A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Pacific Ocean" is a geographical term referring to the largest ocean in the world, covering an area of about 63,800,000 square miles (165,200,000 square kilometers), and it is not a medical term.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the world's five oceans, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. It doesn't have a direct medical definition, as it is not a medical term.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.

Characterization of a defensin from the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Recombinant production, folding, solution structure, antimicrobial activities, and gene expression. (1/126)

In invertebrates, defensins were found in arthropods and in the mussels. Here, we report for the first time the identification and characterization of a defensin (Cg-Def) from an oyster. Cg-def mRNA was isolated from Crassostrea gigas mantle using an expressed sequence tag approach. To gain insight into potential roles of Cg-Def in oyster immunity, we produced the recombinant peptide in Escherichia coli, characterized its antimicrobial activities, determined its solution structure by NMR spectroscopy, and quantified its gene expression in vivo following bacterial challenge of oysters. Recombinant Cg-Def was active in vitro against Gram-positive bacteria but showed no or limited activities against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The activity of Cg-Def was retained in vitro at a salt concentration similar to that of seawater. The Cg-Def structure shares the so-called cystine-stabilized alpha-beta motif (CS-alphabeta) with arthropod defensins but is characterized by the presence of an additional disulfide bond, as previously observed in the mussel defensin (MGD-1). Nevertheless, despite a similar global fold, the Cg-Def and MGD-1 structures mainly differ by the size of their loops and by the presence of two aspartic residues in Cg-Def. Distribution of Cg-def mRNA in various oyster tissues revealed that Cg-def is mainly expressed in mantle edge where it was detected by mass spectrometry analyses. Furthermore, we observed that the Cg-def messenger concentration was unchanged after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that Cg-def gene is continuously expressed in the mantle and would play a key role in oyster by providing a first line of defense against pathogen colonization.  (+info)

Vibrio gigantis sp. nov., isolated from the haemolymph of cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas). (2/126)

Polyphasic analysis of four new Vibrio isolates originating from the haemolymph of diseased cultured oysters is described. The new isolates were closely related to Vibrio splendidus, having 98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB), RNA polymerase sigma70 factor (rpoD), replication origin-binding protein (rctB) and transmembrane regulatory protein (toxR) genes, fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clearly showed that the new isolates form a tight genomic group that is different from the currently known Vibrio species. It is proposed that these new isolates should be accommodated in a novel species, Vibrio gigantis sp. nov. Phenotypic features that differentiate V. gigantis from other known Vibrio species include arginine dihydrolase, gelatinase and beta-galactosidase activities, NO(2) production, growth at 35 degrees C, and utilization of sucrose, melibiose, amygdalin, glycerol, galactose, starch and glycogen. The type strain is LGP 13T (=LMG 22741T=CIP 108656T).  (+info)

In vitro research of anti-HSV-1 activity in different extracts from Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. (3/126)

Mortalities related to the detection of Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) have been previously reported in France among larvae and spat of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Adult oysters appear less sensitive to herpesvirus infections, although OsHV-1 has been detected in adults without signs of disease or mortality. This suggests that the virus is able to persist in its host and that adult oysters may be able to control OsHV-1 infection. Little is known about antiviral substances in invertebrates. The present work concerns the research of antiviral substances in adult oyster C. gigas, where putative antiviral activities were monitored using 3 strategies: (1) in metabolites with variable polarity, (2) in peptidic extracts and (3) in crude haemolymph. In vitro antiviral assays were based on inhibition of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication in Vero cell monolayers. All extracts presented no cytotoxicity. Antiviral activity was detected in the fresh filtered haemolymph (EC50:425 microg ml(-1)) and seasonal variation of the haemolymph antiviral activity was monitored.  (+info)

Purification and antigenic characteristics of a rickettsia-like organism from the oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. (4/126)

A rickettsia-like organism (RLO) has been suggested to be the etiological agent responsible for heavy losses of the oyster Crassostrea ariakensis Gould in China. Because of the lack of molluscan cell lines for in vitro culture of intracellular prokaryotes, antigenic analysis of RLOs has been limited by the inherent difficulties of their purification. In this report, we describe the use of differential speed centrifugation and renografin density gradient centrifugation to purify the RLO directly from infected oyster tissues. The purity and integrity of purified prokaryotes were validated by transmission electron microscopy. Thirteen major constituent proteins, with molecular weights ranging between 17 and 99 kDa, were electrophoretically identified by silver staining, and 8 major proteins were identified with Coomassie blue R staining. Specific mouse polyclonal antiserum was prepared for serological characterization of the RLO and was used in an immunoblot assay, and 3 major antigen groups were identified. The present results advance our knowledge of RLO protein antigens, and several proteins have been identified that could potentially be useful for diagnostic assays or for production of experimental immunostimulants.  (+info)

A PCR-based diagnostic assay for the detection of Roseovarius crassostreae in Crassostrea virginica affected by juvenile oyster disease (JOD). (5/126)

We have developed a PCR-assay for the diagnosis of juvenile oyster disease (JOD) based on the detection of Roseovarius crassostreae directly from affected oysters. Species-specific primers are used to amplify the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of R. crassostreae, and confirmation of product identity is accomplished by restriction enzyme analysis. No false positives were obtained with either closely related bacterial species or from other DNAs present in oyster samples. The assay has the potential to detect as few as 10 cells of R. crassostreae per oyster when samples are taken from the inner valve surfaces of the animal. Inclusion of material from soft body surfaces is not necessary, and may reduce sensitivity approximately 10-fold. In a JOD-affected population, a positive PCR result was obtained from all oysters from which these bacteria were subsequently cultured. The assay also detected the presence of R. crassostreae in 2 oysters from which no R. crassostreae isolates were recovered. No R. crassostreae was detected by either PCR or bacteriology in oysters from a population that was not exhibiting JOD-signs. This assay is expected to advance regional disease management efforts and provide valuable insights into the disease process and epizootiology of JOD.  (+info)

