An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.
Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.
This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A FLAVOPROTEIN, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of SARCOSINE to GLYCINE; FORMALDEHYDE; and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H2O2).
Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (1/1169)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Separation of urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sodium cholate. (2/1169)

The capillary electrophoretic separation of the four nonprotein nitrogenous compounds (NPNs; urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine) typically employed in clinical and medical settings for the monitoring of renal function is described. Successful resolution of these compounds is achieved with the use of a bile salt micelle system composed of sodium cholate at phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The elution patterns of four NPNs are obtained within 30 min with a voltage of 30 kV. The effect of varying the applied voltage, temperature, and the mole ratio of phosphate buffer with bile salt surfactant on the migration behavior is also examined.  (+info)

Shortening of muscle relaxation time after creatine loading. (3/1169)

The effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on muscle isometric torque generation and relaxation was investigated in healthy male volunteers. Maximal torque (Tmax), contraction time (CT) from 0.25 to 0.75 of Tmax, and relaxation time (RT) from 0.75 to 0.25 of Tmax were measured during 12 maximal isometric 3-s elbow flexions interspersed by 10-s rest intervals. Between the pretest and the posttest, subjects ingested Cr monohydrate (4 x 5 g/day; n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) for 5 days. Pretest Tmax, CT, and RT were similar in Cr and placebo groups. Also in the posttest, Tmax and CT were similar between groups. However, posttest RT was decreased consistently by approximately 20% (P < 0.05) in the Cr group from the first to the last of the 12 contractions. In addition, the mean decrease in RT after Cr loading was positively correlated with pretest RT (r = 0.82). It is concluded that Cr loading facilitates the rate of muscle relaxation during brief isometric muscle contractions without affecting torque production.  (+info)

Absolute quantification of brain metabolites by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis patients. (4/1169)

The aim of this research was to obtain an absolute quantification of the N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine levels in normal-appearing white matter by means of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a group of multiple sclerosis patients (27 with the relapsing-remitting form and 13 with the secondary progressive form). These values were compared with those of a group of 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. A significant decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration was found in normal-appearing white matter of frontal and parietal brain areas in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the same areas in control subjects. This reduction was more evident in progressive patients. The decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration in normal-appearing white matter significantly correlated with the Expanded Disability Status and the lesional load. No significant change was found in the concentration of creatine or choline. This finding concurs with previous evidence of heterogeneity in the multiple sclerosis pathological process which is not confined to the lesions and involves not only myelin, but also axons, even in white matter which appears normal on MRI.  (+info)

Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and energy dissipation by H+ ion recycling in rat-liver mitochondrial metabolizing pyruvate. (5/1169)

A method was developed for the calculation of metabolic fluxes through individual enzymatic reactions of pyruvate metabolism including the citric acid cycle in rat liver mitochondrial incubated at metabolic states between state 4 and state 3. This method is based on the measurement of the specific radioactivities of the products formed from [2-14C]pyruvate. With this procedure the energy balance of mitochondria incubated in the presence of [2-14C]pyruvate, ATP, bicarbonate and phosphate at different ATP/ADP ratios in the medium was calculated. The ATP/ADP ratios were maintained at a steady state with creatine kinase plus creatine as a phosphoryl acceptor. The calculations revealed that by adding increasing concentrations of creatine up to 20 mM the energy dissipated by the mitochondria decreased but showed a local maximum at 13mM creatine. Omission of bicarbonate from the medium led to a shift of this maximum. When energy dissipation was minimal the overall P/O ratio was maximal. The amount of energy dissipated was paralleled by the magnitude of the pH gradient across the inner membrane. From these results it was concluded that the recycling of H+ ions which consists of a passive leakage of H+ ions into the matrix and an active extrusion of these ions out of this compartment, is an important energy dissipating process. The H+ ion recycling is thus one of the processes which give rise to the state 4 respiration in mitochondria.  (+info)

Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in congestive heart failure detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (6/1169)

OBJECTIVES: Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated cerebral metabolism and its determinants in congestive heart failure (CHF), and the effects of cardiac transplantation on these measurements. BACKGROUND: Few data are available about cerebral metabolism in CHF. METHODS: Fifty patients with CHF (ejection fraction < or = 35%) and 20 healthy volunteers were included for this study. Of the patients, 10 patients underwent heart transplantation. All subjects performed symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was obtained from localized regions (8 to 10 ml) of occipital gray matter (OGM) and parietal white matter (PWM). Absolute levels of the metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol) were calculated. RESULTS: In PWM only creatine level was significantly lower in CHF than in control subjects, but in OGM all four metabolite levels were decreased in CHF. The creatine level was independently correlated with half-recovery time and duration of heart failure symptoms in PWM (r = -0.56, p < 0.05), and with peak oxygen consumption and serum sodium concentration in OGM (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Cerebral metabolic abnormalities were improved after successful cardiac transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that cerebral metabolism is abnormally deranged in advanced CHF and it may serve as a potential marker of the disease severity.  (+info)

Effect of thrombin inhibition in vascular dementia and silent cerebrovascular disease. An MR spectroscopy study. (7/1169)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Silent cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been proposed as a predisposing condition for clinically overt stroke and vascular dementia. Recently, we found increased thrombin generation in silent CVD patients. Here, we report the effect of thrombin inhibition using a potent selective thrombin inhibitor on the cerebral metabolism and function in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients with or without silent CVD. METHODS: We examined 17 mild chronic PAOD patients, including 2 cases of vascular dementia. We divided the patients into 2 groups: 1 was the advanced CVD group with multiple lacunar infarction and/or advanced periventricular hyperintensity detected by brain MRI (n=12), and the other was the no CVD group that had none of these abnormalities (n=5). We assessed the cerebral biochemical compounds in the deep white matter area and cerebellar hemisphere (8 cm3) by proton MR spectroscopy before and after infusion of argatroban (10 mg/d IV) over 2 hours for 7 days. RESULTS: The ratio of N-acetylasparate (NAA) to total creatine (Cre) in the deep white matter area was significantly lower in the advanced CVD group than in the no CVD group, whereas there were no significant differences in this ratio in the cerebellar hemisphere between the 2 groups. In the former group, this decreased NAA/Cre ratio significantly increased after argatroban therapy, whereas there was no change in the latter group. The 2 patients with vascular dementia showed clinical improvement with marked increases in the NAA/Cre ratio and mini-mental score. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased thrombin generation may have some pathophysiological roles in developing vascular dementia and its chronic predisposing conditions. Thrombin inhibition may break this vicious cycle and lead to clinical improvement.  (+info)

Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with complex partial seizures: single-voxel spectroscopy versus chemical-shift imaging. (8/1169)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proton MR spectroscopy has recently been applied to the evaluation of seizures, but few comparisons have been made between different clinical spectroscopic techniques. Our goal was to determine whether there is a significant difference between hippocampal NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios obtained by single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and by chemical-shift imaging (CSI). METHODS: Twelve healthy adults and eight patients with complex partial seizures were studied on a 1.5-T MR scanner using a proton SVS method. Another 12 healthy adults and 10 patients with complex partial seizures were recruited for a proton CSI study, which was performed on a different 1.5-T MR system. The NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio was calculated from the integral peak areas by curve fitting. The two-tailed t-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean value +/- standard deviation of the hippocampal NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio in healthy control subjects was 0.63 +/- 0.07 by SVS, with 0.62 +/- 0.15 for the anterior hippocampus and 0.65 +/- 0.11 for the posterior hippocampus by CSI. There was no significant difference between the control group data obtained by SVS and those by CSI, nor was there a regional difference in the CSI NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio in the hippocampus. Relative to the control group, the patients with seizures had a significant decrease in the NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio in the abnormal hippocampus: -28% by SVS, and -24% in the anterior hippocampus and -18% in the posterior hippocampus by CSI. Proton SVS and CSI detected hippocampal abnormalities, unilateral or bilateral, in all patients of each group. CONCLUSION: Under similar measurement conditions, proton SVS and CSI provide similar NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios among healthy control subjects, and they possess comparable ability for detecting hippocampal abnormalities in patients with complex partial seizures.  (+info)

Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.

Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:

1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.

If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.

1. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration.
2. Myopathy: A condition where the muscles become damaged or diseased, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and muscle stiffness.
4. Rhabdomyolysis: A condition where the muscle tissue is damaged, leading to the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream and potentially causing kidney damage.
5. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis: Inflammatory conditions that affect the muscles and skin.
6. Muscle strain: A common injury caused by overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers.
7. Cervical dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles.
8. Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.
9. Oculopharyngeal myopathy: A condition characterized by weakness of the muscles used for swallowing and eye movements.
10. Inclusion body myositis: An inflammatory condition that affects the muscles, leading to progressive muscle weakness and wasting.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of muscular diseases that can affect individuals. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options. It's important for individuals experiencing muscle weakness or wasting to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate care.

1. Polymyositis: This is an inflammatory disease that affects the muscles and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.
2. Dercum's disease: This is a rare condition that causes fatty degeneration of the muscles, leading to muscle pain, weakness, and wasting.
3. Inflammatory myopathy: This is a group of conditions that cause inflammation in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and pain.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory condition that affects both the skin and the muscles, causing skin rashes and muscle weakness.
5. Juvenile myositis: This is a rare condition that affects children and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.

The symptoms of myositis can vary depending on the type of condition and its severity. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue. Other symptoms may include skin rashes, fever, and joint pain.

The diagnosis of myositis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and muscle biopsies. Treatment for myositis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected muscle tissue.

There are several types of muscular dystrophies, including:

1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): This is the most common form of muscular dystrophy, affecting males primarily. It is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by progressive muscle weakness, wheelchair dependence, and shortened lifespan.
2. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD): This is a less severe form of muscular dystrophy than DMD, affecting both males and females. It is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by progressive muscle weakness, but with a milder course than DMD.
3. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD): This is a group of disorders that affect the muscles around the shoulders and hips, leading to progressive weakness and degeneration. There are several subtypes of LGMD, each with different symptoms and courses.
4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): This is a rare form of muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles of the face, shoulder, and upper arm. It is caused by a mutation in the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4.
5. Myotonic dystrophy: This is the most common adult-onset form of muscular dystrophy, affecting both males and females. It is characterized by progressive muscle stiffness, weakness, and wasting, as well as other symptoms such as cataracts, myotonia, and cognitive impairment.

There is currently no cure for muscular dystrophies, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include physical therapy, orthotics and assistive devices, medications to manage pain and other symptoms, and in some cases, surgery. Researchers are actively working to develop new treatments and a cure for muscular dystrophies, including gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and small molecule therapies.

It's important to note that muscular dystrophy can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner, depending on the specific type of dystrophy. This means that the risk of inheriting the condition depends on the mode of inheritance and the presence of mutations in specific genes.

In summary, muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. There are several types of muscular dystrophy, each with different symptoms and courses. While there is currently no cure for muscular dystrophy, various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Researchers are actively working to develop new treatments and a cure for muscular dystrophy.

Here are some possible causes of myoglobinuria:

1. Muscle injury or trauma: This can cause myoglobin to leak into the bloodstream and then into the urine.
2. Muscle disease: Certain muscle diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, can cause myoglobinuria.
3. Kidney damage: Myoglobin can accumulate in the kidneys and cause damage if the kidneys are not functioning properly.
4. Sepsis: Sepsis is a systemic infection that can cause muscle breakdown and myoglobinuria.
5. Burns: Severe burns can cause muscle damage and lead to myoglobinuria.
6. Heart attack: A heart attack can cause muscle damage and myoglobinuria.
7. Rhabdomyolysis: This is a condition where the muscles break down and release myoglobin into the bloodstream. It can be caused by various factors such as medication, infection, or injury.

Symptoms of myoglobinuria may include dark urine, proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), and kidney damage. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve supportive care, medication, or dialysis to remove waste products from the blood.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

Glycosuria can also occur in healthy individuals who consume a diet high in sugar or refined carbohydrates, but this is not considered a pathological condition. In contrast, renal glycosuria is a sign of underlying kidney dysfunction and may be indicative of more severe complications if left untreated.

1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: This is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, caused by a defect in the DMD gene that codes for dystrophin protein. It affects boys primarily and can lead to progressive muscle weakness and wasting, as well as cardiac and other complications.
2. Becker muscular dystrophy: This is a milder form of muscular dystrophy than Duchenne, caused by a defect in the DMD gene that codes for dystrophin protein. It primarily affects boys but can also affect girls.
3. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: This is a group of disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration, particularly affecting the shoulder and pelvic girdles. There are several types of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, including type 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B.
4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: This is a type of muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles of the face, shoulder blades, and upper arms. It can cause progressive muscle weakness, wasting, and fatigue.
5. Myotonic muscular dystrophy: This is the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy, caused by a defect in the DMPK gene that codes for myotonia protein. It can cause progressive muscle stiffness, spasms, and weakness, as well as other complications such as cataracts and type 2 diabetes.

In animals, muscular dystrophy is similar to human forms of the disorder, caused by genetic mutations that affect muscle function and strength. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, and environmental exposures.

Symptoms of muscular dystrophy in animals can include:

1. Progressive muscle weakness and wasting
2. Loss of coordination and balance
3. Difficulty walking or running
4. Muscle cramps and spasms
5. Poor appetite and weight loss
6. Increased breathing rate and difficulty breathing
7. Cardiac problems, such as arrhythmias and heart failure
8. Cognitive decline and seizures

Diagnosis of muscular dystrophy in animals is similar to human patients, involving a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies, and muscle biopsy.

Treatment for muscular dystrophy in animals is limited, but may include:

1. Supportive care, such as antibiotics for respiratory infections and pain management
2. Physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and prevent deformities
3. Nutritional support to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration
4. Medications to manage symptoms such as muscle spasms and seizures
5. Assistive devices, such as wheelchairs or slings, to improve mobility and quality of life

Prevention of muscular dystrophy in animals is not possible at present, but research into the genetic causes and potential treatments for the disease is ongoing. It is important for pet owners to be aware of the signs of muscular dystrophy and seek veterinary care if they suspect their pet may be affected.

Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.

There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.

Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.

