Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Creatine Kinase, BB Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Creatine Kinase, MB Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Guanidinoacetate N-Methyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amidinotransferases: Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .MyoglobinuriaTyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Enzyme Reactivators: Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.PhosphoproteinsProtein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalPhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.ChromonesCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Activation Analysis: A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)MorpholinesCasein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Heart failure affects mitochondrial but not myofibrillar intrinsic properties of skeletal muscle. (1/49)

BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure (CHF) induces abnormalities in skeletal muscle that are thought to in part explain exercise intolerance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these changes actually result in contractile or metabolic functional alterations and whether they are muscle type specific. METHODS AND RESULTS: With a rat model of CHF (induced by aortic banding), we studied mitochondrial function, mechanical properties, and creatine kinase (CK) compartmentation in situ in permeabilized fibers from soleus (SOL), an oxidative slow-twitch muscle, and white gastrocnemius (GAS), a glycolytic fast-twitch muscle. Animals were studied 7 months after surgery, and CHF was documented on the basis of anatomic data. Alterations in skeletal muscle phenotype were documented with an increased proportion of fast-type fiber and fast myosin heavy chain, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratio, and decreased citrate synthase activity. Despite a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in SOL, no change was observed in contractile capacity or calcium sensitivity. However, muscles from CHF rats exhibited a dramatic decrease in oxidative capacities (oxygen consumption per gram of fiber dry weight) of 35% for SOL and 45% for GAS (P:<0.001). Moreover, the regulation of respiration with ADP and mitochondrial CK and adenylate kinase was impaired in CHF SOL. Mitochondrial CK activity and content (Western blots) were dramatically decreased in both muscles. CONCLUSIONS: CHF results in alterations in both mitochondrial function and phosphotransfer systems but unchanged myofibrillar function in skeletal muscles, which suggests a myopathy of metabolic origin in CHF.  (+info)

Changes in mRNA expression profile underlie phenotypic adaptations in creatine kinase-deficient muscles. (2/49)

We have studied the mechanisms that regulate the remodeling of the glycolytic, mitochondrial and structural network of muscles of creatine kinase M (M-CK)/sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (ScCKmit) knockout mice by comparison of wild-type and mutant mRNA profiles on cDNA arrays. The magnitudes of changes in mRNA levels were most prominent in M-CK/ScCKmit (CK(-/-)) double mutants but did never exceed those of previously observed changes in protein level for any protein examined. In gastrocnemius of CK(-/-) mice we measured a 2.5-fold increase in mRNA level for mitochondrial encoded cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-III which corresponds to the increase in protein content. The level of the nuclear encoded mRNAs for COX-IV, H(+)-ATP synthase-C, adenine nucleotide translocator-1 and insulin-regulatable glucose transporter-4 showed a 1.5-fold increase, also in agreement with protein data. In contrast, no concomitant up-regulation in mRNA and protein content was detected for the mitochondrial inorganic phosphate-carrier, voltage-dependent anion channel and certain glycolytic enzymes. Our results reveal that regulation of transcript level plays an important role, but it is not the only principle involved in the remodeling of mitochondrial and cytosolic design of CK(-/-) muscles.  (+info)

Mitochondrial creatine kinase: properties and function. (3/49)

This review describes properties of mitochondrial creatine kinase from heart and skeletal muscle studied in the author's group at the Department of Biochemistry of Moscow State University. The results are compared to the data in the literature. The author's point of view on the physiological role of mitochondrial creatine kinase is presented.  (+info)

Multiple interference of anthracyclines with mitochondrial creatine kinases: preferential damage of the cardiac isoenzyme and its implications for drug cardiotoxicity. (4/49)

Anthracyclines are among the most efficient drugs of cancer chemotherapy, but their use is limited by a significant risk of cardiotoxicity, which is still far from being understood. This study investigates whether impairment of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK), a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism, could be involved in anthracycline cardiotoxicity. We have analyzed the effects of three anthracyclines, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and idarubicin, on two MtCK isoenzymes, sarcomeric/cardiac sMtCK and ubiquitous uMtCK, from human and chicken. Using surface plasmon resonance, gel filtration, and enzyme assays, we have quantified properties that are of basic importance for MtCK functioning in vivo: membrane binding, octameric state, and enzymatic activity. Anthracyclines significantly impaired all three properties with differences in dose-, time-, and drug-dependence. Membrane binding and enzymatic activity were already affected at low anthracycline concentrations (5-100 microM), indicating high clinical relevance. Effects on membrane binding were immediate, probably because of competitive binding of the drug to cardiolipin. In contrast, dissociation of MtCK octamers into dimers, enzymatic inactivation and cross-linking occurred only after hours to days. Different protection assays suggest that the deleterious effects were caused by oxidative damage, mainly affecting the highly susceptible MtCK cysteines, followed by generation of free oxygen radicals at higher drug concentrations. Enzymatic inactivation occurred mainly at the active site and involved Cys278, as indicated by experiments with protective agents and sMtCK mutant C278G. All anthracycline effects were significantly more pronounced for sMtCK than for uMtCK. These in vitro results suggest that sMtCK damage may play a role in anthracycline cardiotoxicity.  (+info)

Expression of creatine kinase isoenzyme genes during postnatal development of rat brain cerebellum: evidence for transcriptional regulation. (5/49)

Transcription and accumulation of brain-type creatine kinase (CKB) mRNA and its protein was examined during postnatal development of rat brain cerebellum, the brain region containing highest CKB mRNA in the adult. CKB protein was extremely low at day 1, increased about 10-fold until week 4 and remained constant until week 10. This time course was paralleled by cerebellar CKB mRNA, which was also extremely low at day 1 and increased 5-fold during the first 3 weeks and then remained constant. High levels of CKB protein were also detected in cultured primary cerebellar granular neurons. Nuclear run-on assays directly showed that CKB mRNA accumulation during postnatal cerebellar development was due to increased transcription. When compared with cerebrum and whole brain, cerebellar CKB mRNA accumulation during postnatal development was temporally delayed. Analysis of myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)-2 and Sp1, factors known to initiate or sustain CKB transcription in tissues other than brain, revealed that MEF-2 in cerebellum was low at week 1 but increased 3.5-fold by week 7, while Sp1 remained unchanged. The increase in CKB protein during cerebellar postnatal development was coincident with that of the ubiquitous mitochondrial CK protein and mRNA, indicating that a functional phosphocreatine energy shuttle probably exists for efficient ATP regeneration in the cerebellum. This should be beneficial for the many energy-demanding requirements during cerebellar development, as indicated by the observed temporal co-expression of CKB with myelin basic protein, which is involved in axon myelination by oligodendrocytes.  (+info)

