Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Creatine Kinase, BB Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Creatine Kinase, MB Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Guanidinoacetate N-Methyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amidinotransferases: Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .MyoglobinuriaTyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Enzyme Reactivators: Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.PhosphoproteinsProtein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalPhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.ChromonesCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Activation Analysis: A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)MorpholinesCasein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (1/3176)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B. (2/3176)

The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation.  (+info)

Myocardial creatine kinase kinetics in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. (3/3176)

This study examined whether alterations in myocardial creatine kinase (CK) kinetics and high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels occur in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR). Myocardial HEP and CK kinetics were examined in 19 pigs 6 wk after myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation, and the results were compared with those from 9 normal pigs. Blood flow (microspheres), oxygen consumption (MVO2), HEP levels [31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)], and CK kinetics (31P MRS) were measured in myocardium remote from the infarct under basal conditions and during dobutamine infusion (20 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv). Six of the pigs with LVR had overt congestive heart failure (CHF) at the time of study. Under basal conditions, creatine phosphate (CrP)-to-ATP ratios were lower in all transmural layers of hearts with CHF and in the subendocardium of LVR hearts than in normal hearts (P < 0.05). Myocardial ATP (biopsy) was significantly decreased in hearts with CHF. The CK forward rate constant was lower (P < 0.05) in the CHF group (0.21 +/- 0.03 s-1) than in LVR (0.38 +/- 0.04 s-1) or normal groups (0.41 +/- 0.03 s-1); CK forward flux rates in CHF, LVR, and normal groups were 6.4 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.1, and 20.3 +/- 2.4 micromol. g-1. s-1, respectively (P < 0.05, CHF vs. LVR and LVR vs. normal). Dobutamine caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in the LVR and normal groups, whereas CHF hearts failed to respond to dobutamine. CK flux rates did not change during dobutamine in any group. The ratios of CK flux to ATP synthesis (from MVO2) under baseline conditions were 10.9 +/- 1.2, 8. 03 +/- 0.9, and 3.86 +/- 0.5 for normal, LVR, and CHF hearts, respectively (each P < 0.05); during dobutamine, this ratio decreased to 3.73 +/- 0.5, 2.58 +/- 0.4, and 2.78 +/- 0.5, respectively (P = not significant among groups). These data demonstrate that CK flux rates are decreased in hearts with postinfarction LVR, but this change does not limit the response to dobutamine. In hearts with end-stage CHF, the changes in HEP and CK flux are more marked. These changes could contribute to the decreased responsiveness of these hearts to dobutamine.  (+info)

Attenuation of myocardial injury due to oxygen free radicals (OFR) by pretreatment with OFR or calcitonin gene-related peptide. (4/3176)

AIM: To study the cardioprotective effects of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (OGRP) pretreatment on myocardial damages due to OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. METHODS: The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff mode. OFR were generated by electrolysis of Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. RESULTS: OFR pretreatment reduced the impairment of cardiac contractile function, the decrease of coronary flow and the increase of creatinine kinase (CK) release due to OFR, and the effect exhibited period dependence and cycle-dependence. 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, abolished the protection of OFR pretreatment (CK release = 110 +/- 7, 215 +/- 23, 169 +/- 14, 240 +/- 30, and 113 +/- 19 kU.L-1 for control, OFR, OFR pretreatment, OFR pretreatment plus H-7, and H-7, respectively). CGRP pretreatment also protected the myocardium damages elicited by OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. CONCLUSIONS: OFR or CGRP pretreatment protected myocardium against injury elicited by OFR, and the effect of OFR pretreatment was related to the activation of PKC.  (+info)

The relationship between periprocedural myocardial infarction and subsequent target vessel revascularization following percutaneous coronary revascularization: insights from the EPIC trial. Evaluation of IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications. (5/3176)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether periprocedural myocardial infarction complicating percutaneous coronary revascularization is associated with subsequent clinical restenosis, as judged by the need for target vessel revascularization. BACKGROUND: Although myocardial enzyme elevation following angioplasty is associated with increased late mortality, its effect on subsequent clinical restenosis, as assessed by the need for late target vessel revascularization (TVR), is unknown. METHODS: Serial myocardial enzyme determinations were performed on 2,099 patients who underwent angioplasty or atherectomy in the Evaluation of IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications (EPIC) trial. Thirty-day survivors were prospectively followed for three years for adverse clinical events including death and need for TVR. RESULTS: Within the study population, periprocedural creatine kinase (CK) elevation was a predictor of late mortality. Among patients with elevated CK, however, a paradoxical decrease in the need for late TVR was present. This relationship became progressively more profound as the magnitude of CK release increased. Late TVR occurred in 29.8% of patients with no CK elevation, 24.8% with CK elevation to >3 times normal, and 16.9% with >10 times elevation (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.29, 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: In the EPIC study, patients with periprocedural MI were less likely to develop clinical restenosis as measured by the need for TVR. Mechanistically, although it is unlikely that CK elevation prevents vascular renarrowing per se, myocardial necrosis impairs the clinical manifestation of restenosis, thereby reducing the need for ischemia-driven TVR. This novel finding 1) highlights the potential discordance between angiographic and clinical measures of restenosis, and 2) has implications for clinical trials, as therapies that reduce periprocedural MI may be associated with a perceived excess of restenosis when measured by the need for TVR.  (+info)

Protective effect of quinaprilat, an active metabolite of quinapril, on Ca2+-overload induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. (6/3176)

We examined the effects of quinaprilat, an active metabolite of quinapril (an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor) on the increase in intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) (Ca2+-overload) induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. LPC (15 microM) produced Ca2+-overload with a change in cell-shape from rod to round. Quinaprilat but not quinapril at 20 or 50 microM attenuated the LPC-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and the change in cell-shape in a concentration-dependent manner. Since quinaprilat has an inhibitory action on ACE and quinapril has practically no inhibitory action on ACE, it is likely that the inhibitory action of quinaprilat on ACE is necessary for the protective effect of the drug against LPC-induced changes. We therefore examined the effects of enalapril (another ACE inhibitor with the weak inhibitory action on ACE) and enalaprilat (an active metabolite of enalapril with an inhibitory action on ACE) on the LPC-induced changes. Both enalapril and enalaprilat attenuated the LPC-induced Ca2+-overload, suggesting that the inhibitory action on ACE may not mainly contribute to the protective effect of ACE inhibitors against LPC-induced Ca2+-overload. This suggestion was supported by the fact that neither ACE (0.2 U/ml) nor angiotensin II (0.1-100 microM) increased [Ca2+]i in isolated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, application of bradykinin (0.01-10 microM) did not enhance the protective effect of quinaprilat against LPC-induced changes. LPC also increased release of creatine kinase (CK) from the myocyte markedly, and quinaprilat but not quinapril attenuated the LPC-induced CK release. Unexpectedly, both enalapril and enalaprilat did not attenuate the LPC-induced CK release. Neither quinapril nor quinaprilat changed the critical micelle concentration of LPC, suggesting that these drugs do not directly bind to LPC. We conclude that quinaprilat attenuates the LPC-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, and that the protective effect of quinaprilat on the LPC-induced change may not be related to a decrease in angiotensin II production or an increase in bradykinin production.  (+info)

Maturation of the myogenic program is induced by postmitotic expression of insulin-like growth factor I. (7/3176)

The molecular mechanisms underlying myogenic induction by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are distinct from its proliferative effects on myoblasts. To determine the postmitotic role of IGF-I on muscle cell differentiation, we derived L6E9 muscle cell lines carrying a stably transfected rat IGF-I gene under the control of a myosin light chain (MLC) promoter-enhancer cassette. Expression of MLC-IGF-I exclusively in differentiated L6E9 myotubes, which express the embryonic form of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and no endogenous IGF-I, resulted in pronounced myotube hypertrophy, accompanied by activation of the neonatal MyHC isoform. The hypertrophic myotubes dramatically increased expression of myogenin, muscle creatine kinase, beta-enolase, and IGF binding protein 5 and activated the myocyte enhancer factor 2C gene which is normally silent in this cell line. MLC-IGF-I induction in differentiated L6E9 cells also increased the expression of a transiently transfected LacZ reporter driven by the myogenin promoter, demonstrating activation of the differentiation program at the transcriptional level. Nuclear reorganization, accumulation of skeletal actin protein, and an increased expression of beta1D integrin were also observed. Inhibition of the phosphatidyl inositol (PI) 3-kinase intermediate in IGF-I-mediated signal transduction confirmed that the PI 3-kinase pathway is required only at early stages for IGF-I-mediated hypertrophy and neonatal MyHC induction in these cells. Expression of IGF-I in postmitotic muscle may therefore play an important role in the maturation of the myogenic program.  (+info)

Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes. (8/3176)

Skeletal muscle transport of lactate and pyruvate was studied in primary cultures of rat myotubes, applying the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2', 7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The initial rate of decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) upon lactate or pyruvate incubation was used to determine total transport (carrier mediated and diffusion). Both lactate and pyruvate transport could be inhibited by a combination of 0.5 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid, 5 mM mersalyl and 10 mM alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for carrier-mediated transport of lactate were 9.9+/-1.1 mM and 0. 69+/-0.02 mmol l-1 s-1, respectively. For pyruvate, Km and Vmax were 4.4+/-1.3 mM and 0.30+/-0.05 mmol l-1 s-1, respectively. The diffusion component of the total transport was 0.0040+/-0.0005[S] (n=4) and 0.0048+/-0.0003[S] (n=4) for lactate and pyruvate, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the two monocarboxylate transporter isoforms present in mature skeletal muscles, MCT1 and MCT4 (formerly called MCT3 (M.C. Wilson, V.N. Jackson, C. Heddle, N.T. Price, H. Pilegaard, C. Juel, A. Bonen, I. Montgomery, O.F. Hutter, A.P. Halestrap, Lactic acid efflux from white skeletal muscle is catalyzed by the monocarboxylate transporter isoform MCT3, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 15920-15926)), were also expressed in primary culture of myotubes.  (+info)

In this report, we introduce a new physiological model of the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity change, that is useful for estimating the total CPK release accurately even with reduced blood sampling frequency. The physiological model was applied to the serum creatine kinase CPK activity change of patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the model showed good agreement with the serum CPK activity. In addition, the calculated value of total CPK release agreed well with that calculated using the conventional technique ...