Isolation by distance in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Chesapeake Bay. (6/126)

Intensive efforts are underway to restore depleted stocks of Crassostrea virginica in Chesapeake Bay. However, the extent of gene flow among local populations, an important force mediating the success of these endeavors, is poorly understood. Spatial and temporal population structures were examined in C. virginica from Chesapeake Bay using eight microsatellite loci. Deficits in heterozygosity relative to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were seen at all loci and were best explained by null alleles. Permutation tests indicated that heterozygote deficiency reduced power in tests of differentiation. Nonetheless, genotypic exact tests demonstrated significant levels of geographic differentiation overall, and a subtle pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) was observed. Comparisons between age classes failed to show differences in genotype frequencies, allelic richness, gene diversity, or differentiation as measured by F(ST), contrary to predictions made by the sweepstakes hypothesis. The IBD pattern could reflect an evolutionary equilibrium established because local gene flow predominates, or be influenced in either direction by recent anthropogenic activities. An evolutionary interpretation appears justified as more parsimonious, implying that local efforts to restore oyster populations will have local demographic payoffs, perhaps at the scale of tributaries or regional subestuaries within Chesapeake Bay.  (+info)

Effects of acclimation temperature and cadmium exposure on cellular energy budgets in the marine mollusk Crassostrea virginica: linking cellular and mitochondrial responses. (7/126)

In order to understand the role of metabolic regulation in environmental stress tolerance, a comprehensive analysis of demand-side effects (i.e. changes in energy demands for basal maintenance) and supply-side effects (i.e. metabolic capacity to provide ATP to cover the energy demand) of environmental stressors is required. We have studied the effects of temperature (12, 20 and 28 degrees C) and exposure to a trace metal, cadmium (50 microg l(-1)), on the cellular energy budget of a model marine poikilotherm, Crassostrea virginica (eastern oysters), using oxygen demand for ATP turnover, protein synthesis, mitochondrial proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration in isolated gill and hepatopancreas cells as demand-side endpoints and mitochondrial oxidation capacity, abundance and fractional volume as supply-side endpoints. Cadmium exposure and high acclimation temperatures resulted in a strong increase of oxygen demand in gill and hepatopancreas cells of oysters. Cd-induced increases in cellular energy demand were significant at 12 and 20 degrees C but not at 28 degrees C, possibly indicating a metabolic capacity limitation at the highest temperature. Elevated cellular demand in cells from Cd-exposed oysters was associated with a 2-6-fold increase in protein synthesis and, at cold acclimation temperatures, with a 1.5-fold elevated mitochondrial proton leak. Cellular aerobic capacity, as indicated by mitochondrial oxidation capacity, abundance and volume, did not increase in parallel to compensate for the elevated energy demand. Mitochondrial oxidation capacity was reduced in 28 degrees C-acclimated oysters, and mitochondrial abundance decreased in Cd-exposed oysters, with a stronger decrease (by 20-24%) in warm-acclimated oysters compared with cold-acclimated ones (by 8-13%). These data provide a mechanistic basis for synergism between temperature and cadmium stress on metabolism of marine poikilotherms. Exposure to combined temperature and cadmium stress may result in a strong energy deficiency due to the elevated energy demand on one hand and a reduced mitochondrial capacity to cover this demand on the other hand, which may have important implications for surviving seasonally and/or globally elevated temperatures in polluted estuaries.  (+info)

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and biotransformation of its components in oysters, Crassostrea gigas, fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. (8/126)

As a part of our studies on the mechanism of uptake of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and the kinetics of its accumulation in bivalves, oysters Crassostrea gigas were experimentally contaminated with PSP by being fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Temporal variations in the PSP contents and their profiles in oysters during the feeding experiment were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the toxin profile of the oysters was compared with that of A. tamarense. Toxins excreted from the infested oysters into the seawater for 2 and 10 days were recovered and analyzed by HPLC. PSP toxicity rapidly appeared in the tissues of oysters and their toxicity levels reached 0.6 (0.3), 2.2 (1.1), 1.0 (0.5), 3.4 (1.6) and 1.1 (0.5) MU/g (nmol/g) shucked meat at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. The accumulation rates of toxin, calculated from the total amount (nmol) of toxins expressed by the total cell number fed during the exposure period and the toxicity of the oysters, were 14.1, 18.7, 5.1, 14.9 and 3.2% for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. During feeding experiments, the toxin profile of oysters changed substantially, showing marked differences from the proportions found in the toxigenic dinoflagellate used as food. The toxin components in this strain existed almost exclusively as beta-epimers, which accounted for 66.3 mol% of the total. This contrasts with the case of the oysters, where the beta-epimers represented 24.8, 29.8, 25.1, 27.3 and 25.2 mol% of the total at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. The amount of gonyautoxin-1 (GTX1) accumulated in oysters increased linearly and slowly for 8 days and the maximum content of GTX1 reached 51.3 mol%. The composition of GTX group compounds recovered from the seawater in which the oysters had been reared was a little different from that within the oyster tissues.  (+info)

'Crassostrea' is a genus of marine bivalve mollusks that are commonly known as oysters. Members of this genus are characterized by their rough, calcified shells and their ability to filter water for food. They are often found in estuarine or intertidal habitats and are important both economically, as a source of food, and ecologically, as they provide habitat and feeding grounds for many other marine organisms.

Some examples of oyster species that belong to the genus Crassostrea include:

* The Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which is found on the Atlantic coast of North America and is an important commercial and ecological species.
* The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), which is native to Asia but has been widely introduced around the world for aquaculture purposes. It is now one of the most commonly farmed oysters in the world.
* The European flat oyster (Crassostrea angulata), which is found in Europe and North Africa, and is an important commercial species.

