Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Pacific OceanGills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Atlantic OceanVibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Cercozoa: A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Methionine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.10.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Dinucleotide Repeats: The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Perylene: A 20-carbon dibenz(de,kl)anthracene that can be viewed as a naphthalene fused to a phenalene or as dinaphthalene. It is used as fluorescent lipid probe in the cytochemistry of membranes and is a polycyclic hydrocarbon pollutant in soil and water. Derivatives may be carcinogenic.TexasCyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.PhenanthrenesPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.MonacoInternational Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.

Characterization of a defensin from the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Recombinant production, folding, solution structure, antimicrobial activities, and gene expression. (1/126)

In invertebrates, defensins were found in arthropods and in the mussels. Here, we report for the first time the identification and characterization of a defensin (Cg-Def) from an oyster. Cg-def mRNA was isolated from Crassostrea gigas mantle using an expressed sequence tag approach. To gain insight into potential roles of Cg-Def in oyster immunity, we produced the recombinant peptide in Escherichia coli, characterized its antimicrobial activities, determined its solution structure by NMR spectroscopy, and quantified its gene expression in vivo following bacterial challenge of oysters. Recombinant Cg-Def was active in vitro against Gram-positive bacteria but showed no or limited activities against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The activity of Cg-Def was retained in vitro at a salt concentration similar to that of seawater. The Cg-Def structure shares the so-called cystine-stabilized alpha-beta motif (CS-alphabeta) with arthropod defensins but is characterized by the presence of an additional disulfide bond, as previously observed in the mussel defensin (MGD-1). Nevertheless, despite a similar global fold, the Cg-Def and MGD-1 structures mainly differ by the size of their loops and by the presence of two aspartic residues in Cg-Def. Distribution of Cg-def mRNA in various oyster tissues revealed that Cg-def is mainly expressed in mantle edge where it was detected by mass spectrometry analyses. Furthermore, we observed that the Cg-def messenger concentration was unchanged after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that Cg-def gene is continuously expressed in the mantle and would play a key role in oyster by providing a first line of defense against pathogen colonization.  (+info)

Vibrio gigantis sp. nov., isolated from the haemolymph of cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas). (2/126)

Polyphasic analysis of four new Vibrio isolates originating from the haemolymph of diseased cultured oysters is described. The new isolates were closely related to Vibrio splendidus, having 98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB), RNA polymerase sigma70 factor (rpoD), replication origin-binding protein (rctB) and transmembrane regulatory protein (toxR) genes, fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clearly showed that the new isolates form a tight genomic group that is different from the currently known Vibrio species. It is proposed that these new isolates should be accommodated in a novel species, Vibrio gigantis sp. nov. Phenotypic features that differentiate V. gigantis from other known Vibrio species include arginine dihydrolase, gelatinase and beta-galactosidase activities, NO(2) production, growth at 35 degrees C, and utilization of sucrose, melibiose, amygdalin, glycerol, galactose, starch and glycogen. The type strain is LGP 13T (=LMG 22741T=CIP 108656T).  (+info)

In vitro research of anti-HSV-1 activity in different extracts from Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. (3/126)

Mortalities related to the detection of Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) have been previously reported in France among larvae and spat of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Adult oysters appear less sensitive to herpesvirus infections, although OsHV-1 has been detected in adults without signs of disease or mortality. This suggests that the virus is able to persist in its host and that adult oysters may be able to control OsHV-1 infection. Little is known about antiviral substances in invertebrates. The present work concerns the research of antiviral substances in adult oyster C. gigas, where putative antiviral activities were monitored using 3 strategies: (1) in metabolites with variable polarity, (2) in peptidic extracts and (3) in crude haemolymph. In vitro antiviral assays were based on inhibition of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication in Vero cell monolayers. All extracts presented no cytotoxicity. Antiviral activity was detected in the fresh filtered haemolymph (EC50:425 microg ml(-1)) and seasonal variation of the haemolymph antiviral activity was monitored.  (+info)

Purification and antigenic characteristics of a rickettsia-like organism from the oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. (4/126)

A rickettsia-like organism (RLO) has been suggested to be the etiological agent responsible for heavy losses of the oyster Crassostrea ariakensis Gould in China. Because of the lack of molluscan cell lines for in vitro culture of intracellular prokaryotes, antigenic analysis of RLOs has been limited by the inherent difficulties of their purification. In this report, we describe the use of differential speed centrifugation and renografin density gradient centrifugation to purify the RLO directly from infected oyster tissues. The purity and integrity of purified prokaryotes were validated by transmission electron microscopy. Thirteen major constituent proteins, with molecular weights ranging between 17 and 99 kDa, were electrophoretically identified by silver staining, and 8 major proteins were identified with Coomassie blue R staining. Specific mouse polyclonal antiserum was prepared for serological characterization of the RLO and was used in an immunoblot assay, and 3 major antigen groups were identified. The present results advance our knowledge of RLO protein antigens, and several proteins have been identified that could potentially be useful for diagnostic assays or for production of experimental immunostimulants.  (+info)

A PCR-based diagnostic assay for the detection of Roseovarius crassostreae in Crassostrea virginica affected by juvenile oyster disease (JOD). (5/126)

We have developed a PCR-assay for the diagnosis of juvenile oyster disease (JOD) based on the detection of Roseovarius crassostreae directly from affected oysters. Species-specific primers are used to amplify the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of R. crassostreae, and confirmation of product identity is accomplished by restriction enzyme analysis. No false positives were obtained with either closely related bacterial species or from other DNAs present in oyster samples. The assay has the potential to detect as few as 10 cells of R. crassostreae per oyster when samples are taken from the inner valve surfaces of the animal. Inclusion of material from soft body surfaces is not necessary, and may reduce sensitivity approximately 10-fold. In a JOD-affected population, a positive PCR result was obtained from all oysters from which these bacteria were subsequently cultured. The assay also detected the presence of R. crassostreae in 2 oysters from which no R. crassostreae isolates were recovered. No R. crassostreae was detected by either PCR or bacteriology in oysters from a population that was not exhibiting JOD-signs. This assay is expected to advance regional disease management efforts and provide valuable insights into the disease process and epizootiology of JOD.  (+info)

Isolation by distance in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Chesapeake Bay. (6/126)

Intensive efforts are underway to restore depleted stocks of Crassostrea virginica in Chesapeake Bay. However, the extent of gene flow among local populations, an important force mediating the success of these endeavors, is poorly understood. Spatial and temporal population structures were examined in C. virginica from Chesapeake Bay using eight microsatellite loci. Deficits in heterozygosity relative to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were seen at all loci and were best explained by null alleles. Permutation tests indicated that heterozygote deficiency reduced power in tests of differentiation. Nonetheless, genotypic exact tests demonstrated significant levels of geographic differentiation overall, and a subtle pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) was observed. Comparisons between age classes failed to show differences in genotype frequencies, allelic richness, gene diversity, or differentiation as measured by F(ST), contrary to predictions made by the sweepstakes hypothesis. The IBD pattern could reflect an evolutionary equilibrium established because local gene flow predominates, or be influenced in either direction by recent anthropogenic activities. An evolutionary interpretation appears justified as more parsimonious, implying that local efforts to restore oyster populations will have local demographic payoffs, perhaps at the scale of tributaries or regional subestuaries within Chesapeake Bay.  (+info)

Effects of acclimation temperature and cadmium exposure on cellular energy budgets in the marine mollusk Crassostrea virginica: linking cellular and mitochondrial responses. (7/126)

In order to understand the role of metabolic regulation in environmental stress tolerance, a comprehensive analysis of demand-side effects (i.e. changes in energy demands for basal maintenance) and supply-side effects (i.e. metabolic capacity to provide ATP to cover the energy demand) of environmental stressors is required. We have studied the effects of temperature (12, 20 and 28 degrees C) and exposure to a trace metal, cadmium (50 microg l(-1)), on the cellular energy budget of a model marine poikilotherm, Crassostrea virginica (eastern oysters), using oxygen demand for ATP turnover, protein synthesis, mitochondrial proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration in isolated gill and hepatopancreas cells as demand-side endpoints and mitochondrial oxidation capacity, abundance and fractional volume as supply-side endpoints. Cadmium exposure and high acclimation temperatures resulted in a strong increase of oxygen demand in gill and hepatopancreas cells of oysters. Cd-induced increases in cellular energy demand were significant at 12 and 20 degrees C but not at 28 degrees C, possibly indicating a metabolic capacity limitation at the highest temperature. Elevated cellular demand in cells from Cd-exposed oysters was associated with a 2-6-fold increase in protein synthesis and, at cold acclimation temperatures, with a 1.5-fold elevated mitochondrial proton leak. Cellular aerobic capacity, as indicated by mitochondrial oxidation capacity, abundance and volume, did not increase in parallel to compensate for the elevated energy demand. Mitochondrial oxidation capacity was reduced in 28 degrees C-acclimated oysters, and mitochondrial abundance decreased in Cd-exposed oysters, with a stronger decrease (by 20-24%) in warm-acclimated oysters compared with cold-acclimated ones (by 8-13%). These data provide a mechanistic basis for synergism between temperature and cadmium stress on metabolism of marine poikilotherms. Exposure to combined temperature and cadmium stress may result in a strong energy deficiency due to the elevated energy demand on one hand and a reduced mitochondrial capacity to cover this demand on the other hand, which may have important implications for surviving seasonally and/or globally elevated temperatures in polluted estuaries.  (+info)

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and biotransformation of its components in oysters, Crassostrea gigas, fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. (8/126)

