Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Embryo Disposition: Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Single Embryo Transfer: The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.Fetal Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, this corresponds to the period from the third month after fertilization until birth.Prenatal Injuries: Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Research Embryo Creation: The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer: A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.ThiepinsCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Eastern Orthodoxy: The name given to the religion of the body of modern churches, including among others the Greek and Russian Orthodox, that is derived from the church of the Byzantine Empire, adheres to the Byzantine rite, and acknowledges the honorary primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Philosophy, MedicalBody Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.ConjunctivitisAtlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred ICRBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLUltrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Kingdom on the ethics of creating chimeras with human stem cells led to the decision that embryos would be allowed to be made ... diploid embryo and diploid embryo, ES cell and tetraploid embryo, diploid embryo and tetraploid embryo, ES cells and ES cells. ... "Human-Pig Hybrid Created in the Lab-Here Are the Facts". 2017-01-26. Retrieved 2017-06-03. "Scientists create human/pig hybrid ... An example is the chimera built off of ES cells and tetraploid embryos, tetraploid embryos which are artificially made by ...
But these embryonic pharyngeal arches, grooves, pouches, and slits in human embryos can not at any stage carry out the same ... "Making visible embryos: Forgery charges". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2016-10-27. Rütimeyer's ex-colleague, Wilhelm His ... For example, Haeckel proposed that the pharyngeal grooves between the pharyngeal arches in the neck of the human embryo not ... His developed a "causal-mechanical theory" of human embryonic development. Darwin's view was that embryos resembled each other ...
"Stemagen First to Create Cloned Human Embryos From Adult Cells". Prinewswire: Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. January ... Weiss, Rick (January 18, 2008). "Mature Human Embryos Created From Adult Skin Cells". The Washington Post. Retrieved December ... Ricks, Delthia (January 18, 2008). "Scientists make human embryo clone". Newsday. Archived from the original on January 22, ... announced that they had successfully created the first five mature human embryos using DNA from adult skin cells, aiming to ...
... nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. ... Human eggs have been a notable exception to this rule for some time. To address the problem of creating a human egg market, ... Controversy surrounds human ESC work due to the destruction of viable human embryos. Leading scientists to seek an alternative ... American scholars have recently argued that because the product of SCNT is a clone embryo, rather than a human embryo, these ...
His research involves growing human cells within sheep embryos. In March 2007, it was announced that Zanjani had created a ... Nature, May 1, 2006 - Chimeras in the crosshairs The Daily Mail, 27 March 2007 - Now scientists create a sheep that's 15% human ... Zanjani has stated that his work involves sheep because of the blood-forming systems of sheep and humans are similar. He has ... Part-Human Esmail Zanjani, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor at Molecular Biosciences, University of Nevada, Reno Esmail Zanjani at ...
"Human embryos created using three-parent IVF - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 15 April 2015. "OHSU researchers test new ... In 2006, the OHSU Center for Women's Health moved into its current main clinical location, in the Kohler Pavilion building on ... In 2006, a group of donors interested in women's health research created a giving circle called the Center for Women's Health ... "The Philanthropy That Makes Design Possible". healthcaredesignmagazine.com. Retrieved 15 April 2015. "A pivotal moment for ...
Scientists believe they have made a potential breakthrough in the treatment of serious disease by creating a human embryo with ... "Three-parent embryo formed in lab" (web). ...
Baylis, F. (2000). Our cells/ourselves: Creating human embryos for stem cell research. Women's Health Issues, 10, 140-145. ... but her research and publication record also extend to such topics as research involving humans (including human embryo ... "novel ethical distinction between viable and non-viable human embryos." Her concept of "non-viable embryos" as acceptable ... Baylis has made numerous contributions to the development of public policy on various assisted human reproduction topics - ...
Report of the Human Embryo Research Panel of the National Institutes of Health (1994). Kiessling, Ann. What is an Embryo?" ... Creating the Child, page 39 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1996). Steinbock, Bonnie. "Life Before Birth," pages 50 and 214-215 ( ... One rationale that has been advanced for distinguishing an early fertilized human conceptus from an embryo is that there is a ... Use of the terms preembryo and proembryo, in the context of human development, has drawn criticism from opponents of embryo ...