Mitochondrial creatine kinase is critically necessary for normal myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolism. (6/49)

The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. To address the question as to whether this alteration is due to a decrease in total CK activity below a critical threshold or due to the specific loss of ScCKmit, we studied isolated perfused hearts with selective loss of ScCKmit (ScCKmit(-/-), remaining total CK activity approximately 70%) using (31)P NMR spectroscopy at two different workloads. LV performance in ScCKmit(-/-) hearts (n = 11) was similar compared with wild-type hearts (n = 9). Phosphocreatine/ATP, however, was significantly reduced in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts (1.02 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.54 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). In parallel, free [ADP] was higher (144 +/- 11 vs. 67 +/- 7 microM, P < 0.01) and free energy release for ATP hydrolysis (DeltaG(ATP)) was lower (-55.8 +/- 0.5 vs. -58.5 +/- 0.5 kJ/mol, P < 0.01) in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts. These results demonstrate that M- and B-CK containing isoenzymes are unable to fully substitute for the loss of ScCKmit. We conclude that ScCKmit, in contrast to M-CK, is critically necessary to maintain normal high-energy phosphate metabolite levels in the heart.  (+info)

Differential effects of peroxynitrite on human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes. Inactivation, octamer destabilization, and identification of involved residues. (7/49)

Creatine kinase isoenzymes are very susceptible to free radical damage and are inactivated by superoxide radicals and peroxynitrite. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of peroxynitrite on enzymatic activity and octamer stability of the two human mitochondrial isoenzymes (ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (sMtCK)), as well as of chicken sMtCK, and identified the involved residues. Inactivation by peroxynitrite was concentration-dependent and similar for both types of MtCK isoenzymes. Because peroxynitrite did not lower the residual activity of a sMtCK mutant missing the active site cysteine (C278G), oxidation of this residue is sufficient to explain MtCK inactivation. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed oxidation of Cys-278 and further revealed oxidation of the C-terminal Cys-358, possibly involved in MtCK/membrane interaction. Peroxynitrite also led to concentration-dependent dissociation of MtCK octamers into dimers. In this study, ubiquitous uMtCK was much more stable than sarcomeric sMtCK. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed chemical modifications in peptide Gly-263-Arg-271 located at the dimer/dimer interface, including oxidation of Met-267 and nitration of Trp-268 and/or Trp-264, the latter being a very critical residue for octamer stability. These data demonstrate that peroxynitrite affects the octameric state of MtCK and confirms human sMtCK as the generally more susceptible isoenzyme. The results provide a molecular explanation of how oxidative damage can lead to inactivation and decreased octamer/dimer ratio of MtCK, as seen in neurodegenerative diseases and heart pathology, respectively.  (+info)

Protective effect of creatine against inhibition by methylglyoxal of mitochondrial respiration of cardiac cells. (8/49)

Previous publications from our laboratory have shown that methylglyoxal inhibits mitochondrial respiration of malignant and cardiac cells, but it has no effect on mitochondrial respiration of other normal cells [Biswas, Ray, Misra, Dutta and Ray (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 343-348; Ray, Biswas and Ray (1997) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 171, 95-103]. However, this inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is not significant in cardiac tissue slices. Moreover, post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) of cardiac cells could almost completely protect the mitochondrial respiration against the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal. A systematic search indicated that creatine present in cardiac cells is responsible for this protective effect. Glutathione has also some protective effect. However, creatine phosphate, creatinine, urea, glutathione disulphide and beta-mercaptoethanol have no protective effect. The inhibitory and protective effects of methylglyoxal and creatine respectively on cardiac mitochondrial respiration were studied with various concentrations of both methylglyoxal and creatine. Interestingly, neither creatine nor glutathione have any protective effect on the inhibition by methylglyoxal on the mitochondrial respiration of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. The creatine and glutathione contents of several PMS, which were tested for the possible protective effect, were measured. The activities of two important enzymes, namely glyoxalase I and creatine kinase, which act upon glutathione plus methylglyoxal and creatine respectively, were also measured in different PMS. Whether mitochondrial creatine kinase had any role in the protective effect of creatine had also been investigated using 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an inhibitor of creatine kinase. The differential effect of creatine on mitochondria of cardiac and malignant cells has been discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of methylglyoxal.  (+info)