It's worth noting that there are other genera of oysters as well, such as Ostrea, Saccostrea, Magallana, etc. Each genus has its own characteristics and some have different ecological roles than Crassostrea.

Ostreidae is a family of marine bivalve mollusks, commonly known as oysters. These are characterized by a laterally compressed, asymmetrical shell with a rough, scaly or barnacle-encrusted exterior and a smooth, often highly colored interior. The shells are held together by a hinge ligament and the animals use a powerful adductor muscle to close the shell.

Oysters are filter feeders, using their gills to extract plankton and organic particles from the water. They are important ecologically, as they help to filter and clean the water in which they live. Some species are also economically important as a source of food for humans, with the meat being eaten both raw and cooked in various dishes.

It's worth noting that Ostreidae is just one family within the larger grouping of oysters, known as the superfamily Ostreoidea. Other families within this superfamily include the pearl oysters (Pteriidae) and the saddle oysters (Anomiidae).

Medical definitions typically focus on the potential risks or reactions related to a substance, rather than providing a general definition. In the context of medicine, shellfish are often defined by the allergens they contain, rather than as a culinary category.

According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI), shellfish are divided into two categories: crustaceans and mollusks. Crustaceans include shrimp, crab, lobster, and crayfish. Mollusks include clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, octopus, and squid.

Shellfish allergies are one of the most common food allergies, and they can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. Therefore, in a medical context, it's essential to be specific about which types of shellfish may pose a risk to an individual.

Hemocytes are specialized cells found in the open circulatory system of invertebrates, including insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. They play crucial roles in the immune response and defense mechanisms of these organisms. Hemocytes can be categorized into several types based on their functions and morphologies, such as phagocytic cells, encapsulating cells, and clotting cells. These cells are responsible for various immunological activities, including recognition and removal of foreign particles, pathogens, and debris; production of immune effector molecules; and contribution to the formation of blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding. In some invertebrates, hemocytes also participate in wound healing, tissue repair, and other physiological processes.

Aquaculture is the controlled cultivation and farming of aquatic organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants, in both freshwater and saltwater environments. It involves the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of these organisms under controlled conditions to produce food, feed, recreational resources, and other products for human use. Aquaculture can take place in a variety of systems, including ponds, raceways, tanks, and cages, and it is an important source of protein and livelihoods for many people around the world.

An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with a free connection to the open sea, within which seawater is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage. Estuaries are characterized by their unique physical properties, including a mixing zone of seawater and freshwater, as well as a distinct salinity gradient. They provide critical habitat for many species of fish, birds, and other wildlife, and perform important ecological functions such as water filtration, nutrient cycling, and storm protection. Estuaries are also economically valuable, supporting industries such as fishing, shipping, and tourism.

Alveolata is a group of predominantly unicellular eukaryotes that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans (such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria), and ciliates. This grouping is based on the presence of unique organelles called alveoli, which are membrane-bound sacs or vesicles located just beneath the cell membrane. These alveoli provide structural support and may also be involved in various cellular processes such as osmoregulation, nutrient uptake, and attachment to surfaces.

The medical significance of Alveolata lies primarily within the Apicomplexa, which contains many important parasites that infect humans and animals. These include Plasmodium spp., which cause malaria; Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis; and Cryptosporidium parvum, which is responsible for cryptosporidiosis. Understanding the biology and behavior of these parasites at the cellular level can provide valuable insights into their pathogenesis, transmission, and potential treatment strategies.

"Vibrio" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, curved-rod bacteria that are commonly found in marine and freshwater environments. Some species of Vibrio can cause diseases in humans, the most notable being Vibrio cholerae, which is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal illness. Other pathogenic species include Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which can cause gastrointestinal or wound infections. These bacteria are often transmitted through contaminated food or water and can lead to serious health complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Pacific Ocean" is a geographical term referring to the largest single body of saltwater on Earth, extending from the Arctic in the north to the Antarctic in the south. It covers an area of about 63,800,000 square miles (165,200,000 square kilometers).

If you're looking for a medical term or definition, I'd be happy to help with that as well. Could you please provide more context?

Gills are specialized respiratory organs found in many aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, and some mollusks. They are typically thin, feathery structures that increase the surface area for gas exchange between the water and the animal's bloodstream. Gills extract oxygen from water while simultaneously expelling carbon dioxide.

In fish, gills are located in the gill chamber, which is covered by opercula or protective bony flaps. Water enters through the mouth, flows over the gills, and exits through the opercular openings. The movement of water over the gills allows for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the gill filaments and lamellae, which are the thin plates where gas exchange occurs.

Gills contain a rich supply of blood vessels, allowing for efficient transport of oxygen to the body's tissues and removal of carbon dioxide. The counter-current flow of water and blood in the gills ensures that the concentration gradient between the water and the blood is maximized, enhancing the efficiency of gas exchange.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Bivalvia is a class of mollusks, also known as "pelecypods," that have a laterally compressed body and two shells or valves. These valves are hinged together on one side and can be opened and closed to allow the animal to feed or withdraw into its shell for protection.

Bivalves include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, and numerous other species. They are characterized by their simple body structure, which consists of a muscular foot used for burrowing or anchoring, a soft mantle that secretes the shell, and gills that serve both as respiratory organs and feeding structures.

Bivalves play an important role in aquatic ecosystems as filter feeders, helping to maintain water quality by removing particles and organic matter from the water column. They are also commercially important as a source of food for humans and other animals, and their shells have been used historically for various purposes such as tools, jewelry, and building materials.

