Clinical Enzyme Tests
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate
Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins
Membrane Transport Proteins
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal
Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (1/1169)Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations. (+info)
Separation of urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sodium cholate. (2/1169)The capillary electrophoretic separation of the four nonprotein nitrogenous compounds (NPNs; urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine) typically employed in clinical and medical settings for the monitoring of renal function is described. Successful resolution of these compounds is achieved with the use of a bile salt micelle system composed of sodium cholate at phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The elution patterns of four NPNs are obtained within 30 min with a voltage of 30 kV. The effect of varying the applied voltage, temperature, and the mole ratio of phosphate buffer with bile salt surfactant on the migration behavior is also examined. (+info)
Shortening of muscle relaxation time after creatine loading. (3/1169)The effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on muscle isometric torque generation and relaxation was investigated in healthy male volunteers. Maximal torque (Tmax), contraction time (CT) from 0.25 to 0.75 of Tmax, and relaxation time (RT) from 0.75 to 0.25 of Tmax were measured during 12 maximal isometric 3-s elbow flexions interspersed by 10-s rest intervals. Between the pretest and the posttest, subjects ingested Cr monohydrate (4 x 5 g/day; n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) for 5 days. Pretest Tmax, CT, and RT were similar in Cr and placebo groups. Also in the posttest, Tmax and CT were similar between groups. However, posttest RT was decreased consistently by approximately 20% (P < 0.05) in the Cr group from the first to the last of the 12 contractions. In addition, the mean decrease in RT after Cr loading was positively correlated with pretest RT (r = 0.82). It is concluded that Cr loading facilitates the rate of muscle relaxation during brief isometric muscle contractions without affecting torque production. (+info)
Absolute quantification of brain metabolites by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis patients. (4/1169)The aim of this research was to obtain an absolute quantification of the N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine levels in normal-appearing white matter by means of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a group of multiple sclerosis patients (27 with the relapsing-remitting form and 13 with the secondary progressive form). These values were compared with those of a group of 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. A significant decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration was found in normal-appearing white matter of frontal and parietal brain areas in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the same areas in control subjects. This reduction was more evident in progressive patients. The decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration in normal-appearing white matter significantly correlated with the Expanded Disability Status and the lesional load. No significant change was found in the concentration of creatine or choline. This finding concurs with previous evidence of heterogeneity in the multiple sclerosis pathological process which is not confined to the lesions and involves not only myelin, but also axons, even in white matter which appears normal on MRI. (+info)
Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and energy dissipation by H+ ion recycling in rat-liver mitochondrial metabolizing pyruvate. (5/1169)A method was developed for the calculation of metabolic fluxes through individual enzymatic reactions of pyruvate metabolism including the citric acid cycle in rat liver mitochondrial incubated at metabolic states between state 4 and state 3. This method is based on the measurement of the specific radioactivities of the products formed from [2-14C]pyruvate. With this procedure the energy balance of mitochondria incubated in the presence of [2-14C]pyruvate, ATP, bicarbonate and phosphate at different ATP/ADP ratios in the medium was calculated. The ATP/ADP ratios were maintained at a steady state with creatine kinase plus creatine as a phosphoryl acceptor. The calculations revealed that by adding increasing concentrations of creatine up to 20 mM the energy dissipated by the mitochondria decreased but showed a local maximum at 13mM creatine. Omission of bicarbonate from the medium led to a shift of this maximum. When energy dissipation was minimal the overall P/O ratio was maximal. The amount of energy dissipated was paralleled by the magnitude of the pH gradient across the inner membrane. From these results it was concluded that the recycling of H+ ions which consists of a passive leakage of H+ ions into the matrix and an active extrusion of these ions out of this compartment, is an important energy dissipating process. The H+ ion recycling is thus one of the processes which give rise to the state 4 respiration in mitochondria. (+info)
Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in congestive heart failure detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (6/1169)OBJECTIVES: Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated cerebral metabolism and its determinants in congestive heart failure (CHF), and the effects of cardiac transplantation on these measurements. BACKGROUND: Few data are available about cerebral metabolism in CHF. METHODS: Fifty patients with CHF (ejection fraction < or = 35%) and 20 healthy volunteers were included for this study. Of the patients, 10 patients underwent heart transplantation. All subjects performed symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was obtained from localized regions (8 to 10 ml) of occipital gray matter (OGM) and parietal white matter (PWM). Absolute levels of the metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol) were calculated. RESULTS: In PWM only creatine level was significantly lower in CHF than in control subjects, but in OGM all four metabolite levels were decreased in CHF. The creatine level was independently correlated with half-recovery time and duration of heart failure symptoms in PWM (r = -0.56, p < 0.05), and with peak oxygen consumption and serum sodium concentration in OGM (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Cerebral metabolic abnormalities were improved after successful cardiac transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that cerebral metabolism is abnormally deranged in advanced CHF and it may serve as a potential marker of the disease severity. (+info)
