ruitenbeek, Wim. AU - Benders, Ad. AU - Jost, Carolina. AU - Van Deursen, Jan. AU - Tullson, Peter. AU - Terjung, Ronald. AU - Jap, Paul. AU - Jacob, Wim. AU - Pette, Dirk. AU - Wieringa, Bé. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - We have blocked creatine kinase (CK) mediated phosphocreatine (PCr) ⇆ ATP transphosphorylation in mitochondria and cytosol of skeletal muscle by knocking out the genes for the mitochondrial (ScCKmit) and the cytosolic (M-CK) CK isoforms in mice. Animals which carry single or double mutations, if kept and tested under standard laboratory conditions, have surprisingly mild changes in muscle physiology. Strenuous ex vivo conditions were necessary to reveal that MM-CK absence in single and double mutants leads to a ...
A creatina quinase mitocondrial está presente no espazo intermembrana mitocondrial, onde rexenera a fosfocreatina (PCr) a partir do ATP xerado nas mitocondrias e a creatina (Cr) importada do citosol. Ademais das dúas formas de isoencimas CK mitocondriais, é dicir, a mtCK ubicua (presente en tecidos non musculares) e a mtCK sarcomérica (presente no músculo sarcomérico), hai tres isoformas de CK citosólicas presentes no citosol, dependendo do tecido. Mentres que a MM-CK se expresa no músculo sarcomérico (esquelético e cardíaco), a MB-CK exprésase só no músuclo cardíaco e a BB-CK no músculo liso e na maioría dos tecidos non musculares. As mtCK mitocondrial e citosólica están conectadas no denominado circuíto ou lanzadeira de fosfocreatina/creatina (PCr/Cr). A fosfocreatina xerada pola mtCK nas mitocondrias é enviada á CK citosólica que está acoplada a procesos dependentes de ATP, por exemplo, ATPases, como a ATPase de acto-miosina e a ATPase de calcio implicada na ...
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Lencel; P; Hardouin; P; Magne; D. Do cytokines induce vascular calcification by the mere stimulation of TNAP activity? Med Hypotheses. 2010 Dec;75(6):517-21. IF = 1.1. Fellah; BH; Delorme; B; Sohier; J; Magne; D; Hardouin; P; Layrolle; P. Macrophage and osteoblast responses to biphasic calcium phosphate microparticles. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Jun 15;93(4):1588-95. IF = 3.4. Granjon; T; Maniti; O; Auchli; Y; Dahinden; P; Buchet; R; Marcillat; O; Dimroth; P. Structure-function relations in oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex. Fluorescence and infrared approaches to monitor oxomalonate and Na(+) binding effect. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 3;5(6):e10935. IF = 3.2. Maniti; O; Lecompte; MF; Marcillat; O; Vial; C; Granjon; T. Mitochondrial creatine kinase interaction with cardiolipin-containing biomimetic membranes is a two-step process involving adsorption and insertion. Eur Biophys J. 2010 Nov;39(12):1649-55. IF = 2.2. Gouttenoire; J; Bougault; C; Aubert-Foucher; E; Perrier; E; Ronzière; MC; Sandell; L; ...
(2011) Horjus et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. BACKGROUND: The creatine kinase system, the central regulatory system of cellular energy metabolism, provides ATP in situ at ATP-ases involved in ion transport and muscle contraction. Furthermore, the enzyme system provides relative pr...
A growing body of work on microbial life in deep subsurface environments has altered our perspective on the limits of living organisms and challenged our understanding of their need for nutrients and energy. Microbial cells in these very stable and oligotrophic settings apparently catabolize 10-4 to 10-6 fold more slowly than organisms in nutrient-rich cultures and thereby subsist with energy fluxes orders of magnitude below what are considered to be maintenance levels. Such organisms may in fact represent a truly basal state of metabolism, and a corresponding basal power requirement, that is not easily reproduced in culture. Do these organisms have extraordinary properties beyond our current understanding of microbial energy metabolism, and not represented in cultured organisms, or is the capability to subsist on extremely low energy fluxes an inherent property of many microorganisms? What are the energetic requirements and limits to life, how are they affected by environment, and how can we ...
Best creatine supplements - 2017 top 10 list, Find the best creatine supplement to help you reach your goals creatine occurs in food naturally and helps you improve strength and decrease fatigue.. How to take creatine: your definitive guide - sean nalewanyj, Learn everything you need to know about how to take creatine with maximum effectiveness, including the best forms, dosages, timing and how to properly mix it.. Excessive belching, burping and bloating - causes and, Home » current health articles » excessive belching, burping and bloating - causes and treatment excessive belching, burping and bloating - causes and treatment. ...
Commander CKMT2 kit ELISA pour beaucoup de réactivité. Humain, Souris, Rat et plus. Comparez CKMT2 kit ELISA et trouvez le bon produit chez anticorps-enligne.fr.
Much has been made of Creatine and Side Effects. The question is whether there are enough negative effects to outweight the fact that studies show that creatine helps build muscle.
Creatine is a naturally occurring chemical that can provide a major boost to your health and fitness routine. Keep reading for five great reasons to make creatine a part of your supplement routine. Learn more at eVitamins México.
This isnt exactly the right place to go...But im looking for more information on creatine, so i was wondering if anyone on here has ever loaded up on it... $$$$
Ive got some creatine that Im taking pre w/o and has me feeling bloated while I lift...ugh...I want to switch up to something that hopefully wont
Kreatyna jest stosowana w sporcie od przeszło 20 lat - do tej pory zostało juz wielokrotnie udowodnione, że jej stosowanie przekłada się na szybsze i lepsze efekty w postaci przyrostów beztłuszczowej masy ciała przy jednoczesnym braku jej negatywnego
Baldocchi, D.: An analytical solution for coupled leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models, Tree Physiol., 14, 1069-1079, 1994. a. Baldocchi, D., Valentini, R., Running, S., Oechel, W., and Dahlman, R.: Strategies for measuring and modelling carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems, Glob. Change Biol., 2, 159-168, 1996. a. Baldocchi, D., Kelliher, F. M., Black, T. A., and Jarvis, P.: Climate and vegetation controls on boreal zone energy exchange, Glob. Change Biol., 6, 69-83, 2000. a. Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, C., Davis, K., Evans, R., et al.: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 2415-2434, 2001. a. Ball, J. T., Woodrow, I. E., and Berry, J. A.: A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different ...
Our results suggest that the clinical differences between mania and depression states are supported by contrasting levels of creatine kinase CK . The lack of correlations between creatine kinase level and motor items suggest that creatine kinase CK level in mania versus depression could emphasize the thinking speed and not the motor one ...
China Creatine: Creatine Anhydrous; Creatine Preparation; N-Amidinosarcosine; 5-Chloro-2-Maino Benzotrifluoride; N-Carbamimidoyl-N-Methylglycine, Find details about China Creatine Anhydrous, Creatine Preparation from Creatine: Creatine Anhydrous; Creatine Preparation; N-Amidinosarcosine; 5-Chloro-2-Maino Benzotrifluoride; N-Carbamimidoyl-N-Methylglycine - Hubei Yuancheng Saichuang Technology Co., Ltd.
Green MAGnitude is the most advanced powder creatine matrix ever to reach the market and one of the first creatine products on the market to combine Magnesium Creatine Chelate (a patented form of creatine), with Dicreatine Malate (creatine bound with ...
Hee Jeong Son, Yoon Hee Lee, Jeong Hoon Chae, Chang Keun Kim Biol Sport 2015; 32(4):357-361 It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and ...
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octameric MYFGGGGG ligand: structure given in first source; a branched, octameric ligand used for affinity purification of bovine neurophysin
So take it when its most convenient for you If there is a preference among users it would be right after a workout along with post-workout shake containing carbs Q How long should I take creatine for? A Most people take creatine for 1 1/2 to 3 months then go off of it for a month before resuming again Get More ...
If youre a woman, then the idea of taking creatine may make you nervous. Here is a first hand review from one of our female readers who takes creatine.
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Hi Patrick, Here is an interesting article, worth a look if you havent seen it before. Creatine: How Much Should You Be Taking? | Arnold
Creatine is one of the most popular supplements out there, because it works. Heres how it can improve your workouts and make you more muscular.
Max Potency Creatine HCL Formula Boosts size, strength & recovery No loading or bloating More than 2x the servings of the competition Twice the creatine of the competition Clinically Studied, Max Potency, Free-Acid Creatine Formula Creactor™ is a scientifically advanced creatine that delivers a potent, micro-dose o
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Intron Length Variation Observed in the Creatine Kinase and Ribosomal Protein Genes of the Swordfish Xiphias gladius. AU - Chow, Seinen. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/6. Y1 - 1998/6. N2 - Introns may accumulate much higher genetic variation than exons. Universal primers were designed from the conservative nucleotide sequences of exons to amplify the flanking intron. Length variations in the S7 ribosomal protein (RP) gene intron 1 and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) gene intron 6 of the swordfish Xiphias gladius were found. Single or two banded fragment patterns in each individual were observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that highly polymorphic fragment patterns observed in the RP gene intron 1 were due to different numbers of a TG repeat (microsatellite). The length of the CK gene intron 6 was dimorphic, in which presence or absence of a 24 bp block was responsible ...