Mollusca is not a medical term per se, but a major group of invertebrate animals that includes snails, clams, octopuses, and squids. However, medically, some mollusks can be relevant as they can act as vectors for various diseases, such as schistosomiasis (transmitted by freshwater snails) and fascioliasis (transmitted by aquatic snails). Therefore, a medical definition might describe Mollusca as a phylum of mostly marine invertebrates that can sometimes play a role in the transmission of certain infectious diseases.

Hemolymph is not a term typically used in human medicine, but it is commonly used in the study of invertebrates, particularly arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. Hemolymph is the fluid that circulates within the open circulatory system of these animals, serving multiple functions similar to both blood and lymphatic systems in vertebrates.

In simpler terms, hemolymph is a combined fluid that performs the functions of both blood and lymph in invertebrates. It serves as a transport medium for nutrients, waste products, hormones, and immune cells (hemocytes) throughout the body. Hemolymph does not contain red and white blood cells like human blood; instead, hemocytes are the primary cellular components responsible for immune responses and wound healing in these animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the five oceans on Earth. It doesn't have a medical definition. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface. It stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, alternatively, to the Antarctica region) in the south, and is bounded by the Americas to the west and Europe and Africa to the east.

"Vibrio parahaemolyticus" is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in brackish waters and marine environments. They can be found on the surface of shellfish such as oysters, shrimps, and crabs. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen.

"Vibrio parahaemolyticus" is a significant cause of foodborne illness, particularly in regions where the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood is common. The bacterium produces two types of heat-labile enterotoxins known as thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache.

The illness caused by "Vibrio parahaemolyticus" is usually self-limiting and lasts for 2-5 days. However, in some cases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can be severe and may require hospitalization. Proper cooking and handling of seafood can help prevent "Vibrio parahaemolyticus" infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "hepatopancreas" is not a recognized term in human anatomy or pathology. It is commonly used to describe a combined exocrine organ in some invertebrates, like crustaceans, where it serves both digestive and metabolic functions. If you have any questions about human medical conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Cercozoa is a major group of predominantly heterotrophic protists that are characterized by the presence of unique feeding structures called "cercomonads" or "filose pseudopodia." These pseudopods are thin, filamentous extensions used for capturing and engulfing prey. Cercozoa includes a wide variety of species, many of which are important decomposers and contributors to nutrient cycling in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Some members of this group can form symbiotic relationships with other organisms or have the ability to photosynthesize through endosymbiosis with algae. Due to their diverse morphology, ecological roles, and molecular characteristics, Cercozoa has been challenging to define and classify precisely, but recent advances in molecular phylogeny have helped clarify its position within the eukaryotic tree of life.

Protozoan infections in animals refer to diseases caused by the invasion and colonization of one or more protozoan species in an animal host's body. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can exist as parasites and can be transmitted through various modes, such as direct contact with infected animals, contaminated food or water, vectors like insects, and fecal-oral route.

Examples of protozoan infections in animals include:

1. Coccidiosis: It is a common intestinal disease caused by several species of the genus Eimeria that affects various animals, including poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, and pets like cats and dogs. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death in severe cases.
2. Toxoplasmosis: It is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can infect various warm-blooded animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like cats. The parasite forms cysts in various tissues, such as muscles, brain, and eyes, causing mild to severe symptoms depending on the host's immune status.
3. Babesiosis: It is a tick-borne disease caused by several species of Babesia protozoa that affect various animals, including cattle, horses, dogs, and humans. The parasites infect red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, weakness, and sometimes death in severe cases.
4. Leishmaniasis: It is a vector-borne disease caused by several species of Leishmania protozoa that affect various animals, including dogs, cats, and humans. The parasites are transmitted through the bite of infected sandflies and can cause skin lesions, anemia, fever, weight loss, and sometimes death in severe cases.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: It is a waterborne disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum that affects various animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like dogs and cats. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration.

Prevention and control of these diseases rely on various measures, such as vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, and environmental management. Public awareness and education are also essential to prevent the transmission and spread of these diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

"Vibrio vulnificus" is a gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in warm coastal waters. It can cause severe human illness in individuals who consume contaminated seafood or have open wounds that come into contact with seawater. The resulting infections can lead to septicemia and necrotizing fasciitis, which can be life-threatening if not promptly treated with antibiotics and medical attention.

People with weakened immune systems, liver disease, or iron overload disorders are at higher risk of developing severe illness from Vibrio vulnificus infections. It is important for individuals who fall into these high-risk categories to take precautions when handling raw seafood or swimming in warm coastal waters.

Gamma spectrometry is a type of spectrometry used to identify and measure the energy and intensity of gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. It utilizes a device called a gamma spectrometer, which typically consists of a scintillation detector or semiconductor detector, coupled with electronic circuitry that records and analyzes the energy of each detected gamma ray.

Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation, characterized by their high energy and short wavelength. When they interact with matter, such as the detector in a gamma spectrometer, they can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the creation of charged particles that can be detected and measured.

In gamma spectrometry, the energy of each detected gamma ray is used to identify the radioactive isotope that emitted it, based on the characteristic energy levels associated with different isotopes. The intensity of the gamma rays can also be measured, providing information about the quantity or activity of the radioactive material present.

Gamma spectrometry has a wide range of applications in fields such as nuclear medicine, radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and nuclear non-proliferation.

Apicomplexa is a phylum of single-celled, parasitic organisms that includes several medically important genera, such as Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Toxoplasma (which causes toxoplasmosis), and Cryptosporidium (which causes cryptosporidiosis). These organisms are characterized by the presence of a unique apical complex, which is a group of specialized structures at one end of the cell that are used during invasion and infection of host cells. They have a complex life cycle involving multiple stages, including sexual and asexual reproduction, often in different hosts. Many Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites, meaning they live and multiply inside the cells of their hosts.