1. The dose of pentobarbitone required for anaesthesia was significantly greater for dystrophic hamsters than for normal animals.. 2. Serum creatine kinase activity was significantly higher in dystrophic than in normal hamsters.. 3. Brain, heart and tibialis anterior muscle from dystrophic animals contained significantly less creatine kinase than the normal tissues.. 4. Creatine kinase in normal and dystrophic sera, as in skeletal muscles, consisted of MM isoenzyme. Heart creatine kinase consisted of both MM and MB types and brain contained only the BB isoenzyme.. 5. Pentobarbitone raised serum creatine kinase activity of normal and dystrophic hamsters to the same extent, elevation of enzyme activity being dependent on the amount of pentobarbitone injected.. 6. The sera of pentobarbitone-treated normal and dystrophic hamsters contained only the MM isoenzyme.. ...
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Free Online Library: Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB) controversy: perimortal tissue acidosis may explain the absence of CKMB in myocardium at autopsy.(Technical Briefs) by Clinical Chemistry; Cardiac patients Cardiology Enzymes Medical research Medicine, Experimental
INTRODUCTION. Trauma of diverse origins is a common reason for presentation of pets for treatment. It is often difficult clinically to objectively quantify the severity of any trauma suffered by an animal. One approach is to measure changes in the various serum constituents that are known to alter in response to trauma or inflammation. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. It is an extremely sensitive indicator of muscle damage, but is not specific as to cause14,27. Serum elevations in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation, necrosis or degeneration. Peak serum activity is expected between 3 and 12 hours after muscular insult and the elevation is roughly proportional to the amount of muscle tissue involved1,5,27.It is also possible to quantify the mass of muscle damage if the changes in CK ...
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www.MOLUNA.de Cellular Bioenergetics: Role of Coupled Creatine Kinases [4194320] - Preface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme Compartmentation. III: Creatine Kinases and Metabolic Integration. IV: Molecular Biology of Creatine Kinases. V: Developmental and Pathological Alterations of Creatine Kinases. VI: Metabolic Regulation: Theoretical Basis.InhaltsverzeichnisPreface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme
Questions such as : What is the significance of a slightly elevated creatine kinase blood test presumed not cardiac related?. Find more questions on Blood Tests here.
Signs and symptoms that typically accompany an elevated creatine kinase include cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, breathing trouble, dizziness, excessive sweating and pain that reaches the jaw or...
• The concentration of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in CSF from 306 patients with various neurologic disorders. Levels
Hypertension remains the main risk factor for cardiovascular death. Environmental and biological factors are known to contribute to the condition, and circulating creatine kinase was reported to be the main predictor of blood pressure in the general population. This was proposed to be because of high resistance artery creatine kinase-BB rapidly regenerating ATP for vascular contractility. Therefore, we assessed whether creatine kinase isoenzyme mRNA levels in human resistance arteries are associated with blood pressure. We isolated resistance-sized arteries from omental fat donated by consecutive women undergoing uterine fibroid surgery. Blood pressure was measured in the sitting position. Vessels of 13 women were included, 6 normotensive and 7 hypertensive, mean age 42.9 years (SE, 1.6) and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure, 144.8 (8.0)/86.5 (4.3) mm Hg. Arteriolar creatine kinase isoenzyme mRNA was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalized creatine kinase ...
FEIER, Gustavo et al. Creatine kinase levels in patients with bipolar disorder: depressive, manic, and euthymic phases. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.2, pp.171-175. Epub Mar 18, 2011. ISSN 1516-4446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462011005000005.. OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a severe, recurrent, and often chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Creatine kinase is an important enzyme, particularly for cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, such as neurons, and is a potential marker of brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare serum creatine kinase levels between bipolar disorder patients, in the various phases (depressive, manic, and euthymic), and healthy volunteers. METHOD: Forty-eight bipolar patients were recruited: 18 in the euthymic phase; 17 in the manic phase; and 13 in the depressive phase. The control group comprised 41 healthy volunteers. The phases of bipolar ...
In the dog, creatine kinase (CK) is mostly present in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain and intestine. The MM isoenzyme predominates in muscles and myocardium. In plasma, reference values depend on the technique used and CK-MB accounts for about 30-45% of total CK activity. Sex has no influence on plasma CK activity, which is higher in young dogs than in adults. Plasma CK is elevated after physical exercise. After its release from the cells, CK reaches the plasma mostly via the lymphatic route and then remains in the plasma compartment. It is rapidly cleared with a half-life of about 2 hours. Muscle diseases are the main source of plasma CK elevations: inherited myopathies, malignant hyperthermia, hypothyroidism, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, prolonged decubitus, intramuscular injections, surgery, etc. Plasma CK is also increased in experimental myocardial infarction, for which the dog is an interesting model, allowing quantification of the damage by measuring the total CK activity ...
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Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of "energy-rich" phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where Creatine Kinase CK is expressed. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and Creatine Kinase BB isoenzyme BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on CK BB Isoenzyme BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. source ...
Chicken heart muscle contains almost exclusively the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK), its myofibrils, moreover, lack an M-line. This tissue thus provides an interesting contrast to skeletal muscle, in which some of the MM-CK present as predominant CK isoenzyme is bound at the myofibrillar M-line. Approx. 2% of the total CK activity in a chicken heart homogenate remains bound to the myofibrillar fraction after repeated washing cycles; both the fraction and the absolute amount of CK bound are about threefold lower than in skeletal muscle. Almost all of the bound enzyme is located within the Z-line region of each sarcomere, as revealed by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining with antiserum against purified chicken BB-CK. After incubation with exogenous purified MM-CK, positive immunofluorescent staining for M-type CK at the H-region of heart myofibrils was observed, along with weaker fluorescence in the Z-line region. Chicken heart myofibrils may thus possess binding sites for both M and B ...