As a part of our studies on the mechanism of uptake of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and the kinetics of its accumulation in bivalves, oysters Crassostrea gigas were experimentally contaminated with PSP by being fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Temporal variations in the PSP contents and their profiles in oysters during the feeding experiment were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the toxin profile of the oysters was compared with that of A. tamarense. Toxins excreted from the infested oysters into the seawater for 2 and 10 days were recovered and analyzed by HPLC. PSP toxicity rapidly appeared in the tissues of oysters and their toxicity levels reached 0.6 (0.3), 2.2 (1.1), 1.0 (0.5), 3.4 (1.6) and 1.1 (0.5) MU/g (nmol/g) shucked meat at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. The accumulation rates of toxin, calculated from the total amount (nmol) of toxins expressed by the total cell number fed during the exposure period and the toxicity of the oysters, were 14.1, 18.7, 5.1, 14.9 and 3.2% for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. During feeding experiments, the toxin profile of oysters changed substantially, showing marked differences from the proportions found in the toxigenic dinoflagellate used as food. The toxin components in this strain existed almost exclusively as beta-epimers, which accounted for 66.3 mol% of the total. This contrasts with the case of the oysters, where the beta-epimers represented 24.8, 29.8, 25.1, 27.3 and 25.2 mol% of the total at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. The amount of gonyautoxin-1 (GTX1) accumulated in oysters increased linearly and slowly for 8 days and the maximum content of GTX1 reached 51.3 mol%. The composition of GTX group compounds recovered from the seawater in which the oysters had been reared was a little different from that within the oyster tissues.  (+info)