Cleavage (embryo) Blastula Boklage, Charles E. (2009). How New Humans Are Made: Cells and Embryos, Twins and Chimeras, Left and ... 2008). "Human embryo culture". In Lanza, Robert & Klimanskaya, Irina. Essential stem cell methods. Academic Press. p. 343. ISBN ... Once the embryo has divided into 16 cells, it begins to resemble a mulberry, hence the name morula (Latin, morus: mulberry). ... 2001). Human embryology (3rd ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-443-06583-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter ( ...
... and every embryo into a full-sized adult. Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before. Progress. In the ... The process is not applied to embryos of the Alpha and Beta classes of humans. It is reserved for the Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon ... various subclasses can be created from a Bokanovsky Group. "Each process," explained the Human Element Manager, "is carried out ... One egg, one embryo, one adult - normality. But a bokanovskified egg will bud, will proliferate, will divide. From eight to ...
... announced that they had created the first mature cloned human embryos from single skin cells taken from adults. These embryos ... "Morality and human embryo research. Introduction to the Talking Point on morality and human embryo research". EMBO Reports. 10 ... Helen Briggs (2008-01-17). "US team makes embryo clone of men". BBC. pp. A01. Ebert, Jessica (24 January 2005). "Human stem ... an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time ...
"Scientists Make First Embryo Clones From Adults". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-04-18. Nature. "Access : Human ... Human iPS cells were created from skin cells by direct delivery of proteins, thus eliminating the harmful risks associated with ... Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world's first early stage human embryos, as well as the first to successfully ... Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol (2001-11-24). "The First Human Cloned Embryo". Scientific ...
Holbrook, Bradley D. (2016). "The effects of nicotine on human fetal development". Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today ... It is not clear which manufacturing methods are used to make the nicotine used in e-cigarettes. The emissions from making ... E-cigarettes can be made manually put together in small factories, or they can be made in automated lines on a much bigger ... E-Liquid Manufacturing Standards (PDF). US: AMERICAN E-LIQUID MANUFACTURING STANDARDS ASSOCIATION (AEMSA). 2015. pp. 1-13. ...
Errors can occur during mitosis, especially during early embryonic development in humans.[51] Mitotic errors can create ... Kalatova B, Jesenska R, Hlinka D, Dudas M (January 2015). "Tripolar mitosis in human cells and embryos: occurrence, ... Early human embryos, cancer cells, infected or intoxicated cells can also suffer from pathological division into three or more ... a b Ross, Anna E. "Human Anatomy & Physiology I: A Chronology of the Description of Mitosis". Christian Brothers University. ...
... effort to create copy of human embryo. Wall Street Journal. Peter Wallsten and, J. R. (2004, Aug 10). THE RACE TO THE WHITE ... 2001, Nov 27). Bush criticizes firm that clones human embryos, presses for ban. Wall Street Journal. By Gautam Naik and Antonio ... Expertise in human egg biology led Kiessling to develop the country's first human egg donor program for stem cell research in ... "What is an Embryo? Law Review". Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. Retrieved 8 November 2012. "Jones and Bartlett Topics in ...
He used this technique to study the division of cells in human embryos. In 2010, he was offered the Max Delbruck Prize, but he ... They built their first prototype in less than two months, gathering widespread attention. In October of that year, Janelia ... a method of controlling fluorescent proteins using pulses of light to create images of a higher resolution than previously ...
Lynn M. Morgan, Icons of Life: A Cultural History of Human Embryos 2010. Susan Greenhalgh, Just One Child 2009. Jeremy Greene, ... This prize was created in 1996. 2014. Robert N. Proctor, Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case ... Charis Thompson, Making Parents: The Ontological Choreography of Reproductive Technologies 2006. Joseph Dumit, Picturing ...
BBC) 3 February Scientists announce that they are on the verge of creating pills that target specific genes in the human genome ... Science Daily) 14 April - Researchers produce human embryos containing DNA from three people. (Wired) (Nature) 6 May - ... Scientists create robotic nano-spiders - microscopic DNA constructs able to follow programmed instructions. (TechEYE) (Nature) ... Mater.) 17 March - Scientists create a quantum state in an object large enough to be visible to the naked eye, billions of ...
