Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
The removal of a circular disk of the cranium.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Abnormally slow pace of regaining CONSCIOUSNESS after general anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, GENERAL) usually given during surgical procedures. This condition is characterized by persistent somnolence.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Devices used to hold tissue structures together for repair, reconstruction or to close wounds. They may consist of adsorbable or non-adsorbable, natural or synthetic materials. They include tissue adhesives, skin tape, sutures, buttons, staples, clips, screws, etc., each designed to conform to various tissue geometries.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Hemorrhage into a canal or cavity of the body, such as the space covered by the serous membrane (tunica vaginalis) around the TESTIS leading to testicular hematocele or scrotal hematocele.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).

Large and giant middle to lower basilar trunk aneurysms treated by surgical and interventional neuroradiological methods. (1/730)

Treatment of large and giant aneurysms of the basilar artery remains difficult and controversial. Three large or giant aneurysms of the lower basilar artery were treated with a combination of surgical and interventional neuroradiological procedures. All patients underwent the balloon occlusion test with hypotensive challenge (blood pressure reduced to 70% of the control value). The third patient did not tolerate the test. In the first patient, both vertebral arteries were occluded through a craniotomy. In the second patient, both the aneurysm and the basilar artery were occluded by detached balloons. In the third patient, one vertebral artery was occluded by surgical clipping and the other by detached helical coils and fiber coils. In spite of anti-coagulation and anti-platelet therapy, postoperative thrombotic or embolic ischemia occurred in the second and third patients. Fibrinolytic therapy promptly corrected the ischemic symptoms, but the second patient developed hemorrhagic complications at the craniotomy area 2 hours later. At follow-up examination, the first patient had only 8th cranial nerve paresis, the second patient who had a hemorrhagic complication was bed-ridden, and the third patient had no deficit. Interventional occlusion requires a longer segment of the parent artery compared to surgical occlusion of the parent artery and might cause occlusion of the perforating arteries. However, selected use of various coils can occlude only a short segment of the parent artery. Thus, the postoperative management of thromboembolic ischemia after the occlusion of the parent artery is easier using the interventional technique.  (+info)

Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports. (2/730)

A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. Skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.  (+info)

Transorbital-transpetrosal penetrating cerebellar injury--case report. (3/730)

A 4-year-old boy presented with a transorbital-transpetrosal penetrating head injury after a butter knife had penetrated the left orbit. The knife tip reached the posterior fossa after penetrating the petrous bone. Wide craniotomy and the pterional, subtemporal, and lateral suboccipital approaches were performed for safe removal of the object. The patient was discharged with left-sided blindness, complete left ophthalmoplegia, and hypesthesia of the left face. Early angiography is recommended to identify vascular injury which could result in fatal intracranial hemorrhage.  (+info)

A new technique of surface anatomy MR scanning of the brain: its application to scalp incision planning. (4/730)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) is an established technique for demonstrating the brain's surface. We describe our experience in applying SAS with superposition of MR venograms to preoperative scalp incision planning. METHODS: In 16 patients, scalp incision planning was done by placing a water-filled plastic tube at the intended incision site when we performed SAS using half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were obtained to demonstrate the cortical veins and then superimposed upon the SAS images. The added images were compared with surgical findings using a four-point grading scale (0 to 3, poor to excellent). RESULTS: In each case, neurosurgeons could easily reach the lesion. Surgical findings correlated well with MR angiogram-added SAS images, with an average score of 2.56. CONCLUSION: Our simple technique is a useful means of preoperatively determining brain surface anatomy and can be used to plan a scalp incision site.  (+info)

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by magnetic resonance cisternography--case report. (5/730)

A 49-year-old male with no history of head trauma suffered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discharge from the left nostril for one month. Coronal computed tomography (CT) showed lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus on both sides and CSF collection on the left side. CT cisternography could not identify the site of CSF leakage. Heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR cisternography) in the coronal plane clearly delineated a fistulous tract through the sphenoid bone into the sphenoid sinus. Patch graft with muscle fragment completely relieved the CSF rhinorrhea. Postoperative three-dimensional CT showed the two bone defects identified during surgery. Small bony dehiscences in the sphenoid bone and lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus predisposed the present patient to CSF fistula formation. MR cisternography in the coronal and sagittal planes is superior to CT scanning or CT cisternography for detection of the site of active CSF leakage.  (+info)