International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories, Principality of Monaco. In the framework of a program focusing on marine resource protection and management in the Caribbean, the objective of this work was to characterize As bioaccumulation in the common edible oyster Crassostrea virginica. Dissolved As (stable As + 73As as a tracer) was taken up according to saturation kinetics for all tested exposure concentrations (2-10 mg l-1), and steady-state was reached rapidly within ~1 week. A slight decrease in uptake efficiency was observed for the higher concentration tested. Whole-body depuration kinetics showed that 73As was lost according to double exponential depuration kinetics that were characterized by short-lived biological half-lives (Tb1/2s) of 0.5-0.9 d and by long-lived Tb1/2l of 8-16 d. No significant difference in 73As retention was found among different initial exposure concentrations of As. Overall, our results indicate that C. virginica bioaccumulates As ...
The Fox genes encode a group of transcription factors that contain a forkhead domain, which forms a structure known as a winged helix. These transcription factors play a crucial role in several key biological processes, including development. High-degree identity in the canonical forkhead domain has been used to divide Fox proteins into 23 families (FoxA to FoxS). We surveyed the genome of three spiralians, the oyster Crassostrea gigas, the limpet Lottia gigantea, and the annelid Capitella teleta. We identified 25 C. gigas fox genes, 21 L. gigantea fox genes, and 25 C. teleta fox genes. The C. gigas fox and L. gigantea fox genes represented 19 of the 23 families, whereas FoxI, Q1, R, and S were missing. The majority of the Fox families were observed within the C. teleta fox genes, with the exception of FoxR and S. In addition, the foxAB-like gene, foxY-like gene, and foxH gene were also present in the three genomes. The conserved FoxC-FoxL1 cluster, observed in mammals, was also found in C. ...
Were working on a project with Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Micah Horwith to identify potential proteomic biomarkers in geoduck (Panopea generosa) and Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). One aspect of the project is how to best conduct sampling of juvenile geoduck (Panopea generosa) and Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) to minimize changes in the proteome of ctenidia tissue during sampling. Generally, live animals are shucked, tissue dissected, and then the tissue is "snap" frozen. However, Micahs crew will be collecting animals from wild sites around Puget Sound and, because of the remote locations and the means of collection, will have limited tools and time to perform this type of sampling. Time is a significant component that will have great impact on proteomic status in each individual.. As such, Micah and crew wanted to try out a different means of sampling that would help preserve the state of the proteome at the time of collection. Micah and crew have collected ...
The aim of the present study is to determine presence of Plasmid-R in isolated bacteria of C. virginica, during its process of collection, distribution, commercialization, and consumption in Alvarado, Veracruz lagoon.
The protozoan oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus causes extensive mortality in eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations during summer and fall across much of the oysters distribution. Despite more than 40 yr of ...
In the last decade, a paradigm shift has emerged in comparative immunology. Invertebrates can no longer be considered to be devoid of specific recognition and immune memory. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of these phenomena and their molecular mechanisms across phyla, especially in terms of duration, specificity, and efficiency in a natural context. In this study, we focused on a Lophotrochozoan/virus interaction, as antiviral priming is mostly overlooked in molluscs. Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing therapeutic treatment. Our results showed that various nucleic acid injections can prime oysters to trigger an antiviral state ultimately protecting them against a subsequent viral infection. Focusing on poly(I:C) as elicitor, we evidenced that it protected from an environmental infection, by mitigating viral replication. That protection seemed to induce a specific antiviral response as poly(I:C) fails
In the last decade, a paradigm shift has emerged in comparative immunology. Invertebrates can no longer be considered to be devoid of specific recognition and immune memory. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of these phenomena and their molecular mechanisms across phyla, especially in terms of duration, specificity, and efficiency in a natural context. In this study, we focused on a Lophotrochozoan/virus interaction, as antiviral priming is mostly overlooked in molluscs. Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing therapeutic treatment. Our results showed that various nucleic acid injections can prime oysters to trigger an antiviral state ultimately protecting them against a subsequent viral infection. Focusing on poly(I:C) as elicitor, we evidenced that it protected from an environmental infection, by mitigating viral replication. That protection seemed to induce a specific antiviral response as poly(I:C) fails
Two cases of haplosporidian infection occurred during 1993 in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from the French Atlantic coast. The localization and ultrastructure of the plasmodia are described. In situ hybridization of infected tissue sections was conducted with DNA probes for oyster-infecting haplosporidians. The Haplosporidium nelsoni-specific DNA probe MSX1347 hybridized with the C. gigas parasite, and the H. costale-specific probe SSO1318 did not hybridize. Total genomic DNA was extracted from the infected tissue sections for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the haplosporidian. PCR amplifications with H. nelsoni-specific primers and with universal actin primers did not yield the expected products of 573 and 700 bp, respectively. A series of primers was designed to amplify short regions of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from most haplosporidians. The primers encompass a highly variable region of the SSU rDNA and did not amplify oyster DNA. PCR amplification of the ...
ABSTRACT: An ultrastructural study was carried out on Mikrocytos mackini, the cause of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in western Canada. Three forms were identified, quiescent cells (QC), vesicular cells (VC) and endosomal cells (EC). QC occurred in the vesicular connective tissue (VCT), haemocytes (hyalinocytes), adductor and heart myocytes, and extracellularly. They had a central round to ovoid nucleus, ,7 cisternae of inactive nuclear membrane-bound Golgi, few vesicles and lysosome-like bodies. VC were rarely extracellular and usually occurred in adductor and heart myocytes, in close association with host cell mitochondria. The contents of the host cell mitochondria appeared to pass through a tubular extension into the cytoplasm of the parasite. Cytoplasmic vesicles resembled the tubular structure in appearance and size. EC occurred in the VCT, in haemocytes and extracellularly. They had a dilated nuclear membrane, sometimes containing a looped membranous structure ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a critical member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-containing Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) protein family, is a master transcription factor involved in maintaining oxygen homeostasis. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel bHLH-PAS family member, CgHIFα-like gene, from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and determined its importance during hypoxia stress. The 3020-bp CgHIFα-like cDNA encoded a protein of 888 amino acids. The predicted CgHIFα-like amino acid sequence was conserved in the N-terminal bHLH, PAS, and PAC domains (but not in the C-terminal domain) and was most closely related to the HIF family in the bHLH-PAS protein phylogenic tree ...
Barber, B.J., R.B. Carnegie and C.V. Davis. 1996. Effect of timing of seed deployment on growth and mortality of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, affected by Juvenile Oyster Disease (JOD). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27: 443-448.. Barber, B.J., C.V. Davis and M.A. Crosby. 1998. Cultured oysters, Crassostrea virginica, genetically selected for fast growth in the Damariscotta River, Maine, are resistant to mortality caused by Juvenile Oyster Disease (JOD). Journal of Shellfish Research 17: 1171-1175.. Barber, B., C. Davis and R. Hawes. 1998. Genetic selection of oysters for fast growth and disease resistance in Maine. Abstracts of the First Annual Northeast Aquaculture Conference and Exposition, Rockport, Maine, USA, November 18-19, 1998. pp. 78-79 (Abstract). Barber, B.J., C.V. Davis, R.B. Carnegie and K.J. Boettcher. 2000. Management of Juvenile Oyster Disease (JOD) in Maine. Journal of Shellfish Research 19: 641. (Abstract).. Boardman, C.L., A.P. Maloy and K.J. Boettcher. 2008. ...
Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after
Oyster and Clam Genetics. The goal of these projects is to develop and utilize molecular genetic markers for aquaculture species including the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, the hard clam, Mercinaria mercenaria and the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, which is being considered for introduction into the Chesapeake Bay. The molecular markers are being used for population genetic analyses, genetic tracking of oyster restoration efforts with hatchery reared stocks and examination of the genetic interactions between hatchery stocks and wild populations. In addition, these markers provide molecular markers for genetic maps and information to facilitate breeding programs allowing for rapid development of a wide variety of strains and breeds with the long term goal of genetically improved strains for aquaculture and fishery replenishment ...
Hemocytes mediate a series of immune reactions essential for bivalve survival in the environment, however, the impact of harmful algal species and their associated phycotoxins upon bivalve immune system is under debate. To better understand the possible toxic effects of these toxins, Crassostrea gigas hemocytes were exposed to brevetoxin (PbTx-2). Hemocyte viability, monitored through the neutral red retention and MTT reduction assays, and apoptosis (Hoechst staining) remained unchanged during 12 h of exposure to PbTx-2 in concentrations up to 1000 µg/L. Despite cell viability and apoptosis remained stable, hemocytes incubated for 4 h with 1000 µg/L of PbTx-2 revealed higher expression levels of Hsp70 (p | 0.01) and CYP356A1 ( p | 0.05) transcripts and a tendency to increase FABP expression, as evaluated by Real-Time quantitative PCR. The expression of other studied genes (BPI, IL-17, GSTO, EcSOD, Prx6, SOD and GPx) remained unchanged. The results suggest that the absence of cytotoxic effects of PbTx
Media supplements have been investigated for their influence on the viability of primary cell cultures from the heart of Crassostrea gigasoysters. Soluble factors of vertebrate origin were tested,...
Perkinsus marinus ATCC ® 50771™ Designation: LA9-8 [LA-9-8] Isolation: clone derived from strain LA9 (ATCC 50770), which came from eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, Louisiana Gulf Coast
Perkinsus marinus ATCC ® 50773™ Designation: LA21 [LA-21] Isolation: eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, LA, Gulf Coast
ABSTRACT: The pseudolamellibranch is the only main bivalve particle processing system whose mechanisms of pseudofeces rejection on the mantle have not been elucidated. To this end, the entire mantle surface and underlying tissue characteristics were investigated in the oysters Crassostrea virginica and C. gigas, using scanning electron microscopy and histology, as well as observations of particle transport on half-shell preparations. Pseudofeces transport is effected by short simple cilia atop specialized radial ridges, which extend from the gill-mantle junction near the adductor muscle to the mantle edges. The histology of the ridges is characterized by a densely-ciliated pseudostratified epithelium and numerous acid mucopolysaccharide (AMPS)-containing mucocytes, and differs markedly from that of the inter-ridge regions which present a cuboidal epithelium containing few mucocytes and isolated tufts of long simple cilia. In contrast to the pseudofeces transport (infrabranchial) region of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Blooms of toxin-producing microalgae have significant socioeconomic and ecologic impacts.. From an economic point of view, they make certain cultivated and/or fished marine species unfit for consumption. This sometimes has major consequences for human activities directly or indirectly linked to shellfish farming.. From an ecological point of view, toxic microalgae disrupt the balance of natural or farmed populations by causing mortality or problems with recruitment.. Some toxic microalgae blooms produce paralysing phycotoxins that can then contaminate a proportion of oyster production.. The accumulation of toxins in oysters can prove poisonous or even fatal to consumers. The level of toxin is different for each shellfish: tolerance of phycotoxins varies within a single oyster population.. In this context, the ACCUTOX project is aimed at observing, analysing and improving understanding of the origins of the accumulation of paralysing phycotoxins in the oyster Crassostrea gigas.. ...