"Me too, too - How to make human embryonic stem cells without destroying human embryos". The Economist. 22 November 2007.. ... as they are derived from adult tissue samples rather than human embryos designated for scientific research. They have mainly ... Firm Says It Made Stem Cells From Human Testes". Washington Post.. ... However, recent studies have shown that both human and murine VSEL cells lack stem cell characteristics and are not pluripotent ...
"Me too, too - How to make human embryonic stem cells without destroying human embryos". The Economist. 22 November 2007. Gina ... Maggie Fox (Reuters) (2 April 2006). "U.S. Firm Says It Made Stem Cells From Human Testes". Washington Post. Liao, YH; Verchere ... as they are derived from adult tissue samples rather than human embryos designated for scientific research. They have mainly ... Mammary stem cells have been isolated from human and mouse tissue as well as from cell lines derived from the mammary gland. ...
He made human trafficking legislation his priority in his efforts during the 2013 General Assembly session, teaming up with ... He supported two "personhood" bills that sought to provide human embryos with legal rights. During his Senate career, ... "Cuccinelli Makes Human Trafficking Virginia's Top Priority in 2013". Washington.cbslocal.com. January 15, 2013. Retrieved July ... Cuccinelli made this argument on "donor intent" grounds. "That donor intent is paramount," Cuccinelli argued, "and governs the ...
These sharks are oviparous; they lay eggs in pairs in which the embryos feed solely on yolk. This species is considered ... Its large mouth, small teeth and large pharynx with gill raker papillae make it unique among the Proscyllidae family. They are ... This family of small ground sharks is not targeted by humans for any fishing or food purposes. Although not endangered or ... This species is viewed as harmless to humans. African ribbontail catshark (Eridacnis sinuans), is grey-brown in color. They are ...
Some have hypothesized that this is due to infancy, as humans are one of the few mammals who maintain regular eye contact with ... These muscles move the skin, creating lines and folds and causing the movement of facial features, such as the mouth and ... These muscles develop from the second pharyngeal arch in the embryo. The temporalis, masseter, and internal and external ... Eye Contact Detection in Humans From Birth, PNAS VOL 99 N.14 2002. Spitz, Rene A., and Wolf, K. M. "The Smiling Response: A ...
He examined the anatomical central nervous system of various embryos to compare to human ones. He found that all human infants ... This is why he believed the study of human behavior needed to be done in a carefully constructed scientific manner. He found ... Specifically, he thought that human behavior and achievement could be combined to create one physical element. One of the ways ... Weiss started his behavioral studies by examining the human bodies and embryos. Before him, no other researcher questioned what ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... anterior/posterior axis specification, embryo. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... Goodman FR (2003). "Limb malformations and the human HOX genes". Am. J. Med. Genet. 112 (3): 256-65. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10776. ...
... will work in human beings.) The body also produces interferon in only small amounts, making it extremely expensive to obtain. ... The protein also inhibited the growth of any other viruses in the embryos. Isaacs and Lindenmann named the interfering protein ... useful amounts from human blood cells. Monoclonal antibodies, first produced in 1975, made large-scale purification of ... While working with the visiting Swiss scientist Jean Lindenmann in 1957, Isaacs found that chick embryos (developing eggs) ...
... frozen embryo transfer; PM: being pregnant monitoring; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; LH: luteinizing hormone; hCG: human ... Start slowly and build regularly as pregnancyy develop into stronger. After completing these seven years of training, docs take ... Embryo selection methods. My hope is for a natural, intervention-free water beginning with the guidance and assist of my ... We now have extra help boards if youre making an attempt to conceive or your pregnancy was an unplanned shock. I might ...
The embryo typically makes it into the womb about four days after fertilization; the growth necessary to complete implantation ... embryologists have never been consulted by any American court as it considers issues of human embryology, such as contraception ... "Pre-embryo" was the smokescreen term for an embryo prior to the fourteenth day of growth. By changing the name to "pre-embryo ... Like God in Genesis, it takes the embryo six days to create the right conditions and get everything in the womb arranged as it ...