Background: Mitochondria play crucial roles in cell signaling events, interorganellar communication, aging, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitochondrial impairment has been shown to accelerate or modulate cancer progression. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is predominantly localized in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and catalyzes the reversible exchange of high-energy phosphate between adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine. However, little is known about its expression and function in human prostate cancer progression.. Method: We investigated the expression of uMtCK in 148 prostate carcinoma tissues and matched normal tissue by immunohistochemistry. The expression and localization of uMtCK and hexokinase II, a marker of glycolysis, were examined in prostate carcinoma cell lines using western blot and immunofluorescence.. Results: MtCK expression was significantly lower in high Gleason grade carcinoma compared with normal prostate or low grade ...
We have investigated the role of the protein ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) in the formation and stabilization of inner and outer membrane contact sites. Using liver mitochondria isolated from transgenic mice, which, unlike control animals, express uMtCK in the liver, we found that the enzyme was associated with the mitochondrial membranes and, in addition, was located in membrane-coated matrix inclusions. In mitochondria isolated from uMtCK transgenic mice, the number of contact sites increased 3-fold compared with that observed in control mitochondria. Furthermore, uMtCK-containing mitochondria were more resistant to detergent-induced lysis than wild-type mitochondria. We conclude that octameric uMtCK induces the formation of mitochondrial contact sites, leading to membrane cross-linking and to an increased stability of the mitochondrial membrane architecture.. ...
The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. To address the question as to whether this alteration is due to a decrease in total CK activity below a critical threshold or due to the specific loss of ScCKmit, we studied isolated perfused hearts with selective loss of ScCKmit (ScCKmit(-/-), remaining total CK activity approximately 70%) using (31)P NMR spectroscopy at two different workloads. LV performance in ScCKmit(-/-) hearts (n = 11) was similar compared with wild-type hearts (n = 9). Phosphocreatine/ATP, however, was significantly reduced in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts (1.02 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.54 +/
Identification of cardiolipin as the membrane receptor of mitochondrial creatine kinase and determination of the transverse distribution of cardiolipin accross the inner mitochondrial ...
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The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
A creatina quinase mitocondrial está presente no espazo intermembrana mitocondrial, onde rexenera a fosfocreatina (PCr) a partir do ATP xerado nas mitocondrias e a creatina (Cr) importada do citosol. Ademais das dúas formas de isoencimas CK mitocondriais, é dicir, a mtCK ubicua (presente en tecidos non musculares) e a mtCK sarcomérica (presente no músculo sarcomérico), hai tres isoformas de CK citosólicas presentes no citosol, dependendo do tecido. Mentres que a MM-CK se expresa no músculo sarcomérico (esquelético e cardíaco), a MB-CK exprésase só no músuclo cardíaco e a BB-CK no músculo liso e na maioría dos tecidos non musculares. As mtCK mitocondrial e citosólica están conectadas no denominado circuíto ou lanzadeira de fosfocreatina/creatina (PCr/Cr). A fosfocreatina xerada pola mtCK nas mitocondrias é enviada á CK citosólica que está acoplada a procesos dependentes de ATP, por exemplo, ATPases, como a ATPase de acto-miosina e a ATPase de calcio implicada na ...
Lencel; P; Hardouin; P; Magne; D. Do cytokines induce vascular calcification by the mere stimulation of TNAP activity? Med Hypotheses. 2010 Dec;75(6):517-21. IF = 1.1. Fellah; BH; Delorme; B; Sohier; J; Magne; D; Hardouin; P; Layrolle; P. Macrophage and osteoblast responses to biphasic calcium phosphate microparticles. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Jun 15;93(4):1588-95. IF = 3.4. Granjon; T; Maniti; O; Auchli; Y; Dahinden; P; Buchet; R; Marcillat; O; Dimroth; P. Structure-function relations in oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex. Fluorescence and infrared approaches to monitor oxomalonate and Na(+) binding effect. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 3;5(6):e10935. IF = 3.2. Maniti; O; Lecompte; MF; Marcillat; O; Vial; C; Granjon; T. Mitochondrial creatine kinase interaction with cardiolipin-containing biomimetic membranes is a two-step process involving adsorption and insertion. Eur Biophys J. 2010 Nov;39(12):1649-55. IF = 2.2. Gouttenoire; J; Bougault; C; Aubert-Foucher; E; Perrier; E; Ronzière; MC; Sandell; L; ...
A growing body of work on microbial life in deep subsurface environments has altered our perspective on the limits of living organisms and challenged our understanding of their need for nutrients and energy. Microbial cells in these very stable and oligotrophic settings apparently catabolize 10-4 to 10-6 fold more slowly than organisms in nutrient-rich cultures and thereby subsist with energy fluxes orders of magnitude below what are considered to be "maintenance" levels. Such organisms may in fact represent a truly basal state of metabolism, and a corresponding basal power requirement, that is not easily reproduced in culture. Do these organisms have extraordinary properties beyond our current understanding of microbial energy metabolism, and not represented in cultured organisms, or is the capability to subsist on extremely low energy fluxes an inherent property of many microorganisms? What are the energetic requirements and limits to life, how are they affected by environment, and how can we ...
Best creatine supplements - 2017 top 10 list, Find the best creatine supplement to help you reach your goals creatine occurs in food naturally and helps you improve strength and decrease fatigue.. How to take creatine: your definitive guide - sean nalewanyj, Learn everything you need to know about how to take creatine with maximum effectiveness, including the best forms, dosages, timing and how to properly mix it.. Excessive belching, burping and bloating - causes and, Home » current health articles » excessive belching, burping and bloating - causes and treatment excessive belching, burping and bloating - causes and treatment. ...
Much has been made of Creatine and Side Effects. The question is whether there are enough negative effects to outweight the fact that studies show that creatine helps build muscle.
Creatine is a naturally occurring chemical that can provide a major boost to your health and fitness routine. Keep reading for five great reasons to make creatine a part of your supplement routine. Learn more at eVitamins México.
This isnt exactly the right place to go...But im looking for more information on creatine, so i was wondering if anyone on here has ever loaded up on it... $$$$
Ive got some creatine that Im taking pre w/o and has me feeling bloated while I lift...ugh...I want to switch up to something that hopefully wont
Our results suggest that the clinical differences between mania and depression states are supported by contrasting levels of creatine kinase CK . The lack of correlations between creatine kinase level and motor items suggest that creatine kinase CK level in mania versus depression could emphasize the "thinking speed" and not the motor one ...
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Hee Jeong Son, Yoon Hee Lee, Jeong Hoon Chae, Chang Keun Kim Biol Sport 2015; 32(4):357-361 It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and ...
Buy CREATINE DECANATE 300g Online. Creatine Decanate of maximum assimilation Creatine Decanate favours muscle development and increases strength. Increases the production of ATP and energy during your training sessions.
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octameric MYFGGGGG ligand: structure given in first source; a branched, octameric ligand used for affinity purification of bovine neurophysin
If youre a woman, then the idea of taking creatine may make you nervous. Here is a first hand review from one of our female readers who takes creatine.
Hi Patrick, Here is an interesting article, worth a look if you havent seen it before. Creatine: How Much Should You Be Taking? | Arnold
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Creatine is one of the most popular supplements out there, because it works. Heres how it can improve your workouts and make you more muscular.
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Background: Biomarkers specificity is an important factor for their reliable utilization. Known markers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) including creati...