Skeletal muscle total creatine content and creatine transporter gene expression in vegetarians prior to and following creatine ... It has been shown that once supplementation of creatine stops, muscle creatine stores return to baseline in 4-6 weeks. Creatine ... A cyclic form of creatine, called creatinine, exists in equilibrium with its tautomer and with creatine. Creatine is ... Persky AM, Rawson ES (2007). "Safety of creatine supplementation". Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease. ...
... in the blood may be high in health and disease. Exercise increases the outflow of creatine kinase to the blood ... Thus creatine kinase is an important enzyme in such tissues. Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC expressed ... Brewster LM (June 2020). "Creatine Extracellular creatine kinase may modulate purinergic signalling". Purinergic Signalling. 16 ...
... (macro-CK) is a macroenzyme, an enzyme of high molecular weight and prolonged half-life found in human ... Zhang, L; Han, F; Liu, X; Xie, C; Tian, K; Bi, Q; Hao, M; Mu, X (6 August 2020). "Macro creatine kinase in an asymptomatic ... Macro-CK type 1 is a complex formed by one of the creatine kinase isoenzyme types, typically CK-BB, and antibodies; typically ... Horino, T; Ichii, O; Ode-Hamada, K; Terada, Y (1 September 2017). "Macromolecular creatine kinase type 1 in immune-mediated ...
"Creatine-creatine phosphate shuttle modeled as two-compartment system at different levels of creatine kinase activity" (PDF). ... "The Creatine-Creatine Phosphate Shuttle for Energy Transport - Compartmentation of Creatine Phosphokinase in Muscle". ... "The Creatine-Creatine Phosphate Shuttle for Energy Transport - Compartmentation of Creatine Phosphokinase in Muscle", ... Bessman, S P; Carpenter, C L (June 1985). "The Creatine-Creatine Phosphate Energy Shuttle". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 54 ( ...
It can be prepared by the esterification of creatine with methanol. Creatine ethyl ester Process for preparation of creatine ... Creatine methyl ester is the methyl ester derivative of the amino acid creatine. ...
Cerebral creatine deficiencies are a small group of inherited disorders that result from defects in creatine biosynthesis and ... Creatine is produced by the enzyme guanidinoacetate methyltransferase. After production in the liver and kidneys, creatine is ... Braissant, O.; Henry, H.; Béard, E.; Uldry, J. P. (2011). "Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine ... Ornithine aminotransferase deficiency can cause secondary creatine deficiency, however it does not result in cerebral creatine ...
Creatine-alpha-ketoglutarate is a salt formed from alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) and creatine. Creatine is a mass-produced ... Creatine requires a delivery system for cell uptake an example of which is Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate. Arginine alpha- ... Results of this experiment has shown that creatine-alpha-ketoglutarate used as a dietary supplement has shown to increase ... Silber, M. L.; Blake, P. A.; Schroeder, F. J. (May 1999). "The Alpha-Ketoglutarate Delivering System for Creatine Supplements ...
Creatine transporter deficiency (CTD) is an inborn error of creatine metabolism in which creatine is not properly transported ... creatine utilizes creatine transporter (CRT). When present at the BBB, CRT mediates the passage of creatine from the blood to ... Given the major role that the BBB has in the transport of creatine to the brain and unresponsiveness of oral creatine ... When being transported from the blood to the brain, creatine has to constantly move against the creatine concentration gradient ...
2001). "X-linked creatine-transporter gene (SLC6A8) defect: a new creatine-deficiency syndrome". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68 (6): ... 2002). "X-linked creatine deficiency syndrome: a novel mutation in creatine transporter gene SLC6A8". Ann. Neurol. 52 (2): 227- ... 2006). "X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) mutations in about 1% of males with mental retardation of unknown etiology". Hum ... 2006). "X-linked creatine transporter deficiency: clinical description of a patient with a novel SLC6A8 gene mutation". ...
"Creatine kinase". GPnotebook. Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of ...
2003). "Creatine depletion in a new case with AGAT deficiency: clinical and genetic study in a large pedigree". Mol. Genet. ... Schulze A (2003). "Creatine deficiency syndromes". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 244 (1-2): 143-50. doi:10.1023/A:1022443503883. PMID ... 2002). "Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Creatine Deficiency Syndromes v t e (Genes on human chromosome 15, All stub articles, Human ...
Wyss M, Kaddurah-Daouk R (July 2000). "Creatine and creatinine metabolism". Physiol. Rev. 80 (3): 1107-213. doi:10.1152/physrev ... the enzyme is also indirectly connected to the creatine cycle and the respiratory chain in the mitochondria (See figure 4 for ...
Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial, also called ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK), is in humans encoded by ... Creatine+Kinase,+Mitochondrial+Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Stachowiak O, Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T (July 1998). "Oligomeric state and membrane binding behaviour of creatine ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ...
Supplementation of creatine increases skeletal muscle creatine levels, this boosts performance by increasing the rate at which ... Creatine is currently not recognized as a prohibited substance and can be purchased as a legal dietary supplement. Human Growth ... Creatine: one of the most popular nutritional supplements, it contributes to 400 million dollars in sales globally every year. ... Human biomolecules - creatine and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate are naturally occurring compounds in humans that have well- ...
Creatine kinase, muscle also known as MCK is a creatine kinase that in humans is encoded by the MCK gene. In the figure to the ... phosphate between ATP and creatine and between phospho-creatine and ADP. Its functional entity is a MM-CK homodimer in striated ... "The generation of the oxidized form of creatine kinase is a negative regulation on muscle creatine kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 282 ... Creatine+Kinase,+MM+Form at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CKM genome location and ...
and to isolate creatine. His theories of color "provided the scientific basis for Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painting ... "An Introduction to Creatine". 2016-11-23. Itten, Johannes, The Art of Color, New York, 1961 Henri Becquerel - Biographical ...
Sometimes this is achieved by using nitrate salts of other ingredients (e.g. arginine nitrate, creatine nitrate). Creatine, a ... Creatine has been proven to improve physical performance as well as increase strength, under some circumstances. β-Alanine is ... Pre-workout supplements contain a variety of ingredients such as caffeine and creatine, ranging by product. It can be taken in ... Some ingredients such as caffeine, creatine and β-alanine are found in nearly all pre-workout blends, but each branded product ...
Some weight trainers also take ergogenic aids such as creatine or anabolic steroids to aid muscle growth. The effects of ... Butts, Jessica; Jacobs, Bret; Silvis, Matthew (2017). "Creatine Use in Sports". Sports Health. 10 (1): 31-34. doi:10.1177/ ...
L1CAM Creatine deficiency syndrome, X-linked; 300352; SLC6A8 Creatine phosphokinase, elevated serum; 123320; CAV3 Creutzfeldt- ...
Roberts, R.; Sobel, B. E.; Parker, C. W. (1976-11-19). "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): ... "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): 855-857. doi:10.1126/science.982049. ISSN 0036-8075. ...
Defects in this gene have been implicated in neurologic syndromes and muscular hypotonia, probably due to creatine deficiency ... The protein encoded by this gene is a methyltransferase that converts guanidoacetate to creatine, using S-adenosylmethionine as ... CANTONI GL, VIGNOS PJ (1954). "Enzymatic mechanism of creatine synthesis". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2): 647-59. doi:10.1016/S0021- ... 1996). "Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: the first inborn error of creatine metabolism in man". Am. J. Hum. Genet ...
Woodling, Chuck (August 17, 2001). "Haskell Football Coach Recommends Creatine". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved March 21, ...
Arnot, Chris (28 March 1993). "Cambridge boat enjoys the creatine effect". The Independent. Archived from the original on 19 ... Wilson, Stephen (8 May 1993). "Creatine said to boost performance - and it's legal". AP News Archive. Associated Press. ... creatine was believed to provide legal energy-enhancing effects to the crew. "Dark Blues aim to punch above their weight". The ... the journalist Chris Arnot noted that the Cambridge crew had used creatine supplements in order to attempt to enhance their ...