Past simulations of oxidative ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle have predicted that elimination of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction should result in dramatically faster oxygen consumption dynamics during transitions in ATP turnover rate. This hypothesis was investigated. Oxygen consumption of fast-twitch (FT) muscle isolated from wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice deficient in the myoplasmic (M) and mitochondrial (Mi) CK isoforms (MiM CK−/−) were measured at 20°C at rest and during electrical stimulation. MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption activation kinetics during a step change in contraction rate were 30% faster than WT (time constant 53 ± 3 vs. 69 ± 4 s, respectively; mean ± SE, n = 8 and 6, respectively). MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption deactivation kinetics were 380% faster than WT (time constant 74 ± 4 s vs. 264 ± 4 s, respectively). Next, the experiments were simulated using a computational model of the oxidative ATP metabolic network in FT muscle featuring ADP ...
Purification and characteriization of the heterogeneous brain-type creatine kinase in chicken, study of the functional aspects of this heterogeneity in different ...
How is Creatine Kinase B-Subunit Activity abbreviated? CK-B stands for Creatine Kinase B-Subunit Activity. CK-B is defined as Creatine Kinase B-Subunit Activity very rarely.
Background: Biomarkers specificity is an important factor for their reliable utilization. Known markers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) including creati...
Descrição: Properties of energy release and transfer by magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field are investigated on the basis of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Two initial configurations are considered: a plane current sheet with a uniform guide field of 80% of the reconnecting magnetic field component and a force-free current sheet in which the magnetic field strength is constant but the field direction rotates by 180 deg. through the current sheet. The onset of reconnection is stimulated by localized, temporally limited compression. Both MHD and PIC simulations consistently show that the outgoing energy fluxes are dominated by (redirected) Poynting flux and enthalpy flux, whereas bulk kinetic energy flux and heat flux (in the PIC simulation) are small. The Poynting flux is mainly associated with the magnetic energy of the guide field which is carried from inflow to outflow without much alteration. The conversion of annihilated ...
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Mar 30, 2012· As its name suggests, creatine HCL is made by attaching a hydrochloride group to creatine, thereby creating a salt. In attaching this hydrochloride group, the solubility of the molecule increases greatly compared to creatine monohydrate (the existing basic form of creatine). This results in some improved qualities over the already great creatine monohydrate. Benefits of Creatine HCL Creatine Monohydrate vs Creatine HCL. Creatine HCL is the most soluble form of creatine ...
Some experts recommended cycling creatine; Using it for a period of time, then temporarily discontinuing it so as not to disrupt the bodys natural production of creatine. Your muscle cells, where about 95% of total body creatine is stored, can only hold a limited amount of creatine.. Once theyre saturated (as happens after loading with creatine), taking more than is required to maintain muscle saturation is a waste: Unable to store the additional creatine, youll just end up excreting the surplus.. Creatine is carried into your muscle cells by a transporter mechanism. In order to function, this transporter itself requires energy as well as certain minerals (sodium, chloride; possibly magnesium, calcium).. In your body, creatine is converted to phosphocreatine (PC) for storage and transport. As muscle cells fill up with PC, the activity of the transporter declines. This down-regulation may be most pronounced in your fast-twitch (a.k.a. type II, or white) muscle cells but affects all ...
Creatine kinase definition, an enzyme that, during muscular activity, catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphocreatine in muscle to produce ATP. See more.
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Signs and symptoms that typically accompany an elevated creatine kinase include cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, breathing trouble, dizziness, excessive sweating and pain that reaches the jaw or...
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Interesting. Andre - may I suggest the albedo constant is the place for further inquiry as I believe Billiards is correct w/ respect to Gausss Law and a black body radiator- the shape of the surface is not important, one simply sums all the energy flux through the surface to derive the BB temp. The http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albedo [Broken] then its shape w/ respect to the incoming energy distribution does matter. To assume the albedo is constant everywhere (.3) implies the surface & atmosphere must be lambertian everywhere as seen by the incoming solar flux. Im not familiar w/ the source of the .3 figure, but the actual terrestrial albedo must be a complicated function of surface type and angle of incidence ...
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ALDOC Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 364 amino acids (1-364 a.a.).
How to Take Creatine for Bodybuilding. Creatine is a naturally occurring substance in the body and is used to supply energy. It is produced in the liver and transported by the bloodstream. Creatine can be supplemented with to increase...
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As I understand it, creatine assists the body to produce more ATP which fuels muscle contraction. Which allows you to perform beyond your natural ability. My experience was that creatine would enable me to lift about 10% more, but any gains were lost when I stopped taking it, so I havent done for years ...
Taking creatine before and after workout works helps increase and improve muscular storage as a form of energy called creatine phosphate (CP). Read more!
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Creatine is naturally produced in the body from the amino acids glycine and arginine. It helps to supply energy to all cells in the body, primarily muscle. Save with Nutrition Warehouse!
Aside from similar-sounding names, both creatine and creatinine are produced at a relatively constant rate in our bodies. But, what sets them apart? We took a deep dive ...
Cheers Kenny! Weve talked about that Barr method before too. I still remain very sceptical with off-day creatine intake. There are so many different opinions about this issue, ranging from 2-5g a day no matter what to 5g per on-day. And even some superloading claims of constantly ingesting more than 10g a day, which I dont see reasonable. Yet I havent really found too much research around the off-day vs. every day set-up. At the moment Im still taking 5g a day. If I want more out of it, I load for a couple of weeks with higher doses. I could try if 5g per training day will have the same effects as 5g a day ...
Everyone in the sporting world has heard of creatine, and many have, or at least know someone who has used the supplement. It is the second most consumed sporting supplement after Protein
Hey everyone! While my maxes seem to be doing pretty well right now, I seem to be burning out before I am even done with a workout. I hear that...
Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T, Kabsch W (May 1996). "Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase". Nature. 381 (6580): ... There are at least four different, but very closely related, forms of CK. Two isozymes, M (muscle) and B (brain), are cytosolic ... Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, ... "Separate nuclear genes encode sarcomere-specific and ubiquitous human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes". J. Biol. Chem ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine ... Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Tokarska-Schlattner M (2002). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer ...
Creatine+Kinase,+Mitochondrial+Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial, also called ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK), is in humans encoded by ... "ASB9 interacts with ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase and inhibits mitochondrial function". BMC Biology. 8: 23. doi: ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CKMT2 gene. Mitochondrial creatine kinase ( ... Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... "Entrez Gene: CKMT2 creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)". Human CKMT2 genome location and CKMT2 gene details page in ...
... there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. The functional entity of the latter ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates ...
"In vitro complex formation between the octamer of mitochondrial creatine kinase and porin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... VDACs can also oligomerize to form part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and, thus, facilitate ... It forms an ion channel in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and also the outer cell membrane. In the OMM, it allows ATP ... Baines CP, Song CX, Zheng YT, Wang GW, Zhang J, Wang OL, Guo Y, Bolli R, Cardwell EM, Ping P (May 2003). "Protein kinase ...
... resource is short lasting because oxygen is required for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine via mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ... The creation of AMP resulting from this reaction stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) which is the energy ... but the most readily depleted of the above sources is the PCr system which utilizes the enzyme creatine kinase. This enzyme ...
Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ... A 70 kg man contains around 120 g of creatine, with 40% being the unphosphorylated form and 60% as creatine phosphate. Of that ... is catalyzed by several creatine kinases. The presence of creatine kinase (CK-MB, creatine kinase myocardial band) in blood ... A methyl group is added to GAA from the amino acid methionine by the enzyme GAMT, forming non-phosphorylated creatine. This is ...
The ATP-dependent cytosolic enzymes hexokinase, glucokinase, and glycerol kinase, as well as the mitochondrial enzyme creatine ... This protein contains about 280 amino acids and forms a beta barrel which spans the mitochondrial outer membrane. Since its ... This major protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes forms a voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) ... Voltage-dependent anion channels, or mitochondrial porins, are a class of porin ion channel located on the outer mitochondrial ...
... and high levels of lactate and creatine kinase. The parents were found to be heterozygous carriers for the mutation. A third ... Mutations in NDUFAF1 can result in mitochondrial deficiencies and associated disorders. A disorder of the mitochondrial ... and some forms of Parkinson disease. In a patient with missense mutations in NDUFAF1, fatal infantile hypertrophic ... Wu L, Peng J, Ma Y, He F, Deng X, Wang G, Lifen Y, Yin F (2016). "Leukodystrophy associated with mitochondrial complex I ...
The reactions catalyzed by cytosolic (soluble) and mitochondrial GPDH are as follows: There are two forms of GPDH: The ... substrate pages: glycerol 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate related topics: glycerol phosphate shuttle, creatine kinase, ... In conjunction, Mitochondrial GPDH, or GPD2, is embedded on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, overlooking ... The mitochondrial isoform of G3P dehydrogenase is thought to be inhibited by metformin, a first line drug for type 2 diabetes. ...
EMG is either normal or may show myopathic low amplitude and short motor unit's potential (MUAPS). The enzymes creatine kinase ... This may occur as a result of reduction in muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and beta-adrenergic receptors, as well as ... The absence of painful spasms and pseudomyotonia differentiates this syndrome from its adult form, which is Hoffmann syndrome. ...