Descrição: Properties of energy release and transfer by magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field are investigated on the basis of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Two initial configurations are considered: a plane current sheet with a uniform guide field of 80% of the reconnecting magnetic field component and a force-free current sheet in which the magnetic field strength is constant but the field direction rotates by 180 deg. through the current sheet. The onset of reconnection is stimulated by localized, temporally limited compression. Both MHD and PIC simulations consistently show that the outgoing energy fluxes are dominated by (redirected) Poynting flux and enthalpy flux, whereas bulk kinetic energy flux and heat flux (in the PIC simulation) are small. The Poynting flux is mainly associated with the magnetic energy of the guide field which is carried from inflow to outflow without much alteration. The conversion of annihilated ...
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Mar 30, 2012· As its name suggests, creatine HCL is made by attaching a hydrochloride group to creatine, thereby creating a salt. In attaching this hydrochloride group, the solubility of the molecule increases greatly compared to creatine monohydrate (the existing basic form of creatine). This results in some improved qualities over the already great creatine monohydrate. Benefits of Creatine HCL Creatine Monohydrate vs Creatine HCL. Creatine HCL is the most soluble form of creatine ...
Some experts recommended cycling creatine; Using it for a period of time, then temporarily discontinuing it so as not to disrupt the bodys natural production of creatine. Your muscle cells, where about 95% of total body creatine is stored, can only hold a limited amount of creatine.. Once theyre saturated (as happens after loading with creatine), taking more than is required to maintain muscle saturation is a waste: Unable to store the additional creatine, youll just end up excreting the surplus.. Creatine is carried into your muscle cells by a transporter mechanism. In order to function, this transporter itself requires energy as well as certain minerals (sodium, chloride; possibly magnesium, calcium).. In your body, creatine is converted to phosphocreatine (PC) for storage and transport. As muscle cells fill up with PC, the activity of the transporter declines. This down-regulation may be most pronounced in your fast-twitch (a.k.a. type II, or white) muscle cells but affects all ...
... definition, an enzyme that, during muscular activity, catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphocreatine in muscle to produce ATP. See more.
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Signs and symptoms that typically accompany an elevated creatine kinase include cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, breathing trouble, dizziness, excessive sweating and pain that reaches the jaw or...
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Interesting. Andre - may I suggest the albedo constant is the place for further inquiry as I believe Billiards is correct w/ respect to Gausss Law and a black body radiator- the shape of the surface is not important, one simply sums all the energy flux through the surface to derive the BB temp. The http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albedo [Broken] then its shape w/ respect to the incoming energy distribution does matter. To assume the albedo is constant everywhere (.3) implies the surface & atmosphere must be lambertian everywhere as seen by the incoming solar flux. Im not familiar w/ the source of the .3 figure, but the actual terrestrial albedo must be a complicated function of surface type and angle of incidence ...
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ALDOC Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 364 amino acids (1-364 a.a.).
How to Take Creatine for Bodybuilding. Creatine is a naturally occurring substance in the body and is used to supply energy. It is produced in the liver and transported by the bloodstream. Creatine can be supplemented with to increase...
Isatori Creatine A5X - Facts, review, ingredients, flavours and release date. The new Creatine A5X brings together 5 different types of creatine designed t
As I understand it, creatine assists the body to produce more ATP which fuels muscle contraction. Which allows you to perform beyond your natural ability. My experience was that creatine would enable me to lift about 10% more, but any gains were lost when I stopped taking it, so I havent done for years ...
Taking creatine before and after workout works helps increase and improve muscular storage as a form of energy called creatine phosphate (CP). Read more!
Order a Creatine Serum Test to measure creatine, a compound that is made primarily in the liver and then transported to your muscles.
Creatine: If you are planning to take creatine but arent sure because of all that you have heard about it, this guide on the myths and facts about it will tell you exactly what you are dealing with.
Creatine is naturally produced in the body from the amino acids glycine and arginine. It helps to supply energy to all cells in the body, primarily muscle. Save with Nutrition Warehouse!
Cheers Kenny! Weve talked about that Barr method before too. I still remain very sceptical with off-day creatine intake. There are so many different opinions about this issue, ranging from 2-5g a day no matter what to 5g per on-day. And even some superloading claims of constantly ingesting more than 10g a day, which I dont see reasonable. Yet I havent really found too much research around the off-day vs. every day set-up. At the moment Im still taking 5g a day. If I want more out of it, I load for a couple of weeks with higher doses. I could try if 5g per training day will have the same effects as 5g a day ...
Hey everyone! While my maxes seem to be doing pretty well right now, I seem to be burning out before I am even done with a workout. I hear that...
Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase
All rights reserved. This work is protected by the corresponding intellectual and industrial property rights. Without prejudice to any existing legal exemptions, reproduction, distribution, public communication or transformation of this work are prohibited without permission of the copyright holder ...
Universal Nutrition Creatine Powder - Theres bad creatine and good creatine. Then theres great creatine. Whats the difference? Manufacturing quality and form. The only clinically proven form is creatine monohydrate powder. The best creatine monohydrate is manufactured in Germany. Our creatine monohydrate powder is a German creatine thats so pure, its patented. Its the finest in the world.
Creatine Kinase is an enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and c
high creatine level - MedHelps high creatine level Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for high creatine level. Find high creatine level information, treatments for high creatine level and high creatine level symptoms.
Questions such as : What is the significance of a slightly elevated creatine kinase blood test presumed not cardiac related?. Find more questions on Blood Tests here.
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Rich Pianas philosophy is that if you are gonna do it- lets do it right! Creatine can convert to creatinine in your body and go unused and wasted coupled with unwanted side effects. Creatine Monohydrate still has its place, but you need creatines that bypass this conversion and have a better chance at being used by your muscles along with Creatine Monohydrate. 10 Different Types of Creatine means you now have 10 avenues or pathways to get creatine to your muscles. Why have 1 when you can have. ...
Our Creatine X4 contains 3 creatines, Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Pyruvate and Creatine Citrate. A fantastic stack creatine, which are all provided in one capsule aimed to give you the boost you need to make sure youre getting the most out of your workouts ...
Universal Nutrition Creatine Powder is German creatine that has been patented due to the fact that it is the purest available form. Creatine Powder contains 100% pure creatine Monohydrate.
When to take creatine? How much creatine to take? What do you take it with? Ill answer these questions and more, in my beginners guide to creatine.
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Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl Saturating the system in creatine is Does putting more gas in your car make it go faster?
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Supplements like creatine and amino acids are used by people looking to gain more strength and achieve better performance from their workouts. Creatine in
Creatine is one of the most popular supplements on the market. Unfortunately, there are a lot of myths and misconceptions about its side effects and uses. Learn the facts about creatine.
When taking creatine, it saturates the muscle. Once you get the muscles saurated, either by loading or not loading, IMO it doesnt matter, it will stay that way for a while, whether or not you take it once a day or multiple times. Missing a little every once in a while isnt going to matter. In fact, I read in one test that after a subject had taken regular for a period of two months, then laid off, his levels took about two weeks to go bak down ...
Creatine is a highly-effective supplement to boost body mass, strength, and workout efficiency. Its beneficial for neuroprotection, energy production.