Tarnopolsky MA (2010). "Caffeine and creatine use in sport". Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 57 (Suppl 2): 1-8. doi:10.1159/ ...
Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in the blood (at most ~10 times normal) are typical in sIBM but affected individuals can ... Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Oddis, Chester V.; Aggarwal, Rohit (2016). "Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation". ...
Her "Uptake of Creatine by Cultured Cells" (1980) described the conditions under which muscle tissues best absorbed creatine. ... In the 1970s Daly began studying the uptake of creatine by muscle cells, an important research topic in the energy recycling ... and creatine's uptake by muscle cells. Daly attended Hunter College High School, a laboratory high school for girls run by ... "Uptake of creatine by cultured cells". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 203 (1): 317-324. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(80) ...
Cunha MP, Machado DG, Capra JC, Jacinto J, Bettio LE, Rodrigues AL (November 2012). "Antidepressant-like effect of creatine in ... Kious BM, Kondo DG, Renshaw PF (August 2019). "Creatine for the Treatment of Depression". Biomolecules. 9 (9): 406. doi:10.3390 ...
The Excretion of Creatinine and Creatine" (1936, with Ida Genther and Corinne Hogden) "Basal Metabolism and Preformed and Total ... The Excretion of Creatinine and Creatine". American Journal of Diseases of Children. 51 (6): 1268. doi:10.1001/archpedi. ...
Creatine kinase (EC (CK), which catalyses the reversible transfer of high energy phosphate from ATP to creatine, ... Bessman SP, Carpenter CL (1985). "The creatine-creatine phosphate energy shuttle". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 54: 831-62. doi:10.1146/ ... Creatine kinase plays an important role in energy metabolism of vertebrates. There are at least four different, but very ... Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T, Kabsch W (May 1996). "Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase". Nature. 381 (6580): ...
... is also a precursor for urea, ornithine, and agmatine; is necessary for the synthesis of creatine; and can also be ...
Creatine is a chemical in human muscles and brain and in red meat and seafood. It is often used for improving exercise ... Creatine Ethyl Ester, Créatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Créatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Creatine Gluconate, Creatine ... Disorders of creatine metabolism or transport. Taking creatine by mouth daily can increase creatine levels in the brain in ... But taking creatine doesnt seem to improve brain creatine levels in children who have a disorder in which creatine isnt ...
A 5-year placebo-controlled study of creatine monohydrate in Parkinsons disease was terminated early for futility. ... The creatine dose of 10 mg/day was well tolerated. Despite concerns that it could be associated with deterioration of renal ... Participants received creatine monohydrate (10 g/day) or placebo.. When the trial was stopped at 5 years, 76% of the ... Its not clear, said Dr Espay, why creatine didnt work in this trial because "it truly makes a lot of sense from a theoretical ...
Creatine Kinase (CKQ_G) Data File: CKQ_G.xpt First Published: September 2013. Last Revised: NA ... Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006. 38(4):623-7. ... The Creatine Kinase questionnaire (variable name prefix CKQ; questions CKQ010 CKD070) collects survey participant interview ... Wu AH, Smith A, Wians F. Interpretation of creatine kinase and aldolase for statin-induced myopathy: Reliance on serial testing ...
Serum creatine kinase levels (CK) can vary among healthy subjects, even when correcting for muscle mass. Age, gender, race, and ... encoded search term (Creatine Kinase) and Creatine Kinase What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cabaniss, C.D. Creatine Kinase. H.W. Walker HK, Hurst JW,. Clinical Methods: The history, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations ... Is MB creatine kinase the choice for the 1990s?. Circulation. 1993 Aug. 88(2):750-63. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
X-linked creatine deficiency is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the brain. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics ... The SLC6A8 gene provides instructions for making a protein that transports a compound called creatine into cells. Creatine is ... Braissant O, Henry H, Beard E, Uldry J. Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain. ... Nasrallah F, Feki M, Kaabachi N. Creatine and creatine deficiency syndromes: biochemical and clinical aspects. Pediatr Neurol. ...
... Nominated Substances: Bitter orange Extract Mixture, ... Nomination Summary for Nomination Summary for Creatine, Bitter orange & Saw palmetto (N20414) ...
Surveillance: In those treated with creatine monohydrate, periodic determination of cerebral creatine level by in vivo 1H-MRS ... Clinical characteristics: The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, ... Creatine Deficiency Disorders Saadet Mercimek-Andrews et al. Free Books & Documents Show details Display options Display ... a new creatine derivative for the possible treatment of creatine transporter deficiency. Neurosci Lett. 2018;665:217-23. - ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
... inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders ... guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine ... The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs) are inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport that comprise:. *. Two creatine ... Algorithm for diagnosis of the creatine deficiency disorders. Note: Urinary creatine-to-creatinine ratio and creatine uptake ...
Serum creatine kinase levels (CK) can vary among healthy subjects, even when correcting for muscle mass. Age, gender, race, and ... encoded search term (Creatine Kinase) and Creatine Kinase What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cabaniss, C.D. Creatine Kinase. H.W. Walker HK, Hurst JW,. Clinical Methods: The history, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations ... Is MB creatine kinase the choice for the 1990s?. Circulation. 1993 Aug. 88(2):750-63. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Learn about diagnosis and specialist referrals for X-linked creatine deficiency. ... with creatine transport deficiency; X-linked creatine deficiency syndrome; X-linked creatine transporter deficiencyCreatine ... with creatine transport deficiency; X-linked creatine deficiency syndrome; X-linked creatine transporter deficiency. Read More ... X-linked creatine deficiency. Other Names: Creatine deficiency, X-linked; Intellectual disability, X-linked with seizures, ...
Accordingly, high levels of creatine feedback inhibit expression of the creatine transporter, providing tight homeostatic ... We propose that creatine interaction with the nascent peptide in the ribosome exit tunnel causes an elongation pause during ... SCL6A8 is a high-affinity sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter. Mutations in SLC6A8 are the second most common ... Thus, the encoded uORF peptide, nearly identical from lamprey to human, is critical for creatine control of SLC6A8 expression. ...
Creatine kinase brain (CKB) is one of three cytosolic isoforms of creatine kinase that is predominantly expressed in the brain ... Creatine kinase brain overexpression protects colorectal cells from various metabolic and non-metabolic stresses.. ...
What could creatine kinase levels tell us about TKI treatment response and the prognosis of NSCLC patients? ... Background: The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is associated with incident creatine kinase (CK) elevation in the ... AE, adverse event; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; BRAF, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1; CK, creatine kinase; ... Prognostic and Predictive Impact of Creatine Kinase Level in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors ...
The creatine kinase gene family. Creatine kinases are a small family of related genes whose protein products generate ... Annotating creatine kinase genes in the grey whale assembly. Goal. To annotate creatine kinase genes in the unannotated grey ... Finding creatine kinase matches in the default nucleotide database (nr/nt). Goal. Find CKM transcript homolog matches in nr/nt ... Youll use the creatine kinase genes and their products in several examples today to learn how to use BLAST to find homologs ...
In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine. ... creatine, Creatin, Kreatin, N-amidinosarcosine, N-methyl-N-guanylglycine, Krebiozon, 57-00-1, (alpha-Methylguanido)acetic acid ...
Creatine supplementation may increase muscle power in patients with MELAS syndrome (observed in one patient with MELAS syndrome ... creatine monohydrate, idebenone, succinate, and dichloroacetate. However, assessment of the efficacy of these compounds is far ... effect may be related to increased intracellular creatine and/or phosphocreatine content, which may be involved in maintaining ... in muscle strength in high-intensity anaerobic and aerobic activities has been reported with the administration of creatine ...