California Biotech Company Makes First Cloned Human Embryos. Ronald Bailey , 1.17.2008 2:25 PM. ... Not everyone thinks reprogramming adult cells to make them act like embryos is going to work. If you want to build your own ... CAN WE EAT CLONED HUMANS? IS THAT OKAY? JUST WONDERING, NOT PLANNING ON BUILDING A CLONED HUMAN RANCH OR TRADEMARKING THE WORD ... At least one European laboratory has already cloned human embryos, although to a less advanced state, using a different process ...
... cloned human embryos capable of producing embryonic stem cells. We had to find the perfect combination, Mitalipov says. As it ... Are you suggesting that an embryo made from human skin cells is less of an embryo than one made by combining sperm with an egg ... Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells 92 Posted by samzenpus on Wednesday May 15, 2013 @06:08PM. from the me-an-the ... Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ...
... the creation of hybrid human-animal embryos for research into degenerative diseases. The move came despite fierce opposition ... In these experiments, we not only risk creating a genuine human embryo who has no human parents and who has a nonhuman partial ... Scientists Hope to Create Human-Animal Embryo British regulators decided Wednesday to allow, at least in principle, the ... created by the fusion of a human sperm and an animal egg - and so-called "human chimeras," where human cells are injected into ...
In another strategy, called therapeutic cloning, the embryo can instead be used to create stem cells that are genetically ... that they successfully isolated 2 embryonic stem cell lines from cloned embryos made using cells from the skin of an adult ... When an embryo like this is implanted into a uterus, as with Dolly, the process is called reproductive cloning. ... The egg then "reprograms" the adult nucleus so that the cell behaves like an embryo but has the genes of the adult cell. ...
But the discovery raises ethical concerns because it brings researchers closer to cloning humans. ... Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells : Shots - Health News The achievement is a long-sought step toward harnessing ... Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells. Listen · 5:23 5:23 ... Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells. Listen · 5:23 5:23 ...
More than 100 of the hybrids, made by fusing human skin cells with rabbit eggs, were allowed to develop in laboratory dishes ... Since human egg cells are difficult and costly to retrieve from womens ovaries -- and because human egg retrieval poses ... Scientists in China have for the first time used cloning techniques to create hybrid embryos that contain a mix of DNA from ... both humans and rabbits, according to a report in a scientific journal that has reignited the smoldering ethics debate over ...
Decisions to make about your embryos. During IVF, clinics need to make various decisions about your embryos, including how many ... What decisions will my clinic and I need to make about my embryos?. During treatment your clinic will talk to you about various ... Rarely there may be no good quality embryos and then your doctor will need to make a judgement about whether they think any of ... However, not all embryos that are left to the blastocyst stage will survive and in some cases a couple could have no embryos ...
A TEAM of stem cell researchers have done the seemingly impossible and successfully combined artificial human cells with the ... embryo of a chicken in a shock new experiment aimed at trying to better understand developing life. ... Hybrid human chicken embryos: HALF HUMAN - HALF CHICKEN abomination created in US lab. A TEAM of stem cell researchers have ... Human-chicken hybrid: Scientists successfully planted artificial human cells onto a chicken embryo (Image: GETTY STOCK IMAGE) ...
The human embryos used in the Swedish experiments could lead to pregnancy, but for the moment, they will not. The human embryos ... injected a gene-editing tool into human embryos that was intended to make extremely specific changes to that embryos genetic ... to perform human embryo germ line editing. This means that there should be no changes in the human embryos genes that could be ... Human Embryo Editing: Sweden Docs Make It Possible To Customize Your Baby. Science * ...
Scientists Discover What Makes Human Embryo Attach to Uterus By Wallace Ravven ... A UCSF-led research team has identified the first molecular step that allows a week-old human embryo to attach to the uterus. ... Human embryo implantation is poorly understood, and the causes of many implantation-related disorders are not known. ... molecules on the embryos surface interact with molecules on the mothers uterine wall to create the sticky environment - the ...
The embryos create better animal models to study the occurrence of human diseases and its progression. ... half-animal embryos to help save lives, particularly people with a wide range of ailments. ... Researchers in the US are creating half-human, ... The embryos create better animal models to study the occurrence ... He uses new gene-editing techniques to remove the gene which pig embryos need to make a pancreas. Ross injects the human- ...