In the United States of America, oyster production is an important component of the seafood economy in many communities in coastal states. The severe impact of disease outbreaks and mass mortality of oyster larvae in hatcheries impacts production, since the oyster industry is largely dependent on hatchery and nursery production. The use of probiotics has been proposed as a potential preventative measure to limit the impact of bacterial diseases in shellfish hatcheries. In previous laboratory studies, the probiotic bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens S4 and Bacillus pumillus RI06-95 improved the survival of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae against the pathogens Vibrio tubiashii RE22 (now V. coralliilyticus) and Roseovarius crassostreae CV919-312T (now Alliroseovarius crassostreae). The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate probiotics P. inhibens S4 and B. pumillus RI06-95 for disease prevention in shellfish hatcheries. Chapter 1 provides an overview of bacterial disease in
This is a review of existing published global/regional strategies to avoid entrance and survival of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) in hatchery and nursery systems producing oysters Crassostrea gigas. Author: CJ Rodgers, IRTA
Chu, F.-L. E., E. D. Lund, et al. 2006. Effects of triclosan on the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus and its host, the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica: A comparison at different temperatures. 98 Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, CA (USA), 26-30 Mar 2006. Journal of Shellfish Research 25(2): 719 ...
Proteins, Sea Urchins, Electrophoresis, Oyster, Oysters, Genes, Genome, Genomes, DNA, RNA, Oxygen, Lung, Mouse, Collagen, and Inhibition
How many kind of food can you name comes with its own side dish? Well, the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) should be on that list. This week. weve already seen how a trematode infection can improve the taste of oysters, but it seems that oyster also comes with another gastronomic treat in the form of the pea crab Zaops ostreum. Pea crabs (family Pinnotheridae) are small soft bodied crabs which live inside a variety of marine invertebrates, with most species living in bivalves. Zaops ostreum infect the oyster as a tiny first stage larvae, and grow to maturity within the bivalves mantle cavity, feeding upon food-laden mucus strings produced by its hosts filtering action. It is a true parasite in that it causes harm to its host. Not only does it steal food from the oyster, it also forms an obstruction within the body cavity and erode the gill tissue. From a culinary perspective, there are many serving suggestions available for pea crabs - they can be served raw, deep fried, or sautéed, ...
There are no implications for human health. The virus only affects Pacific oysters.. OsHV-1 µvar is a virulent viral disease affecting the Pacific oyster, also known as the rock or cupped oyster. This is the only species of shellfish that is currently known to be susceptible to this virus.. Existing statutory controls for OsHV-1 µVar in the area have been reviewed and the pre-existing control area has been expanded.. Consequently, Confirmed Designation Notice CD07/2015 has been withdrawn and replaced by one new designation notice CD14/2015, which now controls the movements of live Pacific oysters into and out of the area.. You must apply to the Fish Health Inspectorate if you want to move any live Pacific oysters into or out of the designated area.. In addition England and Wales continues to have OsHV-1µVar control areas in Essex and Poole Harbour, Dorset.. ...
The Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is a critical connection between pelagic and benthic environments for coastal microeukaryotic organisms. Through selective filter feeding on planktonic microeukaryotes, oysters contribute directly to the benthic food source for other organisms by depositing microeukaryotes in feces or pseudofeces to sediments. This role in nutrient cycling provides valuable ecosystem services in promoting biodiversity and clean water, and mitigating eutrophication in coastal waters. However, it is not known whether oysters have a eukaryotic microbiome, or
Reasonable progress has been made toward attaining the objectives of this project (No. 3-7-R). Considerable additional and new knowledge of the physical structure and dynamics of a theoretically horizontally-stratified estuary and the movement of the larvae and setting (spatfall) of juvenile Crassostrea virginica has been developed. Sedimentary processes, flushing times and the spatial and temporal distribution of the biological entities have also been investigated. Of especial interest have been the design, construction and verification of an hydraulic model of the system and the use of this scientific device to simulate movement of larvae by dye and to make 11time of passage studiesH, as described below. Later utilization will involve similar studies.
Bower, S.M. and G.R. Meyer. 1993. Stegotricha enterikos gen. n., sp. n. (Class Phyllopharyngea, Order Rhynchodida), a parasitic ciliate in the digestive gland of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and its distribution in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 2005-2017.. Cheng, T.C. 1967. Marine molluscs as hosts for symbioses with a review of known parasites of commercially important species. Advances in Marine Biology 5: 1-424.. Couch, J.A. 1985. Prospective study of infectious and noninfectious disease in oysters and fishes in three Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 1: 59-82.. Fenchel, T. 1965. Ciliates from Scandinavian Molluscs. Ophelia 2(1): 71-174.. Otto, S. V., Harshbarger, J. C. and Chang, S. C. 1979. Status of selected unicellular eucaryote pathogens, and prevalence and histopathology of inclusions containing obligate procaryote parasites, in commercial bivalve mollusks from Maryland estuaries. Haliotis 8 (1977): 285-295.. Pauley, G.B., Chew, K.K. and ...
One very controversial suggestion thats been debated for half a century is to introduce a non-native oyster to the bay and see if it can do better than Crassostrea virginica. "Researchers, resource managers, conservationists, and those in the industry are considering whether the risks of such an introduction would outweigh the potential benefits." Clearly, everyones leery of the idea, especially since it appears that the MSX disease was introduced into the Chesapeake as a hitchhiker on a non-native oyster. An editorial in the Fredericksburg (VA) Free Lance-Star described the scale and complexity of the regions problem: The primary lesson, one that has been hammered home as the Chesapeake Bay blue crab numbers have dwindled, is that in order to save the bays creatures, you first have to save the bay -or at least be able to show real signs of progress toward recovery. But oysters are also at the center of the bay recovery conundrum: They have always been the estuarys best natural water ...
The tolerance of Crassostrea virginica larvae to anoxia increases with developmental stage and body size. Median mortality times range from 11 h for prodissoconch larvae of 82 micro m (shell length) to 51 h for pediveliger larvae of 3 12 micro m, and 150 h for juvenile oysters. Simultaneous calorimetry and respirometry showed that in response to declining oxygen tension (P02), the rates of heat dissipation and oxygen uptake by oyster larvae are maintained independent of PO2 down to low Pc values (2 kPa for prodissoconch larvae and 8 kPa for pediveliger and juveniles). Therefore, total energy metabolism is sustained mainly by aerobic metabolism down to 2 and 4 kPa for early larval stages and juveniles, respectively. Prodissoconch larvae maintain relatively high rates of heat dissipation under anoxic conditions (34% of normoxic rate), whereas pediveliger and juveniles lower their anoxic rates of heat dissipation to 3% of the normoxic rate. The ability to reduce rates of heat dissipation and thus conserve
VIETNAM - The Red River Delta province of Nam Dinh has licensed a Taiwan-invested project on raising giant Pacific Oyster scientically named Crassostrea gigas, with an initial investment of US$120,000.,/b, ,br,,br, ,p,The project, covering 10 hectares of water, is designed to produce 5 million fries and 833,000 kg of oysters for harvest a year, once it begins operations in 2008. ,br /, ,br /, The potential farm is also expected to produce high-quality oysters for export to Taiwan, the US and Japan, in addition to providing raw materials for sea-food processing factories. ,/p, ,p,,em,Source: Vietnam Economy,/em,,/p,. ...
Article for grades 6 through 12 This young naturalist looked to oyster restoration projects, which have gained popularity in recent years as a means of improving water quality, for her investigation.
The measurements of valve activity in a population of bivalves under natural environmental conditions (16 oysters in the Bay of Arcachon, France) are used
G. 2004, Overview and comparison of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) for assessing chemical exposure. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23: 1617-1628. D. S. 1992, Viability of glochida of two species of Anodonta exposed to low pH and selected metals. Can. J. Zool. 70: 2348-2354. Hwang, S-T. and Kammermeyer, K. 1984, Membranes in Separations. Krieger Publishing: Malabar, FL. P. 1995, Passive sampling devices for rapid determination of soil contaminant distributions. Sci. Technol. 35: 1425-1431. N. 1992, Rapid characterization of pesticide residues in contaminated soils by passive sampling devices. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11: 765-770. Zabik, M. 1988, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Personal communication. 1. SPMD DESCRIPTION AND RATIONALE From the discussions thus far, the reader can infer that SPMDs are designed to mimic the passive diffusional and partitioning steps of bioconcentration while providing semi-quantitative to quantitative ...
A novel homologue of IκB was cloned from a hemocyte cDNA of Crassostrea gigas (designed as CgIκB2). The complete cDNA of CgIκB2 includes an open reading frame (ORF) of 1032 bp, and 3′ and 5′untranslated regions (UTRs) of 141 bp and 279 bp, respectively. The ORF encodes a putative protein of 343 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 37.8 kDa. Alignment analysis reveals th ...
ANNAPOLIS | Maryland Gov. Martin OMalley has outlined a three-step plan to revive the Chesapeake Bays native oyster population, which has languished for years at just 1 percent of historic numbers.
The goals of the Host-Pathogen-Environment (Interaction Hôtes Pathogènes Environnements - IHPE) research unit aims to describe the mechanisms that govern the interactions between marine invertebrates (mainly the Pacific oyster, Crassostreagigas), their pathogens and the environment, and also to characterise the physiological and adaptive responses of oysters and their pathogens to environmental pressures.
Complete information for SPATS2 gene (Protein Coding), Spermatogenesis Associated Serine Rich 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ahojte, to pocasi je desny, nebo je to tim tehu, ja nevim. vcera odpo se me nic nechtelo, ani jsem neumyla nadobi, proste jsem nic nedelala. dneska dopo jsme anicku daly tchanovcum a jely s manzelem po kuchynskych deskach. holky des, nic jsme nevybraly, jeste nam zbyvaji kuchynsky studia jako oresi,...pak jsme jely na obed k tchanovcum a domu. anicka spat nechtela, tak jsem ji pustila dobu ledovou a ja aspon usla na 20min. tedka uz je zrala na spani, tak ji dam. manza je cely odpo na byte. zitra tam bude zase celej den. uz bych chtela byt prestehovana, abysme spolu travily vic casu. nejak me to nebavi. a taky si uvedomuju, ze jsu nejaka protivna, no jo asi hormony, jsu porad unavena a pak vecer takova protivnejsi, ale co nadelam ...
... - Get a bar chart of the top 10 nutrients, and click to see an expanded list of over 151 nutrients, including amino acids.
Resistance of Pacific Oyster Larvae and Juveniles to the Effects of Ocean Acidification Chris LangdonHatfield Marine Science CenterCoastal Oregon Marine Experiment StationOregon State University2030 SE Marine Science DriveNewport, Oregon 97365Phone: 541-867-0231Fax: 541-867-0345Email Co-PIs: George Waldbusser, OSU; Eli Meyer, OSU
U.S. oyster growers are strongly concerned about the spread of OsHV-1 microvariants globally. I was part of the team that first detected OsHV-1 in Tomales Bay, California. To date the virus has been detected only in oysters in Tomales Bay and an adjacent bay, and no microvariants have been found yet in U.S. waters. The California OsHV-1 causes mortalities of young Pacific oysters, but is thought to be less virulent than OsHV-1 microvariants.. Given the spread of the OsHV-1 microvariants elsewhere around the world, it may only be a matter of time until they reach U.S. coastal bays or other nonimpacted oyster growing areas. We spent the summer of 2017 conducting experiments in Tomales Bay to determine whether any cultured U.S. oysters species are resistant to OsHV-1, and soon will also conduct laboratory challenges with OsHV-1 microvariants. Once OsHV-1 is established within a bay, mass oyster deaths typically occur each year during the summer when water temperatures are warm. The situation is ...