Angiographically occult dural arteriovenous malformation in the anterior cranial fossa--case report. (6/730)

A 62-year-old male presented with a dural arteriovenous malformation located in anterior cranial fossa manifesting as acute right frontal intracerebral and subdural hematomas. Cerebral angiography showed only mass sign, but surgical exploration disclosed the dural arteriovenous malformation in the anterior cranial fossa. Anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous malformation should be considered if computed tomography reveals intracranial bleeding involving the frontal base, even if cerebral angiography does not demonstrate vascular anomalies.  (+info)

Lumbar spinal subdural hematoma following craniotomy--case report. (7/730)

A 52-year-old female complained of lumbago and weakness in the lower extremities 6 days after craniotomy for clipping an aneurysm. Neurological examination revealed symptoms consistent with lumbosacral cauda equina compression. The symptoms affecting the lower extremities spontaneously disappeared within 3 days. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 10 days after the operation demonstrated a lumbar spinal subdural hematoma (SSH). She had no risk factor for bleeding at this site, the symptoms appeared after she began to walk, and MR imaging suggested the SSH was subacute. Therefore, the SSH was probably due to downward movement of blood from the cranial subdural space under the influence of gravity. SSH as a complication of cranial surgery is rare, but should be considered if a patient develops symptoms consistent with a lumbar SSH after craniotomy.  (+info)

Paraganglioma in the frontal skull base--case report. (8/730)

A 56-year-old female presented with a paraganglioma in the left anterior cranial fossa who manifesting as persistent headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, enhanced tumor with a cystic component located medially. The tumor was attached to the left frontal base and the sphenoid ridge. Angiography demonstrated a hypervascular tumor fed mainly by the left middle meningeal artery at the left sphenoid ridge. The preoperative diagnosis was meningioma of the left frontal base. The tumor was totally resected via a left frontotemporal craniotomy. Histological examination revealed the characteristic cellular arrangement of paraganglioma generally designated as the "Zellbaren pattern" on light microscopy. Only 10 patients with supratentorial paraganglioma have been reported, seven located in the parasellar area. The origin of the present tumor may have been the paraganglionic cells which strayed along the middle meningeal artery at differentiation.  (+info)

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Pneumocephalus is a medical condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity, specifically within the cranial vault (the space enclosed by the skull and containing the brain). This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, neurosurgical procedures, tumors, or infection. The accumulation of air in the cranium can lead to symptoms like headache, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, and neurological deficits. It is essential to diagnose and treat pneumocephalus promptly to prevent further complications, such as meningitis or brain abscess. Treatment options may include surgery, bed rest with head elevation, or administration of oxygen to facilitate the reabsorption of air.

The frontal bone is the bone that forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets (orbits) in the skull. It is a single, flat bone that has a prominent ridge in the middle called the superior sagittal sinus, which contains venous blood. The frontal bone articulates with several other bones, including the parietal bones at the sides and back, the nasal bones in the center of the face, and the zygomatic (cheek) bones at the lower sides of the orbits.

A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury in which blood accumulates between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges, the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord) and the brain. In the case of an acute subdural hematoma, the bleeding occurs suddenly and rapidly as a result of trauma, such as a severe head injury from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or assault. The accumulation of blood puts pressure on the brain, which can lead to serious complications, including brain damage or death, if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Acute subdural hematomas are considered medical emergencies and require immediate neurosurgical intervention.

Trephination, also known as trepanation or burr hole surgery, is a surgical procedure that involves making a circular hole in the skull. This ancient medical practice was used in various cultures throughout history for various purposes, such as relieving pressure on the brain, treating mental disorders, or releasing evil spirits. In modern medicine, it is rarely performed and usually reserved for severe conditions like subdural hematomas or infection inside the skull.

Penetrating head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue. This can result in damage to specific areas of the brain, depending on the location and trajectory of the penetrating object. Penetrating head injuries can be caused by various objects, such as bullets, knives, or sharp debris from accidents. They are often severe and require immediate medical attention, as they can lead to significant neurological deficits, disability, or even death.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Delayed emergence from anesthesia is a medical condition where a patient takes an unusually long time to regain consciousness after general anesthesia. The exact duration of "normal" emergence can vary depending on several factors, including the type and duration of anesthesia, the patient's age, health status, and other medications they may be taking. However, if a patient has not regained full consciousness within 30 minutes to an hour after the surgery, it is generally considered a delayed emergence.