Human cloning: first embryo made in Korea or Britain? Archive 1998. *Is it ethical to allow couples to decide the sex of their ... Human embryo cells to create new tissue - Archive 1999 Written by Patrick Dixon ... Should human cloning be allowed - to create a baby. Yes No Im Not Sure Results ... Update 2008: Huge progress in use of adult stem cells has made research arguments for human cloning to cure disease look rather ...
The ethics of growing human-animal hybrids are unclear. But creepiness aside, scientists do have two reasons for wading into ... Although the human-pig embryos survived, the transplant rate was extremely low: about 1 in 100,000 cells turned out to be human ... Wait, What? The First Human-Monkey Hybrid Embryo Was Just Created in China. By ... His other fascination? Human-animal chimeras, in which animal embryos are injected with human cells and further developed ...
The embryos were created by inserting human DNA into cows eggs. The embryos did not survive beyond three days, according to ... Scientists in Newcastle have created the UKs first part-animal part-human embryos, even though MPs have not yet voted to make ... Some scientists want to create animal-human embryos because they claim it will aid research into developing new medical ... "This nebulous research has been made public at a time when opposition to animal-human cloning gains momentum by the day, with a ...
... cloned human embryos capable of producing embryonic stem cells. The accomplishment is a long-sought step ... After all, Mitalipov created embryos that reached the same stage of development as embryos that are routinely used to make ... Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells By Rob Stein • May 15, 2013 ... He says the embryos he created are not the equivalent of a human being because they were not fertilized naturally. And his ...
Researchers led by scientist Juan Carlos Izpisúa spliced together the genes to grow a monkey with human cells.... ... Scientists have successfully formed a hybrid human-monkey embryo - with the experiment taking place in China to avoid legal ... "What we want is to make progress for the sake of people who have a disease. "The ultimate goal would be to create a human organ ... What can go wrong? Scientists create first hybrid human-monkey embryo in China ...
Lab creates human embryos for stem cell research Essay 】for free from best writers of Artscolumbia ✅ Largest assortment of free ... Topic: Lab creates human embryos for stem cell research Essay How About. Make It Original? ... We will write a custom essay on Lab creates human embryos for stem cell research specifically for you for only $16.38. $13.9/ ... Lab creates human embryos for stem cell research Essay. Choose Type of service ...
Concerns surface on Chinese paper on genetic modification of human embryos. *. 4 areas of debate on 1st human embryo genetic ... Scientists in China create genetically modified human embryos: A cautionary tale. April 22, 2015 Paul Knoepfler Uncategorized ... Would an institutional review board in another country such as the US have given the green light to making GM human embryos? I ... as a basis to create GM human embryos. ... Why Mitalipovs magic room for human embryo CRISPR may give ...
Researchers Create First Human-Chicken Hybrid Embryos. Charlotte Lozier Institute , July 24, 2018.. ... Scientists at New York Citys Rockefeller University recently created the first human-chicken hybrid embryos and used them to ... "At what point is your model of an embryo basically an embryo? Are we creating life that, in the right circumstances, if you ... Similar to two-week-old human embryos, these allowed the scientists to observe their interactions with the human organizer ...
Scientists create first GM human embryo HGA and international civil society groups, scientists and ethicists call for ... Human Genetics Alert (1) has discovered that American scientists have created the worlds first genetically modified (GM) human ... Dr Zaninovic confirmed that this is the first time that a GM human embryo has been created. Government plans to legalise such ... If the UK Parliament legalises GM Human embryos it would set an awful precedent for the rest of the world. GM embryos may be ...
Responding to todays news that Newcastle scientists have failed to create viable animal-human hybrid embryos, HGAs (1) ... Newcastle scientists failure to create viable animal-human embryos is no surprise ... The BBC has been duped into making this a news story, which will then be used to persuade politicians that animal-human hybrids ... Premature reports of its first British cloned human embryo caused one of its leading researchers to leave the laboratory. In ...
