A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (1/3176)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B. (2/3176)

The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation.  (+info)

Myocardial creatine kinase kinetics in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. (3/3176)

This study examined whether alterations in myocardial creatine kinase (CK) kinetics and high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels occur in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR). Myocardial HEP and CK kinetics were examined in 19 pigs 6 wk after myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation, and the results were compared with those from 9 normal pigs. Blood flow (microspheres), oxygen consumption (MVO2), HEP levels [31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)], and CK kinetics (31P MRS) were measured in myocardium remote from the infarct under basal conditions and during dobutamine infusion (20 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv). Six of the pigs with LVR had overt congestive heart failure (CHF) at the time of study. Under basal conditions, creatine phosphate (CrP)-to-ATP ratios were lower in all transmural layers of hearts with CHF and in the subendocardium of LVR hearts than in normal hearts (P < 0.05). Myocardial ATP (biopsy) was significantly decreased in hearts with CHF. The CK forward rate constant was lower (P < 0.05) in the CHF group (0.21 +/- 0.03 s-1) than in LVR (0.38 +/- 0.04 s-1) or normal groups (0.41 +/- 0.03 s-1); CK forward flux rates in CHF, LVR, and normal groups were 6.4 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.1, and 20.3 +/- 2.4 micromol. g-1. s-1, respectively (P < 0.05, CHF vs. LVR and LVR vs. normal). Dobutamine caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in the LVR and normal groups, whereas CHF hearts failed to respond to dobutamine. CK flux rates did not change during dobutamine in any group. The ratios of CK flux to ATP synthesis (from MVO2) under baseline conditions were 10.9 +/- 1.2, 8. 03 +/- 0.9, and 3.86 +/- 0.5 for normal, LVR, and CHF hearts, respectively (each P < 0.05); during dobutamine, this ratio decreased to 3.73 +/- 0.5, 2.58 +/- 0.4, and 2.78 +/- 0.5, respectively (P = not significant among groups). These data demonstrate that CK flux rates are decreased in hearts with postinfarction LVR, but this change does not limit the response to dobutamine. In hearts with end-stage CHF, the changes in HEP and CK flux are more marked. These changes could contribute to the decreased responsiveness of these hearts to dobutamine.  (+info)

Attenuation of myocardial injury due to oxygen free radicals (OFR) by pretreatment with OFR or calcitonin gene-related peptide. (4/3176)

AIM: To study the cardioprotective effects of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (OGRP) pretreatment on myocardial damages due to OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. METHODS: The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff mode. OFR were generated by electrolysis of Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. RESULTS: OFR pretreatment reduced the impairment of cardiac contractile function, the decrease of coronary flow and the increase of creatinine kinase (CK) release due to OFR, and the effect exhibited period dependence and cycle-dependence. 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, abolished the protection of OFR pretreatment (CK release = 110 +/- 7, 215 +/- 23, 169 +/- 14, 240 +/- 30, and 113 +/- 19 kU.L-1 for control, OFR, OFR pretreatment, OFR pretreatment plus H-7, and H-7, respectively). CGRP pretreatment also protected the myocardium damages elicited by OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. CONCLUSIONS: OFR or CGRP pretreatment protected myocardium against injury elicited by OFR, and the effect of OFR pretreatment was related to the activation of PKC.  (+info)

The relationship between periprocedural myocardial infarction and subsequent target vessel revascularization following percutaneous coronary revascularization: insights from the EPIC trial. Evaluation of IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications. (5/3176)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether periprocedural myocardial infarction complicating percutaneous coronary revascularization is associated with subsequent clinical restenosis, as judged by the need for target vessel revascularization. BACKGROUND: Although myocardial enzyme elevation following angioplasty is associated with increased late mortality, its effect on subsequent clinical restenosis, as assessed by the need for late target vessel revascularization (TVR), is unknown. METHODS: Serial myocardial enzyme determinations were performed on 2,099 patients who underwent angioplasty or atherectomy in the Evaluation of IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications (EPIC) trial. Thirty-day survivors were prospectively followed for three years for adverse clinical events including death and need for TVR. RESULTS: Within the study population, periprocedural creatine kinase (CK) elevation was a predictor of late mortality. Among patients with elevated CK, however, a paradoxical decrease in the need for late TVR was present. This relationship became progressively more profound as the magnitude of CK release increased. Late TVR occurred in 29.8% of patients with no CK elevation, 24.8% with CK elevation to >3 times normal, and 16.9% with >10 times elevation (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.29, 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: In the EPIC study, patients with periprocedural MI were less likely to develop clinical restenosis as measured by the need for TVR. Mechanistically, although it is unlikely that CK elevation prevents vascular renarrowing per se, myocardial necrosis impairs the clinical manifestation of restenosis, thereby reducing the need for ischemia-driven TVR. This novel finding 1) highlights the potential discordance between angiographic and clinical measures of restenosis, and 2) has implications for clinical trials, as therapies that reduce periprocedural MI may be associated with a perceived excess of restenosis when measured by the need for TVR.  (+info)

Protective effect of quinaprilat, an active metabolite of quinapril, on Ca2+-overload induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. (6/3176)

We examined the effects of quinaprilat, an active metabolite of quinapril (an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor) on the increase in intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) (Ca2+-overload) induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. LPC (15 microM) produced Ca2+-overload with a change in cell-shape from rod to round. Quinaprilat but not quinapril at 20 or 50 microM attenuated the LPC-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and the change in cell-shape in a concentration-dependent manner. Since quinaprilat has an inhibitory action on ACE and quinapril has practically no inhibitory action on ACE, it is likely that the inhibitory action of quinaprilat on ACE is necessary for the protective effect of the drug against LPC-induced changes. We therefore examined the effects of enalapril (another ACE inhibitor with the weak inhibitory action on ACE) and enalaprilat (an active metabolite of enalapril with an inhibitory action on ACE) on the LPC-induced changes. Both enalapril and enalaprilat attenuated the LPC-induced Ca2+-overload, suggesting that the inhibitory action on ACE may not mainly contribute to the protective effect of ACE inhibitors against LPC-induced Ca2+-overload. This suggestion was supported by the fact that neither ACE (0.2 U/ml) nor angiotensin II (0.1-100 microM) increased [Ca2+]i in isolated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, application of bradykinin (0.01-10 microM) did not enhance the protective effect of quinaprilat against LPC-induced changes. LPC also increased release of creatine kinase (CK) from the myocyte markedly, and quinaprilat but not quinapril attenuated the LPC-induced CK release. Unexpectedly, both enalapril and enalaprilat did not attenuate the LPC-induced CK release. Neither quinapril nor quinaprilat changed the critical micelle concentration of LPC, suggesting that these drugs do not directly bind to LPC. We conclude that quinaprilat attenuates the LPC-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, and that the protective effect of quinaprilat on the LPC-induced change may not be related to a decrease in angiotensin II production or an increase in bradykinin production.  (+info)

Maturation of the myogenic program is induced by postmitotic expression of insulin-like growth factor I. (7/3176)

The molecular mechanisms underlying myogenic induction by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are distinct from its proliferative effects on myoblasts. To determine the postmitotic role of IGF-I on muscle cell differentiation, we derived L6E9 muscle cell lines carrying a stably transfected rat IGF-I gene under the control of a myosin light chain (MLC) promoter-enhancer cassette. Expression of MLC-IGF-I exclusively in differentiated L6E9 myotubes, which express the embryonic form of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and no endogenous IGF-I, resulted in pronounced myotube hypertrophy, accompanied by activation of the neonatal MyHC isoform. The hypertrophic myotubes dramatically increased expression of myogenin, muscle creatine kinase, beta-enolase, and IGF binding protein 5 and activated the myocyte enhancer factor 2C gene which is normally silent in this cell line. MLC-IGF-I induction in differentiated L6E9 cells also increased the expression of a transiently transfected LacZ reporter driven by the myogenin promoter, demonstrating activation of the differentiation program at the transcriptional level. Nuclear reorganization, accumulation of skeletal actin protein, and an increased expression of beta1D integrin were also observed. Inhibition of the phosphatidyl inositol (PI) 3-kinase intermediate in IGF-I-mediated signal transduction confirmed that the PI 3-kinase pathway is required only at early stages for IGF-I-mediated hypertrophy and neonatal MyHC induction in these cells. Expression of IGF-I in postmitotic muscle may therefore play an important role in the maturation of the myogenic program.  (+info)

Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes. (8/3176)

Skeletal muscle transport of lactate and pyruvate was studied in primary cultures of rat myotubes, applying the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2', 7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The initial rate of decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) upon lactate or pyruvate incubation was used to determine total transport (carrier mediated and diffusion). Both lactate and pyruvate transport could be inhibited by a combination of 0.5 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid, 5 mM mersalyl and 10 mM alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for carrier-mediated transport of lactate were 9.9+/-1.1 mM and 0. 69+/-0.02 mmol l-1 s-1, respectively. For pyruvate, Km and Vmax were 4.4+/-1.3 mM and 0.30+/-0.05 mmol l-1 s-1, respectively. The diffusion component of the total transport was 0.0040+/-0.0005[S] (n=4) and 0.0048+/-0.0003[S] (n=4) for lactate and pyruvate, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the two monocarboxylate transporter isoforms present in mature skeletal muscles, MCT1 and MCT4 (formerly called MCT3 (M.C. Wilson, V.N. Jackson, C. Heddle, N.T. Price, H. Pilegaard, C. Juel, A. Bonen, I. Montgomery, O.F. Hutter, A.P. Halestrap, Lactic acid efflux from white skeletal muscle is catalyzed by the monocarboxylate transporter isoform MCT3, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 15920-15926)), were also expressed in primary culture of myotubes.  (+info)

In this report, we introduce a new physiological model of the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity change, that is useful for estimating the total CPK release accurately even with reduced blood sampling frequency. The physiological model was applied to the serum creatine kinase CPK activity change of patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the model showed good agreement with the serum CPK activity. In addition, the calculated value of total CPK release agreed well with that calculated using the conventional technique ...