... additionally also serum creatine kinase may be mildly above normal. Other exams/methods to ascertain if the individual has ... Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. It is associated with variants of type VI ... Bernardi, Paolo; Bonaldo, Paolo (2013-05-01). "Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Defective Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of ... a cellular study of mitochondrial dysfunction and its rescue" (PDF). Brain. 132 (1): 147-155. doi:10.1093/brain/awn289. PMID ...
... releasing intracellular muscle content into the blood as reflected by elevated blood levels of creatine kinase. Exercise ... The mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III catalyses electron transfer to cytochrome c. Complex III is embedded in the ... Chronic pain that makes a person unwilling to undertake a physical activity is not, by itself, a form of exercise intolerance. ... Mitochondrial complex III: Currently it is suggested that there are 27 different mutations identified in cytochrome b ( ...
After creation of the dTMP molecule, another kinase, thymidylate kinase, can act upon dTMP to create the diphosphate form, dTDP ... Patients with mutations in the thymidine kinase gene may have a certain type of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, a disease ... Other small molecules that are substrates of kinases include creatine, phosphoglycerate, riboflavin, dihydroxyacetone, ... Kinases are classified into broad groups by the substrate they act upon: protein kinases, lipid kinases, carbohydrate kinases. ...
... and elevated creatine kinase. If left untreated, patients may suffer from respiratory distress, which can lead to death. ... This form of the disease is transient, lasting for about three months. However, in some cases, neonatal MG can lead to other ... Rygiel, K (August 2016). "The ageing neuromuscular system and sarcopenia: a mitochondrial perspective". J. Physiol. 594 (16): ... AChRs at the skeletal neuromuscular junction form heteropentamers composed of two α, one β, one ɛ, and one δ subunits. When a ...
Blood tests show a creatine kinase greater than 1,000 U/L, with severe disease being above 5,000 U/L. The mainstay of treatment ... Milder forms may not cause any muscle symptoms, and the diagnosis is based on abnormal blood tests in the context of other ... For instance, mitochondrial diseases are characterized by ragged red fibers. Biopsy sites may be identified by medical imaging ... The most reliable test in the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is the level of creatine kinase (CK) in the blood. This enzyme is ...
... resource is short lasting because oxygen is required for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine via mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Lifestyle intervention and specific forms of exercise to rehabilitate and manage acute and chronic injuries and conditions. ... but the most readily depleted of the above sources is the PCr system which utilizes the enzyme creatine kinase. This enzyme ... The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ...
... itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal ... Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease. As ... A cyclic form of creatine, called creatinine, exists in equilibrium with its tautomer and with creatine. Creatine is ... Persky AM, Rawson ES (2007). "Safety of creatine supplementation". Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease. ...
Tests can be run to check creatine kinase in the blood, which is often normal or mildly elevated in congenital myopathies. ... In its severest form, affected babies often die from respiratory failure. To date, 9 gene mutations have been found to cause ... Cylindrical spirals have also been shown to react with the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, which suggests that ... Diagnosis usually relies on this method, as creatine kinase levels and electromyography can be unreliable and non-specific. ...
... creatine kinase), kidney damage (uric acid), and stress damage (cortisol). Their findings suggested that high levels of plasma ... They found evidence that the supplementation positively affects mitochondrial deficiency syndrome and the symptoms of aging. ... the reduced form of Coenzyme Q10, produced favorable responses in children with autism. Professors Crane, Navas, and ... a 2-year treatment with Coenzyme Q10 in the ubiquinone form (3 times 100 mg/day) demonstrated significant improvement in the ...
In fact, there is evidence that VDAC binding by the anti-apoptotic HK1 and by the pro-apoptotic creatine kinase are mutually ... As one of two mitochondrial isoforms of hexokinase and a member of the sugar kinase family, HK1 catalyzes the rate-limiting and ... In the prefrontal cortex, HK1 putatively forms a protein complex with EAAT2, Na+/K+ ATPase, and aconitase, which functions to ... Activation of Akt kinase is mediated by HK1-VDAC1 coupling as part of the growth factor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase ...
Creatine kinase (CPK-MM) levels in the bloodstream are extremely high. An electromyography (EMG) shows that weakness is caused ... Form-fitting removable leg braces that hold the ankle in place during sleep can defer the onset of contractures. Appropriate ... In skeletal muscle dystrophy, mitochondrial dysfunction gives rise to an amplification of stress-induced cytosolic calcium ... Those affected also have a high level of creatine kinase in their blood. Although there is no known cure, physical therapy, ...
... a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. The free acid (HMB-FA) and monohydrated calcium salt (HMB-Ca) forms of HMB have ... muscle enzymes such as creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in humans following intense exercise may be due to a ... α-KIC is mostly metabolized by the mitochondrial enzyme branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, which converts it to ... HMB is sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the free acid form, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB-FA), and as a ...
Adult patients often have serum and/or urine screen positive for the presence of myoglobin and serum creatine kinase and ... Severe forms may have continual pain from general life activity. The adult form has a variable age of onset. The first ... The CPT system directly acts on the transfer of fatty acids between the cytosol and the inner mitochondrial matrix. CPT II ... The neonatal form is the least common clinical presentation of this disorder and is almost invariably fatal in rapid fashion ...
Zong H, Ren JM, Young LH, Pypaert M, Mu J, Birnbaum MJ, Shulman GI (December 2002). "AMP kinase is required for mitochondrial ... protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. Each of these three ... expression in skeletal muscle in response to creatine depletion. PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator for genes involved in ... liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which works in a complex with STRAD and MO25, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase II-( ...
... creatine kinase, mb form MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150.750 - creatine kinase, mitochondrial form MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150. ... arginine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150 - creatine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150.500 - creatine kinase, bb form MeSH ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.400 - map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
AST exists in two isoenzymes namely mitochondrial form and cytoplasmic form. It is found in highest concentration in the liver ... Nageh T, Sherwood RA, Harris BM, Byrne JA, Thomas MR (2003). "Cardiac troponin T and I and creatine kinase-MB as markers of ... More than 80% of the liver AST activity are contributed by mitochondrial form of the isoenzymes, while the circulating AST in ... LDH isotype-1 (or cardiac) is used for estimating damage to cardiac tissue, although troponin and creatine kinase tests are ...
... creatine kinase (a muscle-related enzyme), plasma viscosity (optional if ESR done) and serology for celiac disease. Ferritin ... Functional impairment must be below defined thresholds in two of the three designated subscales of the Short Form 36 Health ... Myhill S, Booth NE, McLaren-Howard J (2009). "Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction" (PDF). Int J Clin Exp Med ...
Serum creatine kinase is elevated in Bethlem myopathy, as there is ongoing muscle cell death. Patients with Bethlem myopathy ... Bethlem myopathy is an autosomal dominant myopathy, classified as a congenital form of muscular dystrophy, that is caused by a ... Bethlem myopathy has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (autosomal recessive form exists as well[1]). ...
proved that repeated exposure of GHB to MAP kinase affected myelin expression. This is a critical finding since myelin is the ... Finally, additional mitochondrial processes may also be affected by SSADH deficiency. Succinate semialdehyde is considered a ... Because this type of imaging is a water detecting sequence, any form of calcification or mineralization would also appear dark ... MAP kinase is imperative for numerous physiological changes including regulation of cell division and differentiation, thus, ...
... reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is then oxidized to CO2 in the cycle.[9][page needed] ... Acetyl-CoA serves as an allosteric regulator of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). It regulates through the ratio of acetyl- ... "A general introduction to the biochemistry of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease ... The cytosolic acetyl-CoA can also condense with acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) which is the ...
mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • mitochondrion. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • citrate metabolic process ... This forms a tetrahedral intermediate and results in the ejection of −SCoA as the carbonyl reforms. The −SCoA is protonated to ... Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ... Maximal activity of citrate synthase indicates the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle.[6] The maximal activity can be ...
This combination results in either an ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase (A-SUCL, EC 6.2.1.5) or a GDP-forming succinate-CoA ... Chinopoulos, C (2011). "Mitochondrial consumption of cytosolic ATP: not so fast". FEBS Lett. 585 (9): 1255-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is then dephosphorylated via phosphoglycerate kinase, producing 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP through a ... and the enzyme creatine phosphokinase transfers a phosphate from phosphocreatine to ADP to produce ATP. Then the ATP releases ...
The GTP that is formed by GDP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase may be utilized by nucleoside-diphosphate kinase to form ATP (the ... During gluconeogenesis mitochondrial oxaloacetate is reduced to malate which is then transported out of the mitochondrion, to ... or used to form ketone bodies, which too can only be burned in tissues other than the liver where they are formed, or excreted ... In mammals a GTP-forming enzyme, succinate-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.4) also operates. The level of utilization of ...
... has been shown to interact with SGTA,[8] PTPN11,[9][10] Janus kinase 2,[11][12][13] Suppressor of ... creatine metabolic process. • isoleucine metabolic process. • positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. ... including one encoding a soluble form of the protein (GHRtr), have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized.[5] ... "Phylogeny and biogeography of African Murinae based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, with a new tribal ...