Effect of thrombin inhibition in vascular dementia and silent cerebrovascular disease. An MR spectroscopy study. (7/1169)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Silent cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been proposed as a predisposing condition for clinically overt stroke and vascular dementia. Recently, we found increased thrombin generation in silent CVD patients. Here, we report the effect of thrombin inhibition using a potent selective thrombin inhibitor on the cerebral metabolism and function in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients with or without silent CVD. METHODS: We examined 17 mild chronic PAOD patients, including 2 cases of vascular dementia. We divided the patients into 2 groups: 1 was the advanced CVD group with multiple lacunar infarction and/or advanced periventricular hyperintensity detected by brain MRI (n=12), and the other was the no CVD group that had none of these abnormalities (n=5). We assessed the cerebral biochemical compounds in the deep white matter area and cerebellar hemisphere (8 cm3) by proton MR spectroscopy before and after infusion of argatroban (10 mg/d IV) over 2 hours for 7 days. RESULTS: The ratio of N-acetylasparate (NAA) to total creatine (Cre) in the deep white matter area was significantly lower in the advanced CVD group than in the no CVD group, whereas there were no significant differences in this ratio in the cerebellar hemisphere between the 2 groups. In the former group, this decreased NAA/Cre ratio significantly increased after argatroban therapy, whereas there was no change in the latter group. The 2 patients with vascular dementia showed clinical improvement with marked increases in the NAA/Cre ratio and mini-mental score. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased thrombin generation may have some pathophysiological roles in developing vascular dementia and its chronic predisposing conditions. Thrombin inhibition may break this vicious cycle and lead to clinical improvement. (+info)
Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with complex partial seizures: single-voxel spectroscopy versus chemical-shift imaging. (8/1169)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proton MR spectroscopy has recently been applied to the evaluation of seizures, but few comparisons have been made between different clinical spectroscopic techniques. Our goal was to determine whether there is a significant difference between hippocampal NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios obtained by single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and by chemical-shift imaging (CSI). METHODS: Twelve healthy adults and eight patients with complex partial seizures were studied on a 1.5-T MR scanner using a proton SVS method. Another 12 healthy adults and 10 patients with complex partial seizures were recruited for a proton CSI study, which was performed on a different 1.5-T MR system. The NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio was calculated from the integral peak areas by curve fitting. The two-tailed t-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean value +/- standard deviation of the hippocampal NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio in healthy control subjects was 0.63 +/- 0.07 by SVS, with 0.62 +/- 0.15 for the anterior hippocampus and 0.65 +/- 0.11 for the posterior hippocampus by CSI. There was no significant difference between the control group data obtained by SVS and those by CSI, nor was there a regional difference in the CSI NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio in the hippocampus. Relative to the control group, the patients with seizures had a significant decrease in the NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio in the abnormal hippocampus: -28% by SVS, and -24% in the anterior hippocampus and -18% in the posterior hippocampus by CSI. Proton SVS and CSI detected hippocampal abnormalities, unilateral or bilateral, in all patients of each group. CONCLUSION: Under similar measurement conditions, proton SVS and CSI provide similar NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios among healthy control subjects, and they possess comparable ability for detecting hippocampal abnormalities in patients with complex partial seizures. (+info)
Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.
Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:
1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.
If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.
1. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration.
2. Myopathy: A condition where the muscles become damaged or diseased, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and muscle stiffness.
4. Rhabdomyolysis: A condition where the muscle tissue is damaged, leading to the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream and potentially causing kidney damage.
5. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis: Inflammatory conditions that affect the muscles and skin.
6. Muscle strain: A common injury caused by overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers.
7. Cervical dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles.
8. Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.
9. Oculopharyngeal myopathy: A condition characterized by weakness of the muscles used for swallowing and eye movements.
10. Inclusion body myositis: An inflammatory condition that affects the muscles, leading to progressive muscle weakness and wasting.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of muscular diseases that can affect individuals. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options. It's important for individuals experiencing muscle weakness or wasting to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate care.
1. Polymyositis: This is an inflammatory disease that affects the muscles and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.
2. Dercum's disease: This is a rare condition that causes fatty degeneration of the muscles, leading to muscle pain, weakness, and wasting.
3. Inflammatory myopathy: This is a group of conditions that cause inflammation in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and pain.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory condition that affects both the skin and the muscles, causing skin rashes and muscle weakness.
5. Juvenile myositis: This is a rare condition that affects children and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.
The symptoms of myositis can vary depending on the type of condition and its severity. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue. Other symptoms may include skin rashes, fever, and joint pain.
The diagnosis of myositis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and muscle biopsies. Treatment for myositis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected muscle tissue.
There are several types of muscular dystrophies, including:
1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): This is the most common form of muscular dystrophy, affecting males primarily. It is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by progressive muscle weakness, wheelchair dependence, and shortened lifespan.
2. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD): This is a less severe form of muscular dystrophy than DMD, affecting both males and females. It is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by progressive muscle weakness, but with a milder course than DMD.
3. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD): This is a group of disorders that affect the muscles around the shoulders and hips, leading to progressive weakness and degeneration. There are several subtypes of LGMD, each with different symptoms and courses.
4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): This is a rare form of muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles of the face, shoulder, and upper arm. It is caused by a mutation in the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4.
5. Myotonic dystrophy: This is the most common adult-onset form of muscular dystrophy, affecting both males and females. It is characterized by progressive muscle stiffness, weakness, and wasting, as well as other symptoms such as cataracts, myotonia, and cognitive impairment.