1. The dose of pentobarbitone required for anaesthesia was significantly greater for dystrophic hamsters than for normal animals.. 2. Serum creatine kinase activity was significantly higher in dystrophic than in normal hamsters.. 3. Brain, heart and tibialis anterior muscle from dystrophic animals contained significantly less creatine kinase than the normal tissues.. 4. Creatine kinase in normal and dystrophic sera, as in skeletal muscles, consisted of MM isoenzyme. Heart creatine kinase consisted of both MM and MB types and brain contained only the BB isoenzyme.. 5. Pentobarbitone raised serum creatine kinase activity of normal and dystrophic hamsters to the same extent, elevation of enzyme activity being dependent on the amount of pentobarbitone injected.. 6. The sera of pentobarbitone-treated normal and dystrophic hamsters contained only the MM isoenzyme.. ...
1. The dose of pentobarbitone required for anaesthesia was significantly greater for dystrophic hamsters than for normal animals.. 2. Serum creatine kinase activity was significantly higher in dystrophic than in normal hamsters.. 3. Brain, heart and tibialis anterior muscle from dystrophic animals contained significantly less creatine kinase than the normal tissues.. 4. Creatine kinase in normal and dystrophic sera, as in skeletal muscles, consisted of MM isoenzyme. Heart creatine kinase consisted of both MM and MB types and brain contained only the BB isoenzyme.. 5. Pentobarbitone raised serum creatine kinase activity of normal and dystrophic hamsters to the same extent, elevation of enzyme activity being dependent on the amount of pentobarbitone injected.. 6. The sera of pentobarbitone-treated normal and dystrophic hamsters contained only the MM isoenzyme. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Muscle creatine kinase isoenzyme expression in adult human brain. AU - Hamburg, Robert J.. AU - Friedman, David L.. AU - Olson, Eric N.. AU - Ma, Tony S.. AU - Cortez, M. Dolores. AU - Goodman, Clay. AU - Puleo, Peter R.. AU - Perryman, M. Benjamin. PY - 1990/5/16. Y1 - 1990/5/16. N2 - Previous studies have suggested that MM creatine kinase is a muscle-specific protein and is not present in adult brain tissue. We have isolated a protein from human brain with an apparent molecular weight of 43,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which is identical to the muscle M creatine kinase isoenzyme subunit at all 30 sequenced amino acid residues and possesses creatine kinase enzymatic activity following nondenaturing agarose-gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry localizes M creatine kinase to discrete areas of adult human brain. Northern blot analysis of both total and poly(A)-selected RNA isolated from brain did not detect M creatine kinase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Creatine kinase isoenzyme profiles in the plasma of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): effects of acute heat stress. AU - Mitchell, MA. AU - Sandercock, DA. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in extracts of plasma, skeletal muscle, heart and brain tissue of domestic fowls were separated by anion exchange chromatography and tissue specific distributions of the isoenzyme designated MM-CK, BB-CK1 and BB-CK2 were demonstrated. The muscle isoenzyme (MM-CK) was the predominant form in plasma (99 percent) and its activity increasedin response to an episode of acute heat stress.. AB - Creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in extracts of plasma, skeletal muscle, heart and brain tissue of domestic fowls were separated by anion exchange chromatography and tissue specific distributions of the isoenzyme designated MM-CK, BB-CK1 and BB-CK2 were demonstrated. The muscle isoenzyme (MM-CK) was the predominant form in plasma (99 percent) and its activity increasedin ...
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Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme product information; Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme is available 24 times from supplier Szybio Lambert at Gentaur.com shop
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytoarchitectural and metabolic adaptations in muscles with mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase deficiencies. AU - Steeghs, Karen. AU - Oerlemans, Frank. AU - De Haan, Arnold. AU - Heerschap, Arend. AU - Verdoodt, Lia. AU - De Bie, Martine. AU - Ruitenbeek, Wim. AU - Benders, Ad. AU - Jost, Carolina. AU - Van Deursen, Jan. AU - Tullson, Peter. AU - Terjung, Ronald. AU - Jap, Paul. AU - Jacob, Wim. AU - Pette, Dirk. AU - Wieringa, Bé. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - We have blocked creatine kinase (CK) mediated phosphocreatine (PCr) ⇆ ATP transphosphorylation in mitochondria and cytosol of skeletal muscle by knocking out the genes for the mitochondrial (ScCKmit) and the cytosolic (M-CK) CK isoforms in mice. Animals which carry single or double mutations, if kept and tested under standard laboratory conditions, have surprisingly mild changes in muscle physiology. Strenuous ex vivo conditions were necessary to reveal that MM-CK absence in single and double mutants leads to a ...
Free Online Library: Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB) controversy: perimortal tissue acidosis may explain the absence of CKMB in myocardium at autopsy.(Technical Briefs) by Clinical Chemistry; Cardiac patients Cardiology Enzymes Medical research Medicine, Experimental
Stability of Macro Creatine Kinases and Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes Compared: Heat Inactivation Test for Determination of Thermostable Creatine ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The mouse muscle creatine kinase promoter faithfully drives reporter gene expression in transgenic Xenopus laevis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
INTRODUCTION. Trauma of diverse origins is a common reason for presentation of pets for treatment. It is often difficult clinically to objectively quantify the severity of any trauma suffered by an animal. One approach is to measure changes in the various serum constituents that are known to alter in response to trauma or inflammation. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. It is an extremely sensitive indicator of muscle damage, but is not specific as to cause14,27. Serum elevations in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation, necrosis or degeneration. Peak serum activity is expected between 3 and 12 hours after muscular insult and the elevation is roughly proportional to the amount of muscle tissue involved1,5,27.It is also possible to quantify the mass of muscle damage if the changes in CK ...
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www.MOLUNA.de Cellular Bioenergetics: Role of Coupled Creatine Kinases [4194320] - Preface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme Compartmentation. III: Creatine Kinases and Metabolic Integration. IV: Molecular Biology of Creatine Kinases. V: Developmental and Pathological Alterations of Creatine Kinases. VI: Metabolic Regulation: Theoretical Basis.InhaltsverzeichnisPreface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme
Questions such as : What is the significance of a slightly elevated creatine kinase blood test presumed not cardiac related?. Find more questions on Blood Tests here.
Signs and symptoms that typically accompany an elevated creatine kinase include cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, breathing trouble, dizziness, excessive sweating and pain that reaches the jaw or...
• The concentration of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in CSF from 306 patients with various neurologic disorders. Levels
Background: Biomarkers specificity is an important factor for their reliable utilization. Known markers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) including creati...
Hypertension remains the main risk factor for cardiovascular death. Environmental and biological factors are known to contribute to the condition, and circulating creatine kinase was reported to be the main predictor of blood pressure in the general population. This was proposed to be because of high resistance artery creatine kinase-BB rapidly regenerating ATP for vascular contractility. Therefore, we assessed whether creatine kinase isoenzyme mRNA levels in human resistance arteries are associated with blood pressure. We isolated resistance-sized arteries from omental fat donated by consecutive women undergoing uterine fibroid surgery. Blood pressure was measured in the sitting position. Vessels of 13 women were included, 6 normotensive and 7 hypertensive, mean age 42.9 years (SE, 1.6) and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure, 144.8 (8.0)/86.5 (4.3) mm Hg. Arteriolar creatine kinase isoenzyme mRNA was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalized creatine kinase ...
FEIER, Gustavo et al. Creatine kinase levels in patients with bipolar disorder: depressive, manic, and euthymic phases. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.2, pp.171-175. Epub Mar 18, 2011. ISSN 1516-4446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462011005000005.. OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a severe, recurrent, and often chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Creatine kinase is an important enzyme, particularly for cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, such as neurons, and is a potential marker of brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare serum creatine kinase levels between bipolar disorder patients, in the various phases (depressive, manic, and euthymic), and healthy volunteers. METHOD: Forty-eight bipolar patients were recruited: 18 in the euthymic phase; 17 in the manic phase; and 13 in the depressive phase. The control group comprised 41 healthy volunteers. The phases of bipolar ...
Rhabdomyolysis is the destruction of skeletal muscle tissue with release of intracellular components into the circulation. Elevation of creatine kinase levels in serum is indicative of muscle damage and is associated with acute kidney injury. Antihistamines are a rare cause of nontraumatic rhabdomyo …
In the dog, creatine kinase (CK) is mostly present in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain and intestine. The MM isoenzyme predominates in muscles and myocardium. In plasma, reference values depend on the technique used and CK-MB accounts for about 30-45% of total CK activity. Sex has no influence on plasma CK activity, which is higher in young dogs than in adults. Plasma CK is elevated after physical exercise. After its release from the cells, CK reaches the plasma mostly via the lymphatic route and then remains in the plasma compartment. It is rapidly cleared with a half-life of about 2 hours. Muscle diseases are the main source of plasma CK elevations: inherited myopathies, malignant hyperthermia, hypothyroidism, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, prolonged decubitus, intramuscular injections, surgery, etc. Plasma CK is also increased in experimental myocardial infarction, for which the dog is an interesting model, allowing quantification of the damage by measuring the total CK activity ...
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Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of energy-rich phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where Creatine Kinase CK is expressed. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and Creatine Kinase BB isoenzyme BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on CK BB Isoenzyme BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. source ...
Chicken heart muscle contains almost exclusively the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK), its myofibrils, moreover, lack an M-line. This tissue thus provides an interesting contrast to skeletal muscle, in which some of the MM-CK present as predominant CK isoenzyme is bound at the myofibrillar M-line. Approx. 2% of the total CK activity in a chicken heart homogenate remains bound to the myofibrillar fraction after repeated washing cycles; both the fraction and the absolute amount of CK bound are about threefold lower than in skeletal muscle. Almost all of the bound enzyme is located within the Z-line region of each sarcomere, as revealed by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining with antiserum against purified chicken BB-CK. After incubation with exogenous purified MM-CK, positive immunofluorescent staining for M-type CK at the H-region of heart myofibrils was observed, along with weaker fluorescence in the Z-line region. Chicken heart myofibrils may thus possess binding sites for both M and B ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of reperfusion within 1 hour after coronary recanalisation by analysis of isoforms of the MM creatine kinase isoenzyme in plasma. AU - Seacord, L. M.. AU - Abendschein, D. R.. AU - Nohara, R.. AU - Hartzler, G.. AU - Sobel, B. E.. AU - Jaffe, A. S.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported in part by SCOR in Ischemic Heart Disease, National Institutes of Health Grant, HL 17646, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. This is an ancillary study of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Trial (TIMI).. PY - 1988/7. Y1 - 1988/7. N2 - Early non-invasive detection of recanalisation within 1 hour of its implementation pharmacologically is needed to facilitate optimal selection of patients requiring further aggressive management of acute myocardial infarction. Recent results from studies of experimental animals suggest that prompt detection of reperfusion is possible based on analysis of sequential changes in the relative activities of individual isoforms of the MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase ...