"Direct evidence for two distinct forms of the flavoprotein subunit of human mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone ... Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF05328 Ubiquinone binding site[edit]. Two ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF13085, Pfam PF13183 3. SdhC. C560_HUMAN. ...
Andreazza AC, Shao L, Wang JF, Young LT (April 2010). "Mitochondrial complex I activity and oxidative damage to mitochondrial ... A-form and the other is the catalytically silent, dormant, "deactive", D-form. After exposure of idle enzyme to elevated, but ... Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ... Respiratory complex I, EC 1.6.5.3 (also known as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial ...
They do not form a stable complex,[3] so it is more appropriate to call it a "system" instead of a "complex". The H-protein is ... Kikuchi G, Hiraga K (June 1982). "The mitochondrial glycine cleavage system. Unique features of the glycine decarboxylation". ... glycine→creatine: Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase. *Creatine kinase. alanine→. *Alanine transaminase. cysteine→. *D- ... refined structures at 2 angstroms and 2.2 angstroms of the two forms of the h-protein, a lipoamide-containing protein of the ...
Monitoring liver enzymes and creatine kinase is especially prudent in those on high-dose statins or in those on statin/fibrate ... "Rho/Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase pathway as therapeutic targets for statins in atherosclerosis". Antioxidants & ... "Statin adverse effects : a review of the literature and evidence for a mitochondrial mechanism". American Journal of ... Available forms[edit]. The statins are divided into two groups: fermentation-derived and synthetic. Some specific types are ...
Some of the metabolites formed via the reaction of melatonin with a free radical include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl- ... Melatonin occurs at high concentrations within mitochondrial fluid which greatly exceed the plasma concentration of melatonin.[ ... elevates the intracellular cAMP concentration via beta-adrenergic receptors and activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A ( ... 4a-peroxypterin could then react with the active site iron (II) to form an iron-peroxypterin intermediate or directly transfer ...
Adenylate kinase is a specific nucleoside-monophosphate kinase that functions only on adenosine-monophosphate.[1][7] ... The other purine nucleoside, guanosine, is cleaved to form guanine. Guanine is then deaminated via guanine deaminase to form ... In order to synthesize thymidine, a component of DNA which only exists in the deoxy form, uridine is converted to deoxyuridine ... Thymine, on the other hand, is converted into β-aminoisobutyric acid which is then used to form methylmalonyl-CoA. The leftover ...
Creatine kinase levels are elevated in two thirds of cases, usually due to a degree of muscle injury; severe elevations ... Linkage to particular forms of HLA, which plays a central role in the immune response, might imply an immune system cause, but ... Certain forms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-especially B46, DR9, DQB1*0303, A2, Bw22, AW19, B17, and DRW8-are more common in ... These are normal in the other forms, and in thyrotoxicosis the levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine are elevated, with ...
Reduction of coenzyme Q from its ubiquinone form (Q) to the reduced ubiquinol form (QH2). ... Lenaz G (2001). "A critical appraisal of the mitochondrial coenzyme Q pool". FEBS Lett. 509 (2): 151-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793( ... regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase). to α-ketoglutaric acid. *Glutamate ... Schultz BE, Chan SI (2001). "Structures and proton-pumping strategies of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes". Annu Rev Biophys ...
In a similar mechanism, the pro-apoptotic creatine kinase binds and opens VDAC in the absence of HK2.[8] An alternative model ... "Mitochondrial hexokinase II promotes neuronal survival and acts downstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3". The Journal of ... This gene encodes a 100-kDa, 917-residue enzyme with highly similar N- and C-terminal domains that each form half of the ... kinase activity. • glucose binding. • catalytic activity. • protein binding. • fructokinase activity. • ATP binding. • ...
... I synthesizes a pre-rRNA 45S (35S in yeast), which matures and will form the major RNA sections of the ribosome ... Kelly JL, Lehman IR (August 1986). "Yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase. Purification and properties of the catalytic subunit". ... 2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase. (PO4; protein acceptor). 2.7.10: protein-tyrosine. *see tyrosine kinases ... RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre-rRNA 45S (35S in yeast), which matures into 28S, 18S and 5.8S rRNAs which will form the ...
Testing for the MB form of creatine kinase provides information about the heart's blood supply, but is used less frequently ... Dobson, Geoffrey P (August 2003). "On Being the Right Size: Heart Design, Mitochondrial Efficiency and Lifespan Potential". ... Two endocardial tubes form here that fuse to form a primitive heart tube known as the tubular heart.[35] Between the third and ... In tetrapods, the ventral aorta has divided in two; one half forms the ascending aorta, while the other forms the pulmonary ...
Once the peptide bond is formed, the tRNA in the P/P site is deacylated, or has a free 3' end, and the tRNA in the A/A site ... For example, in yeast, the splicing is not carried out in the nucleus but at the cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial membranes.[ ... Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ... The anticodon forms three complementary base pairs with a codon in mRNA during protein biosynthesis. On the other end of the ...
... myopathic form; 609560; TK2 Mitochondrial DNA-depletion syndrome, hepatocerebral form; 251880; DGUOK Mitochondrial myopathy and ... L1CAM Creatine deficiency syndrome, X-linked; 300352; SLC6A8 Creatine phosphokinase, elevated serum; 123320; CAV3 Creutzfeldt- ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ... hepatocerebral form; 251880; C10orf2 Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, hepatocerebral form; 251880; MPV17 Mitochondrial DNA ...
... include muscle pain and weakness in the presence of an elevated creatine kinase (CK). King brown snake venom has some ... If the smoke resembled the mali, or immaterial form, of a snake, then the person would die, as the victim of a ragalk (sorcerer ... In 2017, British herpetologist Simon Maddock and colleagues published a genetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA on the genus, ... Clade II corresponded to a lineage of large snakes found across Australia, clade III was a dwarf form from the Kimberley, and ...
In a similar mechanism, the pro-apoptotic creatine kinase binds and opens VDAC in the absence of HK2. An alternative model ... "Mitochondrial hexokinase II promotes neuronal survival and acts downstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3". The Journal of ... This gene encodes a 100-kDa, 917-residue enzyme with highly similar N- and C-terminal domains that each form half of the ... Okatsu K, Iemura S, Koyano F, Go E, Kimura M, Natsume T, Tanaka K, Matsuda N (Nov 2012). "Mitochondrial hexokinase HKI is a ...
Common clinical manifestations of MDCMC include: early-onset hypotonia muscle wasting mildly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK ... The structure of the protein has been found to be a homodimer, and forms a heterodimer with the CHKA protein. It has also been ... Mutations in CHKB have been found to result in mitochondrial deficiencies and associated disorders. Knockdown of the gene has ... Choline kinase beta (CK), also known as Ethanolamine kinase (EK), Choline kinase-like protein , choline/ethanolamine kinase ...
... there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. The functional entity of the latter ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates ...
However, our ability to understand mitochondrial dysfunction has been hindered by an absence of molecular markers defining the ... Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induces mitochondrial dysfunction and, depending upon the degree of injury, may lead to cardiac ... Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form / metabolism * Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins / metabolism * Hypotonic Solutions / ... Both forms of injury had a drastic impact on the proteome biology of cardiac mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial function was ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates ... Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A (Predicted)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,B7NZE9,B7NZE9_RABIT Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A (Predicted) OS=Oryctolagus cuniculus OX=9986 GN=CKMT1A PE=3 SV=1 ... PS51510 PHOSPHAGEN_KINASE_C, 1 hit. PS51509 PHOSPHAGEN_KINASE_N, 1 hit. ...
Patient 1 also presented with increased blood creatine kinase and lactate concentrations and a family history which included a ... Motor fluctuations in the form of wearing off were present. General physical examination was normal, and no Kayser-Fleischer ... Routine laboratory blood chemistry showed abnormal concentrations of creatine kinase (901 U/l; normal value,195), glutamic ... Mitochondrial diseases comprise a wide group of disorders which, at their origin, have nuclear or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ...
In addition to those, there are two mitochondrial creatine kinases, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm), which produces ATP from ADP by converting creatine phosphate to creatine, is present ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as phosphocreatine kinase or creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... Thus Creatine Kinase is an important enzyme in such tissues. Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker ...
Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T, Kabsch W (May 1996). "Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase". Nature. 381 (6580): ... There are at least four different, but very closely related, forms of CK. Two isozymes, M (muscle) and B (brain), are cytosolic ... Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, ... "Separate nuclear genes encode sarcomere-specific and ubiquitous human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes". J. Biol. Chem ...
Chen L, Roberts R, Friedman DL (1995) Expression of brain-type creatine kinase and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase in ... Lin YS, Wang CH, Chern Y (2011b) Besides Huntingtons disease, does brain-type creatine kinase play a role in other forms of ... Molecular structure and function of mitochondrial creatine kinases. In: Vial C (ed) Creatine kinase. Nova Science Publishers, ... Maintained coupling of oxidative phosphorylation to creatine kinase activity in sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase- ...