An incubator, in the context of medical care, is a device that creates and maintains an artificial environment for premature or sick newborn babies. The primary purpose of these devices is to provide a controlled setting that supports the infant's growth and development, especially when their underdeveloped bodies are not yet ready to maintain a stable temperature and other vital functions on their own.

Incubators typically include features such as:

1. Temperature control: They maintain a warm temperature, usually between 36.5°C (97.7°F) and 37.5°C (99.5°F), which is essential for the newborn's metabolism, growth, and overall health.
2. Humidity control: Incubators often have adjustable humidity levels to prevent the newborn from losing excess moisture through their delicate skin.
3. Oxygen supply: Some incubators come equipped with oxygen sensors and supplemental oxygen delivery systems to ensure the newborn receives adequate oxygenation.
4. Monitoring capabilities: Modern incubators often include built-in monitors that track various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, allowing healthcare professionals to closely monitor the infant's condition.
5. Lighting: Incubators may have adjustable lighting to provide a soothing environment for the newborn while also enabling medical staff to easily observe the infant.
6. Isolette: An isolette is a type of incubator that offers an enclosed, transparent structure with controlled temperature and humidity levels. It provides a protective space for the newborn while allowing caregivers easy access for handling and examining the infant.

Incubators play a crucial role in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) by supporting premature or sick infants during their early stages of life, increasing their chances of survival and promoting healthy development.