Serum creatine kinase levels (CK) can vary among healthy subjects, even when correcting for muscle mass. Age, gender, race, and ... encoded search term (Creatine Kinase) and Creatine Kinase What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cabaniss, C.D. Creatine Kinase. H.W. Walker HK, Hurst JW,. Clinical Methods: The history, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations ... Is MB creatine kinase the choice for the 1990s?. Circulation. 1993 Aug. 88(2):750-63. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Creatine transporter deficiency occurs from a mutation in a creatine transporter gene that prevents the transport of sufficient ... The lead compound has been evaluated in mice with creatine transporter deficiency and resulted in improved brain metabolism and ... Novel therapy for treatment of creatine transporter deficiency. Rick Hawkins, Chief Executive Officer. Lumos Pharma, Inc., ... levels of creatine to the brain and results in cognitive function disorder. ...
Creatine kinase is associated with bleeding after myocardial infarction.. Pubmed ID: 32675301 ... Cite As: Brewster LM, Fernand J. Creatine kinase is associated with bleeding after myocardial infarction. Open Heart 2020 Jul;7 ... BACKGROUND: The ADP-scavenging enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is reported to reduce ADP-dependent platelet activation. Therefore, ...
5.11 Creatine Kinase Elevations. Pregabalin treatment was associated with creatine kinase elevations. Mean changes in creatine ... 5.11 Creatine Kinase Elevations 5.12 Decreased Platelet Count 5.13 PR Interval Prolongation 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical ... Creatine Kinase Elevations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] *Decreased Platelet Count [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ... Creatine Kinase Elevations Instruct patients to promptly report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly ...
Creatine -- analysis. Creatine -- blood. Anura. Dogs. Rabbits 2. Zur Kreatinfrage Author(s): Nawrocki, Felix, 1838-1902, author ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Creatine -- analysis ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Creatine -- analysis ...
Pre-Creatine capsules. Defendant Names:. Andrew Doty, t/a Creatine Laboratories, Inc., San Francisco, Calif.. Court ... Pre-Creatine capsules.. Case Number:. 7002. Collection:. Drugs and Devices, 1940-1963. Evidence Numbers:. F. D. C. No. 45212. S ...
LUM-001 as a Treatment for Creatine Transporter Deficiency. Creatine serves as a crucial energy source in the brain, and it is ... This condition is now known as CTD and is one of three creatine deficiency syndromes. The creatine deficiency syndromes are ... Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not effective in CTD because the creatine transporter gene is defective, preventing ... Approximately 42,000 males in the United States are affected by creatine transporter deficiency (CTD), in which creatine cannot ...
ppm and creatine methylene peak at 3.92 ppm are. clearly resolved. The labeled peaks are: 1. ,5,6-myo-Inositol; 2- ... 0-phosphocreatine+creatine; 11-aspartate;. 12,13,18-N-acetylaspartate; 14-glutamine;. 15-glutamate; 16-gamma-aminobutyric acid; ... phosphocreatine; 3-creatine;. 4, 17-glutamine+glutamate, 7,8-taurine;. 9-choline-containing compounds; 1. ...
Creatine Kinase (CK). Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST). Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT). ...
Creatine kinase 593 U/L. 25-200 U/L. 1. Glucose. 7 mmol/L. 3-6 mmol/L. 1. ...
  • How creatine works against depression is not precisely known, but Renshaw and his colleagues suggest that the pro-energetic effect of creatine supplementation, including the making of more phosphocreatine, may contribute to the earlier and greater response to antidepressants. (
  • Vegetarians/ vegans have been reported to have naturally lower stores (90-110 mmol/kg of dry muscle) and may benefit from creatine supplementation most for normal functioning. (
  • Suffice it to say, there is an average at which the body measures for creatine levels without supplementation, but it does not reach the body's threshold of how much it is able to harbor. (
  • To affect athletic performance via increased ATP production and storage making slightly more energy available for intense exercise, additional supplementation of creatine appears to be a reasonable strategy. (
  • 2. Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not only safe, but possibly beneficial in regard to preventing injury and/or management of select medical conditions when taken within recommended guidelines. (
  • Ingesting smaller amounts of creatine monohydrate (e.g., 2-3 g/d) will increase muscle creatine stores over a 3-4 week period, however, the performance effects of this method of supplementation are less supported. (
  • 2. Creatine supplementation causes renal distress. (
  • 3. Creatine supplementation causes cramping, dehydration, and/or altered electrolyte status. (
  • 4. Long-term effects of creatine supplementation are completely unknown. (
  • The purpose of this review is to determine the present state of knowledge concerning creatine supplementation, so that reasonable guidelines may be established and unfounded fears diminished in regard to its use. (
  • Evidence to show that creatine supplementation could increase its content in the human brain is gathering pace but more studies are needed, a review has found. (
  • Published by researchers at Brandon University, Canada, the analysis looked at the current evidence surrounding creatine supplementation on total creatine and phophorylcreatine (PCr) content. (
  • Its main aim was to explore the guanidinoacetic acid (GAA - a creatine precursor) as an alternative or whether it could work with creatine supplementation on brain creatine uptake in relation to several brain-centred conditions. (
  • Creatine deficiency syndrome is characterised by mental and developmental disorders such as learning delays and seizures, but these can be partly reversed by creatine supplementation, previous studies have shown. (
  • The reviewers noted that beyond muscle, accumulating research shows that creatine supplementation and GAA can increase brain creatine content which may explain some of the initial benefits for those with depression, concussion and other cognitive issues but there is a lack of research with inconsistencies regarding the efficacy of creatine particularly when it comes to treating symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, anxiety, or PTSD. (
  • The bodybuilding community has trusted creatine supplementation for over a decade now, and for good reason - it flat-out works. (
  • Some research has shown that chronic supplementation with regular creatine can cause creatine transporter downgrade. (
  • 2] Some authors speculate that creatine supplementation of nursing mothers might help avoid creatine deficiency syndromes, but no studies are available that test this hypothesis. (
  • 3] Until more data are available, it is probably best to avoid creatine supplementation unless it is prescribed by a healthcare professional. (
  • Creatine supplementation has been shown to prevent the downregulation of GLUT4 transporters, maintained muscle glycogen content, and maintained muscle creatine content during the immobilization phase of recovery. (
  • Creatine supplementation also helped increase muscle GLUT4, muscle glycogen, and muscle creatine levels above baseline after three weeks of rehabilitation. (
  • ref name="Eijnde">Op't Eijnde B, Ursø B, Richter EA, Greenhaff PL, Hespel P. [ Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. (
  • nbsp;Creatine supplementation has also been proven not only to attenuate muscle atrophy during immobilization, but to stimulate muscle hypertrophy during rehabilitative strength training. (
  • Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. (
  • With these positive effects of creatine supplementation, rehabilitation professionals should consider implementing creatine supplementation into their interventions. (
  • Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men. (
  • British researchers found creatine supplementation to be useful for improving one's productivity at work, or in workouts, by testing kayakers. (
  • Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not effective in CTD because the creatine transporter gene is defective, preventing creatine from crossing the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Currently, it is unclear whether creatine phosphokinase (CPK) affects bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. (
  • Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. (
  • questions CKQ010 CKD070) collects survey participant interview data to help interpret NHANES laboratory data for serum Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK). (