There is currently no cure for muscular dystrophies, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include physical therapy, orthotics and assistive devices, medications to manage pain and other symptoms, and in some cases, surgery. Researchers are actively working to develop new treatments and a cure for muscular dystrophies, including gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and small molecule therapies.
It's important to note that muscular dystrophy can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner, depending on the specific type of dystrophy. This means that the risk of inheriting the condition depends on the mode of inheritance and the presence of mutations in specific genes.
In summary, muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. There are several types of muscular dystrophy, each with different symptoms and courses. While there is currently no cure for muscular dystrophy, various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Researchers are actively working to develop new treatments and a cure for muscular dystrophy.
Here are some possible causes of myoglobinuria:
1. Muscle injury or trauma: This can cause myoglobin to leak into the bloodstream and then into the urine.
2. Muscle disease: Certain muscle diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, can cause myoglobinuria.
3. Kidney damage: Myoglobin can accumulate in the kidneys and cause damage if the kidneys are not functioning properly.
4. Sepsis: Sepsis is a systemic infection that can cause muscle breakdown and myoglobinuria.
5. Burns: Severe burns can cause muscle damage and lead to myoglobinuria.
6. Heart attack: A heart attack can cause muscle damage and myoglobinuria.
7. Rhabdomyolysis: This is a condition where the muscles break down and release myoglobin into the bloodstream. It can be caused by various factors such as medication, infection, or injury.
Symptoms of myoglobinuria may include dark urine, proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), and kidney damage. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve supportive care, medication, or dialysis to remove waste products from the blood.
MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.
The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.
The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.
The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.
Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.
In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.
Glycosuria can also occur in healthy individuals who consume a diet high in sugar or refined carbohydrates, but this is not considered a pathological condition. In contrast, renal glycosuria is a sign of underlying kidney dysfunction and may be indicative of more severe complications if left untreated.
1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: This is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, caused by a defect in the DMD gene that codes for dystrophin protein. It affects boys primarily and can lead to progressive muscle weakness and wasting, as well as cardiac and other complications.
2. Becker muscular dystrophy: This is a milder form of muscular dystrophy than Duchenne, caused by a defect in the DMD gene that codes for dystrophin protein. It primarily affects boys but can also affect girls.
3. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: This is a group of disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration, particularly affecting the shoulder and pelvic girdles. There are several types of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, including type 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B.
4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: This is a type of muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles of the face, shoulder blades, and upper arms. It can cause progressive muscle weakness, wasting, and fatigue.
5. Myotonic muscular dystrophy: This is the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy, caused by a defect in the DMPK gene that codes for myotonia protein. It can cause progressive muscle stiffness, spasms, and weakness, as well as other complications such as cataracts and type 2 diabetes.
In animals, muscular dystrophy is similar to human forms of the disorder, caused by genetic mutations that affect muscle function and strength. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, and environmental exposures.
Symptoms of muscular dystrophy in animals can include:
1. Progressive muscle weakness and wasting
2. Loss of coordination and balance
3. Difficulty walking or running
4. Muscle cramps and spasms
5. Poor appetite and weight loss
6. Increased breathing rate and difficulty breathing
7. Cardiac problems, such as arrhythmias and heart failure
8. Cognitive decline and seizures
Diagnosis of muscular dystrophy in animals is similar to human patients, involving a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies, and muscle biopsy.
Treatment for muscular dystrophy in animals is limited, but may include:
1. Supportive care, such as antibiotics for respiratory infections and pain management
2. Physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and prevent deformities
3. Nutritional support to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration
4. Medications to manage symptoms such as muscle spasms and seizures
5. Assistive devices, such as wheelchairs or slings, to improve mobility and quality of life
Prevention of muscular dystrophy in animals is not possible at present, but research into the genetic causes and potential treatments for the disease is ongoing. It is important for pet owners to be aware of the signs of muscular dystrophy and seek veterinary care if they suspect their pet may be affected.
Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.
There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:
1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.
Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.
Creatine phosphate shuttle
Creatine methyl ester
Cerebral creatine deficiency
Creatine transporter defect
Sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1
Reference ranges for blood tests
National Museum of Natural History, France
List of OMIM disorder codes
Robert Roberts (cardiologist)
List of Haskell Indian Nations Fighting Indians head football coaches
The Boat Race 1993
Inclusion body myositis
Marie Maynard Daly
Management of depression
Chi Che Wang
ATP:guanido phosphotransferase family
Creatine: MedlinePlus Supplements
Creatine Doesn't Slow Parkinson's Progression
NHANES 2011-2012: Creatine Kinase Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
Creatine Kinase: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels
X-linked creatine deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics
Nomination Summary for Creatine, Bitter orange & Saw palmetto (N20414)
Creatine Deficiency Disorders - PubMed
Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches to Lower Blood Arsenic: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Creatine Deficiency Disorders - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf
Creatine Kinase: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels
X-linked creatine deficiency - Getting a Diagnosis - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center
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Creatine kinase brain overexpression protects colorectal cells from various metabolic and non-metabolic stresses.