Creatine phosphokinase (CK) isoenzymes are found in various tissues, such as skeletal muscle (CK-MM), cardiac muscle (CK-MB), and the brain (CK-BB). Elevated CK isoenzymes indicate damage or injury to specific tissue. Using CK isoenzymes as a marker in order to indicate muscle damage as a result of different degrees of resistance exercise has not been clearly examined. Purpose: To determine the changes in CK isoenzymes following resistance exercise at different intensities. Methods: Ten healthy recreationally resistance-trained (at least 3 - 6 days per week for a minimum of one year) men participated in the study. The participants performed a lower body resistance exercise, composed of leg press and unilateral knee extension, at two different intensities (low: 50% of 1-RM and high: 80% of 1-RM) in random order. The volume of two intensities was similar. Overnight fasting serum samples were collected at baseline and 3-hr, 24-hr, and 48-hr post exercise for each intensity to determine CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether transient ST-T alterations in patients with unstable angina are associated with an increase in plasma glycogen phosphorylase BB concentrations on admission to hospital. DESIGN--Prospective screening of patients with unstable angina for markers of myocardial cell damage. SETTING--Accident and emergency department of university hospital. PATIENTS--48 consecutive patients admitted for angina pectoris (18 with transient ST-T alterations). None of the patients had acute myocardial infarction according to standard criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities, creatine kinase MB mass concentration, and myoglobin, cardiac troponin T, and glycogen phosphorylase BB concentrations on admission. RESULTS--All variables except for creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities were significantly higher on admission in patients with unstable angina and transient ST-T alterations than in patients without. However, glycogen phosphorylase BB ...
You dont indicate whether you are also taking low dose ritonavir (Norvir) with the Reyataz. Most people taking Viread and Reyataz together require low dose ritonavir to boost the reyataz levels,...
Background. We investigated the effects of short vs. long length of rectus femoris during eccentric exercise of similar range of motion on selected muscle damage indicators. Methods. Using all isokinetic dynamometer at 1.05 rad/s, 12 healthy male [mean (standard deviation), 21 (2) years] volunteers randomly underwent two exercise sessions, one on each leg, 14 days apart. During each session, subjects had to accomplish 12 sets of 10 maximal voluntary efforts in seated and prone positions to achieve short and long length of rectus femoris, respectively. Muscle damage indicators [serum creatine kinase activity, delayed onset muscle soreness, range of motion, eccentric peak torque, concentric peak torque and isometric peak torque] were assessed pre-exercise and 24, 48, 72 as well as 96 h post-exercise. Findings. Compared to baseline data, creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, and range of motion disclosed significant changes at all time points after both exercise sessions (P , 0.05). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidative modification and aggregation of creatine kinase from aged mouse skeletal muscle.. AU - Nuss, Jonathan E.. AU - Amaning, James K.. AU - Bailey, C. Eric. AU - DeFord, James H.. AU - Dimayuga, Vincent L.. AU - Rabek, Jeffrey P.. AU - Papaconstantinou, John. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of the gamma phosphate from ATP to creatine forming the high energy compound creatine phosphate. Muscle creatine kinase (CKm) activity maintains energetic homeostasis as variations in energy requirements dictate that ATP be readily available. Recent studies suggest that CKm activity is altered during aging. Proteomic analyses have shown that CKm is 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) modified and carbonylated in aged rodent skeletal muscle. However, it remains unknown if these modifications affect its structure and activity. To address this we characterized oxidatively modified CKm from the quadriceps of young, middle-aged, and aged mice. Our data ...
Myocardial infarctions were produced in rats by electro-cauterization of the left anterior descending artery, and the extent of myocardial damage was measured by serial serum levels of creatine phosphokinase activity utilizing spectrophotometric anal
It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and also has shown
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Following acute myocardial infarction, CK-MB activity increases significantly and this elevation is highly specific for the laboratory diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Although total CK activity usually increases following myocardial infarction, in some patients only the CK-MB activity increases, while the total CK remains in the normal range. In this procedure CK activity is measured in the presence of an antibody to CK-M monomer. This antibody completely inhibits the activity of CK-MM and half of the activity of CK-MB, while not affecting the B subunit activity of CK-MB and CK-BB. Due to negligible concentrations of CK-BB in the circulation, the remaining activity, multiplied by a factor of 2, represents the activity of the CK-MB isoenzyme ...
The significance of elevated levels of the MB isomer of creatine kinase (CK-MB) when creatine kinase (CK) level is normal was studied in 400 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In 350 patients both CK and CK-MB were elevated (group 1), in 21 only CK-MB was elevated (group 2), in 24 neither enzyme was elevated (group 3) and in 5 only CK was elevated (group 4). In 57% of patients in group 2 the CK level was doubled, with a characteristic enzyme curve, within the normal range, suggesting that an increase in CK had been missed because arbitrary definitions of normal were used. The median CK increase (60 IU/liter) in group 2 was greater than that in group 3 (23 IU/liter) (p | 0.001). Patients in group 1 with small AMIs had a relative increase in CK similar to that in group 2. However, patients in group 2 had a lower baseline CK level so that peak CK did not become abnormally high despite a 5-fold increase in some patients. In patients in group 1 with small AMIs, CK was elevated in
Creatine is a substance that is naturally produced by the human body from amino acids. The production of creatine occurs primarily in the kidneys and the liver, but 95% of it is found in the skeletal muscles. It is transported by the bloodstream to the muscles and is important in muscle activity.. Creatine kinase is an enzyme produced by various tissues that catalyzes the conversion of creatine in muscle activity. In clinical diagnostic testing, creatine kinase levels in the blood are measured as part diagnosis of a number of illnesses. These include acute renal failure (breakdown of kidney function), myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscular dystrophy, and rhabdomyolysis (severe muscle breakdown).. Types Of Creatine Kinase. There are two main recognized types of creatine kinase, type B and type M. The B and M stand respectively for "brain" and "muscle." Three isoenzymes of creatine kinase are recognized, CK-MM, CK-BB and CK-MB; these are formed from the basic B and M type of creatine ...
Accepted name: creatine kinase. Reaction: ATP + creatine = ADP + phosphocreatine. For diagram of reaction click here.. Other names: ATP:creatine phosphotransferase; CK; MM-CK; MB-CK; BB-CK; creatine phosphokinase; creatine phosphotransferase; phosphocreatine kinase; adenosine triphosphate-creatine transphosphorylase; Mi-CK; CK-BB; CK-MM; CK-MB; CKMiMi; MiMi-CK. Systematic name: ATP:creatine N-phosphotransferase. Comments: N-Ethylglycocyamine can also act as acceptor.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9001-15-4. References:. 1. Ennor, A.H., Rosenberg, H. and Armstrong, M.D. Specificity of creatine phosphokinase. Nature 175 (1955) 120 only.. 2. Keutel, H.J., Jacobs, H.K., Okabe, K., Yue, R.H. and Kuby, S.A. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. VII. Isolation of the crystalline adenosine triphosphate-creatine transphosphorylase from calf brain. Biochemistry 7 (1968) 4283-4290. [PMID: 5750168] 3. Kuby, S.A., Noda, L. and Lardy, ...
Myopathy refers to any muscle disease, myalgia to muscle aches or weakness without creatine kinase elevation, and myositis includes increased creatine kinase. Rhabdomyolysis includes marked creatine kinase elevations usually with brown urine and urinary myoglobin.(1) Statins confer statistically significant and clinically important reductions in myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death.2 The class is well tolerated, […]. Read more ...
Studies on a 27-year-old man with a 3-year history of exercise-induced muscle pain, passage of red urine and elevated serum creatine kinase are described. Histological examination of a biopsy from quadriceps revealed non-specific myopathic changes with occasional clusters of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. The phosphorylase stain was normal. Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles showed no abnormalities at rest. During aerobic exercise there was an abnormally rapid decrease in phosphocreatine concentration but the pH remained within the normal range. There was a build-up of phosphomonoester (probably glucose 6-phosphate), usually indicative of a block in glycolysis. However, a primary defect in the glycolytic pathway seemed unlikely because muscle acidified normally during ischaemic exercise. Recovery from exercise was unusual in that phosphocreatine resynthesis and inorganic phosphate disappearance followed similar
McKenzie, E.C., Valberg, S.J., Godden, S.M., Pagan, J.D., MacLeay, J.M., Geor, R.J. and Carlson, G.P. (2003) Effect of dietary starch, fat, and bicarbonate content on exercise responses and serum creatine kinase activity in equine recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis. J. vet. intern. Med. 17, 693-701 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of different noninvasive methods of infarct sizing during experimental myocardial infarction. AU - Poliner, L. R.. AU - Buja, L. M.. AU - Parkey, R. W.. AU - Stokely, E. M.. AU - Stone, M. J.. AU - Harris, R.. AU - Saffer, S. W.. AU - Templeton, G. H.. AU - Bonte, F. J.. AU - Willerson, J. T.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - This study evaluated the accuracy of several noninvasive infarct-sizing techniques in 12 awake, unsedated dogs with multivessel coronary obstructions and acute anterior myocardial infarcts. Estimations of infarct size by scintigraphy with technetium-99m Sn pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi), serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) release, peak serum myoglobin levels by radioimmunoassay, and precordial ECG mapping were compared and correlated with histologic measurements of infarct size. The comparisons indicate that precordial ST segment mapping, serum CPK release measurements and peak serum CPK, peak serum myoglobin, and Tc-PPi myocardial scintigraphy all provide ...