Creatine phosphokinase (CK) isoenzymes are found in various tissues, such as skeletal muscle (CK-MM), cardiac muscle (CK-MB), and the brain (CK-BB). Elevated CK isoenzymes indicate damage or injury to specific tissue. Using CK isoenzymes as a marker in order to indicate muscle damage as a result of different degrees of resistance exercise has not been clearly examined. Purpose: To determine the changes in CK isoenzymes following resistance exercise at different intensities. Methods: Ten healthy recreationally resistance-trained (at least 3 - 6 days per week for a minimum of one year) men participated in the study. The participants performed a lower body resistance exercise, composed of leg press and unilateral knee extension, at two different intensities (low: 50% of 1-RM and high: 80% of 1-RM) in random order. The volume of two intensities was similar. Overnight fasting serum samples were collected at baseline and 3-hr, 24-hr, and 48-hr post exercise for each intensity to determine CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether transient ST-T alterations in patients with unstable angina are associated with an increase in plasma glycogen phosphorylase BB concentrations on admission to hospital. DESIGN--Prospective screening of patients with unstable angina for markers of myocardial cell damage. SETTING--Accident and emergency department of university hospital. PATIENTS--48 consecutive patients admitted for angina pectoris (18 with transient ST-T alterations). None of the patients had acute myocardial infarction according to standard criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities, creatine kinase MB mass concentration, and myoglobin, cardiac troponin T, and glycogen phosphorylase BB concentrations on admission. RESULTS--All variables except for creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities were significantly higher on admission in patients with unstable angina and transient ST-T alterations than in patients without. However, glycogen phosphorylase BB ...
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Background. We investigated the effects of short vs. long length of rectus femoris during eccentric exercise of similar range of motion on selected muscle damage indicators. Methods. Using all isokinetic dynamometer at 1.05 rad/s, 12 healthy male [mean (standard deviation), 21 (2) years] volunteers randomly underwent two exercise sessions, one on each leg, 14 days apart. During each session, subjects had to accomplish 12 sets of 10 maximal voluntary efforts in seated and prone positions to achieve short and long length of rectus femoris, respectively. Muscle damage indicators [serum creatine kinase activity, delayed onset muscle soreness, range of motion, eccentric peak torque, concentric peak torque and isometric peak torque] were assessed pre-exercise and 24, 48, 72 as well as 96 h post-exercise. Findings. Compared to baseline data, creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, and range of motion disclosed significant changes at all time points after both exercise sessions (P , 0.05). ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidative modification and aggregation of creatine kinase from aged mouse skeletal muscle.. AU - Nuss, Jonathan E.. AU - Amaning, James K.. AU - Bailey, C. Eric. AU - DeFord, James H.. AU - Dimayuga, Vincent L.. AU - Rabek, Jeffrey P.. AU - Papaconstantinou, John. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of the gamma phosphate from ATP to creatine forming the high energy compound creatine phosphate. Muscle creatine kinase (CKm) activity maintains energetic homeostasis as variations in energy requirements dictate that ATP be readily available. Recent studies suggest that CKm activity is altered during aging. Proteomic analyses have shown that CKm is 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) modified and carbonylated in aged rodent skeletal muscle. However, it remains unknown if these modifications affect its structure and activity. To address this we characterized oxidatively modified CKm from the quadriceps of young, middle-aged, and aged mice. Our data ...
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Muscle biopsies taken from the musculus quadriceps femoris of man were analysed for pH, ATP, ADP, AMP, creatine phosphate, creatine, lactate and pyruvate. Biopsies were taken at rest, after circulatory occlusion and after isometric contraction. Muscle pH decreased from 7.09 at rest to 6.56 after isometric exercise to fatigue. Decrease in muscle pH was linearly related to accumulation of lactate plus pyruvate. An increase of 22μmol of lactate plus pyruvate per g of muscle resulted in a fall of 0.5pH unit. The apparent equilibrium constant of the creatine kinase reaction (apparent KCK) increased after isometric contraction and a linear relationship between log(apparent KCK) and muscle pH was obtained. The low content of creatine phosphate in muscle after contraction as analysed from needle-biopsy samples is believed to be a consequence of an altered equilibrium state of the creatine kinase reaction. This in turn is attributed mainly to a change in intracellular pH. ...
Myocardial infarctions were produced in rats by electro-cauterization of the left anterior descending artery, and the extent of myocardial damage was measured by serial serum levels of creatine phosphokinase activity utilizing spectrophotometric anal
It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and also has shown
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoenzymetric assay for creatine kinase MB with subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies compared with an immunochemical method and electrophoresis. AU - Chan, D. W.. AU - Taylor, E.. AU - Frye, R.. AU - Blitzer, R. L.. PY - 1985/12/1. Y1 - 1985/12/1. N2 - Results of an immunoenzymetric assay (TANDEM®-E CKMB) for creatine kinase (CK; EC MB isoenzyme, in which subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies are used, were compared with those by an immunochemical method [Isomune-CK(TM)] and electrophoresis (Corning agarose gel). The study involved 200 patients; , 500 samples were analyzed by all three methods. The analytical performances were acceptable. Between-method correlation coefficients ranged from 0.881 to 0.975. Two reference intervals were established for the immunoassays: 0-4 μg/L (TANDEM) and 0-4 U/L (Isomune) for normal patients; 0-9 μg/L (TANDEM) and 0-14 U/L (Isomune) for noninfarct patients. Agreement with respect to increased CK-MB as defined by the reference ...
CK (creatine kinase) is an enzyme (protein) found in several tissues, including muscles and the heart. Depending on the tissue, different forms of CK are present: CK-MM is primarily present in skeletal muscles, CK-MB represents 30% of CK from the heart, while CK-BB comes from the brain and smooth muscle, such as the intestinal walls. Atypical forms of CK (macro CK1 and macro CK2) can also be present. CK electrophoresis is most useful when muscular or cardiac disease does not seem to be responsible for the increased level of total CK.
How is Creatine Kinase B-Subunit Activity abbreviated? CK-B stands for Creatine Kinase B-Subunit Activity. CK-B is defined as Creatine Kinase B-Subunit Activity very rarely.
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Following acute myocardial infarction, CK-MB activity increases significantly and this elevation is highly specific for the laboratory diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Although total CK activity usually increases following myocardial infarction, in some patients only the CK-MB activity increases, while the total CK remains in the normal range. In this procedure CK activity is measured in the presence of an antibody to CK-M monomer. This antibody completely inhibits the activity of CK-MM and half of the activity of CK-MB, while not affecting the B subunit activity of CK-MB and CK-BB. Due to negligible concentrations of CK-BB in the circulation, the remaining activity, multiplied by a factor of 2, represents the activity of the CK-MB isoenzyme ...
Temporal changes in serum creatine kinase concentration and degree of muscle rigidity in 24 patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome Koichi Nisijima, Katutoshi ShiodaDepartment of Psychiatry, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a dangerous adverse response to antipsychotic drugs. It is characterized by the four major clinical symptoms of hyperthermia, severe muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction, and altered mental state. Serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation occurs in over 90% of NMS cases. In the present study, the detailed temporal changes in serum CK and degree of muscle rigidity, and the relationship between CK concentration and degree of muscle rigidity over the time course from fever onset, were evaluated in 24 affected patients. The results showed that serum CK peaked on day 2 after onset of fever and returned to within normal limits at day 12. Mild muscle rigidity was observed before the onset of fever in 17 of 24 cases (71%). Muscle
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase. AU - Dietrich, Robert F.. AU - Miller, Robert B.. AU - Kenyon, George L.. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Reed, George H.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - Several conformationally restricted analogues of creatine have been both synthesized and examined as potential substrates or inhibitors of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (EC When an asymmetric center was included in a creatine analogue in the position α to the carboxyl group, the enzyme had a pronounced preference for the R enantiomer. Thus, whereas (R)-N-amidinoazetidine-2-carboxylic acid (7) has been shown to be a good substrate (Ks = 72 mM, Km = 39 mM, and Vmax = 29% relative to that of creatine) for creatine kinase, the corresponding S enantiomer 6 showed only barely detectable reactivity (Fmax(rel) ≪ 1%). When the corresponding ring-opened analogue, N-methyl-N-amidino-alanine, was examined as a substrate, ...
The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. To address the question as to whether this alteration is due to a decrease in total CK activity below a critical threshold or due to the specific loss of ScCKmit, we studied isolated perfused hearts with selective loss of ScCKmit (ScCKmit(-/-), remaining total CK activity approximately 70%) using (31)P NMR spectroscopy at two different workloads. LV performance in ScCKmit(-/-) hearts (n = 11) was similar compared with wild-type hearts (n = 9). Phosphocreatine/ATP, however, was significantly reduced in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type hearts (1.02 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.54 +/
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase in experimental small bowel infarction. AU - Graeber, Geoffrey M.. AU - Wolf, Robert E.. AU - Harmon, John W.. PY - 1984/7. Y1 - 1984/7. N2 - Serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) rise after mesenteric infarction; it is not known which one rises earlier or which one has the greater elevation. This experiment compared and contrasted the elevations in both these enzyme systems after acute small bowel infarction. Isoenzymes of both systems were analyzed to determine if any qualitative changes occurred. After baseline blood samples had been drawn, 10 dogs had midline laparotomies under general anesthesia. Each was assigned to one of two groups according to a randomized block design. Controls (CON) were closed after exploration (N = 5). The infarction (INF) group had ligation and division of the arteries to the jejunum and ileum (N = 5). Blood samples were obtained from both groups at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 27 hr ...
Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase
RPC030Mu01, Recombinant Creatine Kinase B (CK-BB), CKB; CKBB; CK-B; CK-1; Creatine Kinase, Brain | Products for research use only!
Purification and characteriization of the heterogeneous brain-type creatine kinase in chicken, study of the functional aspects of this heterogeneity in different ...
Central core myopathy is a rare, inherited neuromuscular disorder with a wide spectrum of phenotypic presentations. It is also considered an allelic disease of malignant hyperthermia. We report a case of central core myopathy in a Chinese adolescent boy presenting with atypical clinical features and a moderately elevated serum creatine kinase level. The diagnosis was made from the histopathological findings of central cores on muscle biopsy, and confirmed by the molecular genetic testing for the RYR1 gene mutation. This is the first case of central core myopathy confirmed by molecular study in our locality ...