... contracta (Conrad 1865) †Crassostrea cucullaris (Lamarck 1819) †Crassostrea cuebana (Jung 1974) †Crassostrea ... Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim 1813) †Crassostrea hatcheri (Ihering 1899) †Crassostrea ingens (Zittel 1864) †Crassostrea ... Crassostrea cuttackensis (Newton & Smith, 1912) Crassostrea dianbaiensis (Xia, Wu, Xiao & Yu, 2014) Crassostrea rhizophorae ( ... Crassostrea angulata (Lamarck 1819) - Portuguese oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck 1819) Crassostrea chilensis (Philippi ...
"Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828)". www.gbif.org. Retrieved 10 October 2021. "Crassostrea rhizophorae - an overview , ... Crassostrea rhizophorae, also known as the mangrove cupped oyster, is a species of bivalve in the family Ostreidae. C. ... C. rhizophorae, and more generally the genus, Crassostrea, are cup-like, or cupped, oysters, meaning that the shell itself has ... Dué, A; Costa, M; Silva Filho, E. A.; Guedes, E. A. C (2010). "Food items of Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) (Bivalvia ...
... , the West African mangrove oyster, is a true oyster in the family Ostreidae. The mangrove oyster is found in ...
... is a species of fossil oyster, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Ostreidae, the oyster. This species ... Crassostrea ingens is a giant fossil oyster. It has a shell reaching a height of 200 millimetres (7.9 in) to over 300 ... Crassostrea, Bivalves of New Zealand, Extinct animals of New Zealand, Molluscs described in 1864, All stub articles, Bivalve ...
Crassostrea nippona. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World ... 1930 is a synonym of Crassostrea nippona (Seki, 1934) Xenophora tenuis Hirase, 1934 is a synonym of Xenophora tenuis Fulton, ...
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)-also called the Atlantic oyster, American oyster, or East Coast oyster-is a species ... "Crassostrea virginica, Introduced Marine Species of Hawaii Guidebook". www2.bishopmuseum.org. Retrieved 2021-01-01. Newell, R.I ... Puglisi, Melaney P. "Crassostrea virginica." Repanich, Jeremy (August 10, 2010). "The Deepwater Horizon Spill by the Numbers". ... The American Oyster: Crassostrea Virginica Gmelin. US Government Printing Office, 1964. (Webarchive template wayback links, ...
It is ingested by its mollusc host, which is often an oyster of the genus Crassostrea. It then becomes a trophozoite, which ... in Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)". Science. 111 (2883): 328-329. doi:10.1126/science.111.2883.328. PMID 17791737. Villalba, A ... The most economically important host is the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). The parasite is also common in C. ... 1993). Perkinsus marinus susceptibility and defense-related activities in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica: temperature ...
"Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)". Tpwd.state.tx.us. November 10, 2011. Fisheries, NOAA (February 4, 2022). "Oyster Reef ... A common species of oysters used in oyster restoration is the Eastern American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which is also ... Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e40839. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...740839B. doi: ...
"Crassostrea iredalei (Faustino, 1932)". SeaLifeBase. Retrieved 15 December 2018. (Articles with short description, Short ...
Who Killed Crassostrea virginica? The Fall and Rise of Chesapeake Bay Oysters (2011), Maryland Sea Grant College (60 min. film ... Crassostrea gigas), which is resistant to this disease. MSX was first described in 1957, when it caused serious mortalities in ... Crassostrea virginica)". Marine Biotechnology. 2 (5): 456-465. doi:10.1007/s101260000021. PMID 11246412. "Haplosporidium ...
"Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster)". www.cabi.org. "Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel)". www.cabi.org. "Deer: ... Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) Crepidula fornicata (Common slipper shell) Deroceras invadens (tramp slug) Dreissena ...
Once the native oyster beds had been exhausted farmers began to import and plant the seeds of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas ... Crassostrea gigas; and Pacific Razor Clams, Siliqua patula, in the State of Washington". NOAA Technical Report NMFS. 128: 90. ...
"Crassostrea iredalei (Faustino, 1932)". SeaLifeBase. Retrieved 15 December 2018. Zhang, G.; Fang, X.; Guo, X.; Li, L.; Luo, R ... Species in this genus have been moved from Crassostrea after it was found to be paraphyletic. Extant species include: Magallana ... formerly Crassostrea in part) is well-founded and necessary". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 192: 43-58. doi: ...
"Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster)". www.cabi.org. Retrieved 2021-11-18. "Piedmont elimia (Elimia virginica) - Species ...
nov., isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea gigas)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 65 (Pt_9 ...
... recurvum grows on Crassostrea virginica reefs. These reefs appear off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. They tend to ...
It was previously placed in the genus Crassostrea; from the Latin crass meaning "thick", ostrea meaning "oyster". Crassostrea ...
Crassostrea and Saccostrea live mainly in the intertidal zone, while Ostrea is subtidal. The hard surfaces of oyster shells and ... Evidence suggests it was brought to the US when Crassostrea gigas, Pacific oyster variety, was introduced to Delaware Bay. ... This disease mainly affects Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). The disease was first described in 1960 near Denman Island off ... For example, the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) was introduced to California waters in 1875, while the Pacific oyster ...
... and Crassostrea nippona is considered by part of the scientific community to be the proper denomination as an accepted ... "The proposed dropping of the genus Crassostrea for all Pacific cupped oysters and its replacement by a new genus Magallana: a ... It was previously placed in the genus Crassostrea; from the Latin crass meaning "thick", ostrea meaning "oyster", ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Tenacibaculum which has been isolated from the oyster Crassostrea ... nov., isolated from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. ...
Frierman EM, Andrews JD (February 1976). "Occurrence of hematopoietic neoplasms in Virginia oysters (Crassostrea virginica)". ...
Survival rates are low at about 5%. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is cultivated by similar methods but in larger ... "Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793)". FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. ...
2016). One study from Brazil found that 100% of cultivated oysters, Crassostrea rhizopjorae, were infected by Nematopsis sp.. ... Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in the oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828), cultivated in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. ... Histological examination of Indian oysters, Crassostrea madasensis, demonstrated hypertrophy of infected cells, leading to ... Apicomplexa: Porosporidae) infection in Crassostrea madrasensis and its associated histopathology. MBAI. 58(1): 1890-1904. doi: ...
Differentiation between populations of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata (Lamark) and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea ... Crassostrea angulata was first described by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1819. It belongs to the phylum ... The Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) is a species of oyster found in the southwest Iberian Peninsula, closely related ... The genus Crassostrea contains several other important oyster species, including the Pacific oyster (C. gigas) and the American ...
Shell types include Crassostrea virginica, Mercenaria mercenaria, Tagelus plebeius, Arca sp., Donax variabilis, Geukensia ...
Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), in 2005 at the East Frisian coast, Germany". Journal of Fish Diseases. 31 (8): 621-630. doi: ... "Viral gametocytic hypertrophy caused by a papova like virus infection in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Korea". ... "Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Ireland". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 83 (3): 181- ... "Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of Crassostrea gigas in France: from occasional records to disease emergence?". Diseases of ...