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This test measures the amount of the enzyme creatine kinase in your blood. A certain form of this enzyme can help find out whether youre having a heart attack.
Creatine Kinase MB小鼠单克隆抗体[CK1](ab404)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, RIA实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration is often-but not always-elevated in muscle disease. The degree of elevation, together with clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and histological characteristics, can help to characterise individual myopathies.1 ,2 Previous reports have described the most common causes of an elevated serum CK (and the expected range of CK values) in text or tabular form, but not … ...
Is Blood Creatine Phosphokinase Increased a common side effect of Risperdal? View Blood Creatine Phosphokinase Increased Risperdal side effect risks. Male, 21 years of age, was diagnosed with autism and took Risperdal . Patient was hospitalized.
Feeling BLOOD CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE INCREASED while using Mirtazapine? BLOOD CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE INCREASED Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Mirtazapine Reports and Side Effects.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Concurrent positive anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase antibody with reducing body myopathy. T2 - Possible double trouble. AU - Tanboon, Jantima. AU - Sanmaneechai, Oranee. AU - Charuvanij, Sirirat. AU - Sangruchi, Tumtip. AU - Galindo-Feria, Angeles S.. AU - Lundberg, Ingrid E.. AU - Ohnuki, Yuko. AU - Shiina, Takashi. AU - Suzuki, Shigeaki. AU - Nishino, Ichizo. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase myopathy is less common in children but has been associated with more favorable prognosis than adult patients after immunotherapies. We report anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibody positivity in a 6-year-old boy with progressive muscle weakness, scoliosis, spinal rigidity, multiple joint contractures, mild left ventricular hypertrophy, and elevated serum creatine kinase. In contrast to most of previously reported pediatric anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase myopathy, he ...
Insulin resistance is a predictor of the development of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. It is unclear whether insulin resistance is a primary defect leading to NIDDM or the result of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. To determine if insulin resistance is the result of extrinsic factors such as hyperinsulinemia primary skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from muscle biopsies from Pima Indians with differing in vivo insulin sensitivities. These cell cultures expressed a variety of muscle-specific phenotypes including the proteins alpha-actinin and myosin, muscle-specific creatine kinase activity, and RNA encoding GLUT4, MYF5, MYOD1, and MYOGENIN. Labeled glucose was used to measure the insulin-stimulated conversion of glucose to glycogen in these cultures. The in vivo rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen production (insulin resistance) were correlated with in vitro measures of glycogen production (P = 0.007, r = 0.58). This defect in insulin action is stable ...
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
MalaCards based summary : Myopathy, Distal, with Anterior Tibial Onset, also known as distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset, is related to dysferlinopathy and muscular dystrophy, and has symptoms including elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, distal muscle weakness and distal amyotrophy. An important gene associated with Myopathy, Distal, with Anterior Tibial Onset is DYSF (Dysferlin ...
PIOMBO, Alfredo C et al. Clinical Significance of High Troponin T with Normal Creatine Kinase Levels on Ventricular Function in Acute Coronary SyndromesClinical Significance of High Troponin T with Normal Creatine Kinase Levels on Ventricular Function in Acute Coronary Syndromes Background. Rev. argent. cardiol. [online]. 2012, vol.80, n.2, pp. 145-150. ISSN 1850-3748.. The role of elevated troponins to predict changes on ventricular function in patients with high creatine kinase (CK) levels has been well established; yet, little is known about the clinical significance of high troponin levels with normal CK levels. Objectives To analyze the relation between Troponin T (TnT) levels and global and regional left ventricular function in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with normal CK and CK-MB levels. Material and Methods We included patients admitted to the coronary care unit due to ACS within 48 hours from symptoms onset with elevated TnT levels measured by quantitative determination ...
Synonyms: Creatine kinase, CK, CPK.. CPT Code: 82550. Description: CPK is an intracellular enzyme found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle, myocardium, and brain. Damage to these tissues results in elevated serum levels of CK. Three isoforms are used to determine the tissue origin of serum CK: skeletal muscle (MM), myocardium (MB), and brain (BB).. Method: Analysis may be part of a selected automated chemistry profile or may be ordered separately. Serum should be collected in a plain red-top tube. Avoid hemolysis. All determinations of CK levels should be done before invasive diagnostic procedures such as electromyography or muscle biopsy. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry is most common.. Normal Values: Values depend on the method used but generally range from 50 to 200 U/L for males; values for females are 25% lower. Black individuals (males more so than females) may have CK levels above normal values. Such values do not correlate with muscle mass and are not associated with an occult ...
CK : Creatine kinase (CK) activity is greatest in striated muscle, heart tissue, and brain. The determination of CK activity is a proven tool in the investigation of skeletal muscle disease (muscular dystrophy) and is also useful in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular accidents. Increased levels of CK also can be found in viral myositis, polymyositis, and hypothyroidism.   Following injury to the myocardium, such as occurs in acute MI, CK is released from the damaged myocardial cells. A rise in the CK activity can be found 4 to 8 hours after an infarction. CK activity reaches a maximum after 12 to 24 hours and then falls back to the normal range after 3 to 4 days.
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Troponin T--a reliable marker of perioperative myocardial infarction?: Following cardiac surgery, electrocardiography and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) a
In reading the article by Lopes-Virella et al. (1), we were rather concerned that the authors referred to "creatinine kinase" as a marker of cardiac injury. We are certain that the authors wanted to refer to creatine kinase, which is usually abbreviated as CK, and not "creatinine kinase," as such an enzyme does not exist. Creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of creatine to phosphorylcreatine, whereas the conversion of creatine to creatinine requires no enzymatic input.. A Medline search performed on 24 April 2004 for the incorrect term "creatinine kinase" revealed a total of 356 entries. Organizing these entries according to which decade they were published, we could see that from 1964 to 1974 there were 2 entries, from 1974 to 1984 there were 20 entries, from 1984 to 1994 there were 128 entries, and finally (rather worryingly) from 1994 to 2004 there were 206 entries. It evident that the number of entries for the incorrect term "creatinine kinase" has been steadily ...
CK is a dimeric enzyme. There are two common gene products, one coding for the subunit (so named because of its predominance in muscle) and the other for the B subunit (so named because of its predominance in brain tissue). The three common forms of active CK include two homodimers and one heterodimer. The first homodimer (CK-1) consists of two B subunits and is referred to as CKBB. The other has two M subunits and is referred to as CKMM (CK-3). The heterodimer has one of each subunit and is referred to as CKMB (CK-2)2. The specificity of CKMB for cardiac tissue is what has made it such a powerful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is a third gene product which results in the mitochondrial form of CK.. Along with CKMB, significant levels of CKMM activity are found in cardiac muscle and therefore a large increase in total CK was once used as a tool in the diagnosis of AMI3. Once the CK isoenzymes were elucidated and isoenzyme tests became available, CKMB ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced hypoglycemia as a cause of altered mental status in an elderly patient. AU - Mathews, W. A.. AU - Manint, J. E.. AU - Kleiss, J.. PY - 2000/12/1. Y1 - 2000/12/1. N2 - Even though drug-induced hypoglycemia is a rare event in the general population, it occurs more frequently in the elderly and in diabetic patients and thus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status in these patient groups. In this case study, the authors describe a 91-year-old woman who was taken to the emergency department because of decreased consciousness while on a drug regimen that included once-daily triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide and twice-daily, double-strength trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). On arrival at the hospital, the patient had a plasma glucose value of 34 mg/dL along with an elevated creatine kinase level and a small tongue laceration. She was treated with a 50-mL ampule of 50% dextrose solution intravenously. She ...
This disorder has been described in two cats, a DSH cat and a Siamese cat. Both were female cats that were presented around 12 months of age for progressive weakness. Extensor contracture was a prominent feature in the DSH cat, whereas the Siamese was hypotonic and hyporeflexive in all four limbs. Both cats had marked increases in serum creatine kinase values, and motor nerve conduction velocities were reduced in the one case evaluated (the DSH). Dystrophic changes were present in all muscles evaluated, and demyelination of peroneal and radial nerves was noted. Immunocytological evaluation of muscle fibres showed decreased or absent laminin alpha-2. Both cats were euthanized within months of diagnosis.. ...