Parameters of hemocyte populations have been considered as relevant indicators of bivalve health and are currently used in immunotoxicological studies. Hemocytes in hemolymph can be collected by puncturing either the pericardial cavity or the adductor muscle sinus with a syringe. Flow cytometry is a methodological approach that is increasingly being used in laboratories for the study of hemocyte parameters in aquatic invertebrates. However, various protocols for hemocyte processing in laboratories equipped with different types of cytometers have been published. In this context, two flow cytometers (EPICS XL4®, Beckman Coulter and FacsCalibur®, Becton Dickinson) and two sites of hemocyte collection (pericardial cavity and adductor muscle sinus) were compared for the analysis of hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Hemolymph cells were analyzed in terms of their number and organelle contents. Cell mortality, phagocytosis, non specific esterase, extension of the lysosomal
Develop, calibrate, and validate a Haplosporidium nelsoni submodel, to be linked to an existing Crassostrea virginica-Perkinsus marinus host-parasite population dynamics model. Assemble and quality-assure calibration and input data from Chesapeake Bay Oyster population and disease monitoring programs. Develop spatial grid interpolations to match environmental and biological data for the Chesapeake Bay.
Summary of the gene family classification of four related species, Cyclina sinensis, Crassostrea gigas, Lottia gigantea and Capitella teleta.Only putative pepti
Los Angeles, CA - May 16, 2017 - Worldwide Business with kathy ireland® is pleased to announce an exclusive interview with Rita Love Owens, CEO of The RLO Group, a company that exists to bridge the communication and engagement gap between brands and consumers.. Owens will explain how The RLO Group helps interpret brand messaging in order to better connect with target segments; women, family and community.. The RLO Group aligns their clients in their respective communities around initiatives and organizations whose missions match the desire to reach their target segments with authentic messaging. The company was founded in 2010 and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.. Owens says that The RLO Group has a unique approach to creating trusted consumer experiences. She explains, "First, you begin with transparency. Then, you add your creativity. Consumers want to have honest conversations. And you have to be sure that you take notice of that. You cant take that for granted. You cant take for ...
Free Online Library: Classification of common oysters from North China.(Report) by Journal of Shellfish Research; Zoology and wildlife conservation Biological sciences Crassostrea Genetic aspects Identification and classification Cytochrome oxidase Properties DNA sequencers Usage Mitochondria Oysters RNA
Its an old Chesapeake tradition, paving driveways, decorating gardens and the bases of rural mailboxes with oyster shells. But it may give way to a different purpose; helping to restore the Chesapeakes decimated oyster population. Heres why.. Oyster shells are just the thing an oyster farmer needs to spread across three or four acres of leased bottom in a Chesapeake tributary to form a bed for baby oysters to attach themselves and grow. But shells are hard to come by (see: tradition and decimated population), and expensive; $3 to $4 a bushel. And thats where homeowners like Jeff and Lisa Duffy come in.. ...
Oysters once dominated the ecosystem of the Chesapeake Bay, and it would be difficult, if not impossible, for the Bay to return to full ecological health without restoring Crassotrea virginica to its glory days of the Chesapeakes apex filterer.
The tall man and the short man on the Ghost looked up.. "Hello, Taft," the short man said, with insolent familiarity. (Among the bayfarers he had gained the nickname of "The Centipede" on account of his long arms.) "Hello, Taft," he repeated, with the same touch of insolence. "Wot r you growling about now?". "Those are my oysters - thats what I said. Youve stolen them from my beds.". "Yer mighty wise, aint ye?" was the Centipedes sneering reply. "Spose you can tell your oysters wherever you see em?". "Now, in my experience," broke in the tall man, "oysters is oysters wherever you find em, an theyre pretty much alike all the Bay over, and the world over, too, for that matter. Were not wantin to quarrel with you, Mr. Taft, but we jes wish you wouldnt insinuate that them oysters is yours an that were thieves an robbers till you can prove the goods.". "I know theyre mine; Id stake my life on it!" Mr. Taft snorted.. "Prove it," challenged the tall man, who we afterward learned was ...
Species definitions in plants are often less strict than they seem to be for animals. Some research from a few years ago sought to identify how I. setosa was related to other North American wild irises. They found I. setosa was most likely one of the parents (with I. virginica) of I. versicolor. I. setosa and I. virginica are both diploid with 38 (19/19) and 70 (35/35) chromosomes, respectively. The hybrid between the two species is infertile due to mis-paired chromosome sets (19/35). But like in other cases (http://the-biologist-is-in.blogspot.com/2015/01/hybrid-sterility-and-speciation.html), that infertility can be resolved by a whole genome duplication like that which appears to have happened in the ancestors of modern I. versicolor ...
Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2015). Longchaeus acus (Gmelin, 1791). In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=215192 on 2017-12- ...
Rosenberg, G. (2010). Cypraea histrio Gmelin, 1791. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=216781 on 2017-12- ...
A haplotype of 23 SNPs spanning 131.6 Kb shared by all affected members of 3 linked families with restless legs syndrome was identified. The shared candidate region covers 46.9 Kb over the potassium channel-related gene KCTD18 and exons 10-13 of SPATS2L ...
Proteome IDi ,p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome,/a>. It consists of the characters UP followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.,p>,a href=/help/proteome_id target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
We plan to apply the methodologies developed from our current NMFS-funded project for mtDNA markers, DNA fingerprinting, RNA probes and PCR technologies to quantify low-levels of Perkinsus marinus infections in order to fully describe the etiology of this oyster disease. Our progress in working with genetic markers of P. marinus has: Developed a sensitive PCR-based diagnostic assay for detecting P. marinus infections ; Identified an extrachromosomal relic plastid-genome in P.
Oyster has amazing benefits that include weight loss, increased bone strength, and strong immune system. Oysters are a good source of protein, vitamins and nutrients.
Oyster farmers are set to benefit from a new genetic tool that will help to prevent disease outbreaks and improve yields. The technology -- developed by scientists at the University of Edinburghs Roslin Institute -- will enable hatcheries to rapidly assess the genetic make-up of their oysters, so they can select animals with desirable characteristics from which to breed.
Eventbrite - Matunuck Oyster Bar presents Matunuck Oyster Farm Tour - Saturday, July 22, 2017 at 629 Succotash Rd, South Kingstown, RI. Find event and ticket information.
Did you know that the oyster is full of virtues? Besides being the only animal to contain vitamin C, Oyster is neither greasy nor
While keeping the gun in what must look like a badly packed suitcase of a vagina may be a one-off event, you can be assured shes done scads of other crazy things leading up to that. This isnt the act of an otherwise rational individual momentarily overcome with emotion. Youve got to build up to that sort of thing.. Therefore, if we assume that this is only a single episode of bizarre behavior in a series of bizarre behaviors that has been escalating steadily over the years, we can conclude, with a high degree of certainty, that everybody in that house is crazy as fuck. None of this hes crazier or shes crazier bullshit. Everybody involved is completely loony.. I guarantee that her neighbors, upon hearing the news, thought about it for .7ms before deciding that, yes, this is exactly the sort of thing they had in mind when telling their children to stay away from that lady. Nobody will be surprised at all.. ...
A son of late Chinese industrialist Henry Fok has taken his brother to court over their fathers multibillion dollar estate, the latest in a string of high-profile legal squabbles among the citys wealthiest families as their patriarchs age or die.
Should some of the smaller stations along the Oyster Bay branch be closed at peak times in order to provide faster service? * ...
Time for another Pok mon of the Week. The RNG has spat out a good one this week http://www.serebii.net/art/169.png Its Crobat. Golbats loveable evolution. It is ridiculously fast and capable of doing serious damage http://www.serebii.net/pokedex-bw/169.shtml Go nuts
You would think that after six seasons and 230 episodes, after all those on-air spats with your wife and all those awkward moments provided by your four not-always-perfect children, after all those emails and articles about your messy house and that embarrassing drunk-driving charge, you think youd be glad to close your front door, shut out the world and watch the invasive camera crews pack up their gear and move along ...
Eh, all the Madonna super-fans who complain about the media trashing her shouldnt be hopping on the Lady Gaga-bashing bandwagon coz youre doing exactly...
An OsHV-1 microvariant was first detected in France in 2008, where it killed 80 to 100 percent of affected oyster beds. Since then, similar variants have caused mass mortalities of oysters in many European countries. A 2010 outbreak in England killed over eight million oysters.. OsHV-1 microvariants also infect Pacific oysters in New Zealand and Australia. Their spread in Australia, in particular to Tasmania, has crippled the Australian Pacific oyster aquaculture industry.. Resistance is the best defense. U.S. oyster growers are strongly concerned about the spread of OsHV-1 microvariants globally. I was part of the team that first detected OsHV-1 in Tomales Bay, California. To date the virus has been detected only in oysters in Tomales Bay and an adjacent bay, and no microvariants have been found yet in U.S. waters. The California OsHV-1 causes mortalities of young Pacific oysters, but is thought to be less virulent than OsHV-1 microvariants.. Given the spread of the OsHV-1 microvariants ...
Histological examination of over 6,000 oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting northern Gulf Coast estuaries revealed unencysted junvenile and possible adult stages of digenetic trematode, Proctoeces sp., inhabiting the gonadal ducts of the mollusc. The morphology of the worm is similar to juvenile stages of Proctoeces described in other bivalves. Infestation is highest in oysters from Mississippi Sound near Pascagoula, Mississippi with prevalence peaking in early winter and dropping off in spring and summer. The worm did not provoke a significant hemocytic response from the oyster. Oyster hemocytes were observed inside the digestive caeca of worms but there was no evidence of significant germinal feeding of gonadal impairment to the oyster. The hooked mussel Brachidontes recurvus, found attached to shells of oysters, may be significant in the life cycle of the digenean. The possibility of an altered life cycle in which the worm uses a surrogate host such as C. virginica in place of a ...
Lang, A. and Buschbaum, C. (2010): Facilitative effects of introduced Pacific oysters on native macroalgae are limited by a secondary invader, the seaweed Sargassum muticum , J. Sea Res ...
Next article in issue: Development of 15 novel dinucleotide microsatellite markers in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Next article in issue: Development of 15 novel dinucleotide microsatellite markers in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis ...
Also at Cartwheel Bay, we saw the plant below. We originally identified this as Iris tridentata, but thanks to the keen eye of one of our readers weve learned that this identification was incorrect. Instead, we now believe that this is likely Iris virginica. However, there are two known varieties of this species present in South Carolina: I. virginica var. virginica and I. virginica var. shrevei. The former is said to get up to 6 dm tall and to not be very branched, whereas the latter is said to get up to 1 m tall and to be more branched. The plant that we saw with deep violet petals and sepals was at least 1m tall and was branched, indicating that it would be I. virginica var. shrevei. However, that variety is not known from the coastal plain of South Carolina or from Horry County, where we found this specimen ...
Parasites as an Alternative Model for Lipid Metabolism: Gene Expression Analysis of an Oyster Parasite Perkinsus marinus during Lipid Starvation.. Our laboratory is interested in understanding the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Perkinsus marinus. Previous work has shown that this parasite is capable of synthesizing its own fatty acids, a property that is unique among parasites that usually require the acquisition of certain essential fatty acids from their host. Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol from Acetyl CoA, which is derived from carbohydrate metabolism via citrate. In the cytosol, citrate can be cleaved into oxaloacetate and Acetyl CoA, or be converted to isocitrate by cytosolic aconitase. We are investigating the role of cytosolic aconitase as a potential branch point in this process, as we have evidence for phosphorylation of this enzyme in favoring citrate production. No one to our knowledge has delineated the role of cytosolic aconitase in fatty acid biosynthesis. We ...