AIMS: Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure. However, testing this hypothesis has not been possible since oral creatine supplementation is ineffectual at elevating myocardial creatine levels. We therefore used mice overexpressing creatine transporter in the heart (CrT-OE) to test for the first time whether elevated creatine is beneficial in clinically relevant disease models of heart failure and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: CrT-OE mice were selected for left ventricular (LV) creatine 20-100% above wild-type values and subjected to acute and chronic coronary artery ligation. Increasing myocardial creatine up to 100% was not detrimental even in ageing CrT-OE. In chronic heart failure, creatine elevation was neither beneficial nor detrimental, with no effect on survival, LV remodelling or dysfunction. However, CrT-OE hearts
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Background: Mitochondria play crucial roles in cell signaling events, interorganellar communication, aging, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitochondrial impairment has been shown to accelerate or modulate cancer progression. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is predominantly localized in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and catalyzes the reversible exchange of high-energy phosphate between adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine. However, little is known about its expression and function in human prostate cancer progression.. Method: We investigated the expression of uMtCK in 148 prostate carcinoma tissues and matched normal tissue by immunohistochemistry. The expression and localization of uMtCK and hexokinase II, a marker of glycolysis, were examined in prostate carcinoma cell lines using western blot and immunofluorescence.. Results: MtCK expression was significantly lower in high Gleason grade carcinoma compared with normal prostate or low grade ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of an immunoradiometric assay specific for the CK-MB isoenzyme for detection of acute myocardial infarction. AU - Al-sheikh, Wajih. AU - Heal, Albert V.. AU - Pefkaros, Kyriacos C.. AU - Pina, Ileana L.. AU - Serafini, Aldo N.. AU - Ihmedian, Ismail H.. AU - Ashkar, Fuad S.. PY - 1984/8/1. Y1 - 1984/8/1. N2 - Clinical evaluation of patients symptoms, electrocardiographic changes and increased serum enzyme levels, specifically creatine kinase (CK)-MB by electrophoresis, are established as the primary diagnostic indicators for myocardial infarction (Ml). Two hundred fifteen patients were evaluated in this study. Of these patients, 102 were admitted to the coronary care unit and 113 were admitted to the emergency room and screened for possible Ml. The immunoradiometric assay used in this study was a double antibody sandwich technique, which utilizes antibody to the M and B monomers of the CK isoenzymes. This assay is specific for the CK-MB isoenzyme, which is present ...
We have investigated the role of the protein ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) in the formation and stabilization of inner and outer membrane contact sites. Using liver mitochondria isolated from transgenic mice, which, unlike control animals, express uMtCK in the liver, we found that the enzyme was associated with the mitochondrial membranes and, in addition, was located in membrane-coated matrix inclusions. In mitochondria isolated from uMtCK transgenic mice, the number of contact sites increased 3-fold compared with that observed in control mitochondria. Furthermore, uMtCK-containing mitochondria were more resistant to detergent-induced lysis than wild-type mitochondria. We conclude that octameric uMtCK induces the formation of mitochondrial contact sites, leading to membrane cross-linking and to an increased stability of the mitochondrial membrane architecture.. ...
Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P | 0.01), body temperature (P | 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P | 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P | 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our
Identification of cardiolipin as the membrane receptor of mitochondrial creatine kinase and determination of the transverse distribution of cardiolipin accross the inner mitochondrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tight linkage of creatine kinase (CKMM) to myotonic dystrophy on chromosome 19. AU - Yamaoka, L. H.. AU - Pericak-Vance, M. A.. AU - Speer, M. C.. AU - Gaskell, P. C.. AU - Stajich, J.. AU - Haynes, C.. AU - Hung, W. Y.. AU - Laberge, C.. AU - Thibault, M. C.. AU - Mathieu, J.. AU - Walker, A. P.. AU - Bartlett, R. J.. AU - Roses, Allen D.. PY - 1990/2. Y1 - 1990/2. N2 - The myotonic dystrophy (DM) gene is localized to the proximal long arm of chromosome 19. There have been reports of tight linkage to a number of chromosome 19 markers, including APOC2 and creatine kinase muscle type (CKMM), but they did not establish orientation of the 2 markers to DM. We screened several large multi-generational DM families for linkage to a series of chromosome 19 markers including CKMM. CKMM is tightly linked to DM in these data with z(θ̂) = 28.41; θ̂ = 0.01. Analysis of cross-over data indicates CKMM is on the same side and closer to DM than APOC2. Thus, CKMM is a useful probe for carrier ...
Transport of creatine in the mouse liver has been investigated in vivo and in the perfused organ. Experiments were carried out with transgenic mice expressing creatine kinase in the liver (brain isoenzyme CKBB; EC [Koretsky, Brosnan, Chen, Chen and Van Dyke (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3112-3116] and in the corresponding control mice. The animals were fed a regular chow with or without the addition of 10% creatine (w/w) for 5 days. The kinetics of creatine uptake was measured in the perfused liver by 31P-n.m.r. spectroscopy and biochemical analysis following infusion of creatine at concentrations ranging over 0-15 mM and at an extracellular pH of either 7.40 or 6.40. The results suggest that creatine is actively transported by a pH-dependent mechanism obeying a saturable Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics (Km = 0.80 +/- 0.18 and 5.12 +/- 2.40 mM; Vmax. = 0.57 +/- 0.04 and 1.72 +/- 0.32 mumol.g of liver-1.min-1 at pH 7.40 and 6.40 respectively). Creatine export was evaluated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complete nucleotide sequence of dog heart creatine kinase mRNA. T2 - Conservation of amino acid sequence within and among species. AU - Roman, D.. AU - Billadello, J.. AU - Gordon, J.. AU - Grace, A.. AU - Sobel, B.. AU - Strauss, A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Creatine kinase (CK; EC plays an important role in energy metabolism in brain and muscle. Expression of CK isoenzymes is regulated during development and is tissue specific. To define the structures of canine CK isoenzymes and to elucidate the mechanism of regulation in their expression, CK cDNA clones from dog myocardium were isolated. Myocardial CK mRNA is predicted to encode a protein of 381 amino acids. The nontranslated regions of the mRNA comprise at least 38 bases at the 5 end and exactly 345 bases before the poly(A) tail. Partial protein sequences of dog muscle (M) CK and brain (B) CK subunits were determined and compared with the derived ...
All subjects were checked for relevant laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), blood sugar (BS), serum sodium (Na+), serum potassium (K+), urinalysis (U/A) and serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) based on the standard laboratory methods. They all received the standard and supportive therapy30 by the attending clinical toxicologists of the poisoning emergency department. Patients\ data including age, gender, ingested drug/poison, time elapsed from ingestion to emergency department admission, poisoning severity and result of the laboratory tests were collected with a check list. Patients were followed until any of these situations occurred: recovering without complications, recovering with any complication (acute renal failure, aspiration pneumonitis) and death. The outcome was recorded and then grouped in two major categories: survival without complications group and complications and/or death group. Since seven patients died and all ...
This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme, in your blood. The test can help your healthcare provider find out whether youre having a heart attack.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOXs cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative/nitrative stress, impaired mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes/endothelial cells and cell death. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties. We aimed to explore the effects of CBD in a well-established mouse model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. DOX-induced cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial injury (elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels), myocardial oxidative and nitrative stress (decreased total glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase 1 activity, increased lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), myocardial cell death (apoptotic and ...
Looking for online definition of MB fraction in the Medical Dictionary? MB fraction explanation free. What is MB fraction? Meaning of MB fraction medical term. What does MB fraction mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intron Length Variation Observed in the Creatine Kinase and Ribosomal Protein Genes of the Swordfish Xiphias gladius. AU - Chow, Seinen. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/6. Y1 - 1998/6. N2 - Introns may accumulate much higher genetic variation than exons. Universal primers were designed from the conservative nucleotide sequences of exons to amplify the flanking intron. Length variations in the S7 ribosomal protein (RP) gene intron 1 and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) gene intron 6 of the swordfish Xiphias gladius were found. Single or two banded fragment patterns in each individual were observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that highly polymorphic fragment patterns observed in the RP gene intron 1 were due to different numbers of a TG repeat (microsatellite). The length of the CK gene intron 6 was dimorphic, in which presence or absence of a 24 bp block was responsible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Markers of postmatch fatigue in professional rugby league players. AU - McLellan, Christopher P.. AU - Lovell, Dale I.. AU - Gass, Gregory C.. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - McLellan, CP, Lovell, DI, and Gass, GC. Markers of postmatch fatigue in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 25(4): 1030-1039, 2011-The aim of the present study was to identify neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine markers of fatigue after Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite Rugby League players were monitored for a single match. Peak rate of force development (PRFD), peak power (PP), and peak force (PF) were measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force plate pre and postmatch play. Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 120 hours to determine plasma creatine kinase concentration ([CK]) and salivary cortisol concentration ([sCort]). There were significant (p , ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Creatine Kinase, Not Creatinine Kinase [4]. AU - Jefferson, James W.. AU - Aga, Vimal. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0344851931&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0344851931&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 14624200. AN - SCOPUS:0344851931. VL - 23. SP - 668. JO - Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. JF - Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. SN - 0271-0749. IS - 6. ER - ...
Creatine is a principle component of the creatine kinase (CK) phosphagen system common to all vertebrates. It is found in excitable cells, such as cardiomyocytes, where it plays an important role in the buffering and transport of chemical energy to ensure that supply meets the dynamic demands of the heart. Multiple components of the CK system, including intracellular creatine levels, are reduced in heart failure, while ischaemia and hypoxia represent acute crises of energy provision. Elevation of myocardial creatine levels has therefore been suggested as potentially beneficial, however, achieving this goal is not trivial. This mini-review outlines the evidence in support of creatine elevation and critically examines the pharmacological approaches that are currently available. In particular, dietary creatine-supplementation does not sufficiently elevate creatine levels in the heart due to subsequent down-regulation of the plasma membrane creatine transporter (CrT). Attempts to increase passive diffusion
Creatine is often a nitrogenous amine that was learned in 1832 (5). It is actually located mostly in skeletal muscle mass, with ninety five% of your bodys creatine retailers located within skeletal muscle mass (49,seventy eight). The full level of creatine in your body is equal towards the no cost creatine in addition the phosphocreatine (11), which equals about one hundred twenty g within a 70-kg man or woman (74). The exogenous sources of creatine are animal merchandise like beef and fish. The conventional dietary consumption of creatine within an omnivorous eating plan is close to one g each day (forty nine,seventy eight). The liver, kidney, and pancreas variety endogenous retailers of creatine (forty nine,78). The endogenous creation of creatine is down-controlled all through exogenous creatine supplementation; having said that the endogenous manufacturing returns to baseline just after supplementation is discontinued (14).The first step in endogenous synthesis of creatine occurs during the ...