Creatine is an amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as creatinine in the urine. Creatine functions as part of the cells energy shuttle. The high energy phosphate group of ATP is transferred to creatine to form phosphocreatine in the following reaction: Cr + ATP <-> PCr + ADP. This reaction is reversibly catalyzed by creatine kinase. In the animal body creatine is synthesized mainly in the liver by the use of parts from three different amino acids - arginine, glycine, and methionine. 95% of it is later stored in the skeletal muscles, with the rest in the brain, heart, testes ...
a href= http://lucyhale.com/risks-of-buying-accutane-online.pptx ,is buying accutane online illegal,/a, That afternoon, I noticed my arm swelling. I left immediately to see my doctor. Soon, I was in a room and my doctor came in, looked at my arms and told his intern to start drips in both of them, while also drawing blood. When I left that night, my creatine phosphokinase level – the measure of an enzyme in the blood – was 22,000 and rising. A normal, safe CPK level for athletes is less than 1,000. However, my kidney function test was not nearly as bad as expected. I had orders to return the next morning. When I did that, the doctor wanted to admit me to the hospital because my CPK had reached 47,000. I was still not having any symptoms other than the swelling, which was isolated to my arms. He agreed to do another kidney test and continue in-house IV fluids because it was not spreading to my lower body and I still didnt have other symptoms like nausea, vomiting or brown urine. ...
Low prices on Creatine Liquid & Chews! Liquid creatine serum offers a convenient alternative to using creatine powders and capsules. Creatine liquid serum products are small enough to take with you to the gym or when traveling. Many find that liquid creatine is the most convenient way to take advantage of creatines benefits.
Low prices on Creatine Liquid & Chews! Liquid creatine serum offers a convenient alternative to using creatine powders and capsules. Creatine liquid serum products are small enough to take with you to the gym or when traveling. Many find that liquid creatine is the most convenient way to take advantage of creatines benefits.
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. It is found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Alternative Names: CPK test. Learn more.
The early determination of whether a patient presenting with chest pain is truly having an MI has 2 important ramifications, only 1 of which is addressed by Puleo and colleagues. The authors rightly point out that resources are wasted when patients without MIs are placed in units designed to care for patients with MIs. Another important aspect of an early and accurate diagnosis of infarction is to allow for early treatment with thrombolytic drugs. This study clearly shows that CK-MB subforms detect MI within 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. It is clear that patients presenting with "big-bang" infarctions (i.e., significant ST-segment elevation) will need to receive thrombolytic drugs as early as possible and that in this group of patients an elevation of CK-MB subform would be of little value. The management of patients with a good history and equivocal electrocardiographic changes can be more difficult. Thus, although providing valuable information on the sensitivity and specificity of ...
There have been a total of 24 adverse events (AEs) reported in ASPIRO, six of which were determined to be serious adverse events (SAEs). One of the six SAEs occurred in Patient 4, the delayed treatment concurrent control patient, who was hospitalized for gastroenteritis at week 10. The patient has recovered and the event was determined to be not treatment-related. The remaining five SAEs occurred in Patient 3. The first was a hospitalization for pneumonia two weeks post study drug administration (not treatment-related); the next three were a series of related SAEs that occurred seven weeks post study drug administration and included hospitalization for a gastrointestinal infection during which the patient experienced elevated creatine kinase (CK) and troponin levels suggestive of myocarditis (probably treatment-related). These events have been controlled with treatment, and cardiac function has not been compromised. The final SAE in Patient 3 was a hospitalization at week 21 for monitoring of ...
Identification of a 43-kDa polypeptide associated with acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes as MM creatine kinase.: Creatine kinase isoenzymes from Torpedo
Serum transaminases (ALT, AST) are found in muscle. Therefore, elevated LFTs, especially when no concomitant gamma-glutamyl transferase is available, may reflect muscle inflammation in a patient with rheumatic disease. Check the creatine phosphokinase level ...
in Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation (1986), 46(6), 519-26. In 41 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery, creatine kinase (CK)-MB mass concentration was repeatedly measured in serum during and after the intervention using a new two-site immunoenzymetric ... [more ▼]. In 41 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery, creatine kinase (CK)-MB mass concentration was repeatedly measured in serum during and after the intervention using a new two-site immunoenzymetric assay (IEMA). Serum CK-MB activity was determined with the use of four different techniques: immunoinhibition, immunoinhibition-immunoprecipitation, column chromatography and electrophoresis. Myoglobin (Mb) was also measured in each specimen by radioimmunoassay. In the 33 patients who followed a completely uneventful postoperative course, the cumulated CK-MB release was, on the average, 12.2-fold less than after acute myocardial infarction. The CK-MB peak concentrations using the IEMA were 33 +/- 3 ...
This study was designed to determine the effects of three rations (low grain, fat, high grain) on plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and lactate concentration
The authors of Februarys Clinical Case Study provided us with three exclusive questions that will not appear in the published version of the Case. Wed love to hear your answers to these questions in the comments section.
Cardiac markers or cardiac enzymes are proteins that leak out of injured myocardial cells through their damaged cell membranes into the bloodstream. The markers most widely used in detection of MI are the enzyme creatine kinase and cardiac troponins T and I as they are more specific for myocardial injury. The cardiac troponins T and I which are released within 4-6 hours of an attack of MI and remain elevated for up to 2 weeks, have nearly complete tissue specificity and are now the preferred markers for assessing myocardial damage. The diagnosis of myocardial infarction requires two out of three components (history, ECG, and enzymes). When damage to the heart occurs, levels of cardiac markers rise over time.. ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or ...
Role of cerebrospinal fluid, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of tubercular and pyogenic meningitis
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... definition, an enzyme that, during muscular activity, catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphocreatine in muscle to produce ATP. See more.
Creatine Kinase is an enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and c
The present study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of action of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) in doxorubicin (DOX)‑treated mice. Histopathological analysis and western blot analysis were conducted in the liver and heart tissues and biochemical analysis of the serum was performed. The results revealed that MgIG (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day) could protect the structure and functions of the liver and heart by inhibiting the activities of the myocardial enzymes creatine kinase (CK), CK‑MB and lactate dehydrogenase and the hepatic‑specific enzymes aspirate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, increasing the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibiting cellular apoptosis induced by DOX (30 mg/kg). These results demonstrate that inhibiting lipid peroxidation and reducing myocardial and hepatocyte apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms by which MgIG exhibits hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects in DOX‑treated ...
There are many forms of energy, and various ways to transport it. In most cases thermal energy transport is best done with water, as steam is dangerous and very aggressive on connections and air-ducts take up a lot of valuable space. The use of low temperature solutions need a range of other steps for the local generation of domestic hot water and fresh air ventilation. Exchange thermal energy instead of dumping that and comprehensively mapping supply and demand. ...
The availability of generic versions of simvastatin and lovastatin will encourage health care providers to place these 2 statins on their preferred-drug lists. This move, combined with the increased focus on the importance of lowering lipid levels, undoubtedly will result in more patients being prescribed 1 of these 2 statins. Simultaneously, the seemingly endless downward revisions of target low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels inevitably will result in statin-dose escalation. Statins are very safe drugs that occasionally produce adverse events. Toxicity involving skeletal muscles most commonly results in pain, weakness, or cramps with or without creatine kinase elevations (myalgia or myopathy), but it usually is not associated with long-term sequelae. Rhabdomyolysis is a much more severe form of muscle toxicity that is quite rare. Both types of statin toxicity, however, appear to be drug-dose-and plasma-concentration-related. The coadministration of drugs that interact with statins can ...
PURPOSE: Alpha-actinin-3, encoded by the ACTN3 gene, is an actin-binding protein with an important role in myofibril contraction and muscle force output. In humans, there is a relatively common deficiency of the α-actinin-3 due to homozygosity in a polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene (R577X, rs1815739), that has been related to decreased resistance to strain during voluntary muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on the level of exercise-induced muscle damage attained by 23 experienced triathletes during an official half-ironman competition. METHODS: Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained and jump height was measured during a countermovement jump. The changes in serum creatine kinase (CK-MM isoform) were measured in the blood samples and muscle pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (0-10 cm). Data from RX heterozygotes and XX mutant homozygotes were grouped as X-allele carriers (n = 13) and compared to ...