There can be various causes for delayed emergence from anesthesia. Some of the common reasons include:

1. Residual effects of anesthetic drugs: If the anesthesiologist has not adequately reversed the muscle relaxants or if the anesthetic agents have a prolonged action, it can delay the patient's emergence from anesthesia.
2. Hypothermia: Accidental hypothermia during surgery can slow down the metabolism of anesthetic drugs and contribute to delayed emergence.
3. Hypoventilation or hypercarbia: Inadequate ventilation leading to high carbon dioxide levels in the blood can prolong recovery from anesthesia.
4. Metabolic or endocrine disorders: Conditions such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, or electrolyte imbalances can affect the patient's response to anesthesia and delay emergence.
5. Postoperative complications: Complications like stroke, heart attack, or bleeding can also cause delayed emergence from anesthesia.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as sedatives or opioids, can interact with anesthetic drugs and prolong recovery.
7. Patient factors: Older age, poor health status, and certain genetic factors can contribute to a delayed emergence from anesthesia.

Anesthesiologists closely monitor patients during the recovery phase and take appropriate measures to address any potential causes of delayed emergence. This may include providing additional oxygen, adjusting ventilation, administering reversal agents for muscle relaxants, or addressing any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, further evaluation in an intensive care unit (ICU) might be necessary to ensure the patient's safety and proper recovery.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Surgical fixation devices are medical implants used in various surgical procedures to provide stability, alignment, and support to fractured or damaged bones, joints, or soft tissues. These devices help promote healing by holding the affected area in the correct position until the body can repair itself. Common types of surgical fixation devices include:

1. Plates: Thin, flat metal pieces contoured to fit against the surface of a bone. They are often held in place with screws and used to stabilize fractures or support weakened bones.
2. Screws: Threaded rods that can be inserted into bones to hold them together or fixate implants such as plates or prosthetic joints.
3. Pins: Smooth or threaded wires used to temporarily or permanently hold bone fragments in place. They are often removed once healing is complete.
4. Intramedullary nails: Long rods placed inside the marrow cavity of a long bone (e.g., femur, tibia) to provide stability and alignment after a fracture.
5. External fixators: Devices attached to the outside of the body with pins or wires that pass through the skin and into the bones. They are used to stabilize complex fractures or injuries when internal fixation is not possible or advisable.
6. Interbody fusion cages: Cylindrical or box-shaped devices placed between two vertebrae during spinal fusion surgery to restore disc height and provide stability while promoting bone growth.
7. Sutures and staples: Used to approximate soft tissue edges (e.g., skin, muscles, ligaments) after surgical repair.

The choice of surgical fixation device depends on various factors, such as the location and severity of the injury, patient age and health status, and surgeon preference.

Meningeal neoplasms, also known as malignant meningitis or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, refer to cancerous tumors that originate in the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can arise primarily from the meningeal cells themselves, although they more commonly result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung, or melanoma.

Meningeal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as MRI) and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained through a spinal tap. Treatment options may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. The prognosis for patients with meningeal neoplasms is generally poor, with a median survival time of several months to a year.

Supratentorial neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the region of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, which is a dual layer of dura mater (the protective outer covering of the brain) that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. This area includes the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland. Supratentorial neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from various cell types such as neurons, glial cells, meninges, or blood vessels. They can cause a variety of neurological symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth.

A frontal sinus is a paired, air-filled paranasal sinus located in the frontal bone of the skull, above the eyes and behind the forehead. It is one of the four pairs of sinuses found in the human head. The frontal sinuses are lined with mucous membrane and are interconnected with the nasal cavity through small openings called ostia. They help to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe, and contribute to the resonance of our voice. Variations in size, shape, and asymmetry of frontal sinuses are common among individuals.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

An Arachnoid cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac that develops between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, which is one of the three layers that cover and protect the central nervous system. These cysts are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the same fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord.