The Lynnhaven River was once famous for its oysters. Sadly, after years of disease, pollution and over-harvesting, the rivers oyster population declined to less than 1%. Today, state and local groups are working to grow oysters and replace reefs where they once stood. Most recently, "oyster castles" are providing new places for oysters to grow. Made from crushed oyster shell and concrete, oyster castles resemble Legos interlocking blocks. With 19 blocks per castle, these shoreline structures attract baby oysters and provide ample surfaces to settle down. Oyster castles also provide homes for other animals like fish and blue crabs while protecting adjacent shorelines from erosion. Moreover, oysters help clean our waterways-a single oyster can purify up to 50 gallons of river water every day! Project Green Teens​, Virginia Beachs first environmental group for teens, is raising funds to create an oyster reef​ along the eastern branch of the Lynnhaven River at Great Neck Park. The goal of this ...
Plants with the common names Virginia cowslip and Virginia bluebells both have the scientific name Mertensia virginica. Native to the eastern part of North America, these perennial wildflowers...
Its official: The BP oil spill has poisoned the iconic Gulf oyster. And the fallout, according to scientists, could be devastating to the surrounding ecosystem and the people who work the Gulf waters.. A team from the California Academy of Sciences has been studying oysters for two years, both before and after BPs oil reached the shores of Louisiana, Alabama and Florida. The scientists found significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt and vanadium - three heavy metals contained in crude oil - in oysters collected post-spill. That disturbing discovery has scientists concerned about two potential long-term impacts: (1) The toxicity may be passed along to an array of oyster predators such as sea birds, sea anemones, sea stars, crabs, fish and even humans; and (2) The toxicity may inhibit the ability of oysters to reproduce, potentially diminishing their numbers and straining the organisms higher up the food chain that rely on oysters as a food source.. From an April 18 press release ...
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The topic of my research is-Enzymatic estimation and protien profile of pleurotus florida(oyster mushroom) using selectable markers for obtaining high yield.My advisor says dat I have to use rapd markers,but i have still not understood the topic.C ...
By Phylis Canion. I love oysters, but do not recall reading an article about them in your column. I recently opened a shell and found a tiny crab. Is that unusual? Is it true that there are certain months to eat oysters? Does the sex of an oyster make a difference? Why do some oysters have a pearl? Guess you can see where I am headed with my questions, so anything you can share would be most appreciated.. Thank you for being such a diligent reader, and you are correct - I have not had an article about oysters. Hope this answers some of your questions.. Oysters are mollusks that breathe much like fish, using both gills and a mantle, which extract oxygen from the water and expel carbon dioxide. Tiny crabs have evolved to live harmoniously inside the oysters shell and are sought after by gourmands around the world although the co-habitating crabs are not abundant. Many years ago, people were advised not to eat oysters in months that did not contain the letter "r." The reason was because these ...
The Nanticoke River Group consists of the Turtle Branch and Kent Island Formations. The Nanticoke River Group consists of heterogeneous units of interbedded fine to coarse sand, clayey silt, sandy silt, and silty clay. Where the units are muddy, downstream of Seaford, the sequence consists of a lower fluvial to estuarine swamp to tidal stream deposits (coarse sand to gravelly sand with scattered organic-rich muddy beds) overlain by estuarine clayey silts and silty clays that contain rare to common Crassostrea (oyster) bioherms. The silts and clays are overlain by sands with clay laminae, to fine to coarse well-sorted, clean sand that are estuarne beach and eolian in origin. Upstream, the mud beds are rarer and restricted to the west side of streams and consist of organic rich clayey silt. Most of the stratigraphic section is dominated by clean, well-sorted sands.
If the Homo-Pan LCA lived in African littoral forests along the Indian Ocean or the Red Sea, this could explain the archaic Homo finds ~1.8 Ma as far as Java (Mojokerto, amid barnacles and shells), Georgia (Dmanisi, amid rich lacustrine resources near the Black-Capsian Sea connection then), Algeria (Aïn-Hanech floodplain) and the African Rift (erectus appeared at Lake Turkana together with stingrays, suggesting a marine connection then).. Sea-levels repeatedly dropped more than 100 m during Glacials, and on the continental shelves, vast territories - presumably tree-poor and shellfish-rich - became available for intelligent, dextrous, tool-using, coastal forest-dwelling hominoids, who could open mangrove oysters (like capuchin monkeys do) and coconuts (containing fresh water) and beach-comb for turtles and their eggs, mussels and crabs. An extensive overview of the literature by Stephen Munro showed that virtually all known archaic Homo sites (including those in savanna) were associated ...
Washington state just might be the only place in the world thats home to all the major edible oyster species. And they all have good stories to tell.
BACKGROUND AIMS: One of the classic examples of an allopolyploid is Iris versicolor, Blue Flag (2n = 108), first studied by Edgar Anderson and later popularized by George Ledyard Stebbins in cytogenetics and evolutionary text-books. It is revisited here using modern molecular and cytogenetic tools to investigate its putative allopolyploid origin involving progenitors of I. virginica (2n = 70) and I. setosa (2n = 38). METHODS: Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization with 5S and 18-26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes, and to study the unit structure, relative abundance and chromosomal location of rDNA sequences. KEY RESULTS: GISH shows that I. versicolor has inherited the sum of the chromosome complement from the two progenitor species. In I. versicolor all the 18-26S rDNA units and loci are inherited from the progenitor of I. virginica, those loci from the I. setosa progenitor ...
Semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub, depending on climate variation. Growth habit is erect and spreading, branched out near the top, colony forming. Height 3
China Oyster Meet manufacturers - Select 2018 high quality Oyster Meet products in best price from certified Chinese Oyster Meet Factory manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Wine and oysters: the conclusion of a 9-page article and glossary of oyster terms. Here, page 9: eating oysters and pairing them with wine. THE NIBBLE, Great Food Finds, is a gourmet food webzine with thousands of product reviews including detailed information about wine and oysters. Sign up for the Top Pick Of The Week to get an emailed food review and recipe.
A spat over a Facebook friend request resulted in a 72-year-old woman being slapped and another woman being arrested, according to the Pinellas County Sheriffs Office.
Why did oysters double in price from last year? They were about $10 a pound, and this year theyre $19.99 at the same store. I didnt buy them. Ill have to settle for the cheapest canned oysters that I can find. Theyre not nearly as plump or as flavorful, but at least I wont go broke. I can afford the canned kind, and theyre still good. Ive been thinking of reasons why oysters are so expensive now, and Ive come to one conclusion. Hopefully, Ill be able to enjoy them next fall or winter. Its bad enough to have to pay $10 a pound! I refuse to pay double that amount no matter how scarce they are.. ...
Oddly, I was unable to find any DNA for the 08:13 samples that should have been previously qPCRd for RLO.. Instead, I tracked down the EtOH-preserved digestive gland (DG) tissues from when these were initially sampled. The box contained both of the "QPCR" tissue samples, however, many of them had dried out. This fact had already been denoted on the outside of the box and on the tubes.. Finding these samples is a bit strange. Its odd because if someone had performed qPCR analysis on these 08:13 samples, the DNA shouldve come from either of the two "QPCR" tissue samples; but, looking at the vials, it seems like no tissue has been removed from any of the tubes…. Additionally, despite the fact that the spreadsheet Carolyn provided me with the other day indicating that the 08:13 samples are from the 2nd black abalone experiment, the label on this box indicates that these are from the 1st black abalone experiment… Despite this, Im fairly certain these are indeed from Experiment 2, as these ...
... The Nutrition Facts include fat, carbs, protein and calories in Mollusks, oyster, eastern, wild
Oyster farming will resume in certain parts of southern Massachusetts today after the state reopened oyster beds that had been closed because of hi
A new delicacy developed in New Zealand is set to tickle the tastebuds of oyster lovers in Japan and the USA. The rare and highly desirable golden oyster has been successfully bred commercially by an Auckland scientist and results from the first ...
... Compare Tuna to Oyster by vitamins and minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool.
PHG Foundation: The PHG Foundation is an independent international charity that works to achieve the responsible and evidence-based application of biomedical science for health.
Results for oyster farming services from leading brands for aquaculture. Compare and contact a supplier near you on (aquaculture) - agriculture-xprt.com
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Mollusks, oyster, eastern, farmed, raw - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
Mollusks, oyster, eastern, cooked, breaded and fried - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
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The clam Meretrix meretrix, the green mussel Perna viridis and the oyster Crassostrea madrasensis exist in the Ennore Estuary. The bar is open throughout the year and as a result except during the Northeast Monsoon period when there is significant fall in salinity, higher salinity as in the inshore waters are prevalent. The present investigations were designed and aimed at studying the salinity tolerance of the above mentioned bivalves. In the experiments conducted they were subjected to a series of salinity changes ranging from 0 to 35 %„. The rates of mortality of the animals in different salinity media were noted at the end of 24 hours for a consecutive period of ten days. It was found that the bivalves were tolerant to the salinity change of the experimental media when the survival rate was 50% and above at the close of this period. The results obtained show that Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix meretrix and Perm viridis can tolerate an approximate low salinity of 7, 13 and 16%, ...
The generation of EST information is an essential step in the genomic characterisation of species. In the context of the European Network Marine Genomics, a common goal was to significantly increase the amount of ESTs in commercial marine mollusk species and more specifically in the less studied but ecologically and commercially important groups, such as mussel and clam genera. Normalized cDNA libraries were constructed for four different relevant bivalves species (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Ruditapes decussatus and Bathymodiolus azoricus), using numerous tissues and physiological conditions. In this paper, we present the analysis of the 13,013 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated. Each EST library was independently assembled and 1300-3000 unique sequences were identified in each species. For the different species, functional categories could be assigned to only about 16 to 27% of ESTs using the GO annotation tool. All sequences have been incorporated into a publicly available ...
Bivalve shellfish potentially reduce excess nitrogen in the water column, however they can also be involved in the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Environmental controls on N2O production from bivalves have not been well quantified. We tested responses of N2O production by three bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea virginica) to nitrogen (N) loading and/or warming after immediate (1 day) and short-term (14-28 days) exposure. This twofactor laboratory study had four treatments: (1) ammonium nitrate (N) addition (targeting 100μM-N), (2) warming (22oC), (3) N addition + warming and (4) no N addition or warming (control, 19oC). Potential N2O production rates were higher in response to N additions for all bivalves, particularly with short-term exposures. Warming had a small but significant impact on N2O production from M. mercenaria, confounded by a significant interaction of exposure X warming and exposure X nitrogen X warming. Similarly, C. virginica