Scientists have made a long-awaited breakthrough in human cloning, by using human skin cells to create early-stage embryos. ... Scientists clone human embryos to make stem cells. Updated Fri 17 May 2013, 8:08 AM AEST. Watch Watch Watch ... Scientists make human clone breakthrough. AM Dr Mitalipov said that since the reprogrammed cells use genetic material from the ... The resulting embryos were then used as a source of stem cells, which can be used to create specialised tissue cells for ...
  • We've been able to weigh those up and take what's a very strong decision where we're saying we can move forward with cytoplasmic hybrid embryos and the creation of those in some research, so we can gain the potent benefits but only in the framework of very strong regulation," McNabb says. (npr.org)
  • The survey found people supported the creation of the kind of hybrid embryos proposed by the two research teams - but only when they were given a reason for the experiments. (npr.org)
  • the creation of the hybrid embryos has caused some to question the ethical implications of grafting embryonic human cells into other species. (lozierinstitute.org)
  • The timing of the announcement of this non-result, just as Parliament is about to debate legislation on hybrid embryos is typical (2) of the Newcastle lab's tendency to manipulate the media and politicians. (hgalert.org)
  • The hybrid embryos were created with eggs collected from southern white rhinos and northern white rhino sperm. (nature.com)
  • The egg then "reprograms" the adult nucleus so that the cell behaves like an embryo but has the genes of the adult cell. (nih.gov)
  • such as skin cells -- and egg cells, which have the unique capacity to "reprogram" the genes in body cells and make them behave as though they were embryo cells. (sfgate.com)
  • This means that there should be no changes in the human embryo's genes that could be passed down from one generation to the next. (inquisitr.com)
  • Earlier in April, a team from southern China came under international fire for sticking extra copies of human "intelligence-related" genes into macaque monkeys. (singularityhub.com)
  • Speaking to El Pa í s , Izpisúa Belmonte's collaborator Dr. Estrella Núñez at the Murcia Catholic University (UCAM) in Spain confirmed that they used a similar approach to insert human stem cells into monkey embryos deprived of genes that guide organ formation. (singularityhub.com)
  • Some would argue that it is the next logical step in human evolution, but would we have had a theory of relativity if we could have eradicated the mild autistic genes from the Einstein family? (gizmodo.com.au)
  • A pressing question, said Rudolf Jaenisch, an M.I.T. biology professor, is why anyone would want to edit the genes of human embryos to prevent disease. (nytimes.com)
  • Because of the way genes are distributed in embryos, when one parent has the gene, only half of the parent's embryos will inherit it. (nytimes.com)
  • They pointed out that current knowledge about genes and their interactions was limited and that changing a disease gene in an embryo that then develops into a baby could have unintended consequences that would be inherited by all of that person's progeny. (nytimes.com)
  • Humans, the latest tally suggests, have approximately 21,000 genes in our genome, the set of genetic information in an organism. (thenextweb.com)
  • Partial results of the study had leaked out last week, ahead of its publication in Nature on Wednesday, stirring critics' fears that genes for desired traits - from HIV resistance to strong muscles - might soon be easily slipped into embryos. (statnews.com)
  • And the experiment showed for the first time in a large number of embryos that this can be done efficiently and without harming other genes. (statnews.com)
  • Polls show greater public support for using "germline editing" - changing the DNA of very early embryos - to prevent disease than for giving embryos souped-up genes for, say, extraordinary memories or unbreakable bones. (statnews.com)
  • To bestow the traits on an embryo would require creating the genes in a lab and injecting them - the exact thing that failed completely in the new study. (statnews.com)
  • Teams in China and the United States (US) have used gene editing for different purposes - to remove faulty genes in the embryo that would otherwise result in genetic diseases when a baby is born. (guardian.ng)
  • We are, medically, on the cusp of being able to save these lives in new ways: repairing failing organs with new genes or stem cells, building mechanical organs and growing replacement organs. (latimes.com)
  • Within two days, the human cells started expressing genes characteristic of the organizer cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In normal reproduction, an embryo gets half its genes from the mother and half from the father. (wired.com)
  • In the future we may even endow our creations with genes and chromosomes created from scratch. (vision.org)