"Suminoe Oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) Culture in Korea" Journal of Shellfish Research: 08/2008; 27(3):505-508. "Age and ... It is large and flat in appearance and almost identical in gross morphology to Crassostrea virginica. Similar to other oysters ... The native species to the Chesapeake Bay, Crassostrea virginica has declined in population over the past three centuries, ... 1996 Age and Growth of Wild Suminoe (Crassostrea Ariakensis, Fugita 1913) and Pacific (C. Gigas, Thunberg 1793) Oysters from ...
They were then replaced by cultivated oysters of Japanese origin, Crassostrea gigas). Today, Locmariaquérois oyster farmers are ...
The preferred host of this ectoparasite is the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. The thick shell is opaque and grows to a ...
ORP plants the native oyster, Crassostrea virginica, back into the Chesapeake Bay. In 2022, the organization helped to plant ... Crassostrea virginica, in the Chesapeake Bay and Eastern United States. The organization's activities and programs include ... Crassostrea virginica) from Four Sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay". Biological Bulletin. 231 (3): 185-198. ISSN 0006-3185. " ...
Crassostrea contracta (Conrad 1865) †Crassostrea cucullaris (Lamarck 1819) †Crassostrea cuebana (Jung 1974) †Crassostrea ... Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim 1813) †Crassostrea hatcheri (Ihering 1899) †Crassostrea ingens (Zittel 1864) †Crassostrea ... Crassostrea cuttackensis (Newton & Smith, 1912) Crassostrea dianbaiensis (Xia, Wu, Xiao & Yu, 2014) Crassostrea rhizophorae ( ... Crassostrea angulata (Lamarck 1819) - Portuguese oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck 1819) Crassostrea chilensis (Philippi ...
Analysis of bacterial communities in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) with emphasis on Vibrio vulnificus dynamics ... Analysis of bacterial communities in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) with emphasis on Vibrio vulnificus dynamics ... Crassostrea virginica), and the effects of cold shock (35°C to 4°C) on the complete V. vulnificus transcriptome. Oysters from ...
... of the oyster Crassostrea gigas and on the dynamics of their δ13C and δ15N respective values. Juvenile oysters... ... We studied the influence of food availability on the growth (whole body and organs) of the oyster Crassostrea gigas and on the ... in different tissues of Crassostrea gigas at two contrasted ecosystems: insights from growth and food sources. Vie Et Milieu- ... Dynamics of stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in different tissues of Crassostrea gigas at two contrasted ecosystems: ...
... The blue pigment from Navicula added to the yellow gills in the ... 2013). Green gills in the cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Ifremer. https://image.ifremer.fr/data/00683/79505/. ...
Physiological and pathological changes in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica infested with the trematode Bucephalus sp. ... Physiological and pathological changes in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica infested with the trematode Bucephalus sp. ... Crassostrea virginica with a variable natural infestation of the digenetic trematode Bucephalus sp. were determined.After a ... Crassostrea virginica with a variable natural infestation of the digenetic trematode Bucephalus sp. were determined.After a ...
Pacific or Rock Oysters hand gathered from wild natural stocks on the River Fal Pacific Rock Oysters (not to be confused with Cornish Native Fal Oysters) are hand gathered by responsible Cornwall IFCA licensed fishermen and women then they are purified at fully approved CEFAS Purification Centre UKCQ710EC and DEFRA A
ALMEIDA, Ulysses de et al. Biomaterials analysis and use, made of crassostrea gigas shells in rats periondontal defects. ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biomaterial based on Crassostrea gigas shell in the application of ... Crassostrea; Periodontal defect; Bone substitute; Periodontal Dislases; Bone Transplantation; Biocomplative Materials.. · ...
Differential gene transcription, biochemical responses, and cytotoxicity assessment in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed ... Differential gene transcription, biochemical responses, and cytotoxicity assessment in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed ...
"Se analizaron dos variantes en la producción de ostión de mangle Crassostrea rhizophorae en Cuba: 1) extracción pesquera ... "We analyzed two variants in producing mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in Cuba: 1) traditional fishery (EP) at natural ... Factibilidad económico-ambiental para el cultivo sostenible de ostión de mangle Crassostrea rhizophorae (Güilding, 1828), en ... Environmental economic feasibility for sustainable culture of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828), in ...
Crassostrea cucullata The technique of oysters ( Crassostrea cucullata Born) spawning stimulation in artificial environment was ... Pengaruh Kejut Salinitas Terhadap Pemijahan Tiram (Crassostrea cucullata Born) Stimulasi Molting dan Pertumbuhan Kepiting Bakau ... How to cite (IEEE): P. Santoso, "Pengaruh Kejut Salinitas Terhadap Pemijahan Tiram (Crassostrea cucullata Born)," ILMU KELAUTAN ... How to cite (APA): Santoso, P. (2012). Pengaruh Kejut Salinitas Terhadap Pemijahan Tiram (Crassostrea cucullata Born). ILMU ...
This study considered nitrogen regulation by eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA, ... Role and Value of Nitrogen Regulation Provided by Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. ... Role and Value of Nitrogen Regulation Provided by Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. ... This study considered nitrogen regulation by eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA, ...
Crassostrea gigas: 2∼2.4%/MY (Li et al., 2015); Thais clavigera: 0.79%/MY (Guo et al., 2015); Cyclina sinensis: 0.7∼2.4%/MY (Ni ... Genetic variation and population structure of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northwestern Pacific inferred from ...
Who Killed Crassostrea virginica : The Fall and Rise of Chesapeake Bay Oysters. The Chesapeake was once home to the richest ... Diseases & Parasites of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Chesapeake Bay: An Illustrated Reference Guide. This is a ... The native oyster, Crassostrea virginica, built massive reefs and filtered vast… See more Videos & Multimedia ...
Crassostrea; Animais; Crassostrea/metabolismo; Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica; Espectrometria de Massas; Cromatografia ... Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Crassostrea Limite ... Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Crassostrea Limite ... The flavor of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) significantly changed during the depuration process. This work aimed to ...
The Crassostrea segment contributed to the largest market share of more than 30% of the global molluscs market revenue in 2021 ... The increasing production of Crassostrea products in developing economies like India, China, and Japan is propelling the growth ... Molluscs Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Species (Crassostrea, Ruditapes Philippinarum, Scallops), By Form ( ...
The species, Crassostrea virginica, is the same; in fact, the seed for both the oysters Hubacz and Huber are tending came from ...
PERSISTANCE OF VIRUSES IN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTES - (Abstract Only) Ozbay,G.,Kingsley,D.2008 Persistance of ... Persistence of enteric viruses within oysters (Crassostrea virginica) - (Abstract Only) Kingsley, D. 2010. Persistance of ... High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica) - (Peer ... Retention of Enteric Viruses by the Hemocytes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) - (Abstract Only) ...
Crassostrea virginica Organism: Crassostrea virginica Taxonomy: Eukaryota; Metazoa; Lophotrochozoa; Mollusca; Bivalvia; ...