Creatine kinase levels are elevated but without clinical signs of skeletal myopathy *The infantile form of X linked DCM or ... autosomal recessive and mitochondrial *Autosomal forms of FDCM are the most frequent *Pure DCM phenotype: mutations of genes ... The X linked forms of DCM includes X linked dilated cardiomyopathy and Barth syndrome *Caused by mutations in the dystrophin ... Mitochondrial DNA *Coronary artery disease *Infections: coxsackievirus, adenovirus, parvovirus, HIV, bacterial, fungal ...
Crystallization of mitochondrial creatine kinase. Growing of large protein crystals and electron microscopic investigation of ... All four members of the Ten-m/Odz family of transmembrane proteins form dimers. Feng, K., Zhou, X.H., Oohashi, T., Mörgelin, M ... Expression and prognostic significance of kit, protein kinase B, and mitogen-activated protein kinase in patients with small ... The polymeric form of Mx1 from E. coli was observed as "horseshoe"-like structure by negative staining microscopy [2]. ...
Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 ... Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub ... A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and ... The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent ...
1992) Mitochondrial creatine kinase: a key enzyme of aerobic energy metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1102:119-166. ... a mitochondrial pore-forming protein that plays a role in regulated movement of metabolites across the outer mitochondrial ... 1989) Subcellular compartmentation of creatine kinase isoenzymes, regulation of CK and octameric structure of mitochondrial CK ... 1985) The creatine-creatine phosphate energy shuttle. Annu Rev Biochem 54:831-862. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibody (2C8). Validated: WB, ELISA, RNAi. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Additional Creatine kinase MT 1B Products. Creatine kinase MT 1B H00001159-M04 * Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibodies ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ...
Complexes between porin, hexokinase, mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate translocator display properties of the ... Bid, Bax, and lipids cooperate to form supramolecular openings in the outer mitochondrial membrane ... In vitro complex formation between the octamer of mitochondrial creatine kinase and porin ... Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine ... Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Tokarska-Schlattner M (2002). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer ...
Invitrogen Anti-Creatine Kinase MT Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-29471. Tested in Western Blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry ( ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Acidic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase; Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial; creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1 (ubiquitous ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers in contrast to the exclusively ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the ... Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase , Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial , Creatine kinase, sarcomeric mitochondrial , ... creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial , basic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase , mib-CK , mitochondrial creatine kinase 2 , ... Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial 2 (Sarcomeric) (CKMT2) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Acidic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase; Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial; creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1 (ubiquitous ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the ...
Mar, 2009 , Pubmed ID: 19289067 It is well established that the octameric mitochondrial form of creatine kinase (mtCK) binds to ... Apr, 2011 , Pubmed ID: 21256109 It has been recently shown that mitochondrial creatine kinase (mtCK) organizes mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Binding to Phospholipid Monolayers Induces Cardiolipin Segregation Biophysical Journal. ... Acyl Chain Composition Determines Cardiolipin Clustering Induced by Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Binding to Monolayers ...
... were shown to strongly interact with membranes formed with lipid extracts of mitochondrial membranes: they both induced ... as well as cytosolic isoenzymes of creatine kinase, failed to induce contact formation. Thus, of the proteins tested, membrane ... The two oligomeric forms of Mi-CK (octamer and dimer) differed in their ability to mediate intermembrane adhesion, the octamer ... The implications of these findings on the function and localization of Mi-CK and on the structure of the mitochondrial ...
... a channel-forming antibiotic. Creatine kinase and citrate synthase activities were measured as markers of myocyte and ... Vogel H: Mitochondrial myopathies and the role of the pathologist in the molecular era. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol60 :217 -227, ... Activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O2 oxidoreductase was normalized to creatine kinase activity, as was citrate synthase ... 0.16 units/mU creatine kinase; P , 0.005). The activity of skeletal muscle NADH:O2 oxidoreductase was reduced in obese compared ...
... that binds human creatine Kinase MB (also known as CKMB). ... Creatine Kinase MB antibody LS-C193283 is a protein G-purified ... there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. (More About CKMB / Creatine Kinase ... Most Popular CKMB / Creatine Kinase MB Antibodies. Anti-CKMB / Creatine Kinase MB Antibody LS-C14666 ... About CKMB / Creatine Kinase MB. Description:. In the cells, the cytosolic CK enzymes consist of two subunits, which can be ...
In the reversible reaction catalyzed by creatine kinase, Cr and ATP form PCr and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Fig. 2). It is ... they adapt by increasing oxidative enzymes such as mitochondrial creatine kinase (OGorman et al., 1996), succinate ... Pathway of creatine metabolism. Catalyzed by AGAT ( 1 ), catalyzed by GAMT ( 2 ), catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK) ( 3 ), ... 1976) Creatine metabolism in men: Creatine pool size and turnover in relation to creatine intake. J Nutr 106:371-381. ...
However, the accumulation of ROS damage with aging alters mitochondrial integrity and reduces creatine kinase activity, thus ... These EPS form a protective shield at the surface of the skin and work at the cellular level to reduce the expression of ICAM-1 ... When applied topically, creatine is taken up by keratinocytes, thus increasing creatine kinase (CK) activity for improved ... H Lenz et al, The creatine kinase system in human skin: Protective effects of creatine against oxidative and UV damage in vitro ...
The site also contains the forms to search the most useful sites on the Web. ... G. Beutner, A. Ruck, B. Riede and D. Brdiczka: Complexes between porin, hexokinase, mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate ... The KGDHC is a mitochondrial enzyme tightly bound to the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane and forms part of the ... 3. Mitochondrial Ca2+ dynamics 3.1. Mitochondrial Ca2+ mobilization: uptake and efflux 3.2. Ca2+ regulation of mitochondrial ...
... and axonal terminals in the rd1 retina were strongly positive for both the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of creatine kinase ... Creatine dose-dependently increased survival of cones in culture subjected to mitochondrial dysfunction, but not to oxidative ... and creatine utilization. Finally, we analyzed the neuroprotective properties of glucose and creatine on cone photoreceptors in ... Creatine-fed rd1 mice displayed enhanced optomotor responses compared to mice fed normal chow. Moreover, cone density was ...
Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Mitochondrial Form Creatine Kinase Medicine & Life Sciences ... Cytoarchitectural and metabolic adaptations in muscles with mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase deficiencies. In: ... Cytoarchitectural and metabolic adaptations in muscles with mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase deficiencies. Molecular ... Cytoarchitectural and metabolic adaptations in muscles with mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase deficiencies. / Steeghs ...
Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is predominantly localized in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and ... The Expression of Ubiquitous Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Is Downregulated as Prostate Cancer Progression Rie Amamoto1,4, ... The Expression of Ubiquitous Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Is Downregulated as Prostate Cancer Progression. J Cancer 2016; 7(1 ... Moreover, in the low uMtCK expressing cell lines, glycolytic ATP production was increased, whereas mitochondrial ATP production ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... acidic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase,creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1 (ubiquitous),ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the ...
... mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CKMT2 pAb (GTX111620) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... basic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase antibody, "creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial antibody", mib-CK antibody, "creatine ... creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric). Background. Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer ...