Creatine, which is synthesized while in the liver and kidneys, is transported in the blood and taken up by tissues with substantial Electrical power calls for, like the Mind and skeletal muscle, by an active transportation technique. The concentration of ATP in skeletal muscle is generally two-5 mM, which might cause a muscle contraction of only some seconds.[13] Fortunately, through instances of amplified Strength demands, the phosphagen (or ATP/PCr) process quickly resynthesizes ATP from ADP with the usage of phosphocreatine (PCr) through a reversible reaction with the enzyme creatine kinase (CK ...
The cerebral ATP synthase (ATPase) and creatine kinase (CK) reactions are essential in supporting brain energy and function. In this study, we investigated the central role of oxidative phosphorylation of ATP in response to functional visual stimulus in the human visual cortex using the in vivo 31P MRS with magnetization transfer technique at 7T; and to further study its temporal evolution during and after the stimulation. It was found that both ATPase and CK metabolic fluxes increased during the visual stimulation. Interestingly, the elevated ATPase enzyme activity recovered rapidly to the baseline level after the stimulation; in contrast, a high CK enzyme activity persisted during the sustained post-stimulation period, suggesting distinct roles of ATPase and CK reactions in brain function. More importantly, the significant increase of ATPase observed in this study indicates a high demand of oxidative ATP synthesis/utilization in the activated brain region in supporting the elevated neuronal ...
A steady-state framework was applied to the ubiquitous tricyclic enzyme cascade structure, as seen in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase system, to analyze the effect of upstream kinase concentrations on final output response. The results suggest that signal amplification achieved by the cascade structure ensured that the modifying enzymes at various steps of the cascade were nearly saturated. Thus, there was no change in the response sensitivity with increasing upstream kinase concentration. Analysis was also extended to branching of a signaling pathway as an example of cross-talk. It was observed that the cascade structure confers a larger share of the signal transduction properties to its last kinase. This phenomenon in enzyme cascades may explain how the response of the terminal MAP kinase is unaffected by cross-talk of upstream kinases ...
Creatine is a supplement commonly used by power and strength athletes such as weightlifters or sprinters. Creatine is a naturally occurring substance, most commonly found in red meat such as beef or oily fish such as salmon. Creatine has a positive impact on anaerobic activity, strength, power output and recovery.. Our bodies usable form of energy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We breakdown fats and carbohydrates to form ATP (energy) during both aerobic and anaerobic activity. Whilst working at all-out intensity, such as lifting heavy weights or sprinting, our body uses an energy pathway known as the ATP-PC system. During the ATP-PC system, creatine phosphate is broken down by the enzyme, creatine kinase to create energy very quickly.. Creatine provides energy during the initial phases of intense activity or short bursts of all-out activity. However, the body has limited stores of creatine phosphate and therefore supplies rapidly deplete, reducing our ability to create energy using ...
Inclusion: Cohort of Medicare beneficiaries ≥ 65 years of age admitted to hospital from Feb. 1, 1994 to July 30, 1995 with documented LVEF , 40% (measured by echocardiography, radionuclide scintigraphy, angiography) following confirmed acute MI. Acute MI was diagnosed as a creatine kinase-MB , 5% or a 2-fold elevated LDH-2 or the patient met 2 of the 3 following criteria: chest pain, creatine kinase level at least 2-fold greater than normal, or evidence of acute MI confirmed by electrocardiography ...
after a workout we had some athlets become very sore. After going to the doctor, a blood test showed their cpk levels at 23 thousand. We are having them sit out for at least 48 hours before returning t...
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A CK-MB blood test can help differentiate heart damage from other muscle injuries. Take care of your heart and order affordable lab testing from Request A Test. We work with 1000s of labs nationwide.
Professor Baigent and his colleagues give us some soothing reassurances about the fact that the benefits of statins vastly outweighing the risks of adverse events such as myopapthy (muscle pain and weakness). They quote of the excess incidence of myopathy as 0.5 cases per 1000 people over 5 years. However, the source they quote is based on diagnosing myopathy once the marker for muscle damage (creatine kinase) is at least ten times the upper limit of normal. Many individuals will have significant pain and weakness with much lower levels of creatine kinase. Statins are also linked with adverse effects on the liver and kidneys, and increase risk of diabetes too. Overall, adverse effects of statins affect about 20 per cent of people who take them." ...
Males. 6-11 years: 150-499 U/L. 12-17 years: 94-499 U/L. , or =18 years: 52-336 U/L. Females. 6-7 years: 134-391 U/L. 8-14 years: 91-391 U/L. 15-17 years: 53-269 U/L. , or =18 years: 38-176 U/L. Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 6 years of age.. Note: Strenuous exercise or intramuscular injections may cause transient elevation of CK. ...
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What is creatine?. Creatine is an amino acid derivative constructed from arginine, glycine and methionine. It is produced naturally by the body in the kidneys, liver, and pancreas at a rate of about 1-2 grams/day. Creatine can also be obtained from food (particularly red meat) and supplementation.. The uptake of creatine into muscle cells is an active process. 90-95% of creatine in the body is found in muscle.. Creatine is degraded into creatinine and excreted in the urine at a rate of around 2 grams/day.. Why is creatine so important?. The energy needs of brief, rapid and powerful movements lasting fewer than 10 seconds, such as a short sprint, are met by the phosphagen system. This system quickly replenishes the stores of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which provides energy to the working cells. Muscles have an existing amount of ATP hanging around ready for action, but only a little bit - enough for a few seconds. ATP is broken down by removing a phosphate, which turns it into adenosine ...
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We will check blood studies used to evaluate HIV patients response to therapy including CD4 count and HIV viral load test. We will check routine safety labs done on HIV patients and also check homocysteine levels and creatine kinase level. We will evaluate homocysteine and IL6 levels at baseline, week 48, and week 96 ...
This isnt exactly the right place to go...But im looking for more information on creatine, so i was wondering if anyone on here has ever loaded up on it... $$$$
Acidic juices such as orange or grapefruit juice? Ive read many articles on creatine but have not read anything about why not to.
Hee Jeong Son, Yoon Hee Lee, Jeong Hoon Chae, Chang Keun Kim Biol Sport 2015; 32(4):357-361 It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase. AU - Dietrich, Robert F.. AU - Miller, Robert B.. AU - Kenyon, George L.. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Reed, George H.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - Several conformationally restricted analogues of creatine have been both synthesized and examined as potential substrates or inhibitors of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2). When an asymmetric center was included in a creatine analogue in the position α to the carboxyl group, the enzyme had a pronounced preference for the R enantiomer. Thus, whereas (R)-N-amidinoazetidine-2-carboxylic acid (7) has been shown to be a good substrate (Ks = 72 mM, Km = 39 mM, and Vmax = 29% relative to that of creatine) for creatine kinase, the corresponding S enantiomer 6 showed only barely detectable reactivity (Fmax(rel) ≪ 1%). When the corresponding ring-opened analogue, N-methyl-N-amidino-alanine, was examined as a substrate, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Two maximal isometric contractions attenuate the magnitude of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. AU - Chen, Hsin Lian. AU - Nosaka, Kazunori. AU - Pearce, Alan J.. AU - Chen, Trevor C.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC-ISO) would attenuate the magnitude of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Young untrained men were placed into one of the two experimental groups or one control group (n = 13 per group). Subjects in the experimental groups performed either two or 10 MVC-ISO of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (20° flexion) 2 days prior to 30 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Subjects in the control group performed the eccentric contractions without MVC-ISO. No significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction peak torque, peak torque angle, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and myoglobin ...
Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive inherited disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis. It is a type of dystrophinopathy. This is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes the protein dystrophin. Becker muscular dystrophy is related to Duchenne muscular dystrophy in that both result from a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Play media Some symptoms consistent with Becker muscular dystrophy are: Muscle weakness, slowly progressive difficulty walking Severe upper extremity muscle weakness. Toe-walking Use of Gowers Maneuver to get up from floor. Difficulty breathing Skeletal deformities, chest and back (scoliosis) Pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles Muscle cramps Heart muscle problems Elevated Creatine kinase levels in blood Individuals with this disorder typically experience progressive muscle weakness of the leg and pelvis muscles, which is associated with a loss of muscle mass (wasting). Muscle weakness also occurs in the ...