Your comment for *: Crassostrea virginica links are not allowed Email * * indicates a required field. ... added on 2011-03-031 655 viewsWoRMS taxa Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons ... Crassostrea virginica. Description MLI Collection specimen Author Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Roberta Miller · JPG file - 2.99 ...
Atlantic Oyster (Crassostrea virginica): It is the largest oyster variety harvested in the US. They were abundant along the ... Kumamoto Oyster (Crassostrea sikamea): Deep-cup with sweet and mild taste originating from Japan; they are now cultivated along ... Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas): Introduced from Japanese commercial farming as large and fast-rising oysters, Pacific ...
Crassostrea gigas. Crassostrea sikamea. Crassostrea virginica. Ostrea edulis. Ostrea conchaphila. Ostrea lurida. Pacific Oyster ...
KEY WORDS: Crassostrea virginica · Oxygen flux · Net ecosystem metabolism · Production · Hydrodynamics · Benthic microalgae ...
Tran, D.; Haberkorn, H.; Soudant, P.; Ciret, P.; Massabuau, J.C. Behavioral responses of Crassostrea gigas exposed to the ... accumulation in Crassostrea gigas by using Dynamic Energy Budgets (DEB). J. Sea Res. 2019, 143, 152-164. [Google Scholar] [ ... Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). J. Shellfish Res. 1993, 12, 411-415. [Google Scholar] ... Exposure to toxic Alexandrium minutum activates the detoxifying and antioxidant systems in gills of the oyster Crassostrea ...
Pacific oysters are bivalve mollusks with elongated, thick, rough and sometimes sharp shells. The shell is white or off-white with purple streaks and spots. On the inside, the shell is white as well, with a purple hue. Like a variety of other shellfish, they have a two-part hinged shell - one shell is slightly convex, while the other is deeper and cup-shaped. The shells have large irregular, rounded radial folds. If left unharvested, Pacific oysters can live up to 30 years.. Pacific oysters grow rapidly and on average, usually reach 10 to 15 cm in length. They first mature and reproduce as males, but then later develop into females. This species spawns annually during warmer months. As one of the most fecund of oyster species, over half of a Pacific oysters body mass is devoted to reproductive capacity. Each female oyster has the ability to produce up to 200 million eggs during spawning.. Larva (also known as spat) disperse throughout the water column and settle on hard substrates. Adult ...
Oyster growers in 10 bays around the country have been experiencing losses of between 15 and 75 per cent of their ...
Crassostrea virginica) on regional oceanographic scales Ecosphere (2023) ...
Fresh Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), Live Blue Crab, Gulf Oysters (Crassostrea virginica), Shrimp, Fin-Fish - Catfish, ... We raise eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on Block Island. We utilize solar and wind power to power our off-grid ...
  • and V. vulnificus populations present within the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and the effects of cold shock (35°C to 4°C) on the complete V. vulnificus transcriptome. (auburn.edu)
  • OPUS at UTS: Physiological and pathological changes in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica infested with the trematode Bucephalus sp. (edu.au)
  • Physiological and pathological changes in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica infested with the trematode Bucephalus sp. (edu.au)
  • This study considered nitrogen regulation by eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA, as a function of denitrification, burial, and physical transport from the system via harvest. (tdl.org)
  • Beseres Pollack J, Yoskowitz D, Kim H-C, Montagna PA (2013) Role and Value of Nitrogen Regulation Provided by Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. (tdl.org)
  • This is a comprehensive, color-illustrated guide to histological presentations of diseases, pathogens, and parasites of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica . (umd.edu)
  • Crassostrea virginica' as an Indicator of Lead Pollution. (epa.gov)
  • Ostrea maxima) †Crassostrea wyomingensis The genome of Crassostrea gigas (now Magallana gigas) has been recently sequenced revealing an extensive set of genes that enable it to cope with environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • We studied the influence of food availability on the growth (whole body and organs) of the oyster Crassostrea gigas and on the dynamics of their δ13C and δ15N respective values. (ifremer.fr)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biomaterial based on Crassostrea gigas shell in the application of periodontal defects in rats.MEV analysis of the particles showed a variety of sizes and microporous surface, while EDXRF analysis demonstrated calcium oxide as the main component. (bvsalud.org)
  • The dynamic change of flavor characteristics in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) during depuration uncovered by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics combined with gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). (bvsalud.org)
  • The flavor of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) significantly changed during the depuration process. (bvsalud.org)
  • Latest information about Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) since the 22nd June. (marine.ie)
  • Crassostrea is a genus of true oysters (family Ostreidae) containing some of the most important oysters used for food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kata kunci: Kejut salinitas, pemijahan buatan, tiram, Crassostrea cucullata The technique of oysters ( Crassostrea cucullata Born) spawning stimulation in artificial environment was important aspect on development of its hatchery technology. (undip.ac.id)
  • Cubitostrea elegans Deshayes 1832 or Crassostrea (Cubitostrea) elegans) †Crassostrea gigantissima (Finch 1824) - Giant fossil oyster †Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim 1813) †Crassostrea hatcheri (Ihering 1899) †Crassostrea ingens (Zittel 1864) †Crassostrea kawauchidensis (Tamura 1977) †Crassostrea patagonica (d'Orbigny 1842) (syn. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyzed two variants in producing mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in Cuba: 1) traditional fishery (EP) at natural beds partially supported by aggregating suspended collectors in the mangrove, and 2) artisanal farming (CA) totally supported by spat from the wild, settled in artificial collectors and "mother shell" strings, farming and harvesting on the same artifact and oyster boxes. (cibnor.mx)
  • Se analizaron dos variantes en la producción de ostión de mangle Crassostrea rhizophorae en Cuba: 1) extracción pesquera tradicional (EP) en bancos naturales, apoyada en menor grado con acuicultura artesanal por agregación de colectores de mangle suspendidos en el manglar, y 2) cultivo artesanal (CA), obteniendo semillas del medio natural en colectores de "concha madre", con engorde y cosecha en el mismo colector y en canastas o cajas ostrícolas. (cibnor.mx)
  • De acuerdo a estos resultados, se recomienda desarrollar el cultivo y manejo sustentable de la ostra nativa C. rhizophorae en Cuba. (cibnor.mx)
  • article{IK.IJMS1677, author = {Priyo Santoso}, title = {Pengaruh Kejut Salinitas Terhadap Pemijahan Tiram (Crassostrea cucullata Born)}, journal = {ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences}, volume = {15}, number = {3}, year = {2012}, keywords = {}, abstract = { Teknik rangsang pemijahan tiram ( Crassostrea cucullata Born) di lingkungan buatan merupakan aspek penting dalam pengembangan teknologi pembenihan tiram. (undip.ac.id)
  • The increasing production of Crassostrea products in developing economies like India, China, and Japan is propelling the growth of this segment. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The Crassostrea segment contributed to the largest market share of more than 30% of the global molluscs market revenue in 2021 and is expected to grow with a CAGR of 4.7% from 2022 to 2028. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • This paper presents evidence that fossil Crassostrea oysters experienced much greater longevity than their modern-day descendants. (icr.org)
  • Fossil Crassostrea oysters are generally larger than their modern-day counterparts, and ontogenetic growth curves suggest longer lifespans and generally longer growth intervals. (icr.org)
  • n = 5), oysters ( Crassostrea angulata, 1. (cdc.gov)