  • Both forms of injury had a drastic impact on the proteome biology of cardiac mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. (novusbio.com)
  • The activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, reflecting the overall activity of the respiratory chain, was measured in a mitochondrial fraction by a novel method based on providing access for NADH to intact mitochondria via alamethicin, a channel-forming antibiotic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Creatine kinase and citrate synthase activities were measured as markers of myocyte and mitochondria content, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we have assessed activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in human skeletal muscle and performed quantitative studies of the morphology of mitochondria in these samples. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Alamethicin is a channel-forming antibiotic known to increase the permeability of biological membranes through the creation of transmembrane pores up to 20 A in diameter, providing ready access for NADH to enter intact mitochondria, as previously demonstrated with rat skeletal muscle homogenate ( 10 ) and rat heart mitochondria ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The main function of mitochondria is ATP production, which occurs during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (ox-phos). (bioscience.org)
  • In several cell types, mitochondria also serve as a very efficient Ca 2+ buffer, taking up substantial amounts of cytosolic Ca 2+ at the expense of mitochondrial membrane potential ( D Y m ). (bioscience.org)
  • As a consequence of Ca 2+ uptake, mitochondria can suffer Ca 2+ overload, triggering the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) which is associated with apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway or necrosis due to mitochondrial damage (16). (bioscience.org)
  • Mitochondria play crucial roles in cell signaling events, interorganellar communication, aging, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitochondrial impairment has been shown to accelerate or modulate cancer progression. (jcancer.org)
  • Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is predominantly localized in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and catalyzes the reversible exchange of high-energy phosphate between adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine. (jcancer.org)
  • We have blocked creatine kinase (CK) mediated phosphocreatine (PCr) ⇆ ATP transphosphorylation in mitochondria and cytosol of skeletal muscle by knocking out the genes for the mitochondrial (ScCKmit) and the cytosolic (M-CK) CK isoforms in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. (elsevier.com)
  • A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA. (bvsalud.org)
  • PCr is not only an energy buffer but also a cellular transport form of energy between subcellular sites of energy ATP production mitochondria and glycolysis and those of energy utilization ATPases. (neac.info)
  • In addition, a mitochondrial mtCK isoform is localized between the inner (IM) and outer membrane (OM) of mitochondria, where this octameric mtCK is sandwiched between the ATP carrier of the IM and the voltage-dependent anion carrier (VDAC) of the OM (for review see Wallimann et al. (springer.com)
  • Mitochondrial myopathies and neuropathies or neuromyopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by dysfunction of mitochondria. (neupsykey.com)
  • It is not known how mitochondria maintain osmotic balance across the inner mitochondrial membrane, although the membrane contains that are believed to be conduits for regulated water transport. (bionity.com)
  • W. E. Jacobus and A. L. Lehninger, Creatine kinase of rat heart mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • We have used quantitative immunoelectron microscopy to determine the distribution of a collection of representative proteins in yeast mitochondria belonging to seven major processes: oxidative phosphorylation, protein translocation, metabolite exchange, mitochondrial morphology, protein translation, iron-sulfur biogenesis, and protein degradation. (rupress.org)
  • proteins involved in inheritance of mitochondrial DNA, fusion and fission of mitochondria, and apoptosis are important for functionality of mitochondria. (rupress.org)
  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphatefrom mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. (vx-765.com)
  • In contrast, hypotonic stimuli caused severe damage to mitochondrial structure and function, induced increased oxidative modification of mitochondrial proteins, and brought about detrimental changes to the subproteomes of the inner mitochondrial membrane and matrix. (nih.gov)
  • To permit assessment of the electron transport activity despite impermeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane for NADH, the antibiotic alamethicin was used. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, a number of proteins of the inner mitochondrial membrane, among them subunits of the respiratory chain complexes, also utilize presequences as targeting signals. (asm.org)
  • acyl-CoA molecules are first coupled to carnitine, catalysed by carnitine-palmitoyltransferase I (CPT 1), and the acylcarnitine complex then crosses the highly impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • The electron transport chain is located in the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane. (bionity.com)
  • This preclinical investigation provides function and suborganelle location information on a repertoire of cardiac mitochondrial proteins sensitive to ischemia reperfusion stress and highlights protein clusters potentially involved in mitochondrial dysfunction in the setting of ischemic injury. (nih.gov)
  • Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 (CKMT1A and CKMT1B (this gene)) have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review we bring together current data on mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake, ROS generation, and redox modulation of Ca 2+ transport proteins. (bioscience.org)
  • This gene contains sequences homologous to several motifs that are shared among some nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and thus may be essential for the coordinated activation of these genes during mitochondrial biogenesis. (genetex.com)
  • The majority of mitochondrial proteins are nuclear encoded and posttranslationally transported into the organelle. (asm.org)
  • A major class of mitochondrial proteins possess cleavable targeting signals at their amino termini, so-called presequences ( 5 , 9 , 12 , 19 , 30 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • These α-helical segments are positively charged and direct the proteins across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes toward the matrix space, where the presequences are proteolytically removed. (asm.org)
  • Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Novel insight into the molecular pathogenesis of EGF induced liver cancer was obtained and among the 37 newly identified proteins several are likely candidates for the development of molecularly targeted therapies and include the nucleoside diphosphate kinase A, bifunctional ATP-dependent dihydroyacetone kinase and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein1, the latter being an inhibitor of the Raf-1 kinase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant creatine kinase proteins and proposed standards for creatine kinase isoenzyme and subform assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present disclosure provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence and activity of creatine transporter proteins (CrT) in biological samples comprising screening the samples for CrT using antibodies that bind to the CrT. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • It presents a barrier only for macromolecules, as it contains pore-forming proteins that allow the free passage of solutes up to a molecular mass of a few thousand Dalton. (rupress.org)
  • Two young onset parkinsonian patients with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in skeletal muscle are reported on. (bmj.com)
  • It follows that mitochondrial disorders are associated with a wide group of clinical manifestations affecting skeletal muscle, brain, heart, and other highly oxygen dependent organs or tissues. (bmj.com)
  • In these patients molecular analysis showed the presence of major mtDNA rearrangements in skeletal muscle, supporting the hypothesis that the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system can be a target, at least in some instances, of mitochondrial involvement. (bmj.com)
  • Creatine (α-methyl guandino-acetic acid) is distributed throughout the body with 95% of Cr found in skeletal muscle ( Walker, 1979 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes and obesity entails dysregulation of the oxidation of both carbohydrate and lipid fuels, the current study was undertaken to examine the potential contribution of perturbation of mitochondrial function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Following its biosynthesis, creatine is transported to the skeletal muscle, heart, brain and other tissues. (drugbank.ca)
  • The production of creatine occurs primarily in the kidneys and the liver, but 95% of it is found in the skeletal muscles. (kidneypedia.net)
  • Creatine feeding increases GLUT4 expression in rat skeletal muscle. (geometrymix.me)
  • Other conditions which may give elevated CK-MB values when the diagnosis of myocardial damage is unclear creatin kinasa skeletal muscle trauma, muscular dystrophy, dermatomyositis, Reyes syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, drug overdose, delirium tremens, chronic ethanol creatin kinasa, and myopathic disorders. (geometrymix.me)
  • Very high levels of CK are found in skeletal muscle, primarily the MM form. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • We have previously identified a transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 (PGC-1 alpha), which is expressed in several tissues including brown fat and skeletal muscle, and that activates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa. (nih.gov)
  • Other hereditary cardiac diseases should also be discussed (such as mitochondrial disease, glycogen storage disorders, and PRKAG2 gene related disease) because of overlapping clinical features (especially skeletal muscle disease and pre exitation syndrome). (escardio.org)
  • With MM being the major form in skeletal muscle and myocardium, MB existing in myocardium, and BB existing in many tissues, especially brain. (abcam.cn)
  • Collectively, these data show that activation of NP signaling in human skeletal muscle enhances mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fat oxidation. (jci.org)
  • C. D. Fitch, D. D. Lucy, J. H. Bornhofen, and G. V. Dalrymple, Creatine metabolism in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • Conversely, recent reports indicate the occurrence of primary pathogenic mtDNA mutations in Parkinson's disease, both in the form of large scale mtDNA rearrangements, 6 and as point mutations in complex I 7 and tRNA genes. (bmj.com)
  • Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (ubiquitous mtCK or CKMT1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, we utilized a well-characterized mouse model of RP to examine whether surviving cones, devoid of their inner segments, continue to express genes vital for glucose, and creatine utilization. (frontiersin.org)
  • In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. (elsevier.com)
  • When PGC-1 alpha is expressed at physiological levels in transgenic mice driven by a muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter, a fibre type conversion is observed: muscles normally rich in type II fibres are redder and activate genes of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. (novusbio.com)
  • However, previously undetected adaptations were observed: an increase in activity of the cytosolic MM-CK isoenzyme (+20% vs WT, P=0.0009), and of citrate synthase (+18% vs WT, P=0.0007), a marker for mitochondrial volume. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Determination of Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme MB (CK-MB): Comparison of Methods and Clinical Evaluation. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • The MB Isoenzyme of Creatine Kinase as an Indicator of Severity of Myocardial Ischaemia. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) in Acute Coronary Ischemia. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Serum Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme BB as an indicator of Active Metastatic Disease. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Creatine Kinase BB Isoenzyme in CSF in Neurologic Diseases. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • CK1 recognises human creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. (abcam.cn)
  • Its affinity for the creatine kinase BB isoenzyme is greater than its affinity for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. (abcam.cn)
  • I also determined the difference between the amino acid composition of Mit-CK and the isoenzyme form (MM-form) of the enzyme. (victorjtemple.com)
  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. (novusbio.com)