This means that you can take a much smaller dose of creatine HCL to get similar results as creatine monohydrate. The Kre Alkalyn effectively becomes more efficient than Creatine Monohydrate with 1.5 grams of Kre Alkalyn being equivalent to around 10 to 15 grams of ordinary creatine supplements. Wie häufig wird der Creatine monohydrate vs creatine aller Voraussicht nach benutzt werden? It is much more soluble and absorbent, and absorbs 99% as opposed to the 1% of monohydrate! Also, it appears that when one supplements with creatine, the ability for the muscle to hold glycogen is enhanced. It is still the most wide sold creatine product out of all the rest. Creatine (/ ˈ k r iː ə t iː n / or / ˈ k r iː ə t ɪ n /) is an organic compound with the nominal formula (H 2 N)(HN)CN(CH 3)CH 2 CO 2 H. This species exists in various modifications in solution.Creatine is found in vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in ...
Mar 30, 2012· As its name suggests, creatine HCL is made by attaching a hydrochloride group to creatine, thereby creating a salt. In attaching this hydrochloride group, the solubility of the molecule increases greatly compared to creatine monohydrate (the existing basic form of creatine). This results in some improved qualities over the already great creatine monohydrate. Benefits of Creatine HCL Creatine Monohydrate vs Creatine HCL. Creatine HCL is the most soluble form of creatine ...
Results:. Of 69 patients with myocardial infarction, only 39% had diagnostic electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation. ST-segment elevation had a specificity of 99% and a positive predictive value of 93%. A relative lymphocytopenia (lymphocyte decrease ,20.3%) or elevated rapid creatine kinase-MB level (,4.7 ng/mL) was more sensitive than ST-segment elevation (sensitivities of 58% and 56%, respectively) but less specific (specificities of 91% and 93%, respectively). The presence of both a relative lymphocytopenia and an elevated rapid creatine kinase-MB level had a sensitivity of 44%, a specificity of 99.7%, and a positive predictive value of 97% (95% CI, 80% to 99%). Both a relative lymphocytopenia and an elevated rapid creatine kinase-MB level were independent (P , 0.001) predictors of infarction in patients without ST-segment elevation. If myocardial infarction was suspected by the presence of both abnormal markers or ST-segment elevation, the sensitivity for early diagnosis increased from ...
China Creatine: Creatine Anhydrous; Creatine Preparation; N-Amidinosarcosine; 5-Chloro-2-Maino Benzotrifluoride; N-Carbamimidoyl-N-Methylglycine, Find details about China Creatine Anhydrous, Creatine Preparation from Creatine: Creatine Anhydrous; Creatine Preparation; N-Amidinosarcosine; 5-Chloro-2-Maino Benzotrifluoride; N-Carbamimidoyl-N-Methylglycine - Hubei Yuancheng Saichuang Technology Co., Ltd.
In a multicenter double-blind study, 227 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were randomized within 12 hr from onset of symptoms to treatment with nifedipine (112 patients) or placebo (115 patients). AMI was confirmed in 74 patients on nifedipine and in 83 on placebo. Patients with AMI received nifedipine 5.5 +/- 2.9 hr (mean +/- SD) after onset of symptoms. Infarct size was assessed by the release of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB). Infarct size index (CK-MB geq/m2) was 25 +/- 16 (n = 71) in the nifedipine group and 23 +/- 13 (n = 77) in the placebo group (NS). After the first 10 mg of nifedipine systolic blood pressure fell from 147 +/- 30 to 135 +/- 28 mm Hg (p less than .01) and heart rate rose from 75 +/- 18 to 79 +/- 19 beats/min (p less than .01). No change was observed after the first placebo dose. The treatment was continued for 6 weeks. Over this period there were 10 deaths in each group. Early treatment with nifedipine in patients with AMI does not seem to ...
A high energy transport gas and a method to transport the high energy transport gas are used to increase the energy content of a pipeline and other vessels that are designed to carry natural gas under
What is Creatine Monohydrate?Creatine is a precursor to the bio-energetic fuel creatine phosphate, which replenishes cellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels during maximum intensity contractions. Supplementing with creatine can increase levels of creatine phosphate in the muscle improving work output capacity, power, recovery and muscle hydration. When muscles are hydrated, muscle catabolism (breakdown) is minimized. Creatine Boosts Muscle Strength, Size, and Endurance:Creatine is one of the most researched and important sports supplements today. It has become a must for athletes wanting to increase workout intensity while delaying the onset of fatigue. Research has shown that supplementing with creatine can boost muscle size, strength and endurance, improve athletic performance, and speed muscle recovery. Saturating your muscles with creatine improves your bodys ability to quickly replenish and recycle ATP, which increases muscle energy and delays muscle fatigue. Studies show that when athletes
Not all nutritional supplements are created equal. In fact, most of the stuff being peddled as magical muscle and strength builders are a complete waste of money.. But one supplement has been studied heavily for the past 35 years and consistently been shown to be safe and effective: creatine.. Creatine is in fact one of the most well-researched nutritional supplements on the market. Below are some of the benefits studies have proven come from this supplement:. Creatine can help make you stronger. Several studies have shown that creatine supplementation results in strength gains. In a meta-analysis of 22 studies on creatine, researchers found that individuals who use it show an 8% increase in strength compared to those who dont.. Creatine can help your muscles grow bigger. Creatine makes your muscles look bigger, while actually making them bigger as well. First, creatine causes your muscle cells to store more water which causes your muscles to appear fuller and larger. You may notice the size ...
Low prices on Creatine! Creatine helps build muscle fast. Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is natural substance and creatine supplementation is an effective way to build muscle and get stronger. In one study, athletes added 19 pounds to their single-rep bench press within just one month of taking creatine. Another study showed an average muscle mass increase of 3.5
Low prices on Creatine! Creatine helps build muscle fast. Ready to get big? Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is natural substance and creatine supplementation is an effective way to build muscle and get stronger. In one study, athletes added 19 pounds to their single-rep bench press within just one month of taking creatine!
Previous studies on the clinical significance of elevated cardiac markers after PCI have produced a spectrum of results (2,3,6,9). Few question the importance of large periprocedural MI, but the inconsistency of data for an association of mortality with lower level CK-MB elevation has nurtured an ongoing debate whether enzyme elevation after otherwise successful PCI actually affects survival.. At least part of the confusion arises from inadequate definition of unsuccessful procedures and thus inability to appropriately adjust outcome data. For example, a recent meta-analysis of seven studies suggested a significant progressive dose-response relationship between CK-MB elevations and subsequent mortality (10). Unfortunately, three of the studies used for this analysis did not adjust for procedure success and two others excluded only patients who died or required emergency bypass surgery. Moreover, one of these studies included patients with abrupt closure or large spontaneous preprocedure MI among ...
Clinically Proven, Max Potency Creatine HCI Formula. Creactor® is a scientifically advanced creatine formula that delivers a powerful micro-dose of creatine. Each serving delivers 750 mg of 100% ultra-pure, laboratory-tested creatine hydrochloride (creatine HCI) plus 750 mg of free-acid creatine - the purest form of creatine, free of acids and salts. This powerful, never-before-seen ratio of creatine molecules delivers an enhanced product. In fact, the amount of creatine in just two micro-sized daily servings of Creactor® is scientifically proven to deliver real results.. Amplified ATP Synthesis. Creactor® rapidly enhances your muscle cells ability to regenerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), their primary source of anaerobic energy, so you can recover faster between sets.. Enhanced Size, Strength & Recovery. Creactor® will jack up your muscle strength, increase your performance and enhance your muscle size with just two super-concentrated scoops a day.. Zero Fillers or Sugar. Creactor® ...
Whats the difference between Universal Creatine Powder and other creatine supplements? The great manufacturing quality and superior form of the Universal Creatine Powder, makes it a global favourite among health conscious bodybuilders. It is methodically prepared from Creatine Monohydrate Powder which is considered the most pure and concentrated form of creatine. Studies have routinely shown an increase in lean body mass with creatine supplementation although this is likely to represent increased water retention in the short-term, activating your muscle tissue fibers to grow bigger in size. Universal Creatine supplement ensures your muscles are well hydrated, giving them a healthy and bulky look.. Buying Guide. You must have heard about Creatine from the guys in gym, but do you know why it is such a big deal? Creatine is a natural substance that is used as an athletic aid for increasing the high intensity athletic performance. You will be amazed to know that since the researchers found out ...
Rest assured, Creatine is 100% natural, produced by the human body, and found in foods like Steak. Having said that, you still should follow all the guidelines on taking it correctly and safely. Universalâ s Creatine Powderâ ¢ provides the purest, most readily absorbed creatine monohydrate available. Two recent studies compared pre versus post-workout creatine ingestion. Creatine will increase your strength and the amount of work your muscles can do, but of course its no magic pill and it should only be a SUPPLEMENT to an already solid base of basics. Which Creatine Supplement Should You Buy? Optimum Nutrition Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Powder took the top spot on our list of the best creatine powders and contains 5g of pure creatine per serving. And you can get 2 for the price of one right now! (see that post for my before and after pics) along with whey protein supplements only. You, as a reader of this website, are totally and completely responsible for your own health and ...
Creatine is an amino acid produced by the liver and kidneys, and can be derived from a diet that consists of meat and animal products. Unfortunately you would need to eat about ten pounds of meat to have the same amount of creatine, as you would get by taking twenty grams of Creatine monohydrate. In the body, Creatine is changed into a molecule called phosphocreatine, which is an organic compound found in muscle tissue and capable of storing and providing energy for muscular contraction. Also called Creatine phosphate. Phosphocreatine is especially important in tissues such as the voluntary muscles and the nervous system, which periodically require large amounts of energy. Creatine plays an essential role in the energy metabolism of a muscle by helping replace the energy burned during exercise so you can train harder ...
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"Creatine kinase". GPnotebook. Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of ...