Impact of Creatine Kinase Level in NSCLC Treated With TKIs
Nucleotide Search and Database Examples
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Subjects: Creatine -- analysis - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
7002. Pre-Creatine capsules. - FDA Notices of Judgment Collection, 1908-1966
LUM-001 as a Treatment for Creatine Transporter Deficiency | National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences
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- How creatine works against depression is not precisely known, but Renshaw and his colleagues suggest that the pro-energetic effect of creatine supplementation, including the making of more phosphocreatine, may contribute to the earlier and greater response to antidepressants. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vegetarians/ vegans have been reported to have naturally lower stores (90-110 mmol/kg of dry muscle) and may benefit from creatine supplementation most for normal functioning. (nfpt.com)
- Suffice it to say, there is an average at which the body measures for creatine levels without supplementation, but it does not reach the body's threshold of how much it is able to harbor. (nfpt.com)
- To affect athletic performance via increased ATP production and storage making slightly more energy available for intense exercise, additional supplementation of creatine appears to be a reasonable strategy. (nfpt.com)
- 2. Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not only safe, but possibly beneficial in regard to preventing injury and/or management of select medical conditions when taken within recommended guidelines. (springer.com)
- Ingesting smaller amounts of creatine monohydrate (e.g., 2-3 g/d) will increase muscle creatine stores over a 3-4 week period, however, the performance effects of this method of supplementation are less supported. (springer.com)
- 2. Creatine supplementation causes renal distress. (springer.com)
- 3. Creatine supplementation causes cramping, dehydration, and/or altered electrolyte status. (springer.com)
- 4. Long-term effects of creatine supplementation are completely unknown. (springer.com)
- The purpose of this review is to determine the present state of knowledge concerning creatine supplementation, so that reasonable guidelines may be established and unfounded fears diminished in regard to its use. (springer.com)
- Evidence to show that creatine supplementation could increase its content in the human brain is gathering pace but more studies are needed, a review has found. (nutraingredients.com)
- Published by researchers at Brandon University, Canada, the analysis looked at the current evidence surrounding creatine supplementation on total creatine and phophorylcreatine (PCr) content. (nutraingredients.com)
- Its main aim was to explore the guanidinoacetic acid (GAA - a creatine precursor) as an alternative or whether it could work with creatine supplementation on brain creatine uptake in relation to several brain-centred conditions. (nutraingredients.com)
- Creatine deficiency syndrome is characterised by mental and developmental disorders such as learning delays and seizures, but these can be partly reversed by creatine supplementation, previous studies have shown. (nutraingredients.com)
- The reviewers noted that beyond muscle, accumulating research shows that creatine supplementation and GAA can increase brain creatine content which may explain some of the initial benefits for those with depression, concussion and other cognitive issues but there is a lack of research with inconsistencies regarding the efficacy of creatine particularly when it comes to treating symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, anxiety, or PTSD. (nutraingredients.com)
- The bodybuilding community has trusted creatine supplementation for over a decade now, and for good reason - it flat-out works. (bodybuilding.com)
- Some research has shown that chronic supplementation with regular creatine can cause creatine transporter downgrade. (bodybuilding.com)
- 2] Some authors speculate that creatine supplementation of nursing mothers might help avoid creatine deficiency syndromes, but no studies are available that test this hypothesis. (nih.gov)
- 3] Until more data are available, it is probably best to avoid creatine supplementation unless it is prescribed by a healthcare professional. (nih.gov)
- Creatine supplementation has been shown to prevent the downregulation of GLUT4 transporters, maintained muscle glycogen content, and maintained muscle creatine content during the immobilization phase of recovery. (physio-pedia.com)
- Creatine supplementation also helped increase muscle GLUT4, muscle glycogen, and muscle creatine levels above baseline after three weeks of rehabilitation. (physio-pedia.com)
- ref name="Eijnde">Op't Eijnde B, Ursø B, Richter EA, Greenhaff PL, Hespel P. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12181151_Effect_of_Oral_Creatine_Supplementation_on_Human_Muscle_GLUT4_Protein_Content_After_Immobilization Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. (physio-pedia.com)
- nbsp;Creatine supplementation has also been proven not only to attenuate muscle atrophy during immobilization, but to stimulate muscle hypertrophy during rehabilitative strength training. (physio-pedia.com)
- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2278864/ Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. (physio-pedia.com)
- With these positive effects of creatine supplementation, rehabilitation professionals should consider implementing creatine supplementation into their interventions. (physio-pedia.com)
- Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men. (stack.com)
- British researchers found creatine supplementation to be useful for improving one's productivity at work, or in workouts, by testing kayakers. (wonderlabs.com)
- Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not effective in CTD because the creatine transporter gene is defective, preventing creatine from crossing the blood-brain barrier. (nih.gov)
- Currently, it is unclear whether creatine phosphokinase (CPK) affects bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. (nih.gov)
- Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- questions CKQ010 CKD070) collects survey participant interview data to help interpret NHANES laboratory data for serum Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK). (cdc.gov)
- A safety and clinical efficacy analysis of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies in patients with markedly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels. (bvsalud.org)
- PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are often used in statin -intolerant patients , aiming to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Along with the growing experience with their use, there is a lack of evidence regarding the safety , tolerability, and clinical utility of PCSK9i in patients with markedly elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. (bvsalud.org)
Effects of creatine5
- There is a plethora of existing evidence that proves the positive effects of creatine on skeletal muscle creatine levels, muscle mass and function in sports performance, strength, resistance to fatigue and exercise training. (nutraingredients.com)
- The researchers felt that because of the positive effects of creatine on muscle strength, mass and functionality, looking at its potential to mitigate disease-related physical impairments common in neurogenerative diseases was justified. (nutraingredients.com)
- The effects of creatine deficiency are most severe in organs and tissues that require large amounts of energy, especially the brain. (nih.gov)
- The fact is, you won't experience the incredible effects of creatine unless your muscular creatine concentrations reach optimal levels. (bodybuilding.com)
- The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research published a research study examining the effects of creatine, placebo maltodextrin, and creatine + sodium bicarbonate. (stack.com)
- Enhance your workout and build strength with these effective creatine supplements. (cnet.com)
- Creatine supplements are favored by athletes and bodybuilders, thanks to their ability to improve physical performance. (cnet.com)
- The good news is that creatine supplements are popular and they're some of the most scientifically researched supplements you can get. (cnet.com)
- Creatine supplements can vary in creatine type, form and price. (cnet.com)
- We curated a list of the best creatine supplements so you can find your ideal match. (cnet.com)
- Klean Athlete Klean Creatine is another one of the best creatine supplements. (cnet.com)
- So before we get into my top picks for creatine supplements, let's take a look at what creatine is and how it functions in the body. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Are Creatine Supplements Safe? (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Generally speaking, a large body of research on creatine supplements has suggested that 5 to 20 grams of creatine per day is very safe and without adverse side effects. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Are Creatine Supplements Effective? (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Of all the supplements out there, creatine really does pack on the punch. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Extensive studies have shown that creatine supplements significantly improve your body's response to resistance exercise and weight lifting. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- I'm actually going to recommend 4 top-selling creatine supplements. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Have any questions or feedback about creatine supplements? (weightlossandtraining.com)
- 5. At present, creatine monohydrate is the most extensively studied and clinically effective form of creatine for use in nutritional supplements in terms of muscle uptake and ability to increase high-intensity exercise capacity. (springer.com)
- 6. It's unethical and/or illegal to use creatine supplements. (springer.com)
- Due to this confounding information, combined with the fact that creatine has become one of the most popular nutritional supplements on the market, it is important to examine the primary literature on supplemental creatine ingestion in humans. (springer.com)
- The two most prevalent mental health conditions are depression and generalised anxiety disorder and deficiency in creatine can affect intellectual disability, language delay seizure disorders, autism spectrum disorders and various motor movement disorders with the primary treatment being creatine monohydrate supplements in an attempt to increase the content of creatine in the brain. (nutraingredients.com)
- Creatine Supplements Sale! (muscleandstrength.com)
- However the creatine supplements most people take are synthesized from sarcosine and cyanamide which does not contain any animal by-products. (articleinsider.com)
- Always check the labels of creatine supplements when looking for a vegan option. (articleinsider.com)
- Every person is different but typically it can range from 2 weeks to a month to start seeing results from taking creatine supplements. (articleinsider.com)
- Always focus on your individual fitness journey and health needs when taking creatine supplements. (articleinsider.com)
- That being said, you're in luck because as a supplement expert, I know how to get the best quality supplements, like in this creatine stack, so that you will have the best chance at having those supplements actually work. (proteinfactory.com)
- Australian researchers found that five grams of creatine supplements given to 45 test subjects over six weeks improved their mental acuity. (wonderlabs.com)
- The results of the Creatine Safety, Tolerability & Efficacy in Huntington's Disease (CREST-E) trial , funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) with support from the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, were published online in the journal Neurology on July 12, 2017. (nih.gov)
- It's 99.9% pure creatine and doesn't contain a bunch of additives, preservatives, or flavors. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Each serving of 5g contains no other ingredients, using pure creatine monohydrate with quick absorption. (articleinsider.com)
- 1. 100 percent pure creatine monohydrate - It's a white powder (not unlike baking soda) that is basically tasteless and odorless. (ironmagazine.com)
- In a new proof-of-concept study, researchers from three South Korean universities and the University of Utah report that women with major depressive disorder (MDD) who augmented their daily antidepressant with 5 grams of creatine responded twice as fast and experienced remission of the illness at twice the rate of women who took the antidepressant alone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- One scoop contains 5 grams of creatine and should be added to 8 ounces of liquid. (cnet.com)
- 7. The quickest method of increasing muscle creatine stores appears to be to consume ~0.3 grams/kg/day of creatine monohydrate for at least 3 days followed by 3-5 g/d thereafter to maintain elevated stores. (springer.com)
- Studies have shown that taking creatine with 50 grams or more of a carb like dextrose will be beneficial, however, it does come with some side effects. (proteinfactory.com)