  • They have elevated mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase expression levels and appear to suppress mTOR-signaling as evidenced by elevated TSC2 expression, and they also have elevated p53 levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimersand octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes.Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons ofubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. (vx-765.com)
  • The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK m ), which produces ATP from ADP by converting creatine phosphate to creatine, is present between the two membranes of the mitochondrion. (wikidoc.org)
  • The enzymes belonging to this family include: Glycocyamine kinase (EC 2.7.3.1), which catalyses the transfer of phosphate from ATP to guanidoacetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arginine kinase (EC 2.7.3.3), which catalyses the transfer of phosphate from ATP to arginine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taurocyamine kinase (EC 2.7.3.4), an annelid-specific enzyme that catalyses the transfer of phosphate from ATP to taurocyamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, generating phosphocreatine and ADP. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized modelling in vivo mitochondrial creatine kinase (mtCK)-dependent phosphate shuttling conditions in vitro would reveal increased sensitivity (lower Kmapp ) following acute and chronic exercise. (gopubmed.org)
  • Most of the creatine is metabolized in these tissues to phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate). (drugbank.ca)
  • In the muscles, a fraction of the total creatine binds to phosphate - forming creatine phosphate. (drugbank.ca)
  • Biochemical and functional effects of creatine phosphate in cardioplegic solution during aortic valve surgery-a clinical study. (geometrymix.me)
  • Moreover, the gene expression data indicate that under anoxia Foraminifera use the phosphogen creatine phosphate as an ATP store, allowing reserves of high-energy phosphate pool to be maintained for sudden demands of increased energy during anaerobic metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Bougault C , El Jamal A , Briolay A , Mebarek S , Boutet MA, Garraud T, Le Goff B, Blanchard F, Magne D , Brizuela L . Involvement of sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathway in spondyloarthritis. (icbms.fr)
  • Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase is critically necessary for normal myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Creatine kinase plays an important role in energy metabolism of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • An impaired mitochondrial capacity for fat oxidation during fasting conditions, as noted in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 7 ), could lead to insulin-resistant glucose metabolism through the accumulation of lipid intermediates ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dissociated expression of mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinases in the human brain: a new perspective on the role of creatine in brain energy metabolism. (gopubmed.org)
  • These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • This disease is due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin, which leads to alterations in mitochondrial iron (Fe) metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Studies using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) conditional frataxin knockout mouse that mirrors the disease have demonstrated frataxin deletion alters cardiac Fe metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Effect of creatine supplementation during rapid body mass reduction on metabolism and isokinetic muscle performance capacity. (geometrymix.me)
  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase: a key enzyme of aerobic energy metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human endurance can be quantified well and involves the coordinated effort of many physiological systems such as breathing, the pump function of the heart, transport of oxygen and nutrients in the circulating blood, mitochondrial energy generation, muscle contraction, nutrition, metabolism and integrated control of the human system by nerves and hormones. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Metabolism affects ageing and longevity to a remarkable degree, and forms the second aspect of ageing which we focus on in this perspective paper. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Western Blot: Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibody (2C8) [H00001159-M04] - Analysis of CKMT1B expression in A-431 (Cat # L015V1). (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibody (2C8) [H00001159-M04] - Analysis of CKMT1B expression in transfected 293T cell line by CKMT1B monoclonal antibody (M04), clone 2C8. (novusbio.com)
  • ELISA: Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibody (2C8) [H00001159-M04] - Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged CKMT1B is approximately 0.1ng/ml as a capture antibody. (novusbio.com)
  • Moreover, in the low uMtCK expressing cell lines, glycolytic ATP production was increased, whereas mitochondrial ATP production was decreased. (jcancer.org)
  • We previously reported the increased serum mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) activity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly due to the increase in ubiquitous MtCK (uMtCK), and high uMtCK mRNA expression in HCC cell lines. (gopubmed.org)
  • The phosphocreatine/creatine kinase (PCr/CK) system in the brain is defined by the expression of two CK isozymes: the cytosolic brain-type CK (BCK) and the ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK). (gopubmed.org)
  • There is a third gene product which results in the mitochondrial form of CK. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Clinical Applications of Microarray Technology: Creatine Kinase B is an Up-regulated Gene in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Shows Promise as a Serum Marker. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1α and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • and (3) phosphorylation experiments, showing that the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is able to phosphorylate BCK at serine 6 to trigger BCK localization at the ER, in close vicinity of the highly energy-demanding Ca 2+ ATPase pump. (springer.com)
  • KCC2 and NKCC1 functions are also regulated by phosphorylation by enzymes such as PKC, Src-family tyrosine kinases, and WNK1-4 and their downstream effectors STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)-oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1). (frontiersin.org)
  • PKCε shares similar kinase and C-terminal domains with other novel, conventional (α, βI, βII, and γ) and atypical (ζ and ι/λ) PKC isoforms, thus it is no surprise that the requisite phosphorylation at sites Threonine-566, Threonine-710, and Serine-729 for kinase maturation found within this domain are consistent among all PKC isoform classes ( Akita, 2002 ) ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A regulatory mechanism may be sustaining the GTP-bound active form of cdc42Hs and a tyrosine phosphorylation pathway is linked directly to it. (readabstracts.com)
  • All isoenzymes of CK catalyze the phosphorylation of creatine to form phosphocreatine. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Thus, there have been three extensions to the metabolic pathway of its synthesis - phosphorylation to form phosphoarginine, hydrolysis to form urea, and transfer of its amidino group to certain amines to form a variety of guanidino compounds used as phosphagens in muscle. (springer.com)
  • Coupling of creatine phosphorylation to electron transport, J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • The importance of creatine kinase localization for the coupling of mitochondrial phosphorylcreatine production to oxidative phosphorylation, J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • Mi-CK also mediated intermembrane adhesion when membranes formed with total lipid extracts of both membranes were used, pointing to the role of lipids as potential membrane anchors of Mi-CK in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. (epfl.ch)
  • During ox-phos, electrons from reduced substrates are transferred to O 2 through a chain of respiratory electron transporters including the complex I, III, and IV H + pumps, which in turn generate a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane. (bioscience.org)
  • Mitochondrial import of cleavable preproteins occurs at translocation contact sites, where the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) associates with the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23) in a supercomplex. (asm.org)
  • Mitochondrial membrane transport protein Mitochondrial permeability transition pore Mitochondrial carrier. (neac.info)
  • I also determined the mode of interaction between mitochondrial CK (Mit-CK) and the mitochondrial membrane, and the kinetic parameters of bound and unbound forms of the enzyme. (victorjtemple.com)
  • We propose a model for the generation of this dynamic subcompartmentalization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. (rupress.org)
  • It forms invaginations of the IBM, in which two leaflets of inner membrane are juxtaposed to each other. (rupress.org)
  • In addition it up-regulates membrane costimulatory molecules [1 7 MAPK activation involves three-tiered kinase cascades in which MAPKs are activated by MEKs which in turn are activated by MAP3Ks [8]. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Many malignant cancers with poor prognosis have shown overexpression of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, this may be related to high energy turnover and failure to eliminate cancer cells via apoptosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • The present invention relates in particular to a combination product comprising at least one compound with affinity for the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor, and to at least one apoptosis-inducing agent for simultaneous or separate use or for use spread out over time, which is intended for the treatment. (google.com.au)
  • Expression of active octameric chicken cardiac mitochondrial creatine kinase in Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Furter1992ExpressionOA, title={Expression of active octameric chicken cardiac mitochondrial creatine kinase in Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Creatine kinase ( CK ), also known as creatine phosphokinase ( CPK ) or phosphocreatine kinase , is an enzyme ( EC 2.7.3.2 ) expressed by various tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creatine kinase CKalso known as creztin kinase or creatine phosphokinase CPK is an enzyme expressed creatin kinasa creqtin tissues. (geometrymix.me)
  • Creatine kinase is also sometimes referred to as creatine phosphokinase, creatine phosphotransferase, CPK, or just CK. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • 1. Narayanaswami, A. Creatine Phosphokinase in Mammalian Brain. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Regulation of creatine phosphokinase B activity by protein kinase C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition to those three cytosolic CK isoforms, there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional entity of the latter two mitochondrial CK isoforms is an octamer consisting of four dimers each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both mitochondrial CK isoforms are building highly symmetrical octameric structures with 4-fold symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of CK constitute a well established energy buffering and shuttling system whose functions are very much based on local association of CK isoforms with ATP-providing and ATP-consuming processes. (springer.com)
  • A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. (mdpi.com)
  • PKC is comprised of a family of serine-threonine kinases that contains thirteen PKC isoforms which differ in primary structure, protein expression, subcellular localization, and modes of activation ( Dekker and Parker, 1994 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • [2] Thus creatine kinase is an important enzyme in such tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creatine kinase is an enzyme produced by various tissues that catalyzes the conversion of creatine in muscle activity. (kidneypedia.net)
  • Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitochondrial diseases comprise a wide group of disorders which, at their origin, have nuclear or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are responsible for biochemical defects in respiratory chain function and consequent impaired cellular oxidative energy production. (bmj.com)
  • In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 1 - 10 Mitochondrial disorders can be classified according to the associated biochemical, genetic defects, or clinical phenotype ( Tables 30-1 , 30-2 , 30-3 ). (neupsykey.com)
  • Purified mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK) (EC 2.7.3.2) from chicken heart was shown to interact simultaneously with purified inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, thereby creating an intermembrane chondrial membranes, thereby creating an intermembrane were purified from rat liver and thus were fully devoid of Mi-CK. (epfl.ch)