  • This legislation deals with genetically engineering human embryos with animal genes NOT genetically engineering animals with a few human genes. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • The advocates of these procedures argue for their alleged low risk by reference to the small amount of DNA involved in the transfer (mitochondrial DNA contains only 37 genes of the estimated 20,000 in the human genome). (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In brief, the Government initially stated openly its aim of allowing genetic modification of human embryos in order to permit the development of safe technology to create GM children (4). (hgalert.org)
  • Although some would argue that the genetic modification of human embryos for research purposes creates a 'slippery slope' towards designer babies with genetic enhancements, it is important to remember that these studies are governed by strict regulations (the embryos in this study were not allowed to develop past a few days). (gizmodo.com.au)
  • In America couples with unused frozen embryos have for years been able to donate them anonymously to infertile couples through IVF clinics. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The court also said McQueen had not offered convincing evidence that her pre-divorce agreement with Gadberry was valid and enforceable, and said that frozen embryos are 'not easily susceptible to a just division. (governing.com)
  • Detractors say selection of healthy embryos or fetuses via genetic testing is preferable. (theconversation.com)
  • Marcy Darnovsky, executive director of the Center for Genetics and Society, argued that there are other ways for couples to have a biological child free of the known genetic defects carried by one parent or both: Screening the DNA of IVF embryos through a technique called preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) lets parents choose only healthy embryos to implant. (statnews.com)
  • On Thursday March 6, at 7:30 p.m., a panel discussion, "In Utero: Imaging and Imagining" will address artistic, scientific, and political considerations in visual depictions of human embryos and fetuses. (mtholyoke.edu)
  • The scientist, from Spain, was responsible for creating the first human pig hybrid in 2017. (sott.net)
  • In 2017 bioethicist Insoo Hyun argued that given their proposed eventual destruction, utilizing embryos "left over" from procedures such as IVF treatments should be permitted. (lozierinstitute.org)
  • These questions were the focus of the second session at Progress Educational Trust's one-day conference 'Crossing Frontiers: Moving the Boundaries of Human Reproduction' in London on 8 December 2017. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Such genome correction of human embryos is currently not allowed in Australia without a licence and embryos cannot be allowed to mature post 14 days. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • In it, Edward Lanphier of Sangamo Biosciences in Richmond, Calif., and his colleagues wrote: "In our view, genome editing in human embryos using current technologies could have unpredictable effects on future generations. (nytimes.com)
  • C reating "designer babies" with a revolutionary new genome-editing technique would be extremely difficult, according to the first U.S. experiment that tried to replace a disease-causing gene in a viable human embryo. (statnews.com)
  • In our view, genome editing in human embryos using current technologies could have unpredictable effects on future generations. (springer.com)
  • The team used genome-editing techniques to stop a key gene from producing a protein called OCT4, which normally becomes active in the first few days of human embryo development. (guardian.ng)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • The infectious-disease assault will continue, but what if we could edit disease out of the human genome altogether? (vision.org)
  • The efficiency and accuracy of gene editing is becoming better with each passing year and there is a strong argument that we have a moral duty to correct DNA mutations in embryos that carry mutations that cause severe diseases. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Demonstration that there are no unwanted mutations that occur alongside the correction of the disease causing mutation is critical since this procedure would alter the genetic make-up of the offspring of all future generations. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • The team used the tool on embryos with mutations for Marfan syndrome, a rare disorder that breaks down connective tissue and causes a myriad of unpleasant symptoms: loose joints, vision problems, or even rips in the heart. (singularityhub.com)
  • Lead researcher, Professor Nicholas Rivron of Maastricht University, said the main use for the embryos would be to test drugs and solve the infertility riddle. (express.co.uk)
  • In a letter to the Telegraph, as yet unpublished, disability rights advocate Ann Farmer has highlighted the fact that, in addition to the vast wastage of embryos, some women have also died from complications of infertility treatments such as OHSS . (blogspot.com)
  • The whole point of the infertility industry is to manufacture babies out of embryos… A car factory that managed to accumulate 3,684,656 surplus models between 1990 and 2012 and in addition killed some of its customers would surely have gone out of business long ago. (blogspot.com)
  • A better understanding of human gastrulation could also shed light on many medical issues including infertility, miscarriage, and genetic disorders. (starctmag.com)