Before I started supplementing creatine I had a lot of questions. No matter what you are putting into your body you should be aware of what potential effects, both good and bad, that it may take on your physical and mental state.
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Creactor™ is a scientifically advanced creatine that delivers a potent, micro-dose of creatine. Each serving delivers 750mg of 100% ultra-pure,...
www.MOLUNA.de Cellular Bioenergetics: Role of Coupled Creatine Kinases [4194320] - Preface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme Compartmentation. III: Creatine Kinases and Metabolic Integration. IV: Molecular Biology of Creatine Kinases. V: Developmental and Pathological Alterations of Creatine Kinases. VI: Metabolic Regulation: Theoretical Basis.InhaltsverzeichnisPreface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme
So my instinct is confirmed that once heat rises to a certain level, be it by gravitational attractive energy or nuclear fusion or both, you could hardly stop ionization of hydrogen gas (and typically some helium) and the creation of a plasma even if you wanted to...maybe thats what you mean by a seed but my own take is that no seed is necessary...once a gas temperature rises to a high enough level, neutrinos, protons, electrons and everything imagniable begins to boil off and electromagnetic fields result. And with the typical rotation of a star, different portions of the plasma are likely accelerated relative to each other even more and stronger electromagnetic fields are inevitable ...
Scientific ocean drilling has greatly advanced the understanding of subseafloor sedimentary life. Studies of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated ODP samples and data show that mean per-cell rates of catabolic activity, energy flux, and biomass turnover are orders of magnitude slower in subseafloor sediment than in the surface world. They have also shown that potentially competing metabolic pathways co-occur for hundreds of meter depth in subseafloor sediment deposited over millions of years. Our study of an example site (eastern equatorial Pacific ODP Site 1226) indicates that the energy yields of these competing reactions are pinned to a thermodynamic minimum. The simplest explanation of this long-term coexistence is thermodynamic cooperation, where microorganisms utilize different but coexisting pathways that remove each others reaction products. Our Site 1226 results indicate that the energy flux to subseafloor sedimentary microbes is extremely low. Comparison to biomass turnover ...
The investigation here reported was undertaken to ascertain whether or not there was any abnormal excretion of creatine in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Within the last decade, creatine metabolism has been the object of very extensive research. The mechanism of the intermediate metabolism of creatine has not yet been elucidated completely. Evidence, however, exists to favor the view that glycine is converted to guanidinoacetic acid which is then methylated to form creatine.1 The first of these reactions probably takes place principally in the kidney and the transfer of free methyl groups occurs chiefly in the liver.. Considerable material has been gathered ...
Creatine phosphate then chemically "donates" its phosphate group to aid in the regeneration of ATP. Ultimately, the more creatine that is loaded into the muscle cell, the more ATP that is available to fuel muscle cell contractions. As I stated above, creatine requires a carrier hormone to facilitate its entry into the muscle cell. Insulin (the blood sugar-regulating hormone) is also the hormone responsible for enabling creatine to enter the cell. In the absence of insulin, creatine will not reach its target tissue and thus will not exert its muscle-potentiating effects.. Many supplement companies have taken this important fact and have designed creatine formulations that contain astronomical amounts of simple sugars under the guise that, without these sugars, creatine could not be properly absorbed. It is because of these sugar-laced creatine formulations that many users are getting too much insulin release and are gaining significant amounts of unwanted body fat. Likewise, individuals who are ...
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Effects of pH and KCl on the conformations of creatine kinase from rabbit muscle. Infrared, circular dichroic and fluorescence studies.: The activity loss of cr
This test measures the amount of the enzyme creatine kinase in your blood. A certain form of this enzyme can help find out whether youre having a heart attack.
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By John Kiefer. Creatine is the most scientifically significant supplement of the past thirty years, and Im not just talking about the bro-science here. Its obviously known for making athletes bigger and stronger, but thats not all it has to offer. Creatines benefits are numerous, but what most people-including most supplement manufacturers, if labels are any indication-dont understand is what it does at the cellular level. This is important because your creatine levels can affect nearly every cell in your body.. Believe it or not, weve known about creatine for over a century[1], and weve known for nearly that long that supplementing with it does good things. For years now, the basic explanation behind creatines efficacy is that its the active transport of ADP (adenosine di-phosphate) back into ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate). An elegant explanation, to be sure, but what does it actually mean?. Beyond the Bro-Science. ATP is the energy currency of your cells, and ADP results from the ...
100% Pure Micronised Creatine for easier and faster mixing.Creatine is a substance found naturally within the human body. Although found in numerous organs, the majority of creatine is stored within skeletal muscle cells. Creati
Muscletech, Creactor, Creatine HCl Formula, Fruit Punch Extreme, 9.51 oz (269 g) $19.90. Creatine HCl, Creatine, Muscle Builders, Sports Nutrition. To further optimize insulin activity and increase nutrient delivery to your muscle cells, then co...
... provides your muscles with the worlds highest quality and most clinically researched form of micronized creatine. Creatine is shown to increase lean muscle and improve strength and endurance.
... provides your muscles with the worlds highest quality and most clinically researched form of micronized creatine. Creatine is shown to increase lean muscle and improve strength and endurance.
Creatine synthesis is required in adu lt anima ls to rep lace creatine that is spontaneous ly converted to creatinine and excreted in the urine. Additiona l ly, in growing anima ls it is necessary to
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Summary: 1. Cell physiology has demonstrated that the cell will more likely take up a nutrient such as creatine if it is deficient in, or, has a low concentrati
32% of creatine group improved significantly by week 2 and 68% by week 4; half were symptom free by week 8 (second trial now recruiting)
the other day i went to my friends house to spar with him and i found lots of creatine supplements. i wonder do they really work to increase size and strength. and if so should i be taking them. thank you
CK : Creatine kinase (CK) activity is greatest in striated muscle, heart tissue, and brain. The determination of CK activity is a proven tool in the investigation of skeletal muscle disease (muscular dystrophy) and is also useful in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular accidents. Increased levels of CK also can be found in viral myositis, polymyositis, and hypothyroidism.   Following injury to the myocardium, such as occurs in acute MI, CK is released from the damaged myocardial cells. A rise in the CK activity can be found 4 to 8 hours after an infarction. CK activity reaches a maximum after 12 to 24 hours and then falls back to the normal range after 3 to 4 days.
In the dog, creatine kinase (CK) is mostly present in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain and intestine. The MM isoenzyme predominates in muscles and myocardium. In plasma, reference values depend on the technique used and CK-MB accounts for about 30-45% of total CK activity. Sex has no influence on plasma CK activity, which is higher in young dogs than in adults. Plasma CK is elevated after physical exercise. After its release from the cells, CK reaches the plasma mostly via the lymphatic route and then remains in the plasma compartment. It is rapidly cleared with a half-life of about 2 hours. Muscle diseases are the main source of plasma CK elevations: inherited myopathies, malignant hyperthermia, hypothyroidism, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, prolonged decubitus, intramuscular injections, surgery, etc. Plasma CK is also increased in experimental myocardial infarction, for which the dog is an interesting model, allowing quantification of the damage by measuring the total CK activity ...
Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of "energy-rich" phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where Creatine Kinase CK is expressed. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and Creatine Kinase BB isoenzyme BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on CK BB Isoenzyme BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. source ...
Transport of creatine in the mouse liver has been investigated in vivo and in the perfused organ. Experiments were carried out with transgenic mice expressing creatine kinase in the liver (brain isoenzyme CKBB; EC 7.2.3.2.) [Koretsky, Brosnan, Chen, Chen and Van Dyke (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3112-3116] and in the corresponding control mice. The animals were fed a regular chow with or without the addition of 10% creatine (w/w) for 5 days. The kinetics of creatine uptake was measured in the perfused liver by 31P-n.m.r. spectroscopy and biochemical analysis following infusion of creatine at concentrations ranging over 0-15 mM and at an extracellular pH of either 7.40 or 6.40. The results suggest that creatine is actively transported by a pH-dependent mechanism obeying a saturable Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics (Km = 0.80 +/- 0.18 and 5.12 +/- 2.40 mM; Vmax. = 0.57 +/- 0.04 and 1.72 +/- 0.32 mumol.g of liver-1.min-1 at pH 7.40 and 6.40 respectively). Creatine export was evaluated ...
Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T, Kabsch W (May 1996). "Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase". Nature. 381 (6580): ... There are at least four different, but very closely related, forms of CK. Two isozymes, M (muscle) and B (brain), are cytosolic ... Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, ... "Separate nuclear genes encode sarcomere-specific and ubiquitous human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes". J. Biol. Chem ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine ... Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Tokarska-Schlattner M (2002). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer ...
Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial, also called ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK), is in humans encoded by ... "ASB9 interacts with ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase and inhibits mitochondrial function". BMC Biology. 8: 23. doi: ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ...
... there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. The functional entity of the latter ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CKMT2 gene. Mitochondrial creatine kinase ( ... Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... "Entrez Gene: CKMT2 creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)". Human CKMT2 genome location and CKMT2 gene details page in ...
... resource is short lasting because oxygen is required for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine via mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ... The creation of AMP resulting from this reaction stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) which is the energy ... but the most readily depleted of the above sources is the PCr system which utilizes the enzyme creatine kinase. This enzyme ...
"In vitro complex formation between the octamer of mitochondrial creatine kinase and porin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... VDACs can also oligomerize to form part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and, thus, facilitate ... It forms an ion channel in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and also the outer cell membrane. In the OMM, it allows ATP ... Baines CP, Song CX, Zheng YT, Wang GW, Zhang J, Wang OL, Guo Y, Bolli R, Cardwell EM, Ping P (May 2003). "Protein kinase ...
Schlattner, U.; Tokarska-Schlattner, M., & Wallimann, T. (2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ... A 70kg adult male has around 120g of creatine in them, with 40% being the non phosphorylated form, and 60% as creatine ... is catalyzed by several creatine kinases. The presence of creatine kinase (CK-MB, MB for muscle/brain) in blood plasma is ... A methyl group is added to GAA from the amino acid methionine by the enzyme GAMT, forming non-phosphorylated creatine. This is ...
The reactions catalyzed by cytosolic (soluble) and mitochondrial GPDH are as follows: There are two forms of GPDH: The ... substrate pages: glycerol 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate related topics: glycerol phosphate shuttle, creatine kinase, ... In conjunction, Mitochondrial GPDH, or GPD2 is embedded on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, overlooking ... which employs the two forms of GPDH: Cytosolic GPDH, or GPD1 is located in the mitochondrial inner-membrane space or cytosol, ...
The ATP-dependent cytosolic enzymes hexokinase, glucokinase, and glycerol kinase, as well as the mitochondrial enzyme creatine ... This protein contains about 280 amino acids and forms a beta barrel which spans the mitochondrial outer membrane. Since its ... This major protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes forms a voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) ... Benz R (1994). "Permeation of hydrophilic solutes through mitochondrial outer membranes: review on mitochondrial porins". ...
... additionally also serum creatine kinase may be mildly above normal. Other exams/methods to ascertain if the individual has ... Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy.It is associated with variants of type VI ... Bernardi, Paolo; Bonaldo, Paolo (2013-05-01). "Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Defective Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of ... a cellular study of mitochondrial dysfunction and its rescue" (PDF). Brain. 132 (1): 147-155. doi:10.1093/brain/awn289. PMID ...
After creation of the dTMP molecule, another kinase, thymidylate kinase, can act upon dTMP to create the diphosphate form, dTDP ... Patients with mutations in the thymidine kinase gene may have a certain type of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, a disease ... Other small molecules that are substrates of kinases include creatine, phosphoglycerate, riboflavin, dihydroxyacetone, ... Kinases are classified into broad groups by the substrate they act upon: protein kinases, lipid kinases, carbohydrate kinases. ...
Blood tests show a creatine kinase greater than 1,000 U/L, with severe disease being above 5,000 U/L. The mainstay of treatment ... Milder forms may not cause any muscle symptoms, and the diagnosis is based on abnormal blood tests in the context of other ... For instance, mitochondrial diseases are characterized by ragged red fibers. Biopsy sites may be identified by medical imaging ... The most reliable test in the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is the level of creatine kinase (CK) in the blood. This enzyme is ...
Tests can be run to check creatine kinase in the blood, which is often normal or mildly elevated in congenital myopathies. ... In its severest form, affected babies often die from respiratory failure. To date, 9 gene mutations have been found to cause ... Cylindrical spirals have also been shown to react with the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, which suggests that ... Diagnosis usually relies on this method, as creatine kinase levels and electromyography can be unreliable and non-specific. ...
In fact, there is evidence that VDAC binding by the anti-apoptotic HK1 and by the pro-apoptotic creatine kinase are mutually ... As one of two mitochondrial isoforms of hexokinase and a member of the sugar kinase family, HK1 catalyzes the rate-limiting and ... In the prefrontal cortex, HK1 putatively forms a protein complex with EAAT2, Na+/K+ ATPase, and aconitase, which functions to ... Activation of Akt kinase is mediated by HK1-VDAC1 coupling as part of the growth factor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase ...
Adult patients often have serum and/or urine screen positive for the presence of myoglobin and serum creatine kinase and ... Mild to severe adult myopathic form Severe infantile multisystemic form Lethal neonatal form It should be noted that among the ... It has been proposed that this segment mediates the association of CPT II with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Moreover, the ... Severe forms may have continual pain from general life activity. The adult form has a variable age of onset. The first ...
... a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. The free acid (HMB-FA) and monohydrated calcium salt (HMB-Ca) forms of HMB have ... muscle enzymes such as creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in humans following intense exercise may be due to a ... α-KIC is mostly metabolized by the mitochondrial enzyme branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, which converts it to ... HMB is sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the free acid form, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB-FA), and as a ...
... creatine kinase, mb form MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150.750 --- creatine kinase, mitochondrial form MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150. ... arginine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150 --- creatine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.640.150.500 --- creatine kinase, bb form ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.300 --- map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
... elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and white matter involvement". Wiley Online Library. American Journal of Medical ... The k-nearest neighbors algorithm predicts C3orf62 to be classified as follows: k=9/23; 69.6% nuclear, 13.0% mitochondrial, ... Transcription of C3orf62 produces 5 alternatively spliced variants and 1 unspliced form. Of the four splice variants, two of ... No ortholog sequences of C3orf62 were found for the following life forms: Bacteria, archaea, protist, plant, fungus, trichoplax ...
... creatine kinase (a muscle-related enzyme), plasma viscosity (optional if ESR done) and serology for celiac disease. Ferritin ... Functional impairment must be below defined thresholds in two of the three designated subscales of the Short Form 36 Health ... Myhill S, Booth NE, McLaren-Howard J; Booth; McLaren-Howard (2009). "Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction" ( ...
... creatine kinase and two 14-3-3 isoforms. Chloride channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169504 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Singh H, Ashley RH (2007). "CLIC4 (p64H1) and its putative transmembrane domain form poorly selective, redox-regulated ion ... 2006). "Quantitative proteomic analysis of myc-induced apoptosis: a direct role for Myc induction of the mitochondrial chloride ... Qian Z, Okuhara D, Abe MK, Rosner MR (1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase- ...
Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Tokarska-Schlattner M (Dec 2001). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer ... This gene consists of 4 exons, while its encoded protein forms a homodimer embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The ... This gene is a member of the mitochondrial carrier subfamily of solute carrier protein genes. The product of this gene, adenine ... This protein functions as an antiporter for ADP/ATP exchange between the mitochondrial matrix and cytoplasm. As a result, it ...
Zong H, Ren JM, Young LH, Pypaert M, Mu J, Birnbaum MJ, Shulman GI (December 2002). "AMP kinase is required for mitochondrial ... protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. Each of these three ... AMPK is required for increased PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle in response to creatine depletion. LKB1 knockout mice show ... liver kinase B1 (LKB1) which works in a complex with STRAD and MO25, calcium-/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (]]CAMKK2, ...
In a similar mechanism, the pro-apoptotic creatine kinase binds and opens VDAC in the absence of HK2.[8] An alternative model ... "Mitochondrial hexokinase II promotes neuronal survival and acts downstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3". The Journal of ... This gene encodes a 100-kDa, 917-residue enzyme with highly similar N- and C-terminal domains that each form half of the ... kinase activity. • glucose binding. • catalytic activity. • protein binding. • fructokinase activity. • ATP binding. • ...
... enhancer of split BECN1 involved in autophagy and partners with PI3K BUD31 formerly Maternal G10 transcript Creatine kinase CKB ... mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit d ATP5J NM_001685 ATP5J2 NM_004889 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial ... A specialized form of cell signaling BLOC1S1 BLOC1S2NM_173809 BLOC1S3NM_212550 BLOC1S4NM_018366 BLOC1S6NM_012388 AP1G1 NM_ ... mitochondrial IARS NM_002161 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase IARS2 NM_018060 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial KARS NM_ ...
Serum creatine kinase is elevated in Bethlem myopathy, as there is ongoing muscle cell death. Patients with Bethlem myopathy ... Bethlem myopathy is an autosomal dominant myopathy, classified as a congenital form of muscular dystrophy, that is caused by a ... Bethlem myopathy has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (autosomal recessive form exists as well[1]). ...
Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is predominantly localized in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and ... The Expression of Ubiquitous Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Is Downregulated as Prostate Cancer Progression Rie Amamoto1,4, ... The Expression of Ubiquitous Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Is Downregulated as Prostate Cancer Progression. J Cancer 2016; 7(1 ... Moreover, in the low uMtCK expressing cell lines, glycolytic ATP production was increased, whereas mitochondrial ATP production ...
However, our ability to understand mitochondrial dysfunction has been hindered by an absence of molecular markers defining the ... Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induces mitochondrial dysfunction and, depending upon the degree of injury, may lead to cardiac ... Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form / metabolism * Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins / metabolism * Hypotonic Solutions / ... Both forms of injury had a drastic impact on the proteome biology of cardiac mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial function was ...
... there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. The functional entity of the latter ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates ... Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A (Predicted)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,B7NZE9,B7NZE9_RABIT Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A (Predicted) OS=Oryctolagus cuniculus OX=9986 GN=CKMT1A PE=3 SV=1 ... PS51510 PHOSPHAGEN_KINASE_C, 1 hit. PS51509 PHOSPHAGEN_KINASE_N, 1 hit. ...
Creatine kinase levels are elevated but without clinical signs of skeletal myopathy *The infantile form of X linked DCM or ... autosomal recessive and mitochondrial *Autosomal forms of FDCM are the most frequent *Pure DCM phenotype: mutations of genes ... The X linked forms of DCM includes X linked dilated cardiomyopathy and Barth syndrome *Caused by mutations in the dystrophin ... Mitochondrial DNA *Coronary artery disease *Infections: coxsackievirus, adenovirus, parvovirus, HIV, bacterial, fungal ...
Crystallization of mitochondrial creatine kinase. Growing of large protein crystals and electron microscopic investigation of ... All four members of the Ten-m/Odz family of transmembrane proteins form dimers. Feng, K., Zhou, X.H., Oohashi, T., Mörgelin, M ... Expression and prognostic significance of kit, protein kinase B, and mitogen-activated protein kinase in patients with small ... The polymeric form of Mx1 from E. coli was observed as "horseshoe"-like structure by negative staining microscopy [2]. ...
In addition to those, there are two mitochondrial creatine kinases, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm), which produces ATP from ADP by converting creatine phosphate to creatine, is present ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as phosphocreatine kinase or creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... Thus Creatine Kinase is an important enzyme in such tissues. Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker ...
Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T, Kabsch W (May 1996). "Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase". Nature. 381 (6580): ... There are at least four different, but very closely related, forms of CK. Two isozymes, M (muscle) and B (brain), are cytosolic ... Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, ... "Separate nuclear genes encode sarcomere-specific and ubiquitous human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes". J. Biol. Chem ...
Chen L, Roberts R, Friedman DL (1995) Expression of brain-type creatine kinase and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase in ... Lin YS, Wang CH, Chern Y (2011b) Besides Huntingtons disease, does brain-type creatine kinase play a role in other forms of ... Molecular structure and function of mitochondrial creatine kinases. In: Vial C (ed) Creatine kinase. Nova Science Publishers, ... Maintained coupling of oxidative phosphorylation to creatine kinase activity in sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase- ...
Complexes between porin, hexokinase, mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate translocator display properties of the ... Bid, Bax, and lipids cooperate to form supramolecular openings in the outer mitochondrial membrane ... In vitro complex formation between the octamer of mitochondrial creatine kinase and porin ... Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating ...
1992) Mitochondrial creatine kinase: a key enzyme of aerobic energy metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1102:119-166. ... a mitochondrial pore-forming protein that plays a role in regulated movement of metabolites across the outer mitochondrial ... 1989) Subcellular compartmentation of creatine kinase isoenzymes, regulation of CK and octameric structure of mitochondrial CK ... 1985) The creatine-creatine phosphate energy shuttle. Annu Rev Biochem 54:831-862. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibody (2C8). Validated: WB, ELISA, RNAi. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Additional Creatine kinase MT 1B Products. Creatine kinase MT 1B H00001159-M04 * Creatine kinase MT 1B Antibodies ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ...