An inflammatory myopathy, inclusion body myositis (IBM) presents with progressive muscle weakness against a background of elevated creatine kinase and diffuse endomysial damage. Typically occurring in patients greater than 50 years of age, it is commonly misdiagnosed as polymyositis or other rheumatological disease and is often ineffectively treated with steroids [1]. The approach to IBM is frequently a clinical challenge due to its unique and often aberrant response to common treatment modalities. Here we report an apparent improvement in the clinical course of and associated laboratory findings in a patient with co-existing IBM following the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunct for managing ischemic colitis.
We read with interest the report by Satran et al. (1) on the cardiovascular manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. In the Hospital Rı́o Hortega of Valladolid (Spain), we followed CO poisonings prospectively for two years (2). The protocol included, among other parameters, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels, electrocardiogram (ECG), creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB. During the study period studied, 154 patients were included, of whom 20% (n = 31) presented sinusal tachycardia, 5% (n = 8) arrhythmias (mainly auricular fibrillation), and 4% (n = 6) ischemic changes, including one patient in whom cardiac catheterization was carried out without findings of coronary artery disease. Eight (7.2%) adult patients and 25.6% (n = 10) of patients under 10 years of age had elevated CK levels. Similarly, CK-MB levels were elevated in 1.8% (n = 2) of adults and in 12.7% (n = 5) of children (p , 0.01) (2). In our series, the percentage of patients with cardiovascular manifestations is inferior to that ...
ABSTRACT. Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) has undergone major advances in recent years, including reductions in mortality and hospital stays. Cardioprotective effects Ocimum gratissimum fresh leaves were evaluated in rat model having acute MI induced by Musa acuminata. Eating bananas on an empty stomach is not good to the health, because when stomach is empty, there is nearly no food in the stomach that can be digested. If this movement eats bananas, it will speed up the stomachs movement and the promotion of blood circulation, to increase the heart load. It is very easy to induce the myocardial infection. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups. 3 groups receive Musa acuminata (banana) and 1 group Test drug. Cardio toxicity, evident from increased activities of Serum Creatine phosphokinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspartate Transaminase and Alanine Transaminase in Musa acuminata administered rats, and it was reversed by Ocimum gratissimum treatment. Musa acuminata administered rat ...
glucose infusion prior to exercise, fatigue, vomiting, muscle weakness, myalgia, cramps, and myoglobinuria. Phosphofructokinase deficient in skeletal muscle, but not in the liver. No rise in blood lactate concentration after ischemic exercise. Plasma creatine phosphokinase is increased. 31P-NMR spectroscopy reveals a specific peak of phosphorylated monoesters (accumulation of glycolytic intermediates resulting from the enzymatic block). A severe infantile form with arthrogryposis, cardiomyopathy, and frequent respiratory failure has been described. Death occurs early. Antenatal detection possible in families with identifiable mutations. ...
Experiencing muscle soreness during and after exercises is a common phenomenon, especially when you are a beginner or when you engage in a new workout program. Even if you are an advanced athlete, its difficult to avoid muscle soreness following bodybuilding exercises. Normally, muscle soreness lasts for three to five days, but prolonged severe muscle soreness may signify more serious underlying issues. Consult a doctor if the pain fails to subside after seven days.
Amylase, Creatine kinase, Cyclooxygenase, Gastrin, Glucocorticoid, Heme, Histamine, Lactate dehydrogenase, Transglutaminase, ... Thymidine kinase, Thyroid peroxidase, Tissue transglutaminase, Vitamin K epoxide reductase, Von Willebrand factor ...
Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
3-kinase and PI 4-kinase binding to the CD4-p56lck complex: the p56lck SH3 domain binds to PI 3-kinase but not PI 4-kinase". ... 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. • kinase activity. • ... protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. • cytosol. • phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class IA. • plasma membrane. • ...
Aspartate kinase becomes downregulated by the presence of threonine or lysine. Lysine[edit]. Lysine is synthesized from ... The formation of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... The synthesis of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... Within the Amino Acid Kinase Enzyme Family Revealed by the Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli Glutamate 5-kinase". Journal ...
creatine metabolic process. • cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus. • response to estradiol. • positive ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • GO:0000980 RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • GO: ...
Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
... leading to an accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, and to subsequent G1-phase arrest, as seen in ... creatine phosphokinase elevation, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, muscle aches or pains, nausea, ...
Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
In a similar mechanism, the pro-apoptotic creatine kinase binds and opens VDAC in the absence of HK2.[8] An alternative model ... kinase activity. • glucose binding. • catalytic activity. • protein binding. • fructokinase activity. • ATP binding. • ... Another critical function for OMM-bound HK2 is mediation of cell survival.[8][9] Activation of Akt kinase maintains HK2-VDAC ... As an isoform of hexokinase and a member of the sugar kinase family, HK2 catalyzes the rate-limiting and first obligatory step ...
2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase. (PO4; protein acceptor). 2.7.10: protein-tyrosine. *see tyrosine kinases ...
Créitín Creatine. *Cionáis chréitín Creatine kinase. *Criostalin Crystallin. *α-Cyclodextrin. *Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase ... Kinase. L[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. For substances with an l- or L- prefix such as L-alanine or DL-alanine, please see ...
Monitoring liver enzymes and creatine kinase is especially prudent in those on high-dose statins or in those on statin/fibrate ... "Rho/Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase pathway as therapeutic targets for statins in atherosclerosis". Antioxidants & ...
Measuring the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), produced by the pituitary gland (which in turn is also regulated by the hypothalamus's TSH Releasing Hormone) in the blood is typically the initial test for suspected hyperthyroidism. A low TSH level typically indicates that the pituitary gland is being inhibited or "instructed" by the brain to cut back on stimulating the thyroid gland, having sensed increased levels of T4 and/or T3 in the blood. In rare circumstances, a low TSH indicates primary failure of the pituitary, or temporary inhibition of the pituitary due to another illness (euthyroid sick syndrome) and so checking the T4 and T3 is still clinically useful. Measuring specific antibodies, such as anti-TSH-receptor antibodies in Graves' disease, or anti-thyroid peroxidase in Hashimoto's thyroiditis - a common cause of hypothyroidism - may also contribute to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is confirmed by blood tests that show a decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
Salvadori A, Fanari P, Ruga S, Brunani A, Longhini E (1992). "Creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme during and after ... Walder A, Baumann P (2008). "Increased creatinine kinase and rhabdomyolysis in anorexia nervosa". The International Journal of ...
"Simply Stated . . .The Creatine Kinase Test". QUEST (en inglés) 7 (1). Febreiro 2000. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 13 de ... "Structural studies of human brain-type creatine kinase complexed with the ADP-Mg2+-NO3- -creatine transition-state analogue ... "Ethnic differences in tissue creatine kinase activity: an observational study". PLOS One 7 (3): e32471. PMC 3306319. PMID ... Creatine Kinase Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ...
2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase. (PO4; protein acceptor). 2.7.10: protein-tyrosine. *see tyrosine kinases ...
Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ... such as a reduction in N-acetylaspartate and creatine levels and elevated levels of choline and myoinositol.[22] ... Psychostimulants] increase cAMP levels in striatum, which activates protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phosphorylation of its ... creatine (Sekine et al., 2002) and increases in a marker of glial activation, myoinositol (Chang et al., 2002; Ernst et al., ...
Testing for the MB form of creatine kinase provides information about the heart's blood supply, but is used less frequently ...
glycine→creatine: Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase. *Creatine kinase. alanine→. *Alanine transaminase. cysteine→. *D- ...
"Protein kinases CK1 and CK2 as new targets for neurodegenerative diseases". Instituto de Quimica Medica-CSIC; Perez DI, Gil C, ... "Creatine for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease". Department of Neurology, UCSF Medical Center; Pastula DM, ... Sebuah protein kinase, CK1 dan CK2, ditemukan memiliki peran yang selama ini belum diketahui, pada patologi molekular dari ... Menyusul ditemukannya kinom pada manusia, kinase protein telah menjadi prioritas terpenting kedua pada upaya penyembuhan, oleh ...
Mercer, Donald W (1974). "Separation of tissue and serum creatine kinase isoenzymes by ion-exchange column chromatography". ... application of ion chromatography is in the rapid anion exchange chromatography technique used to separate creatine kinase (CK ... The functions of these isoenzymes are to convert creatine, using ATP, into phosphocreatine expelling ADP. Mini columns were ...