  • A safety and clinical efficacy analysis of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies in patients with markedly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels. (
  • PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are often used in statin -intolerant patients , aiming to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Along with the growing experience with their use, there is a lack of evidence regarding the safety , tolerability, and clinical utility of PCSK9i in patients with markedly elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. (
  • There is a plethora of existing evidence that proves the positive effects of creatine on skeletal muscle creatine levels, muscle mass and function in sports performance, strength, resistance to fatigue and exercise training. (
  • The researchers felt that because of the positive effects of creatine on muscle strength, mass and functionality, looking at its potential to mitigate disease-related physical impairments common in neurogenerative diseases was justified. (
  • The effects of creatine deficiency are most severe in organs and tissues that require large amounts of energy, especially the brain. (
  • The fact is, you won't experience the incredible effects of creatine unless your muscular creatine concentrations reach optimal levels. (
  • The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research published a research study examining the effects of creatine, placebo maltodextrin, and creatine + sodium bicarbonate. (
  • Enhance your workout and build strength with these effective creatine supplements. (
  • Creatine supplements are favored by athletes and bodybuilders, thanks to their ability to improve physical performance. (
  • The good news is that creatine supplements are popular and they're some of the most scientifically researched supplements you can get. (
  • Creatine supplements can vary in creatine type, form and price. (
  • We curated a list of the best creatine supplements so you can find your ideal match. (
  • Klean Athlete Klean Creatine is another one of the best creatine supplements. (
  • So before we get into my top picks for creatine supplements, let's take a look at what creatine is and how it functions in the body. (
  • Are Creatine Supplements Safe? (
  • Generally speaking, a large body of research on creatine supplements has suggested that 5 to 20 grams of creatine per day is very safe and without adverse side effects. (
  • Are Creatine Supplements Effective? (
  • Of all the supplements out there, creatine really does pack on the punch. (
  • Extensive studies have shown that creatine supplements significantly improve your body's response to resistance exercise and weight lifting. (
  • I'm actually going to recommend 4 top-selling creatine supplements. (
  • Have any questions or feedback about creatine supplements? (
  • 5. At present, creatine monohydrate is the most extensively studied and clinically effective form of creatine for use in nutritional supplements in terms of muscle uptake and ability to increase high-intensity exercise capacity. (
  • 6. It's unethical and/or illegal to use creatine supplements. (
  • Due to this confounding information, combined with the fact that creatine has become one of the most popular nutritional supplements on the market, it is important to examine the primary literature on supplemental creatine ingestion in humans. (
  • The two most prevalent mental health conditions are depression and generalised anxiety disorder and deficiency in creatine can affect intellectual disability, language delay seizure disorders, autism spectrum disorders and various motor movement disorders with the primary treatment being creatine monohydrate supplements in an attempt to increase the content of creatine in the brain. (
  • Creatine Supplements Sale! (
  • However the creatine supplements most people take are synthesized from sarcosine and cyanamide which does not contain any animal by-products. (
  • Always check the labels of creatine supplements when looking for a vegan option. (
  • Every person is different but typically it can range from 2 weeks to a month to start seeing results from taking creatine supplements. (
  • Always focus on your individual fitness journey and health needs when taking creatine supplements. (
  • That being said, you're in luck because as a supplement expert, I know how to get the best quality supplements, like in this creatine stack, so that you will have the best chance at having those supplements actually work. (
  • Australian researchers found that five grams of creatine supplements given to 45 test subjects over six weeks improved their mental acuity. (
  • The results of the Creatine Safety, Tolerability & Efficacy in Huntington's Disease (CREST-E) trial , funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) with support from the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, were published online in the journal Neurology on July 12, 2017. (
  • It's 99.9% pure creatine and doesn't contain a bunch of additives, preservatives, or flavors. (
  • Each serving of 5g contains no other ingredients, using pure creatine monohydrate with quick absorption. (
  • 1. 100 percent pure creatine monohydrate - It's a white powder (not unlike baking soda) that is basically tasteless and odorless. (
  • In a new proof-of-concept study, researchers from three South Korean universities and the University of Utah report that women with major depressive disorder (MDD) who augmented their daily antidepressant with 5 grams of creatine responded twice as fast and experienced remission of the illness at twice the rate of women who took the antidepressant alone. (
  • One scoop contains 5 grams of creatine and should be added to 8 ounces of liquid. (
  • 7. The quickest method of increasing muscle creatine stores appears to be to consume ~0.3 grams/kg/day of creatine monohydrate for at least 3 days followed by 3-5 g/d thereafter to maintain elevated stores. (
  • Studies have shown that taking creatine with 50 grams or more of a carb like dextrose will be beneficial, however, it does come with some side effects. (
  • For example, most supplement manufacturers recommend 20 grams of creatine be taken in five-gram servings for five to seven days followed by five grams per day after that. (
  • Loading creatine with 20 grams and maintaining with five grams is the most common recommended protocol and the one that has been deemed safe through longer-term studies. (
  • When I received the discharge instructions for Pogo it stated that he had slightly increased creatine kinase and AST numbers. (
  • After this period of sustained muscle contractions, ATP in the working muscle is exhausted and the cells resort to the use of Creatine Phosphate and ADP to create more ATP, providing energy for about another 25-30 seconds. (
  • The encoded protein reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens such as creatine phosphate. (
  • The phosphate group in creatine allows for a donation of a single phosphate molecule to the energy by-product of ATP. (
  • That single phosphate from creatine has the opportunity to bind with ADP + P to create new ATP! (
  • Research is still being done on creatine in terms of the effects it has on the human body, but one thing we know, per , is that once it is ingested, it is converted into creatine phosphate, which in turn is involved in the production of adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), which provides the energy for muscle contractions. (
  • Creatine kinases are a small family of related genes whose protein products generate phosphocreatine, which serves as a source of high energy phosphate for rapid regeneration of ATP. (
  • The review highlighted robust evidence that clearly demonstrated the importance of creatine on cognitive function for individuals with creatine deficient syndromes, known to deplete brain creatine stores. (
  • Braissant O, Henry H, Beard E, Uldry J. Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain. (
  • Biochemical, molecular, and clinical diagnoses of patients with cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes. (
  • Creatine and guanidinoacetate content of human milk and infant formulas: implications for creatine deficiency syndromes and amino acid metabolism. (
  • This condition is now known as CTD and is one of three creatine deficiency syndromes. (
  • The creatine deficiency syndromes are considered rare disorders and have autism-like features. (
  • Two parallel groups of patients with brain creatine deficiency syndromes (GAMT and AGAT), which have similar clinical manifestations as CTD, show significant clinical improvement when supplemented with creatine monohydrate. (
  • It contains only creatine monohydrate , the most well-researched and effective form of creatine on the market. (
  • Essentially, a more concentrated form of creatine is included here, but you're getting the same punch as any powdered option. (
  • Kaged Muscle C-HCL is a patented form of Creatine HCl that dissolves in water, and is ready to drink immediately. (
  • Participants were randomized to receive either a purified form of creatine (up to 40 g/day) or a matching placebo for up to 4 years of treatment. (