In the reversible reaction catalyzed by creatine kinase, Cr and ATP form PCr and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Fig. 2). It is ... they adapt by increasing oxidative enzymes such as mitochondrial creatine kinase (OGorman et al., 1996), succinate ... Pathway of creatine metabolism. Catalyzed by AGAT ( 1 ), catalyzed by GAMT ( 2 ), catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK) ( 3 ), ... 1976) Creatine metabolism in men: Creatine pool size and turnover in relation to creatine intake. J Nutr 106:371-381. ...
However, the accumulation of ROS damage with aging alters mitochondrial integrity and reduces creatine kinase activity, thus ... These EPS form a protective shield at the surface of the skin and work at the cellular level to reduce the expression of ICAM-1 ... When applied topically, creatine is taken up by keratinocytes, thus increasing creatine kinase (CK) activity for improved ... H Lenz et al, The creatine kinase system in human skin: Protective effects of creatine against oxidative and UV damage in vitro ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine ... Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Tokarska-Schlattner M (2002). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer ...
Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial, also called ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK), is in humans encoded by ... "ASB9 interacts with ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase and inhibits mitochondrial function". BMC Biology. 8: 23. doi: ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers in contrast to the exclusively ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the ... Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase , Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial , Creatine kinase, sarcomeric mitochondrial , ... creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial , basic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase , mib-CK , mitochondrial creatine kinase 2 , ... Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial 2 (Sarcomeric) (CKMT2) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is ...
Mar, 2009 , Pubmed ID: 19289067 It is well established that the octameric mitochondrial form of creatine kinase (mtCK) binds to ... Apr, 2011 , Pubmed ID: 21256109 It has been recently shown that mitochondrial creatine kinase (mtCK) organizes mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Binding to Phospholipid Monolayers Induces Cardiolipin Segregation Biophysical Journal. ... Acyl Chain Composition Determines Cardiolipin Clustering Induced by Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Binding to Monolayers ...
... a channel-forming antibiotic. Creatine kinase and citrate synthase activities were measured as markers of myocyte and ... Vogel H: Mitochondrial myopathies and the role of the pathologist in the molecular era. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol60 :217 -227, ... Activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O2 oxidoreductase was normalized to creatine kinase activity, as was citrate synthase ... 0.16 units/mU creatine kinase; P , 0.005). The activity of skeletal muscle NADH:O2 oxidoreductase was reduced in obese compared ...
... and axonal terminals in the rd1 retina were strongly positive for both the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of creatine kinase ... Creatine dose-dependently increased survival of cones in culture subjected to mitochondrial dysfunction, but not to oxidative ... and creatine utilization. Finally, we analyzed the neuroprotective properties of glucose and creatine on cone photoreceptors in ... Creatine-fed rd1 mice displayed enhanced optomotor responses compared to mice fed normal chow. Moreover, cone density was ...
... that binds human creatine Kinase MB (also known as CKMB). ... Creatine Kinase MB antibody LS-C193283 is a protein G-purified ... there are two mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes, the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form. (More About CKMB / Creatine Kinase ... Most Popular CKMB / Creatine Kinase MB Antibodies. Anti-CKMB / Creatine Kinase MB Antibody LS-C14666 ... About CKMB / Creatine Kinase MB. Description:. In the cells, the cytosolic CK enzymes consist of two subunits, which can be ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... acidic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase,creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1 (ubiquitous),ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine ... Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. ... Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the ...
... mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CKMT2 pAb (GTX111620) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... basic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase antibody, "creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial antibody", mib-CK antibody, "creatine ... creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric). Background. Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer ...
... mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CKMT2 pAb (GTX107547) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively ... basic-type mitochondrial creatine kinase antibody, "creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial antibody", mib-CK antibody, "creatine ... creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric). Background. Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer ...
  • Mitochondria play crucial roles in cell signaling events, interorganellar communication, aging, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitochondrial impairment has been shown to accelerate or modulate cancer progression. (jcancer.org)
  • Moreover, in the low uMtCK expressing cell lines, glycolytic ATP production was increased, whereas mitochondrial ATP production was decreased. (jcancer.org)
  • Mg++ requirement for MtHK binding, and Mg++ stabilization of mitochondrial membranes via activation of MtHK & MtCK activities and promotion of mitochondrial permeability transition pore closure: A hypothesis on mechanisms underlying Mg++'s antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. (gopubmed.org)
  • Specifically, OMM-bound HK1 binds VDAC1 to trigger opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and release mitochondrial ATP to further fuel the glycolytic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, our ability to understand mitochondrial dysfunction has been hindered by an absence of molecular markers defining the various degrees of injury. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of the Laufen meeting was again to bring together leading biochemists, molecular biologists, geneticists, physiologists and clinical researchers, with those directly involved in the translation of creatine research into practical applications for health, medicine and sport. (springer.com)
  • Gales, "Atomic force and electron microscopic-based study of sarcolemmal surface of living cardiomyocytes unveils unexpected mitochondrial shift in heart failure," Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Opening allows increase in the permeability of the mitochondrial membranes to molecules of less than 1500 Daltons in molecular weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms modulating glutamate kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review covers the basics of creatine synthesis and transport, proposed mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics of exogenous creatine administration, creatine use in disease models, side effects associated with use, and issues on product quality. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These mitochondrial aggregates of Fe, phosphorus, and sulfur, probably contribute to the oxidative stress and pathology observed in the absence of frataxin. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of active secreted forms of human amyloid beta-protein precursor by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Proteasome inhibitor-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Raw264.7 cells is potentiated by inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • The specific activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, representing the overall activity of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, was measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the antibody is specific for an epitope in the first 60 amino acids of the human creatine transporter protein (SEQ ID NO: 1). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Given the importance of FcγR signals in the pathogenesis of antibody-induced thrombocytopenia these data mechanistically explain the role of Tpl2 in this syndrome and suggest that the Tpl2 kinase may be an excellent therapeutic target for (auto)antibody-mediated pathologies. (angiogenesis-blog.com)