Roberts, R.; Sobel, B. E.; Parker, C. W. (1976-11-19). "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): ... "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): 855-857. doi:10.1126/science.982049. ISSN 0036-8075. ...
Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial, also called ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK), is in humans encoded by ... Creatine+Kinase,+Mitochondrial+Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ... Lipskaya TY (October 2001). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase: properties and function". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 66 (10): 1098- ...
Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in the blood (at most ~10 times normal) are typical in sIBM but affected individuals can ... Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Oddis, Chester V.; Aggarwal, Rohit (2016). "Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation". ...
Creatine kinase, muscle also known as MCK is a creatine kinase that in humans is encoded by the MCK gene. In the figure to the ... "The generation of the oxidized form of creatine kinase is a negative regulation on muscle creatine kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 282 ... Creatine+Kinase,+MM+Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CKM genome location and ... 2006). "Muscle-specific creatine kinase gene polymorphism and running economy responses to an 18-week 5000-m training programme ...
EMG is either normal or may show myopathic low amplitude and short motor unit's potential (MUAPS). The enzymes creatine kinase ...
Cheng HS, Chua SO, Hung JS, Yip KK (April 1991). "Creatine kinase MB elevation in paralytic shellfish poisoning". Chest. 99 (4 ...
Troponin "CREATINE KINASE - MB CK-MB LQ" (PDF). Cabaniss, C. Daniel (1990), Walker, H. Kenneth; Hall, W. Dallas; Hurst, J. ... It measures the blood level of CK-MB (creatine kinase myocardial band), the bound combination of two variants (isoenzymes CKM ... evaluation by creatine kinase MB isoenzyme analysis". Am J Cardiol. 50 (1): 129-35. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(82)90018-2. PMID ... Willis (eds.), "Creatine Kinase", Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (3rd ed.), Boston: ...
Biochemical markers like creatine kinase, Reactive oxygen species. When performing cryopreservation of semen, it is the sperm ...
... is catalyzed by several creatine kinases. The presence of creatine kinase (CK-MB, creatine kinase myocardial band) in blood ... Once inside the cells it is transformed into phosphocreatine by the enzyme complex creatine kinase. Phosphocreatine is able to ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ... A 70 kg man contains around 120 g of creatine, with 40% being the unphosphorylated form and 60% as creatine phosphate. Of that ...
Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease. Subcellular Biochemistry. Vol. 46. pp. 183-204. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6486 ... Tarnopolsky, Mark A. (2007). "Clinical Use of Creatine in Neuromuscular and Neurometabolic Disorders". In Salomons, Gajja S.; ...
Patients also commonly display elevated levels of creatine kinase. Treatment usually entails that the patient refrain from ... include deficiencies of phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-enolase and aldolase A. ...
In hyperthyroidism CK-MB (Creatine kinase) is usually elevated. In overt primary hyperthyroidism, TSH levels are low and T4 and ...
Serum creatine kinase, a nonspecific marker of muscle damage, can be elevated early in the disease. Facioscapulohumeral ... HyperCKemia: No symptoms, although serum creatine kinase levels are high. There is a less common, autosomal dominant form, ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II). Decreased CaMKII activity impairs induction of slow oxidative gene expression, ...
Blood tests may show elevated serum creatine kinase or aldolase. X-rays, muscle biopsy or electromyography (EMG) may be useful ...
Recovery can occur even with persistently elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels. Conversely, some people with SAAM do not regain ... very high blood levels of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK) being released by broken down skeletal muscle, and persistent ...
Elevated creatine kinase can be seen with myopathy in McLeod syndrome. MRI shows increased T2 signal in the lateral putamen ... McLeod syndrome can cause an increase in the enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) found in routine ...
... creatine and creatine kinase.[citation needed] Crush syndrome can directly come from compartment syndrome, if the injury is ...
The individual may present with cardiomyopathy (no outflow obstruction), a rise in serum creatine kinase might be present as ... May need nasogastric tube, limb weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase. Individual may show a diaphragmatic manner when ... the creatine kinase level was elevated. Fukuyama CMD-in Western countries this type of CMD is rare, but it is common in Japan. ...
Lab values of low serum iron, elevated creatine kinase, and white blood cell count are also shared by the two disorders further ... These lab findings include: leukocytosis, elevated creatine kinase, low serum iron. The signs and symptoms of malignant ...
Creatine kinase (EC (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, ... Creatine kinase plays an important role in energy metabolism of vertebrates. There are at least four different, but very ... Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T, Kabsch W (May 1996). "Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase". Nature. 381 (6580): ... Arginine kinase (EC, which catalyses the transfer of phosphate from ATP to arginine. Taurocyamine kinase (EC ...
Creatine kinase (CPK-MM) levels in the bloodstream are extremely high. An electromyography (EMG) shows that weakness is caused ... Those affected also have a high level of creatine kinase in their blood. Although there is no known cure, physical therapy, ...
... and site-directed mutagenesis of creatine kinase (PhD thesis). University of California, San Francisco. OCLC 19528718. ProQuest ...
The alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels may be raised. The gamma- ...
Creatine kinase levels are usually checked regularly while individuals undergo daptomycin therapy. In July 2010, the FDA issued ...
Babbit, Patricia Clement (1988). Sequence determination, expression, and site-directed mutagenesis of creatine kinase (PhD ...
... raised blood serum concentrations of some muscle enzymes such as creatine kinase; unhealthy muscle changes on electromyography ...
Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB. Treatment of an MI is time-critical. Aspirin is ...
Markers of myocardial damage (troponin or creatine kinase cardiac isoenzymes) are elevated. The CRP and ESR are sometimes ...
Tests can be run to check creatine kinase in the blood, which is often normal or mildly elevated in congenital myopathies. ... Diagnosis usually relies on this method, as creatine kinase levels and electromyography can be unreliable and non-specific. ... grossly elevated creatine kinase, and acidosis. Central core disease is caused by a mutation in the RYR1 gene. Congenital fiber ... "High serum creatine kinase levels associated with cylindrical spirals at muscle biopsy". Acta Neuropathologica. 90 (6): 660-4. ...
In enzymology, a homoserine kinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Other names in common use include homoserine kinase (phosphorylating), and HSK. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and ... Homoserine kinase". J. Biochem. 44 (5): 299-307. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a126756.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homoserine_kinase&oldid=1088058586" ...
Nageh T, Sherwood RA, Harris BM, Byrne JA, Thomas MR (2003). "Cardiac troponin T and I and creatine kinase-MB as markers of ... although troponin and creatine kinase tests are preferred.[18] Cholesterol[edit]. Urea[edit]. ↑Urea = acute or chronic kidney ...
... monophosphate and fluoride as adenylate kinase inhibitors in the creatine kinase assay". Clin. Chem. 22 (7): 1078-83. PMID ...
2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase. (PO4; protein acceptor). 2.7.10: protein-tyrosine. *see tyrosine kinases ...
Metabolic: elevated creatine kinase, elevated cholesterol levels, elevated liver enzymes (AST/ALT), swelling[13] ...
A small percentage of women studied had elevated ALT values and some men had elevated creatine kinase levels and muscle ...
... elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and white matter involvement". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 161A (12): ...
... creatine kinase), kidney damage (uric acid), and stress damage (cortisol). Their findings suggested that high levels of plasma ...
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is then dephosphorylated via phosphoglycerate kinase, producing 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP through a ... and the enzyme creatine phosphokinase transfers a phosphate from phosphocreatine to ADP to produce ATP. Then the ATP releases ... The second substrate-level phosphorylation occurs by dephosphorylating phosphoenolpyruvate, catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, ...
Clinical symptoms of this parasite include eosinophilia and high levels of creatine kinase. While rare with only thirteen ...
... elevated serum creatine kinase levels, seizures, and intraventricular cysts. The encoded protein interacts with MR-1S and ...
One example of a calcium activated second messenger molecule is MAP Kinase Hog-1. It is activated under hyper-osmotic stress ... Osmolyte Myo-Inositol Taurine and Taurine-transporting ATPase Creatine Betaines Trimethylglycine - A Betaine and metabolite of ... Kültz D, Burg M (November 1998). "Evolution of osmotic stress signaling via MAP kinase cascades". The Journal of Experimental ... "MAP Kinase Hog1 Regulates Metabolic Changes Induced by Hyperosmotic Stress". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 732. doi:10.3389/ ...
... predominantly proximal muscle involvement independent walking is achieved at one point in life elevated serum creatine kinase ...
Creatine kinase (CK) blood test results will generally be normal or only slightly elevated. Skin biopsy, MRI of the muscles, ... Serum creatine kinase is elevated in Bethlem myopathy, as there is ongoing muscle cell death. Patients with Bethlem myopathy ...
... creatine kinase, troponin, brain-type natriuretic peptide, etc. to assess the evolution of coronary artery disease and evidence ...
... including creatine kinase. Many drugs may elevate ALT levels, including zileuton, omega-3 acid ethyl esters (Lovaza), anti- ...
... (macro-CK) is a macroenzyme, an enzyme of high molecular weight and prolonged half-life found in human ... Zhang, L; Han, F; Liu, X; Xie, C; Tian, K; Bi, Q; Hao, M; Mu, X (6 August 2020). "Macro creatine kinase in an asymptomatic ... Macro-CK type 1 is a complex formed by one of the creatine kinase isoenzyme types, typically CK-BB, and antibodies; typically ... Horino, T; Ichii, O; Ode-Hamada, K; Terada, Y (1 September 2017). "Macromolecular creatine kinase type 1 in immune-mediated ...
... releasing intracellular muscle content into the blood as reflected by elevated blood levels of creatine kinase. Exercise ...
"Creatine-creatine phosphate shuttle modeled as two-compartment system at different levels of creatine kinase activity" (PDF). ... "The Creatine-Creatine Phosphate Shuttle for Energy Transport - Compartmentation of Creatine Phosphokinase in Muscle". ... "The Creatine-Creatine Phosphate Shuttle for Energy Transport - Compartmentation of Creatine Phosphokinase in Muscle", ... Due to the high concentration of ATP around the mitrochondrial creatine kinase, it will convert ATP into PCr which will then ...
L1CAM Creatine deficiency syndrome, X-linked; 300352; SLC6A8 Creatine phosphokinase, elevated serum; 123320; CAV3 Creutzfeldt- ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Adenocarcinoma of lung, somatic; 211980; BRAF Adenocarcinoma of lung, ... GALNT3 Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency; 611521; TYK2 Tyrosinemia type II; 277660; TAT Tyrosinemia type III; 276710; HPD Ullrich ...