- For example, most supplement manufacturers recommend 20 grams of creatine be taken in five-gram servings for five to seven days followed by five grams per day after that. (ironmagazine.com)
- Loading creatine with 20 grams and maintaining with five grams is the most common recommended protocol and the one that has been deemed safe through longer-term studies. (ironmagazine.com)
Increased creatine kinase1
- When I received the discharge instructions for Pogo it stated that he had slightly increased creatine kinase and AST numbers. (greytalk.com)
- After this period of sustained muscle contractions, ATP in the working muscle is exhausted and the cells resort to the use of Creatine Phosphate and ADP to create more ATP, providing energy for about another 25-30 seconds. (nfpt.com)
- The encoded protein reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens such as creatine phosphate. (novusbio.com)
- The phosphate group in creatine allows for a donation of a single phosphate molecule to the energy by-product of ATP. (stack.com)
- That single phosphate from creatine has the opportunity to bind with ADP + P to create new ATP! (stack.com)
- Research is still being done on creatine in terms of the effects it has on the human body, but one thing we know, per webmd.com , is that once it is ingested, it is converted into creatine phosphate, which in turn is involved in the production of adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), which provides the energy for muscle contractions. (wonderlabs.com)
- Creatine kinases are a small family of related genes whose protein products generate phosphocreatine, which serves as a source of high energy phosphate for rapid regeneration of ATP. (nih.gov)
- The review highlighted robust evidence that clearly demonstrated the importance of creatine on cognitive function for individuals with creatine deficient syndromes, known to deplete brain creatine stores. (nutraingredients.com)
- Braissant O, Henry H, Beard E, Uldry J. Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain. (nih.gov)
- Biochemical, molecular, and clinical diagnoses of patients with cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes. (nih.gov)
- Creatine and guanidinoacetate content of human milk and infant formulas: implications for creatine deficiency syndromes and amino acid metabolism. (nih.gov)
- This condition is now known as CTD and is one of three creatine deficiency syndromes. (nih.gov)
- The creatine deficiency syndromes are considered rare disorders and have autism-like features. (nih.gov)
- Two parallel groups of patients with brain creatine deficiency syndromes (GAMT and AGAT), which have similar clinical manifestations as CTD, show significant clinical improvement when supplemented with creatine monohydrate. (nih.gov)
Form of creatine4
- It contains only creatine monohydrate , the most well-researched and effective form of creatine on the market. (cnet.com)
- Essentially, a more concentrated form of creatine is included here, but you're getting the same punch as any powdered option. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Kaged Muscle C-HCL is a patented form of Creatine HCl that dissolves in water, and is ready to drink immediately. (articleinsider.com)
- Participants were randomized to receive either a purified form of creatine (up to 40 g/day) or a matching placebo for up to 4 years of treatment. (nih.gov)
- A large percentage (about 65%) of total creatine is in the form of phosphocreatine (PCr)-the form able to be highly mobilized for energy production. (nfpt.com)
- The idea is that by taking a larger amount of creatine, you can super-saturate the muscle and increase the total creatine pool. (ironmagazine.com)
- A 1996 study showed that ingesting a carbohydrate solution with creatine promoted a 60 percent greater increase in total creatine concentrations in the muscle, compared with taking creatine alone. (ironmagazine.com)
- Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. (cdc.gov)
Micronized Creatine Powder2
- The group that received creatine showed significantly higher improvement rates on the HDRS at two and four weeks (32 percent and 68 percent) compared to the placebo group (3.7 percent and 29 percent). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- With a higher creatine concentration in the muscle, strength and power performance is significantly enhanced. (bodybuilding.com)
- Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with sprint 1, in both placebo and creatine. (stack.com)
- However, in creatine + sodium bicarbonate, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. (stack.com)
- Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in creatine + sodium bicarbonate (10%), compared with in placebo and creatine, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6. (stack.com)
- A New Jersey study cited by mensfitness.com says that participants in a 10-week resistance training program taking a daily creatine supplement saw their resting testosterone levels boosted significantly. (wonderlabs.com)
- However, the numbers of serious adverse events and deaths did not differ significantly between the creatine and placebo groups. (nih.gov)
- Variants (also known as mutations) in the SLC6A8 gene cause X-linked creatine deficiency. (nih.gov)
- The SLC6A8 gene provides instructions for making a protein that transports a compound called creatine into cells. (nih.gov)
- SLC6A8 gene variants impair the transporter protein's ability to bring creatine into cells, resulting in a shortage (deficiency) of creatine. (nih.gov)
- X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) mutations in about 1% of males with mental retardation of unknown etiology. (nih.gov)
- Treatment of X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency: systematic review of the literature and three new cases. (nih.gov)
- Mutations in SLC6A8 are the second most common cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID), and these mutations have been linked to creatine deficiency in the brain. (nih.gov)
- Using an SLC6A8-luciferase fusion, we found that creatine inhibits SLC6A8 expression. (nih.gov)
- Thus, the encoded uORF peptide, nearly identical from lamprey to human, is critical for creatine control of SLC6A8 expression. (nih.gov)
- We propose that creatine interaction with the nascent peptide in the ribosome exit tunnel causes an elongation pause during translation of the uORF and prevents ribosomes from accessing and translating the SLC6A8 ORF. (nih.gov)
- SLC6A8 ), which resulted in the expression of a truncated (non-functional) creatine transporter protein. (nih.gov)