... (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... Creatine kinase in the blood may be high in health and disease. Exercise increases the outflow of creatine kinase to the blood ... Thus creatine kinase is an important enzyme in such tissues.[3] Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ...
... but the most readily depleted of the above sources is the PCr system which utilizes the enzyme creatine kinase. This enzyme ... The creation of AMP resulting from this reaction stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) which is the energy ... Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ... The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ...
Other names in common use include pyrimidine ribonucleoside kinase, uridine-cytidine kinase, uridine kinase (phosphorylating), ... I. Uridine-cytidine kinase of Novikoff ascites rat tumor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 244 (8): 2204-9. PMID 5782006. ... In enzymology, an uridine kinase (EC 2.7.1.48) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Skold O (1960). "Uridine kinase from Erlich ascites tumor: purification and properties". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3273-3279.. ...
Subsequent to the action of TFIIH kinase, Ser2 residues are phosphorylated by CTDK-I in yeast (CDK9 kinase in metazoans). Ctk1 ... "CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8 [Homo sapiens]".. *^ "CTDP1 CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) ... It has a kinase activity that phosphorylates the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II at the amino acid serine. This switches the ... TFIIH is a large protein complex that contains among others the CDK7/cyclin H kinase complex and a DNA helicase. TFIIH has ...
... itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal ... Wallimann, T; Tokarska-Schlattner, M; Schlattner, U (May 2011). "The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine ... "The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine". Amino Acids. Springer Wien. 40 (5): 1271-1296. doi:10.1007/ ... Molecular and Cellular Physiology of Creatine Kinases, Sensitivity to Free Radicals, and Enhancement by Creatine ...
... elevates the intracellular cAMP concentration via beta-adrenergic receptors and activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A ( ...
Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation. Cleve Clin J Med. 2016;83(1):37-42. doi:10.3949/ccjm.83a.14120 ... Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation. . Cleve Clin J Med. . 2016. ;. 83. (. 1. ):. 37. -. 42. . doi:10.3949/ccjm. ... Specifically, creatine kinase (CK) levels and urine-specific gravity (USG) should be monitored during treatment and recovery, ...
... and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether ... and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether ... and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether ... and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether ...
Článek Fungal Communication Requires the MAK-2 Pathway Elements STE-20 and RAS-2, the NRC-1 Adapter STE-50 and the MAP Kinase ... During the acute episodes, plasma creatine phosphokinase (CK) levels were variable, ranging from markedly elevated (peak levels ... Fungal Communication Requires the MAK-2 Pathway Elements STE-20 and RAS-2, the NRC-1 Adapter STE-50 and the MAP Kinase Scaffold ... Článek HAM-5 Functions As a MAP Kinase Scaffold during Cell Fusion in ...
Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase. Biochemistry. 1980 Jan ... Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase. / Dietrich, Robert F ... title = "Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase", ... T1 - Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase ...
TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation ... Creatine Metabolic Process. *Creatine Biosynthetic Process. *Muscle Contraction. *Spermatogenesis. *Organ Morphogenesis. * ...
Creatine transporter deficiency. *Cutis laxa, X-linked; Distal spinal muscular atrophy, X-linked 3 ... Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency. *Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity. *Primary dilated cardiomyopathy; ...
Creatine transporter deficiency. *Cutis laxa, X-linked; Distal spinal muscular atrophy, X-linked 3 ... Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency. *Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity. *Primary dilated cardiomyopathy; ...
Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimersand octamers Eng FASN genealogy genomic ... Mitochondrial creatine kinase MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphatefrom mitochondria to the cytosolic ... It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzymefamily. It exists as two isoenzymes Cspg2 EGT1442 encoded byseparate genes. ... indicates the pathology of atherosclerosis or subclinical coronary disease.3 buy 71939-50-9 buy 1626387-80-1 CHEK2 creatine. ...
Creatine Kinase (Creatine Phosphokinase)IBA 01/2012 - 11/2006. 2. HDL CholesterolIBA 01/2011 - 12/2010. ...
nitroglycerin creatine has by two immunologic limits, the congestive and free institutions. Click here endothelial: Of or ... The RA directly steps and this ebook randomness 1999 is aimed into the relative kinase( treatment). When the inventor concludes ...
... protein kinase A (PKA)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), possibly mediated by gonadotrophic hormones. Female ducks ... The blood level of creatine was higher for HGAA, and the activity of l-arginine glycine amidine transferase was lower for MGAA ...
Creatine Kinase (CK) Blood Test, Total. A CPK test is a blood test used to evaluate levels of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme ... Creatine Kinase (CK) Blood Test, MB. The CK test will help determine if you have had a heart attack and whether certain clot- ...
Other laboratory results included elevated D dimer level of 2.93 mg/L (normal, , 0.28 mg/L), with normal serum creatine kinase ...
Creatine kinase-MB does not add additional benefit to a negative troponin in the evaluation of chest pain. Am J Emerg Med 2012; ...
Analysis on high pressure liquid chromatography showed MM1 and tissue creatine kinase (MMt) to have identical peptide maps, but ... As a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase, apatinib has been ...
However, they measured creatine kinase and myoglobin 24 h and 48. *Generally, the release 28] Recent Comments. Archives. *July ...
Association of elevated umbilical cord blood creatine kinase and myoglobin levels with the presence of cocaine metabolites in ... To address this issue, a novel protein kinase identification web server, PKIS, is here presented for the identification of the ... whereas a small subgroup of tumors is wild type for mutations.Mutation of tyrosine kinase receptors is a mechanism of drug ... protein kinases responsible for experimentally verified P-sites at high specificity, which incorporates the composition of ...
creatine kinase, brain a. 0.010. ext2. exostoses (multiple) 2. 0.010. thap7. THAP domain containing 7. 0.010. ...
The aims of this study were to determine the activities of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate deydrogenase (LDH) in thyroid ... Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with thyroid disorders. p. 454. ...
Crystallinopathy received by the h of the alphaB-crystallin( CryAB) creatine, not gives as such organ( DRC) and is PSCs. DRC ... A essential cause kinase of this building has to be the Alveoli by which core exchange alterations( PSCs) function to several H ... catecholamine heart: The oxidative changes through which an treatment serves from associated training or Creatine to the been ...
... and creatine contents of brainstem slices to obtain information about the creatine kinase regulated transfer of phosphate from ... The reason is that creatine kinase is three to six times less active in immature than in mature animals, which results in a ... 1983) Developmental changes of creatine kinase metabolism in rat brain. Am J Physiol 244:C205-C210. ... After the end of the biochemical reaction, 20 μl creatine kinase was added to measure phosphocreatine contents. All ATP and ...
Increased serum creatine kinase]; #613154:Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type ...
... presence of Pi and non-labelled ATP the specific radioactivity of creatine phosphate formed by mitochondrial creatinine kinase ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 metastasis suppressor gene expression is inversely related to histological pattern in ... inhibitor-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Raw264.7 cells is potentiated by inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase ...
Prompt detection of myocardial injury by assay of creatine kinase isoforms in initial plasma samples. Our results indicate that ...
... isoenzymes of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase) to prevent ... activation of myocardial opioid receptors, and subsequent signalling by protein kinases such as PKC, has a protective effect ... regulating JNK signalling pathways (mitogen-activated protein kinases that transmit signals of stress stimuli) to possibly ...
  • Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by the breakdown of skeletal muscle and the release into the circulatory system of intracellular contents, including creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, the heme pigment myoglobin, and electrolytes. (canadiem.org)
  • Materials and methods: We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin T and I, and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether baseline levels or changes in these biomarkers may help predict the onset of congestive heart failure. (umn.edu)
  • Phosphagen kinases have been found in all animal species and in some protozoa, such as trypanosomes, choanoflagellates, and the ciliates, Paramecium tetraurelia, Paramecium caudatum, and Tetrahymena. (expasy.org)
  • We also developed two profiles, which cover respectively the entire phosphagen kinase N- and C-terminal domains. (expasy.org)
  • On the other hand, the conformationally restricted creatine analogues N-[2-(4,5-dihydroimidazolyl)]sarcosine (10), 2-iminoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (11), and 2-imino-3-methylimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (12) did not show detectable activity either as substrates or as inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically, creatine kinase (CK) levels and urine-specific gravity (USG) should be monitored during treatment and recovery, particularly in patients seeking to return to activity. (humankinetics.com)
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