Moderate to severe acidosis, leukocytosis, polycythaemia, increased creatine kinase and hyperammonemia may be present, and ...
... include muscle pain and weakness in the presence of an elevated creatine kinase (CK). King brown snake venom has some ...
... is associated with a modest increase in serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB). and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), ...
Creatine kinase (CK) blood level is often ordered when muscle damage is suspected. CK is an enzyme found in muscle, leaking ... Casein kinase 1 (CK1) inhibition has been identified by Facio Therapies, a Dutch pharmaceutical company, to repress DUX4 ... Losmapimod, a selective inhibitor of p38α/β mitogen-activated protein kinases, was identified by Fulcrum Therapeutics as a ...
Khan HA, Alhomida AS, Sobki SH, Moghairi AA, Koronki HE (2012). "Blood cell counts and their correlation with creatine kinase ... and the phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). In neutrophils, lipid products of PI3Ks regulate activation of Rac1, hematopoietic ...
Shojaiefard M, Christie DL, Lang F (2006). "Stimulation of the creatine transporter SLC6A8 by the protein kinases SGK1 and SGK3 ... 2001). "X-linked creatine-transporter gene (SLC6A8) defect: a new creatine-deficiency syndrome". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68 (6): ... 2002). "X-linked creatine deficiency syndrome: a novel mutation in creatine transporter gene SLC6A8". Ann. Neurol. 52 (2): 227- ... 2006). "X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) mutations in about 1% of males with mental retardation of unknown etiology". Hum ...
... muscle enzymes such as creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in humans following intense exercise may be due to a ... the p70S6 kinase and the translation repressor protein 4EBP1). Supplementation with HMB in several non-human animal species has ... a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. The free acid (HMB-FA) and monohydrated calcium salt (HMB-Ca) forms of HMB have ... human myosatellite cell proliferation in vitro is mediated through the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ...
... high levels of creatine kinase serum, and late-onset cognitive decline. According to OMIM, only 12 cases have been described in ...
This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK) in the blood. High levels of CK can indicate damage or disease of the ... What is a creatine kinase (CK) test?. This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK) in the blood. CK is a type of ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/creatine-kinase/ Creatine Kinase. ... Simply Stated: The Creatine Kinase Test; 2000 Jan 31 [cited ... Health Information: Creatine Kinase: Why It Is Done; [updated 2018 Jun 25; cited 2019 Jun 12]; [about 3 screens]. Available ...
Creatine Kinase (CKQ_G) Data File: CKQ_G.xpt First Published: September 2013. Last Revised: NA ... Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006. 38(4):623-7. ... The Creatine Kinase questionnaire (variable name prefix CKQ; questions CKQ010 CKD070) collects survey participant interview ... Wu AH, Smith A, Wians F. Interpretation of creatine kinase and aldolase for statin-induced myopathy: Reliance on serial testing ...
Serum creatine kinase levels (CK) can vary among healthy subjects, even when correcting for muscle mass. Age, gender, race, and ... encoded search term (Creatine Kinase) and Creatine Kinase What to Read Next on Medscape ... Prognostic and Predictive Impact of Creatine Kinase Level in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors ... Cabaniss, C.D. Creatine Kinase. H.W. Walker HK, Hurst JW,. Clinical Methods: The history, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations ...
Sera from patients with muscle disease contain an inhibitor of creatine kinase (CK) which may lead to underestimation of CK ... Creatine kinase activity inhibitor in sera from patients with muscle disease Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Feb;30(2):213-7. doi: ... Sera from patients with muscle disease contain an inhibitor of creatine kinase (CK) which may lead to underestimation of CK ...
... *. ... ABBOTT MANUFACTURING INC ARCHITECT CREATINE KINASE CREATINE KINASE (CK) Back to Search Results. ... A product recall letter was issued to all architect customers who have received architect creatine kinase, list number 07d63-21 ... The customer observed error code 1054 unable to calculate result, reaction check failure using the architect creatine kinase ...
This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme, in your blood. Creatine kinase is also called creatine ... Creatine Kinase MB/Creatine Kinase Ratio. Does this test have other names?. Ratio of CK-MB to total CK, cardiac index ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Creatine Kinase MM antibody [EPR25358-10]. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt (Intra) and ... Anti-Creatine Kinase MM antibody [EPR25358-10]. See all Creatine Kinase MM primary antibodies. ... Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase ... All lanes : Anti-Creatine Kinase MM antibody [EPR25358-10] (ab283683) at 1/2000 dilution. Lane 1 : Mouse heart tissue lysate. ...
... Does this test have other names?. Creatine kinase, creatine phosphokinase with ... A general creatine kinase test can tell whether there is damage to your bodys muscles. Going a step further, the creatine ... Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in your muscles. Enzymes are proteins that help your bodys cells do their jobs. The ... kinase with isoenzymes test may help pinpoint where the damage has taken place. ...
Creatine Kinase with Isoenzymes (Blood). Does this test have other names?. Creatine kinase, creatine phosphokinase with ... Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in your muscles. Enzymes are proteins that help your bodys cells do their jobs. The ...
Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins. ... "Creatine Kinase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Creatine Kinase" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Creatine Kinase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Detection of macro-creatine kinase and macroamylase by polyethylene glycol precipitation and ultrafiltration methods. Clin Chim ...
This test measures the amount of the enzyme creatine kinase in your blood. A certain form of this enzyme can help find out ... Creatine Kinase MB (Blood). Does this test have other names?. CK-MB ... This test measures the amount of an isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK) in your blood. It is called CK-MB. ...
Buy bovine heart Creatine Kinase (CK/CPK) for IVD manufacturing, life science and research uses - Inquire for details! ... 191-40 - Creatine Kinase from porcine heart. 191-50 - Creatine Kinase from rabbit muscle. 190-29 - CK-MM from human skeletal ... Creatine Kinase is an enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible ... Our Creatine Kinase (CPK) products are extensively used in multi-analyte clinical chemistry controls and calibrators for major ...
LOINC Code 49551-5 Creatine kinase.MB [Mass/volume] in Blood ... LP15513-2 Creatine kinase.MB. Creatine kinase MB is the ... Source: Regenstrief Institute, Creatine (Wikipedia). Fully-Specified Name. Component. Creatine kinase.MB. Property. MCnc. Time ... Creatine kinase.MB,. MCnc,. Pt,. ANYBldSerPl. Language Variants Get Info. zh-CNChinese (China). 肌酸激酶.MB 型:. 质量浓度:. 时间点:. 全血:. 定 ... Creatine Kinase-MB Form (CK-MB), Blood. Basic Attributes. Class. CHEM. Type. Laboratory. First Released. Version 2.22. Last ...
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Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) by adenosine triphosphate (ATP ... Creatine kinase (CK) is determined by a coupled enzyme reaction where the rate of NADPH formation is measured photometrically ... 3. Morandi L, Angelini C, Prelle A, et al: High plasma creatine kinase: review of the literature and proposal for a diagnostic ... Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity may increase in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease or neurosurgical intervention ...
Elevated level of serum creatine kinase MB fraction associated with a noninflammatory myopathy. Report of a case. In: Archives ... Elevated level of serum creatine kinase MB fraction associated with a noninflammatory myopathy. Report of a case. Archives of ... Christ, P. (1983). Elevated level of serum creatine kinase MB fraction associated with a noninflammatory myopathy. Report of a ... Elevated level of serum creatine kinase MB fraction associated with a noninflammatory myopathy. Report of a case. / Christ, ...
Best Kept Secret in Sports Science: How to Lower Creatine Kinase (CK Levels) and Dramatically Improve Athletic Performance. on ...
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
Creatine kinase. Creatine kinase (CK) level is typically either normal or mildly elevated (2-5 times the normal range) in all ... biochemical evaluation with a creatine kinase can rapidly help narrow the differential. Significantly elelvated creatine kinase ... EMG/NCS should be considered in all cases of congenital myopathy given that creatine kinase level is not typically suggestive ...
A quantitative approach to membrane-binding and peroxynitrite-induced inactivation of mitochondrial creatine kinase. * Mendeley ... CREATINE KINASE (ENZYMES); MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEINS (CYTOLOGY); MUSCLE PROTEINS + MUSCLE PEPTIDES (PHYSIOLOGY); MEMBRANE ...
The between-match variability of peak power output and Creatine Kinase responses to soccer match-play ... Post-match assessments of peak power output (PPO) during countermovement jumps and Creatine Kinase (CK) concentrations are ... The between-match variability of peak power output and Creatine Kinase responses to soccer match-play. Journal of Strength and ...
This test measures the amount of the enzyme creatine kinase in your blood. A certain form of this enzyme can help find out ...
This test measures the amount of the enzyme creatine kinase in your blood. A certain form of this enzyme can help find out ...
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
This test is used to find out whether you have muscle damage, including damage to your heart muscle.
There was no significant rise in creatine kinase, creatine kinase total & MB fraction and troponin-T in the patients who ... In patients with atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, there was no significant rise in creatine kinase and creatine kinase ... There was an increase in creatine kinase, creatine kinase total & MB fraction and troponin-T levels after idiopathic ... Does radiofrequency ablation increase creatine kinase and troponin-T?. Authors: Gupta, A. Halankar, S. Vora, A M. Lokhandwala, ...
MB -2 X 10 ml, MB -2 X 25 ml, MB -2 X 75 ml, NAC-2 X 10 ml, NAC-2 X 25 ml, NAC-2 X 75 ml. ...
2021 by When Thou Are Converted. Proudly created with Wix.com ...