The Science Issue and Relevance: Triploidy is the condition in which three chromosome sets occur in somatic cells. Triploidization is the most practical, economical, and effective method for mass production of sterile fishes. Some examples include triploid oysters Crassostrea spp., Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus that are commercially cultured for consumption, weed and snail control, respectively. Additionally, triploid walleye Sander vitreus, crappie Pomoxis spp., striped bass Morone saxatilis, and salmonids are stocked for recreational fishing. Triploidization limits the potential for establishment of wild populations. However, treatments used to induce triploidy often do not achieve 100% triploids in a spawn.. Differentiating diploids from triploids at the earliest life stage possible allows for a more efficient use of resources including production time and rearing space. Thus, a reliable flow cytometric (FCM) method has been developed to ...
Search Indian calcium carbonate oyster shell Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to calcium carbonate oyster shell Exporters in India, calcium carbonate oyster shell Wholesalers, calcium carbonate oyster shell Distributors and Traders from India.
Oyster mushrooms do not taste like oysters but rather get their name from their resemblance to the shellfish. Oyster mushrooms are among the most abundant of wild mushrooms. They can be found throughout the year, most often on the trunks of dead trees.. Oyster mushrooms are the third largest cultivated mushroom. China, the world leader in Oyster production, contributes nearly 85% of the total world production of about a million tonnes.. Oyster mushrooms are grown in bags of composted sawdust. The bags are sterilized, then inoculated with mushroom spawn (seed) placed inside the bag.. A characteristic of oyster mushrooms is that they have an eccentric (off-centre) stem or sometimes even no stem at all. Oyster mushrooms are very likely the most perishable of mushrooms. They must be kept between 1 and 4 degrees C.. Their colour can vary slightly depending on variety, from pale gray, to light beige, and sometimes pink or yellow. Oyster Mushrooms are similar to the Chanterelle with a more delicate ...
HONOLULU - The Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) is issuing a recall notice for frozen, raw oysters imported from Korea and sold in bulk to distributors and food establishments in Hawaii. The individually quick frozen (IQF) raw oysters on the half shell are packaged under the Dai One Food Company label. The shellfish harvest dates are Feb. 10, 11, 12, and 13, 2015 and are listed on the required shellfish identification tags for all bulk shellfish cases.. "The department has already conducted product trace-backs and embargoed all of the suspect product on Nov. 24 at various local shellfish distributors and restaurants," said Peter Oshiro, "Although this product is not sold directly to the public, a recall has been issued as an additional safeguard to further notify anyone who may possess the product that it is unsafe and should be destroyed.". A product embargo prohibits businesses from using a product suspected of causing illness until a determination is made on the safety of the product. ...
Crassostrea nippona. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World ... 1930 is a synonym of Crassostrea nippona (Seki, 1934) Xenophora tenuis Hirase, 1934 is a synonym of Xenophora tenuis Fulton, ...
"Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)". Tpwd.state.tx.us. 10 November 2011. "NOAA Habitat Conservation , Restoration Center , ... A common species of oysters used in oyster restoration is the Eastern American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which is also ... Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA". PLoS ONE. 7 (7): 1-11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040839. PMC ...
Once the native oyster beds had been exhausted farmers began to import and plant the seeds of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas ... Crassostrea gigas; and Pacific Razor Clams, Siliqua patula, in the State of Washington". NOAA Technical Report NMFS. 128: 90. ...
Crassostrea gigas) Annelida • Polychaete worm (Capitella teleta) • Common brandling worm (Eisenia fetida) Fromm, Bastian; ...
Nearly all octopuses are predatory; bottom-dwelling octopuses eat mainly crustaceans, polychaete worms, and other molluscs such as whelks and clams; open-ocean octopuses eat mainly prawns, fish and other cephalopods.[71] Major items in the diet of the giant Pacific octopus include bivalve molluscs such as the cockle Clinocardium nuttallii, clams and scallops, and crustaceans such as crabs and spider crabs. Prey that it is likely to reject include moon snails, because they are too large, and limpets, rock scallops, chitons and abalone, because they are too securely fixed to the rock.[70]. A bottom-dwelling octopus typically moves among the rocks and feels through the crevices. The creature may make a jet-propelled pounce on prey and pull it towards the mouth with its arms, the suckers restraining it. Small prey may be completely trapped by the webbed structure. Octopuses usually inject crustaceans like crabs with a paralysing saliva then dismember them with their beaks.[71][72] Octopuses feed on ...
... are gathered recreationally and commercially but strict catch limits are set for both. For recreational fishermen this is ten pāua per person per day. The minimum legal size for caught pāua is 125 mm for Haliotis iris and 80 mm for Haliotis australis, measured in a straight line at the greatest length of the shell.[2] The exception is Haliotis iris taken from the Amateur Taranaki Paua Fishery Area, which is the area of Taranaki coast bounded by the Awakino River in the north and the Whanganui River in the south, in which the minimum legal size is 85 mm. However, pāua caught in this area cannot be taken east of State Highway 4 unless they meet the 125 mm limit.[3] In addition, no single person may have in their possession at any time (including on land) more than 20 pāua or more than 2.5 kg of shucked (shell removed) pāua. Pāua can only be caught by free diving; it is illegal to dive for pāua using scuba equipment. All pāua must remain un-shucked until they are on the land side of ...
P. canaliculus is endemic to New Zealand. When grown for aquaculture there, it is marketed under the trademark name Greenshell.[6] This industry produces over 140,000 tonnes annually and in 2009 was valued in excess of NZ$250 million.[7] The aquaculture of the New Zealand greenshell mussel relies heavily on the production of mussel seed, or spat, by wild mussel populations.[8] Around 270 tonnes of wild spat which is attached to beach-cast seaweed are collected from Ninety Mile Beach in northern New Zealand each year to supply the aquaculture industry.[9] Nowhere else in the country are such large quantities of mussel-covered seaweed washed ashore.[9] The density of spat varies from 200 to 2 million per kilogram of seaweed.[10] This single beach provides around 80% of the seed mussels required for this aquaculture industry.[8] The remaining 20% is caught using fibrous ropes which are suspended in the sea near mussel farms.[11] Even with this industry's heavy dependency on wild spat, the ...
Like other cephalopods, octopuses can distinguish the polarisation of light. Colour vision appears to vary from species to species, for example being present in O. aegina but absent in O. vulgaris.[49] Researchers believe that opsins in the skin can sense different wavelengths of light and help the creatures choose a coloration that camouflages them, in addition to light input from the eyes.[50] Other researchers hypothesise that cephalopod eyes in species which only have a single photoreceptor protein may use chromatic aberration to turn monochromatic vision into colour vision, though this sacrifices image quality.[51] This would explain pupils shaped like the letter U, the letter W, or a dumbbell, as well as explaining the need for colourful mating displays.[52] Attached to the brain are two special organs called statocysts (sac-like structures containing a mineralised mass and sensitive hairs), that allow the octopus to sense the orientation of its body. They provide information on the ...
a b c (in Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37. PDF. ...
In classical Greece, Aristotle (384-322 BC) commented on the colour-changing abilities of the octopus, both for camouflage and for signalling, in his Historia animalium: "The octopus ... seeks its prey by so changing its colour as to render it like the colour of the stones adjacent to it; it does so also when alarmed."[153] Aristotle noted that the octopus had a hectocotyl arm and suggested it might be used in sexual reproduction. This claim was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. It was described in 1829 by the French zoologist Georges Cuvier, who supposed it to be a parasitic worm, naming it as a new species, Hectocotylus octopodis.[154][155] Other zoologists thought it a spermatophore; the German zoologist Heinrich Müller believed it was "designed" to detach during copulation. In 1856 the Danish zoologist Japetus Steenstrup demonstrated that it is used to transfer sperm, and only rarely detaches.[156] Octopuses offer many possibilities in biological research, including their ability ...
Play media The Pacific oyster, Japanese oyster, or Miyagi oyster (Magallana gigas) (previously Crassostrea gigas), is an oyster ... Its was previously placed in the genus Crassostrea; from the Latin crass meaning "thick", ostrea meaning "oyster" The shell of ...
Crassostrea virginica)". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 56 (2): 319-24. PMID 1255763. Clonally transmissible cancers ...
It is ingested by its mollusc host, which is often an oyster of the genus Crassostrea. It then becomes a trophozoite, which ... The most economically important host is the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). The parasite is also common in C. ... 1993). Perkinsus marinus susceptibility and defense-related activities in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica: temperature ...
Crassostrea gigas History Archived 2006-12-19 at the Wayback Machine. Official website Whitstable Oyster Festival Association ...
Differentiation between populations of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata (Lamark) and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea ... Differentiation between populations of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata (Lamark) and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea ... The Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata, is a species of oyster found in the southwest Iberian Peninsula, closely related ... Evidence for the presence of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata, in northern China. Journal of Shellfisheries Research ...
Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), in 2005 at the East Frisian coast, Germany". Journal of Fish Diseases. 31 (8): 621-630. doi: ... "Viral gametocytic hypertrophy caused by a papova like virus infection in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Korea". ... "Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Ireland". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 83: 181-185. ... "Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of Crassostrea gigas in France: from occasional records to disease emergence?". Diseases of ...
"Suminoe Oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) Culture in Korea" Journal of Shellfish Research: 08/2008; 27(3):505-508. "Age and ... It is large and flat in appearance and almost identical in gross morphology to Crassostrea virginica. Similar to other oysters ... The native species to the Chesapeake Bay, Crassostrea virginica has declined in population over the past three centuries, ... 1996 Age and Growth of Wild Suminoe (Crassostrea Ariakensis, Fugita 1913) and Pacific (C. Gigas, Thunberg 1793) Oysters from ...
The mangrove oyster (Crassostrea tulipa) is a true oyster in the Ostreidae family. The mangrove oyster is found in tropical ... Lenz T, Boehs G (March 2011). "Ciclo reproductivo del ostión de manglar Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) en la ... Bahía de Camamu, Bahia, Brasil" [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in ...
Crassostrea and Saccostrea live mainly in the intertidal zone, while Ostrea is subtidal. The hard surfaces of oyster shells and ... Evidence suggests it was brought to the US when Crassostrea gigas, a Japanese oyster variety, was introduced to Delaware Bay. ... For example, the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) was introduced to California waters in 1875, while the Pacific oyster ... This family includes the edible oysters, which mainly belong to the genera Ostrea, Crassostrea, Ostreola, Magallana, and ...
"Identification and origin of the character-impact compounds of raw oyster Crassostrea gigas". Journal of the Science of Food ...
Its habitat is also used for the aquaculture of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Since the bioturbation carried out by N ...
The species was, however, brought to Europe together with the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. In Belgium, the first ...
Crassostrea gigas clams giant clams abalone scallops bóngcaras - sea cow iho - shark Whale shark; Rhincodon typus lumód - ...
... a specific marker of the germline in Crassostrea gigas". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 315 (4): 897-904 ...
Gene expression profiling of genetically-determined growth variation in bivalve larvae (Crassostrea gigas). Journal of ... A study of growth heterosis in the bivalve Crassostrea gigas. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 335:188-209. ...