- For this reason, creatine has become a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who are trying to add muscle mass or improve athletic ability. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This creatine supplement is NSF Certified for Sport , meaning it was tested and proven to have no banned substances for competitive athletes. (cnet.com)
- As a supplement, creatine has been used for many decades by athletes, weightlifters, and wrestlers to assist in muscle gains. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- 1. Creatine monohydrate is the most effective ergogenic nutritional supplement currently available to athletes in terms of increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and lean body mass during training. (springer.com)
- This premium creatine supplement is a top pick for athletes because of the rigorous quality testing it undergoes. (articleinsider.com)
- With all the scientific support behind a compound like creatine it's no wonder it has become a staple in the supplement regimen of most bodybuilders and power athletes. (bodybuilding.com)
- Athletes or individuals who enjoy exercising may not have to face losses in muscle strength during an injury, and their prognosis may be better after rehabilitation if they supplement with creatine during their time being injured. (physio-pedia.com)
- Athletes who have taken creatine monohydrate know that it works, although they may not understand the science behind it. (stack.com)
- Athletes looking for a legal boost in their performance have known for years about the benefits of creatine . (wonderlabs.com)
- Athletes participating in sports where short bursts of power are vital - such as weightlifting, sprints, football, baseball and gymnastics - can find creatine quite useful, to a certain degree. (wonderlabs.com)
Amount of creatine2
- The creatine powder from Thorne is our pick for the best overall creatine supplement. (cnet.com)
- BulkSupplements Creatine Monohydrate Powder may help to increase power output during high-intensity workouts. (articleinsider.com)
- Unlike regular creatine monohydrate powder, our powder leaves no sediment or wasted creatine behind. (articleinsider.com)
- Optimum Nutrition micronized creatine monohydrate powder is the perfect supplement for anyone looking to increase energy. (articleinsider.com)
- Beast Sports' popular Creature Powder gives you five types of creatine in one scoop. (articleinsider.com)
- Most powder forms are vegan friendly but the pill forms of creatine may contain some ingredients such as bovine gelatine that aren't vegan. (articleinsider.com)
- The type of creatine (powder or pill) and the quality of it are a few factors that you should look into if you are wanting to see quicker results. (articleinsider.com)
- The study's findings do not support the use of creatine for delaying functional decline in patients with early symptoms of Huntington's disease. (nih.gov)
- CREST-E was initiated based on preclinical and clinical data that showed creatine to have promise in slowing the progression of symptoms of Huntington's disease. (nih.gov)
- In addition, CREST-E has contributed to the understanding of the safety and tolerability of creatine in people with Huntington's disease. (nih.gov)
- In CREST-E, which tested a higher dose of creatine than those used in previous Huntington's disease studies, adverse events (mainly gastrointestinal symptoms) were more common in participants taking creatine than in those taking a placebo. (nih.gov)
- Generally, supplementing creatine means getting about 2-3 times the amount that could be consumed in a high-protein diet. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Creatine is defined as a non-protein amino acid compound found exclusively in vertebrate animals and functions in the formation and recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in muscle cells and also to a lesser extent, testes, heart, and brain tissue. (nfpt.com)
- 6. The addition of carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein to a creatine supplement appears to increase muscular retention of creatine, although the effect on performance measures may not be greater than using creatine monohydrate alone. (springer.com)
- Regular creatine requires a creatine transporter protein (CreaT) for its uptake into muscle cells. (bodybuilding.com)
- Creatine serves as a crucial energy source in the brain, and it is delivered to brain tissue by a specialized transport protein. (nih.gov)
- This research shows that adding sodium bicarbonate could improve the efficacy of creatine. (stack.com)
- It has a wealth of advantages over regular creatine that any bodybuilder, powerlifter, or athlete can certainly use to help make incredible gains in muscular size and strength. (bodybuilding.com)
- As already explained, creatine-AKG transports more creatine directly into muscle cells and this results in a higher muscular creatine concentration. (bodybuilding.com)
- However, studies have shown that supplementing with 3g of creatine for 14 and 30 days provide less muscular retention of creatine than 20g for only five days. (ironmagazine.com)
- Creatine is an organic compound in our bodies, found primarily in our muscles. (cnet.com)
- When our muscles need additional energy that can't be provided directly by oxygen (as in repeated or sustained muscle contractions), creatine is one of the chemicals used to help our muscles meet these increased demands. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- The only purpose and benefit of supplementing on rest days is to keep the levels of creatine in your muscles elevated. (articleinsider.com)
- On the contrary, creatine promotes and supports growth by helping to strengthen and repair muscles. (articleinsider.com)
- Since AKG is a Krebs cycle intermediate it can easily enter muscle cells, bringing with it more creatine directly into targeted cells (i.e., your muscles). (bodybuilding.com)
- Creatine is believed to enhance strength and increase lean muscle mass, while helping our muscles recover quicker during intense exercise. (wonderlabs.com)
- The sugar increases insulin, which transports creatine into the muscles. (ironmagazine.com)
- The insulin is responsible for getting nutrients (i.e. creatine) to the muscles. (ironmagazine.com)
- About half of the creatine stored in the body is obtained from amino acids consumed in meats and other proteins. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Creatine, a nitrogenous organic compound derived from reactions involving the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine, is important for resynthesising ATP, the principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells. (nutraingredients.com)
- Creatine is a combination of amino acids produced by the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. (articleinsider.com)