  • questions CKQ010 CKD070) collects survey participant interview data to help interpret NHANES laboratory data for serum Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK). (cdc.gov)
  • Creatine kinase is also called creatine phosphokinase (CPK). (rochester.edu)
  • Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. (limamemorial.org)
  • The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. (limamemorial.org)
  • Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme levels in patients with cerebral tumours. (bmj.com)
  • Cardiac troponins are more sensitive and specific markers of cardiomyocyte injury than creatine kinase (CK), its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and myoglobin. (emottawablog.com)
  • The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were determined in diabetic Wistar albino. (academicjournals.org)
  • Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Elevated level of serum creatine kinase MB fraction associated with a noninflammatory myopathy. (elsevier.com)
  • A 50-year-old man had progressive, noninflammatory myopathy associated with a persistently elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level and CK MB fraction. (elsevier.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Elevated level of serum creatine kinase MB fraction associated with a noninflammatory myopathy. (elsevier.com)
  • Lew serum creatine kinase values in contraceptive steroid users. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • There was no significant rise in creatine kinase, creatine kinase total & MB fraction and troponin-T in the patients who underwent slow pathway ablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. (who.int)
  • A rise in creatine kinase (CK) levels may be associated with prolonged seizure activity or muscle damage secondary to a prolonged period of loss of consciousness. (medscape.com)
  • Inhibitory effects of reduced glutathione (GSH) on serum enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were investigated in the hypoglycemic rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • By measuring two common byproducts of exercise recovery, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, researchers found cherries beneficial in alleviating soreness and shortening recovery time. (verywellfit.com)
  • Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • Detection of macro-creatine kinase and macroamylase by polyethylene glycol precipitation and ultrafiltration methods. (umassmed.edu)
  • Three additional adenine nucleotide metabolizing enzymes, including mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1 and CKMT2) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase isoform D (NDPK-D), have been found in IMS. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK) in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The concern with many EMS trainees regarding an elevation in blood levels of creatine kinase prompted us to write this article. (caasn.com)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, white blood cell. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Blood creatine kinase (CK) level has been inconsistently reported as a prognostic biomarker and raised levels in some ALS patients have been presumed to reflect muscle wasting, which is also variable. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sixteen participants had blood creatine kinase levels above the normal range but did not meet the criterion for rhabdomyolysis. (cdc.gov)
  • One unit will catalyze the transphosphorylation of one micromole of phosphate from creatine phosphate to ADP per minute at 37°C. (leebio.com)
  • Physiologically, when muscle contracts, ATP is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and CK catalyzes the rephosphorylation of ADP to ATP using creatine phosphate as the phosphorylation reservoir. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of phosphate from phosphocreatine (PCr) to ADP to form creatine and ATP . (caasn.com)
  • Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitory effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate. (ijfs.ir)
  • It catalyzes the reversible transfer of the γ-phosphate group from ATP to creatine to yield ADP and creatine phosphate. (smith.edu)
  • It does this by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group to and from creatine, a dietary supplement that athletes hope will enhance their ability to respond to bursts of activity. (ohsu.edu)
  • Creatine gets phosphorylated(binds with inorganic phosphate), just like ADP and these are high-energy chemical bonds. (naturalbodyinc.com)
  • Creatine can also help create more ATP via transferring these phosphate molecules to ADP, ensuring you have plenty of energy for training hard. (naturalbodyinc.com)
  • Creatine kinase MB is the quantitation of the specific cardiac protein CKMB that is used in diagnosing myocardial infarction. (loinc.org)
  • Like creatine kinase activity, muscle contractile protein content and This is due to winstrol being particularly androgenic, anabolic steroids and creatine kinase. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Still, he would put a hold on the medication and order a test to look for creatine kinase, another protein released by injured muscles. (innovatiomedia.com)
  • In this study, mRNA and protein expressions of these mitochondrial kinases were firstly examined in mouse ES cells, day 8 embryos, and 7-week-old adult mice. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (elisareagents.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (elisareagents.com)
  • Going a step further, the creatine kinase with isoenzymes test may help pinpoint where the damage has taken place. (baycare.org)
  • Extremely high levels of creatine kinase resulted from. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Serum levels of creatine kinase typically are within the reference range. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the time course and responsiveness of plasma interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) and creatine kinase (CK) levels following acute eccentric resistance exercise in sedentary obese older women with a different muscle quality index (MQI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Creatine kinase levels in patients with bipolar disorder depressive, manic, and euthymic phases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Medically, creatine kinase levels are measured in the clinical diagnosis of recent heart attack and stroke, because its physiological role requires large amounts of the enzyme in the heart and brain, and its release from damaged cells can be detected in serum. (ohsu.edu)
  • The current recommendation is to screen patients for LOPD if they have a moderate increase in creatine kinase (CK) levels, limb-girdle weakness, rigid-spine syndrome, or weakness of the diaphragm muscles unless there is a clear differential diagnosis. (rarediseaseadvisor.com)
  • The customer observed error code 1054 unable to calculate result, reaction check failure using the architect creatine kinase assay (list number 7d63, lot number 87697un18). (fda.gov)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Creatine Kinase, Brain (CKB) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (elisareagents.com)
  • Creatine Kinase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Strenuous exercise or intramuscular injections may cause transient elevation of creatine kinase (CK). (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Wu AH, Smith A, Wians F. Interpretation of creatine kinase and aldolase for statin-induced myopathy: Reliance on serial testing based on biological variation. (cdc.gov)
  • The biomarkers used to diagnose acute coronary syndrome have evolved greatly over the last 50 years, changing from relatively non-specific biomarkers such as AST, LDH, myoglobin, Creatine Kinase (CK), and CK-MB, to the very sensitive and specific cardiac troponin assays. (emottawablog.com)
  • Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in your muscles. (baycare.org)
  • A general creatine kinase test can tell whether there is damage to your body's muscles. (baycare.org)
  • Most people don't take creatine every day to saturate your muscles, so I included 5g of Creapure®, the purest form of creatine on the market. (naturalbodyinc.com)
  • Creatine Kinase is an enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine. (leebio.com)
  • Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and other tissues. (peacenaturopathic.com)
  • There are also different types of creatine kinase such as CK-muscle and CK-brain that we historically measured. (emottawablog.com)
  • Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • EMG/NCS should be considered in all cases of congenital myopathy given that creatine kinase level is not typically suggestive of a muscle disease given its typically normal range of values. (medscape.com)
  • By this time a structure for chicken creatine kinase had been solved in Germany, but unique insights were available to the Chapman group, because they had crystallized the enzyme in its reactive state as a transition state analog, and determined the structure at exceptionally high resolution, leading to complete revision of the enzyme mechanism. (ohsu.edu)
  • Physiology of Troponin and Creatine Kinase: simplified for emergency medicine brains! (emottawablog.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Does radiofrequency ablation increase creatine kinase and troponin-T? (who.int)
  • Creatine kinase (total & MB fraction) and troponin-T were analysed in 54 patients who underwent electrophysiological study and radiofrequency ablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia and idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. (who.int)
  • Every chest pain patient presenting to our institution gets a total creatine kinase and a troponin ordered at least once. (emottawablog.com)
  • So, we can see that creatine kinase and troponin are intimately related to muscle contraction. (emottawablog.com)
  • 2. Does Creatine Kinase rise earlier than Troponin? (emottawablog.com)
  • Steroids do make users bulk up, but the health risks are high, anabolic steroids and creatine kinase. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Anabolic steroids vs hgh, anabolic steroids and creatine kinase not knowing the risks steroids can cause is a mistake, it's a misperception and one of the. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • 6 ng/ml) and creatine kinase (ck) (up to 597 iu/l) It is arguably the best steroid ever, and most of the bodybuilders know it, anabolic steroids and creatine kinase. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Anabolic steroids and creatine kinase, clenbuterol et sport Cycles should last for no longer than 6 weeks in total. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Those using Anadrol may experience liver damage or kidney damage, as a result of the oral steroids, anabolic steroids and creatine kinase. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • With a creatine kinase level of 18 200 u/l (normally <195 u/l),. [side-effects and doping control of anabolic steroids]. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • 600 mg of sustanon a week results, czym zastąpić tamoxifen Anabolic steroids and creatine kinase, price buy steroids online bodybuilding supplements. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Recent examples on the web eleven percent reported using muscle-building products such as creatine or anabolic steroids. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Anabolic steroids and creatine kinase, cheap best steroids for sale bodybuilding drugs. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Initial Muscle Quality Affects Individual Responsiveness of Interleukin-6 and Creatine Kinase following Acute Eccentric Exercise in Sedentary Obese Older Women. (bvsalud.org)
  • Creatine Kinase: Antiquated Relic or useful adjunct in Diagnosing Acute Coronary Syndrome? (emottawablog.com)
  • Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energy metabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium may be an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. (ijfs.ir)
  • Creatine kinase (CK) level is typically either normal or mildly elevated (2-5 times the normal range) in all of the congenital myopathies. (medscape.com)
  • I really want to find out more about Creatine Kinase level My level was 1700 in 2003. (healthtopquestions.com)
  • The level of creatine kinase (ck) in serum was determined by an. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • EMS training induces microscopic tears and damage to the skeletal muscle fibers and connective tissues, leading to an increase in creatine kinase (CK) activity and its leakage into the outside of the cells. (caasn.com)
  • Repeatedly doing bursts of movements cause increases in creatine kinase. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Relating Structure to Mechanism in Creatine Kinase. (cdc.gov)
  • Post-match assessments of peak power output (PPO) during countermovement jumps and Creatine Kinase (CK) concentrations are common markers of recovery status in soccer players. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Creatine kinase is the enzyme charged with maintaining steady concentrations of our cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate or ATP. (ohsu.edu)
  • Creatine kinase and its relatives undergo large changes in structure to wrap around the substrates, eliminating water and the possibility of a wasteful side reaction. (ohsu.edu)
  • Returning to arginine kinase, the group reported, in the January issue of the Journal of Molecular Biology , a combination of x-ray crystallography and NMR Residual Dipolar Coupling measurements demonstrating that even without substrates, in solution, the enzyme exists as a dynamic equilibrium of the open and closed (substrate-bound) forms seen crystallographically. (ohsu.edu)
  • Sera from patients with muscle disease contain an inhibitor of creatine kinase (CK) which may lead to underestimation of CK activity. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human sperm creatine kinase activity in vitro. (ijfs.ir)
  • Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates after chromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32) column. (ijfs.ir)
  • We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%), cotinine (39%) and cadmium (65%) at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. (ijfs.ir)
  • Increases in creatine kinase with atorvastatin treatment are not associated with decreases in muscular performance. (umassmed.edu)
  • Creatine supplementation: exploring the role of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in human muscle. (naturalbodyinc.com)
  • I saw docfror today who agreed "You may have had a slient heat attack--they missed---get the tests-- Creatine KINASE measures the heart muscle. (patient.info)
  • Role of the creatine/phosphocreatine system in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration. (naturalbodyinc.com)
  • Lee Biosolutions produces bovine heart Creatine Kinase (CPK/CK) for research, life science, and manufacturing uses. (leebio.com)
  • Our Creatine Kinase (CPK) products are extensively used in multi-analyte clinical chemistry controls and calibrators for major IVD manufacturers. (leebio.com)