The voice of Crassostrea breaks in on the radio, telling the Keltans their tenancy of the planet is over. She claims Orbis for ... Crassostrea and Saccostrea retreat back to their ship in pain and seconds later the ship lifts off from the surface. Yanos is ... Crassostrea emerges and mocks the Keltans, but the Doctor recognises her and remembers that she used to be male. He warns ... The Headhunter and Crassostrea have come to an arrangement - the Molluscari will retrieve something for her from the bottom of ...
... MIGUEL GÓMEZ-BATISTA, MARC ... Bioaccumulation of Dissolved Arsenic in the Oyster Crassostrea virginica: A Radiotracer Study. ... the objective of this work was to characterize As bioaccumulation in the common edible oyster Crassostrea virginica. Dissolved ...
Crassostrea gigas; n = 45), manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum; n = 21), littleneck clam (Leukoma staminea; n = 23), geoduck ... Crassostrea gigas, Ostrea edulis), scallops (Pecten maximus), clams (Tapes phillipinarum), cockles (Cardium edule), and razor ...
Single Nucleotide polymorphisms and their relationship to codon usage bias in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas . Gene. 2007 ...
Crassostrea contracta (Conrad 1865) †Crassostrea cucullaris (Lamarck 1819) †Crassostrea cuebana (Jung 1974) †Crassostrea ... Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim 1813) †Crassostrea hatcheri (Ihering 1899) †Crassostrea ingens (Zittel 1864) †Crassostrea ... Crassostrea dianbaiensis (Xia, Wu, Xiao & Yu, 2014) Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding 1828) Crassostrea tulipa (Lamarck 1819)- ... mangrove oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791) - Eastern oyster †Crassostrea alabamiensis (Lea 1833) †Crassostrea ashleyi ...
Crassostrea ingens is a species of fossil oyster, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Ostreidae, the oyster. This species ... Crassostrea ingens is a giant fossil oyster. It has a shell reaching a height of 200 millimetres (7.9 in) to over 300 ...
Exploding sectors mean dissipation; numbers denote fractions of mobilized reserve. Endpoints are somatic maintenance S, growth G, maturity maintenance J, maturity or reproduction R. Growth is splitted into overhead and flux fixed in tissue. Reproduction overhead is not idicated, since it is pays at conversion of buffer to eggs/foetuses. The change in reserve equals assimilation p_A minus mobilization p_C. Wet weight W_w and total energy E_W exclude the reproduction buffer in adults. Pies link to budget pages ...
Experimental bacterial infections in the oyster Crassostrea virginica. J. Invertebrate Path. 8, 505-511 (1966).Google Scholar ... Mechanisms of removal of injected microorganisms from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Biol. Bull. 199, 273 ... Light and electron microscopy of the leucocytes of Crassostrea virginica (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). ... and histochemical characterization of encapsulating cysts in the oyster Crassostrea virginica parasitized by the cestode ...
Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing ... Long-lasting antiviral innate immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas *Maxime Lafont1,2. , ... In the present study, we focused on a marine bivalve mollusc, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (now termed Magallana gigas ... Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing ...
Crassostrea gigas Crassostrea sikamea Heterosis Hybridization Phenotypic trait This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Huo Z, Wang Z, Yan X, Gaffney PM (2013) Fertilization, survival, and growth of Crassostrea hongkongensis ♀ × Crassostrea ... Allen SK, Gaffney PM (1993) Genetic confirmation of hybridization between Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Crassostrea ... Fertilization, survival and growth of hybrids between Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea sikamea. ...
We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter ...
Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) (Crassostrea angulata)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,K1PNX0,K1PNX0_CRAGI Methionyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic OS=Crassostrea gigas OX=29159 GN=CGI_10014624 PE=3 SV=1 ...
MolluscaBase (2018). Crassostrea amasa (Iredale, 1939). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http:// ...
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis as a tool for the identification of commercially important Crassostrea oysters in China ...
Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ... Figure 6. Evolution of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) content (μg/g DG wet weight) in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ... Figure 6. Evolution of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) content (μg/g DG wet weight) in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ... Show, B.I.; Battle, H.I. The gross and microscopic anatomy of the digestive tract of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin ...
Our previous studies showed that oyster β-thymosin originated from the mantle of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas and had ... Nam, B.H.; Seo, J.K.; Lee, M.J.; Kim, Y.O.; Kim, D.G.; An, C.M.; Park, N.G. Functional analysis of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea ... Anti-Inflammatory Activity of β-thymosin Peptide Derived from Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) on NO and PGE2 Production by ... Our previous studies showed that oyster β-thymosin originated from the mantle of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas and had ...
Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in Some Estuaries and Lagoons Along the Coast of Ghana. D. K. Essumang, C. ... Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration ...
... between the Pacific species Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea ariakensis and the Atlantic Crassostrea virginica, nevertheless, ... By accepting a new genus Magallana [type species Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793)] for a clade of Pacific Crassostrea, and by ... 2010), who dated the divergence of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica from five Asian species of Crassostrea at between ... By this interpretation, the latter genus would comprise both the Atlantic Crassostrea clade [type species Crassostrea virginica ...
P. S. Galtsoff, "The American oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)," Fishery Bulletin, vol. 64, pp. 1-48, 1964. View at Google ... T. Kawaguchi, "The organic matrices of the shell of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin," Journal of Experimental ... Characteristics of the Aragonitic Layer in Adult Oyster Shells, Crassostrea gigas: Structural Study of Myostracum including the ... Crassostrea Gigas," Micron, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 58-64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus ...
... components of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, on glutamatergic neuron activity in the hippocampus.(Report) by The ... The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) is a marine bivalve that originates from Japan, where it has been farmed ... Cloning and characterization of a gene coding for a novel metallothionein in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgMT2): a ... The effects of 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA), and zinc--both components of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ...
... stress response and energy metabolism in two common estuarine bivalves-Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) and Mercenaria ... effects of CO₂ and trace metals on the proteasome activity and cellular stress response of marine bivalves Crassostrea ...
Development of the Crassostrea gigasgill was studied in order to better understand the feeding biology of early life stages, ... Galstoff PS (1964) The American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. US Fish Wildl Ser Fish Bull 64:1-480Google Scholar ... In: Kennedy VS, Newell RIE, Eble AF (eds) The Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Maryland Sea Grant, Maryland, pp 19-73 ... Development of the Crassostrea gigas gill was studied in order to better understand the feeding biology of early life stages, ...
A conserved interferon regulation factor 1 (IRF-1) from Pacific oysterCrassostrea gigasfunctioned as an activator of IFN ... In the present study, an interferon regulation factor 1 was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgIRF-1), and ...
Beneficial effects of bacteria on the culture of larvae of the Pacific oyster crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) Public Deposited ...
Using this fragment, a full-length cDNA encoding putative vitellogenin in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was cloned by ... Vitellogenin of Fujian oyster, Crassostrea angulata: Synthesized in the ovary and controlled by estradiol-17β.. *Jianbin Ni, ... Proteomic identification of quality factors for oocytes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.. *Charlotte Corporeau, ... Using this fragment, a full-length cDNA encoding putative vitellogenin in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was cloned by ...
  • We present here an analysis of features of its gene content and genome organization in comparison with two other Crassostrea species to assess the variation within bivalves and among main groups of mollusks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A striking finding of this study is that a DNA segment containing four tRNA genes ( trnk1, trnC, trnQ1 and trnN ) and two duplicated or split rRNA gene ( rrnL5' and rrnS ) are absent from the genome, when compared with that of two other extant Crassostrea species, which is very likely a consequence of loss of a single genomic region present in ancestor of C. hongkongensis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mt-genome of C. hongkongensis shares some similarity with, and interesting differences to, other Crassostrea species and bivalves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of trnC and trnN genes and duplicated or split rRNA genes from the C. hongkongensis genome is a completely novel feature not previously reported in Crassostrea species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cross-species amplification : We also examined the conservation of the four polymorphic loci in 10 species of the genus Crassostrea and two of the genus Saccostrea (Table 2). (ifremer.fr)
  • The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica )-also called Wellfleet oyster , Atlantic oyster , Virginia oyster , or American oyster -is a species of true oyster native to the eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of North America . (rug.nl)
  • Purification and Characterization of Vitellin from the Egg of the Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis and Cross-Reactivity of Anti-vitellin Antibody with Other Marine Invertebrate Egg Proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1991). By 1998, research and political interest had shifted to Crassostrea ariakensis , which showed better growth and survival under East Coast conditions (National Research Council 2003). (si.edu)
  • Camara MD, Davis JP, Sekino M, Hedgecock D, Li G, Langdon CJ, Evans S (2008) The Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea is neither rare nor threatened by hybridization in the Northern Ariake Sea, Japan. (springer.com)
  • Hamaguchi M, Shimabukuro H, Kawane M, Hamaguchi T (2013) A new record of the Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. (springer.com)
  • This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects tidal zonation and bottom placement of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, have on the prevalence and intensity of the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus a suspected causative agent for subtidal oyster mortalities experienced in the coastal waters of Georgia. (marine.ie)
  • Beirn, F.X., Dean, C.C. and Walker, R.L. (1994) Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica in relation to tidal placement in a Georgia tidal creek. (marine.ie)
  • Cubitostrea elegans Deshayes 1832 or Crassostrea (Cubitostrea) elegans) †Crassostrea gigantissima (Finch 1824) - Giant fossil oyster †Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim 1813) †Crassostrea hatcheri (Ihering 1899) †Crassostrea ingens (Zittel 1864) †Crassostrea kawauchidensis (Tamura 1977) †Crassostrea patagonica (d'Orbigny 1842) (syn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crassostrea ingens is a giant fossil oyster. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mt-genome and new feature presented here reveal and underline the high level variation of gene order and gene content in Crassostrea and bivalves, inspiring more research to gain understanding to mechanisms underlying gene and genome evolution in bivalves and mollusks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We determined, in the current study, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Crassostrea hongkongensis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • JOD is used to describe a syndrome of juvenile oyster morbidity and mortality occurring in Crassostrea virginica from the northern Atlantic coast of the United States. (gc.ca)
  • La participación de Dscam en el sistema inmune se ha reportado en la mosca de la fruta, camarón, mosquitos, y cangrejos entre otros. (cibnor.mx)