  • Highly basic peptides, i.e. poly-L-lysines, were shown to strongly interact with membranes formed with lipid extracts of mitochondrial membranes: they both induced intermembrane binding and fusion. (epfl.ch)
  • Mg++ requirement for MtHK binding, and Mg++ stabilization of mitochondrial membranes via activation of MtHK & MtCK activities and promotion of mitochondrial permeability transition pore closure: A hypothesis on mechanisms underlying Mg++'s antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. (gopubmed.org)
  • The kinase is located in the intermembrane compartment and along the cristae membranes. (readabstracts.com)
  • Other enzymes of the intermembrane space that (like Mi-CK) are also cationic, as well as cytosolic isoenzymes of creatine kinase, failed to induce contact formation. (epfl.ch)
  • The main role of mitochondrial Ca 2+ is the stimulation of the ox-phos enzymes (12). (bioscience.org)
  • The effects involve mutation type-dependent alterations in the levels of AMP, IMP, glycogen and phosphomonoesters, changes in activity of metabolic enzymes like AMP-deaminase, alterations in mitochondrial volume and contractile protein (MHC isoform) profiles, and a hyperproliferation of the terminal cysternae of the SR (in tubular aggregates). (elsevier.com)
  • Protein Kinase C-epsilon (PKCε) is an isoform of a large PKC family of enzymes that has a variety of functions in different cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The crystal structure of creatine kinases (CKs), which are a family of distinct but related enzymes, has two different NaATP binding sites in two distinct crystal forms. (readabstracts.com)
  • ratio of leucine: isoleucine: valine) at the end of exercise reduce the concentration of the enzymes creatin kinasa (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH), which. (geometrymix.me)
  • This review highlights the signaling pathways of these kinases and other enzymes in T cells, their biological effects, and their regulation by PTEN. (asssertbaddjlry88.gq)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Creatine Kinase MT Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-29471, RRID AB_2546947. (thermofisher.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the antibody is specific for an epitope in the first 60 amino acids of the human creatine transporter protein (SEQ ID NO: 1). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Given the importance of FcγR signals in the pathogenesis of antibody-induced thrombocytopenia these data mechanistically explain the role of Tpl2 in this syndrome and suggest that the Tpl2 kinase may be an excellent therapeutic target for (auto)antibody-mediated pathologies. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Laboratory diagnostic findings included mild lactic acidosis and lactaturia, mild intermittent serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation and hypoglycemia. (mdpi.com)
  • The normal range of serum creatine kinase is between 10 and 120 micrograms per liter of blood. (kidneypedia.net)
  • When serum creatine kinase is elevated above the normal range, this can indicate any of several conditions. (kidneypedia.net)
  • Other possible causes of high serum creatine kinase include muscular dystrophy, severe muscle breakdown, and several other rarer causes. (kidneypedia.net)
  • 3. Smith, A. Diagnostic Value of Serum Creatine Kinase in a Coronary-Care Unit. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Increased Serum Creatine Kinase BB and Neuron Specific Enolase Following Head Injury Indicates Brain Damage. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Pretreatment Serum Creatine Kinase BB Levels in Patients with Neroblastoma. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • After the training period, intracellular energetic units had a higher control of mitochondrial respiration by creatine linked to a more efficient functional coupling adenine nucleotide translocase (zeige SLC25A5 Antikörper )- mitochondrial creatine kinase . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cardiac contractile function, creatine kinase activity in coronary effluent, mitochondrial respiration rate, and calcium retention capacity were assessed. (elsevier.com)
  • Adaptation to CNH decreased myocardial creatine kinase release during reperfusion and improved the post-ischaemic recovery of contractile function, mitochondrial state 3 and uncoupled respiration rates, and calcium retention capacity compared to the normoxic group. (elsevier.com)
  • There are three main energy pathways available to regenerate ATP-the phosphagen system, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. (acefitness.org)
  • NP treatment increased OXPHOS protein expression, fat oxidation, and maximal respiration independent of substantial changes in mitochondrial proliferation and mass. (jci.org)
  • High ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase expression in hepatocellular carcinoma denotes a poor prognosis with highly malignant potential. (gopubmed.org)
  • The Expression of Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes in Neocortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Disorders: Alzheimer's and Pick's Disease. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • Expression of active secreted forms of human amyloid beta-protein precursor by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The specific activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, representing the overall activity of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, was measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The large, prolonged decrease in CK-catalyzed reaction rate in the moderately poisoned brain may be due to loss of activity of the mitochondrial CK isoform. (elsevier.com)
  • Noninflammatory etiologies and associations include alcoholism, anthracycline drugs, ingestion of metals, autoimmune and systemic disorders, and mitochondrial disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Antimicrobial administration is mg orally hours prior to planned conception, serotonin syndrome evaluate for mitochondrial disorders d. (roanokechowan.edu)
  • One difficulty in classifying patients by any particular scheme is the clinical-phenotypic heterogeneity associated with specific mitochondrial mutations and the genetic heterogeneity in well-defined clinical phenotypes that are seen with mitochondrial disorders. (neupsykey.com)
  • The structure of an octameric mitochondrial isoform of creatine kinase has 422 point-group symmetry. (readabstracts.com)
  • 2 After further reports on deficiency in respiratory chain enzyme complex I in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease, 3 other investigators have tried to clarify the relation between mitochondrial defects and death of nigral dopaminergic neurons. (bmj.com)
  • Although the precise role of respiratory chain dysfunction and mtDNA mutations in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease remains to be elucidated, it is worth noting that in most series of patients with a primary defined defect in mitochondrial activity, akinetic rigid syndromes are infrequent. (bmj.com)
  • Electrons however, may leak from reduced sites in the respiratory chain and react with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) which play an important role in cell signaling, but are better known for creating oxidative stress (8). (bioscience.org)
  • Modelling in vivo creatine/phosphocreatine in vitro reveal divergent adaptations in human muscle mitochondrial respiratory control by ADP after acute and chronic exercise. (gopubmed.org)
  • Brain creatine kinase (CK)-catalyzed phosphorus flux from phosphocreatine (PC) to ATP was measured in vivo in young adult mice made reversibly hypoxic by injection of cyanide. (elsevier.com)
  • Brain Creatine Kinase in Blood After Acute Brain Injury. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • R. F. G. Booth and J. B. Clark, Studies on the microchondrially bound form of rat brain creatine kinase, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • These findings raise the possibility of impaired mitochondrial function as an additional aspect of the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induces mitochondrial dysfunction and, depending upon the degree of injury, may lead to cardiac cell death. (nih.gov)
  • However, our ability to understand mitochondrial dysfunction has been hindered by an absence of molecular markers defining the various degrees of injury. (nih.gov)
  • Parkinson's disease is a nosological entity of unknown origin for which, in some cases, a possible pathogenetic role for mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated. (bmj.com)
  • The hypothesis of pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease has become particularly attractive since the finding by Vyas et al that the parkinsonism inducing compound N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine is a mitochondrial toxin. (bmj.com)
  • Mitochondrial Ca 2+ is a positive effector of ATP synthesis, yet Ca 2+ overload can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. (bioscience.org)
  • Creatine dose-dependently increased survival of cones in culture subjected to mitochondrial dysfunction, but not to oxidative stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: in contrast to previous reports using a mixed genetic background, Mt-CK(-/-) on a C57BL/6 background do not develop LV hypertrophy or dysfunction even up to 1 year, and this may be explained by a compensatory increase in MM-CK activity and mitochondrial volume. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A hippocampal complementary DNA encoding a tyrosine kinase binds Cdc42Hs in its GTP-bound form. (readabstracts.com)
  • [ 1 ] is usually autosomal dominant, with X-linked autosomal recessive and mitochondrial inheritance occurring less frequently. (medscape.com)
  • The use of octameric mitochondrial (Mi(sub b))-CK from chicken cardiac tissue enables the study of CK crystal structure. (readabstracts.com)
  • Cytoskeleton and regulation of mitochondrial function: the role of beta-tubulin II. (gopubmed.org)
  • CK catalyses the conversion of creatine and utilizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to create phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac phenotype of mitochondrial creatine kinase knockout mice is modified on a pure C57BL/6 genetic background. (ox.ac.uk)
  • UNLABELLED: Discrepant results for the phenotype of mitochondrial creatine kinase knockout mice (Mt-CK(-/-)) could be due to mixed genetic background and use of non-littermate controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results suggest that the preserved mitochondrial function contributes to the protected cardiac phenotype afforded by adaptation to CNH and point to an important role of opioid receptor activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of the Laufen meeting was again to bring together leading biochemists, molecular biologists, geneticists, physiologists and clinical researchers, with those directly involved in the translation of creatine research into practical applications for health, medicine and sport. (springer.com)
  • Gales, "Atomic force and electron microscopic-based study of sarcolemmal surface of living cardiomyocytes unveils unexpected mitochondrial shift in heart failure," Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is the carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) reaction [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Creatine is a substance that is naturally produced by the human body from amino acids. (kidneypedia.net)
  • Following a memorable International Conference on "Creatine in Health, Medicine and Sport", held in July 2010 in the Howard Theatre, Downing College, Cambridge University, UK, organized by Roger Harris (*) [see Special Issue in Amino Acids Vol. 40(5) May 2011], it was decided to continue the tradition by organizing a similar event 5 years later. (springer.com)
  • We hypothesized that ischemic injury induces differential alterations in various mitochondrial subcompartments, that these proteomic changes are specific to the severity of injury, and that they are important to subsequent cellular adaptations to myocardial ischemic injury. (nih.gov)
  • Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker of damage of CK-rich tissue such as in myocardial infarction (heart attack), rhabdomyolysis (severe muscle breakdown), muscular dystrophy , autoimmune myositides , and acute kidney injury . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker of myocardial infarction (heart attack), rhabdomyolysis (severe muscle breakdown), muscular dystrophy and in acute renal failure . (wikidoc.org)
  • Serum Myocardial Creatine Kinase (CK-MB) After Coronary Arterial Bypass Surgery. (aaltoscientific.com)
  • The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK m ) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. (mdpi.com)
  • The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. (mdpi.com)
  • The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis , and adenylate kinase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylate kinase Creatine kinase. (neac.info)
  • Hypothalamic plasticity of neuropeptide Y is lacking in brain-type creatine kinase double knockout mice with defective thermoregulation. (gopubmed.org)
  • About $200 million of this industry is spent on creatine monohydrate ( Schnirring, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)