  • A large percentage (about 65%) of total creatine is in the form of phosphocreatine (PCr)-the form able to be highly mobilized for energy production. (
  • The idea is that by taking a larger amount of creatine, you can super-saturate the muscle and increase the total creatine pool. (
  • A 1996 study showed that ingesting a carbohydrate solution with creatine promoted a 60 percent greater increase in total creatine concentrations in the muscle, compared with taking creatine alone. (
  • Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. (
  • Optimum Micronized Creatine Powder - This is a great option for mixing creatine into your protein shake before or after your workout (or both). (
  • This product is an unflavored micronized creatine powder that dissolves completely in liquid. (
  • The group that received creatine showed significantly higher improvement rates on the HDRS at two and four weeks (32 percent and 68 percent) compared to the placebo group (3.7 percent and 29 percent). (
  • With a higher creatine concentration in the muscle, strength and power performance is significantly enhanced. (
  • Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with sprint 1, in both placebo and creatine. (
  • However, in creatine + sodium bicarbonate, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. (
  • Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in creatine + sodium bicarbonate (10%), compared with in placebo and creatine, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6. (
  • A New Jersey study cited by says that participants in a 10-week resistance training program taking a daily creatine supplement saw their resting testosterone levels boosted significantly. (
  • However, the numbers of serious adverse events and deaths did not differ significantly between the creatine and placebo groups. (
  • Variants (also known as mutations) in the SLC6A8 gene cause X-linked creatine deficiency. (
  • The SLC6A8 gene provides instructions for making a protein that transports a compound called creatine into cells. (
  • SLC6A8 gene variants impair the transporter protein's ability to bring creatine into cells, resulting in a shortage (deficiency) of creatine. (
  • X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) mutations in about 1% of males with mental retardation of unknown etiology. (
  • Treatment of X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency: systematic review of the literature and three new cases. (
  • Mutations in SLC6A8 are the second most common cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID), and these mutations have been linked to creatine deficiency in the brain. (
  • Using an SLC6A8-luciferase fusion, we found that creatine inhibits SLC6A8 expression. (
  • Thus, the encoded uORF peptide, nearly identical from lamprey to human, is critical for creatine control of SLC6A8 expression. (
  • We propose that creatine interaction with the nascent peptide in the ribosome exit tunnel causes an elongation pause during translation of the uORF and prevents ribosomes from accessing and translating the SLC6A8 ORF. (
  • SLC6A8 ), which resulted in the expression of a truncated (non-functional) creatine transporter protein. (
  • For this reason, creatine has become a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who are trying to add muscle mass or improve athletic ability. (
  • This creatine supplement is NSF Certified for Sport , meaning it was tested and proven to have no banned substances for competitive athletes. (
  • As a supplement, creatine has been used for many decades by athletes, weightlifters, and wrestlers to assist in muscle gains. (
  • 1. Creatine monohydrate is the most effective ergogenic nutritional supplement currently available to athletes in terms of increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and lean body mass during training. (
  • This premium creatine supplement is a top pick for athletes because of the rigorous quality testing it undergoes. (
  • With all the scientific support behind a compound like creatine it's no wonder it has become a staple in the supplement regimen of most bodybuilders and power athletes. (
  • Athletes or individuals who enjoy exercising may not have to face losses in muscle strength during an injury, and their prognosis may be better after rehabilitation if they supplement with creatine during their time being injured. (
  • Athletes who have taken creatine monohydrate know that it works, although they may not understand the science behind it. (
  • Athletes looking for a legal boost in their performance have known for years about the benefits of creatine . (
  • Athletes participating in sports where short bursts of power are vital - such as weightlifting, sprints, football, baseball and gymnastics - can find creatine quite useful, to a certain degree. (
  • The rest is in the form of free creatine (Cr), waiting to be converted into PCr by the enzyme creatine kinase. (
  • BACKGROUND: The ADP-scavenging enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is reported to reduce ADP-dependent platelet activation. (
  • But even with diets garnering the appropriate amount of creatine from food, it still leaves the body's creatine stores only 60-80% saturated. (
  • Normally the recommended amount of creatine is 1-2 tablespoons for the average person. (
  • The creatine powder from Thorne is our pick for the best overall creatine supplement. (
  • BulkSupplements Creatine Monohydrate Powder may help to increase power output during high-intensity workouts. (
  • Unlike regular creatine monohydrate powder, our powder leaves no sediment or wasted creatine behind. (
  • Optimum Nutrition micronized creatine monohydrate powder is the perfect supplement for anyone looking to increase energy. (
  • Beast Sports' popular Creature Powder gives you five types of creatine in one scoop. (
  • Most powder forms are vegan friendly but the pill forms of creatine may contain some ingredients such as bovine gelatine that aren't vegan. (
  • The type of creatine (powder or pill) and the quality of it are a few factors that you should look into if you are wanting to see quicker results. (
  • The study's findings do not support the use of creatine for delaying functional decline in patients with early symptoms of Huntington's disease. (
  • CREST-E was initiated based on preclinical and clinical data that showed creatine to have promise in slowing the progression of symptoms of Huntington's disease. (
  • In addition, CREST-E has contributed to the understanding of the safety and tolerability of creatine in people with Huntington's disease. (
  • In CREST-E, which tested a higher dose of creatine than those used in previous Huntington's disease studies, adverse events (mainly gastrointestinal symptoms) were more common in participants taking creatine than in those taking a placebo. (
  • Generally, supplementing creatine means getting about 2-3 times the amount that could be consumed in a high-protein diet. (
  • Creatine is defined as a non-protein amino acid compound found exclusively in vertebrate animals and functions in the formation and recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in muscle cells and also to a lesser extent, testes, heart, and brain tissue. (
  • 6. The addition of carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein to a creatine supplement appears to increase muscular retention of creatine, although the effect on performance measures may not be greater than using creatine monohydrate alone. (
  • Regular creatine requires a creatine transporter protein (CreaT) for its uptake into muscle cells. (
  • Creatine serves as a crucial energy source in the brain, and it is delivered to brain tissue by a specialized transport protein. (
  • This research shows that adding sodium bicarbonate could improve the efficacy of creatine. (
  • It has a wealth of advantages over regular creatine that any bodybuilder, powerlifter, or athlete can certainly use to help make incredible gains in muscular size and strength. (
  • As already explained, creatine-AKG transports more creatine directly into muscle cells and this results in a higher muscular creatine concentration. (
  • However, studies have shown that supplementing with 3g of creatine for 14 and 30 days provide less muscular retention of creatine than 20g for only five days. (
  • Creatine is an organic compound in our bodies, found primarily in our muscles. (
  • When our muscles need additional energy that can't be provided directly by oxygen (as in repeated or sustained muscle contractions), creatine is one of the chemicals used to help our muscles meet these increased demands. (
  • The only purpose and benefit of supplementing on rest days is to keep the levels of creatine in your muscles elevated. (
  • On the contrary, creatine promotes and supports growth by helping to strengthen and repair muscles. (
  • Since AKG is a Krebs cycle intermediate it can easily enter muscle cells, bringing with it more creatine directly into targeted cells (i.e., your muscles). (
  • Creatine is believed to enhance strength and increase lean muscle mass, while helping our muscles recover quicker during intense exercise. (