- 1] Milk levels of creatine have not been measured after exogenous administration in humans. (nih.gov)
- When insulin levels are affected creatine will be absorbed better. (proteinfactory.com)
- Accordingly, high levels of creatine feedback inhibit expression of the creatine transporter, providing tight homeostatic control of cellular creatine levels. (nih.gov)
- Creatine monohydrate sounds complicated, but it's just a creatinine molecule matched up with a water molecule. (cnet.com)
- Furthermore, about 1-2% of intramuscular creatine is metabolically broken down into creatinine and excreted through the urine. (nfpt.com)
- Creatine is converted into creatinine in the mother's and infant's bodies. (nih.gov)
- The combination of creatine and a citrus drink may result in some breakdown of the product, converting creatine into creatinine, which is useless to your body. (ironmagazine.com)
- As it turns out, creatine has all sorts of other benefits besides helping bodybuilders squeeze out a few more reps. (nfpt.com)
- The phosphocreatine methylene peak at 3.93 ppm and creatine methylene peak at 3.92 ppm are clearly resolved. (nih.gov)
- Twenty-five of the women received creatine with the Lexapro and 27 were given a placebo . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Neither the study participants nor the researchers knew who received creatine or placebo. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Eight women in the creatine group and five in the placebo group did not finish the trial, leaving a total of 39 participants. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Participants were interviewed at the start of the trial to establish baselines for their depression, and then were checked at two, four, and eight weeks to see how they'd responded to Lexapro plus creatine or Lexapro and a placebo. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- At the end of eight weeks, half of those in the creatine group showed no signs of depression compared with one-quarter in the placebo group. (medicalnewstoday.com)
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- 9. Creatine monohydrate has been reported to have a number of potentially beneficial uses in several clinical populations, and further research is warranted in these areas. (springer.com)
- 5. Newer creatine formulations are more beneficial than creatine monohydrate (CM) and cause fewer side effects. (springer.com)
- Studies have shown that creatine monohydrate post-workout could be more beneficial. (proteinfactory.com)
- Although I have no scientific evidence to prove Dr. Serrano's system is better, I believe that using body weight and cycling creatine is more beneficial than the standard 20g-load/5g maintenance protocol. (ironmagazine.com)
- The study was stopped early, in late 2014, on the recommendation of the study's independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) because a planned interim analysis had indicated with high confidence that the study, if completed, would not show a beneficial effect of creatine. (nih.gov)
Found in red meat2
- Women battling stubborn major depression may have a surprising new ally in their fight - the muscle-building dietary supplement creatine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 8. Creatine products are readily available as a dietary supplement and are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . (springer.com)
Heard of creatine2
- If you've ever explored the world of resistance training with weights, then you've probably heard of creatine, and creatine is definitely making waves for women into fitness as well. (weightlossandtraining.com)
- Most fitness enthusiasts who have had their sights set high on muscle growth have certainly heard of creatine if they aren't already taking it. (nfpt.com)
Forms of creatine1
- One of the most innovative and increasingly popular forms of creatine available today is creatine alpha-ketoglutarate (a.k.a., creatine-AKG). (bodybuilding.com)
Adverse side effects1
- There were no significant adverse side effects associated with creatine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Elevation of serum creatine kinase - Patients taking PRIALT may experience elevations in creatine kinase. (nih.gov)
- The discovery of inborn errors of metabolism involving creatine synthesis (two other disorders are readily reversed with creatine treatment) and transport, as well as the use of creatine transporter knockouts that model the phenotype of these diseases, provide compelling evidence suggesting that the creatine/PCr/CK system plays a critical role in normal brain function. (nih.gov)
- Creatine transporter knockout mice were treated with LUM-001, a repurposed small molecule that was shown to be capable of (1) getting across the blood brain barrier and (2) improving brain metabolism and cognitive function of the mice. (nih.gov)
- 3. Creatine and insulin mimicking agents - Agents that mimic insulin, such as Alpha-lipoic acid, have an effect similar to sugar on your body. (ironmagazine.com)
- Humans have five distinct creatine kinase genes that are expressed in various cell types. (nih.gov)
- Simply put, creatine-AKG is creatine attached to an alpha-ketoglutarate molecule. (bodybuilding.com)
- There is a specific reason why creatine has been bound to the AKG molecule. (bodybuilding.com)
- This illustration shows how the AKG molecule helps transport two creatine molecules into the muscle fiber where they eventually split and perform their functions. (bodybuilding.com)
- Beard E, Braissant O. Synthesis and transport of creatine in the CNS: importance for cerebral functions. (nih.gov)
- Should I take creatine on off days? (articleinsider.com)
- No need to load creatine due to the accumulated effect. (anabolicminds.com)
- The common practice for taking creatine is to "load" creatine for five to seven days, then continue to take a "maintenance" amount indefinitely. (ironmagazine.com)
- Another reason I prefer Dr. Serrano's system is that you cycle off and re-load creatine periodically. (ironmagazine.com)
- In other words, if you are not concerned about how big your gut gets in a week's time, and you want to load creatine, this is a proven method. (ironmagazine.com)
- However, the review team believes research is very limited regarding the impact of creatine on brain creatine and brain function including cognitive processing and recovery from brain injury. (nutraingredients.com)
- After analysing several studies, the researchers concluded that while there is a possible role for creatine in the treatment of various forms of depression but much larger-scale, randomised studies are needed and should include measures of brain creatine. (nutraingredients.com)