  • The sugar increases insulin, which transports creatine into the muscles. (
  • The insulin is responsible for getting nutrients (i.e. creatine) to the muscles. (
  • About half of the creatine stored in the body is obtained from amino acids consumed in meats and other proteins. (
  • Creatine, a nitrogenous organic compound derived from reactions involving the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine, is important for resynthesising ATP, the principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells. (
  • Creatine is a combination of amino acids produced by the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. (
  • 1] Milk levels of creatine have not been measured after exogenous administration in humans. (
  • When insulin levels are affected creatine will be absorbed better. (
  • Accordingly, high levels of creatine feedback inhibit expression of the creatine transporter, providing tight homeostatic control of cellular creatine levels. (
  • Creatine monohydrate sounds complicated, but it's just a creatinine molecule matched up with a water molecule. (
  • Furthermore, about 1-2% of intramuscular creatine is metabolically broken down into creatinine and excreted through the urine. (
  • Creatine is converted into creatinine in the mother's and infant's bodies. (
  • The combination of creatine and a citrus drink may result in some breakdown of the product, converting creatine into creatinine, which is useless to your body. (
  • Proper diet and exercise, along with creatine support rather than inhibit further growth. (
  • Creatine is used as a dietary supplement to increase muscle mass and improve exercise performance. (
  • Return to Creatine and Exercise . (
  • As it turns out, creatine has all sorts of other benefits besides helping bodybuilders squeeze out a few more reps. (
  • The phosphocreatine methylene peak at 3.93 ppm and creatine methylene peak at 3.92 ppm are clearly resolved. (
  • Twenty-five of the women received creatine with the Lexapro and 27 were given a placebo . (
  • Neither the study participants nor the researchers knew who received creatine or placebo. (
  • Eight women in the creatine group and five in the placebo group did not finish the trial, leaving a total of 39 participants. (
  • Participants were interviewed at the start of the trial to establish baselines for their depression, and then were checked at two, four, and eight weeks to see how they'd responded to Lexapro plus creatine or Lexapro and a placebo. (
  • At the end of eight weeks, half of those in the creatine group showed no signs of depression compared with one-quarter in the placebo group. (
  • The testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Top Ten Sex Pills little eunuch passed in testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Extenze Male Enhancement one after another, and a person came out been bleeding after sex anf since week 2 of birth control pills for a testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Best Sex Pills while, just saying no. (
  • He first helped Liu Bang fight Qin medical term for penis Penis Enlargemenr Chao, then Liu Bang fights Xiang Yu, and then he stayed out of the fight between Liu Bang and the heroes, testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Shop and he kept his mind in mind and used appropriate methods to fight Liu Bang and Lu Hou. (
  • After a few days, the second official went to various shops a day to ask for money, a total of testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Extenze Male Enhancement fifty taels, and put testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Best Sex Enhancer them beside him. (
  • Last medical term for penis night the dream of Xiantan testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Wholesale fell, and Poor Chun didn t return home. (
  • This is determined by the huge testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Shop contradiction and contrast between the development direction of centralized power and the social reality of local separatism. (
  • Good testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate After receiving it, he sat beside Daiyu , I was afraid that he was still sorrowful, and was about to give comfort, but listened to Daiyu sighed I also heard medical term for penis that he was medical term for penis buyers guide originally from the south, Gusu Changmen, and I still have a fellowship with testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Shop me. (
  • Ran into the sky, finely dyed Ministry of Health medical term for penis testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate Sexual Enhancers and cut the sleeves of the clouds. (
  • to Good testosterone booster vs creatine monohydrate be proud of his wealth. (
  • 9. Creatine monohydrate has been reported to have a number of potentially beneficial uses in several clinical populations, and further research is warranted in these areas. (
  • 5. Newer creatine formulations are more beneficial than creatine monohydrate (CM) and cause fewer side effects. (
  • Studies have shown that creatine monohydrate post-workout could be more beneficial. (
  • Although I have no scientific evidence to prove Dr. Serrano's system is better, I believe that using body weight and cycling creatine is more beneficial than the standard 20g-load/5g maintenance protocol. (
  • The study was stopped early, in late 2014, on the recommendation of the study's independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) because a planned interim analysis had indicated with high confidence that the study, if completed, would not show a beneficial effect of creatine. (
  • All the factors included normally creatine is out of your system 24 hours after your last dose. (
  • The most simple way is to take creatine with a large dose of carbs. (
  • Creatine is mostly found in red meat or other animal products. (
  • Creatine is an amino acid found in red meat and naturally produced by the human body. (
  • Women battling stubborn major depression may have a surprising new ally in their fight - the muscle-building dietary supplement creatine. (
  • 8. Creatine products are readily available as a dietary supplement and are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . (
  • If you've ever explored the world of resistance training with weights, then you've probably heard of creatine, and creatine is definitely making waves for women into fitness as well. (
  • Most fitness enthusiasts who have had their sights set high on muscle growth have certainly heard of creatine if they aren't already taking it. (
  • One of the most innovative and increasingly popular forms of creatine available today is creatine alpha-ketoglutarate (a.k.a., creatine-AKG). (
  • Elevation of serum creatine kinase - Patients taking PRIALT may experience elevations in creatine kinase. (
  • The discovery of inborn errors of metabolism involving creatine synthesis (two other disorders are readily reversed with creatine treatment) and transport, as well as the use of creatine transporter knockouts that model the phenotype of these diseases, provide compelling evidence suggesting that the creatine/PCr/CK system plays a critical role in normal brain function. (
  • Creatine transporter knockout mice were treated with LUM-001, a repurposed small molecule that was shown to be capable of (1) getting across the blood brain barrier and (2) improving brain metabolism and cognitive function of the mice. (
  • 3. Creatine and insulin mimicking agents - Agents that mimic insulin, such as Alpha-lipoic acid, have an effect similar to sugar on your body. (
  • Humans have five distinct creatine kinase genes that are expressed in various cell types. (
  • Simply put, creatine-AKG is creatine attached to an alpha-ketoglutarate molecule. (
  • There is a specific reason why creatine has been bound to the AKG molecule. (
  • This illustration shows how the AKG molecule helps transport two creatine molecules into the muscle fiber where they eventually split and perform their functions. (
  • Beard E, Braissant O. Synthesis and transport of creatine in the CNS: importance for cerebral functions. (
  • No need to load creatine due to the accumulated effect. (
  • The common practice for taking creatine is to "load" creatine for five to seven days, then continue to take a "maintenance" amount indefinitely. (
  • Another reason I prefer Dr. Serrano's system is that you cycle off and re-load creatine periodically. (
  • In other words, if you are not concerned about how big your gut gets in a week's time, and you want to load creatine, this is a proven method. (
  • However, the review team believes research is very limited regarding the impact of creatine on brain creatine and brain function including cognitive processing and recovery from brain injury. (
  • After analysing several studies, the researchers concluded that while there is a possible role for creatine in the treatment of various forms of depression but much larger-scale, randomised studies are needed and should include measures of brain creatine. (