Arachnoid cysts can vary in size and may be present at birth or develop later in life due to trauma, infection, or other factors. While many arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic and do not cause any problems, larger cysts or those that grow or shift over time can put pressure on the brain or spinal cord, leading to a range of neurological symptoms such as headaches, seizures, hearing or vision changes, balance or coordination difficulties, and cognitive impairments.

Treatment for arachnoid cysts depends on their size, location, and associated symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be sufficient, while in others, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the cyst or create a connection between it and the surrounding CSF space to relieve pressure.

The subdural space is a potential space between the dura mater, which is the outermost of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord, and the arachnoid mater, which is the middle meningeal layer. This space normally contains a thin film of fluid, but when it becomes filled with blood (subdural hematoma) or pus (subdural empyema), it can cause significant neurological problems due to increased pressure on the brain. The subdural space can also become widened in certain conditions such as dementia or hydrocephalus, leading to a condition called subdural hygroma.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

An epidural cranial hematoma is a specific type of hematoma, which is defined as an abnormal accumulation of blood in a restricted space, occurring between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull in the cranial region. This condition is often caused by trauma or head injury, which results in the rupture of blood vessels, allowing blood to collect in the epidural space. The accumulation of blood can compress the brain tissue and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs between the dura mater and the brain. When it becomes chronic, it means that the bleeding has occurred slowly over time, often over the course of several weeks or months. The blood gradually collects in the potential space between the dura and the arachnoid membrane, forming a clot.

A chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is typically characterized by the presence of liquefied blood, which can form a loculated collection that may exert mass effect on the underlying brain tissue. This can lead to symptoms such as headache, confusion, weakness, or even seizures, depending on the size and location of the hematoma.

CSDHs are often associated with underlying brain atrophy, which can create a larger potential space for blood to collect. They may also be seen in patients who are taking anticoagulant medications or have a bleeding disorder. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, although smaller CSDHs may be managed conservatively with close monitoring and repeat imaging.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is a condition where the cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, leaks through the nasal cavity. This occurs due to a defect or opening in the skull base or the thin bone that separates the brain from the nasal cavity, known as the cribriform plate.

CSF rhinorrhea can result from trauma, surgery, or spontaneously due to increased pressure in the brain. It is important to diagnose and treat this condition promptly because it increases the risk of meningitis, an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Treatment options include bed rest, hydration, stool softeners, and sometimes surgical repair of the defect.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

The anterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the upper part of the orbits (eye sockets) and the roof of the nasal cavity. It is located at the front of the skull, and is formed by several bones including the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone.

The anterior cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the olfactory bulbs (which are responsible for our sense of smell), as well as the optic nerves and parts of the pituitary gland. This region of the skull also provides protection for the brain, particularly the frontal lobes, which are involved in higher cognitive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and emotional regulation.

Abnormalities or injuries to the anterior cranial fossa can have serious consequences, including damage to the olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, and pituitary gland, as well as potential injury to the frontal lobes of the brain.

The fourth ventricle is a part of the cerebrospinal fluid-filled system in the brain, located in the posterior cranial fossa and continuous with the central canal of the medulla oblongata and the cerebral aqueduct. It is shaped like a cavity with a roof, floor, and lateral walls, and it communicates rostrally with the third ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct and caudally with the subarachnoid space through the median and lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka and Magendie). The fourth ventricle contains choroid plexus tissue, which produces cerebrospinal fluid. Its roof is formed by the cerebellar vermis and the superior medullary velum, while its floor is composed of the rhomboid fossa, which includes several important structures such as the vagal trigone, hypoglossal trigone, and striae medullares.

Stereotaxic techniques are minimally invasive surgical procedures used in neuroscience and neurology that allow for precise targeting and manipulation of structures within the brain. These methods use a stereotactic frame, which is attached to the skull and provides a three-dimensional coordinate system to guide the placement of instruments such as electrodes, cannulas, or radiation sources. The main goal is to reach specific brain areas with high precision and accuracy, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues. Stereotaxic techniques are widely used in research, diagnosis, and treatment of various neurological disorders, including movement disorders, pain management, epilepsy, and psychiatric conditions.

A brain abscess is a localized collection of pus in the brain that is caused by an infection. It can develop as a result of a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection that spreads to the brain from another part of the body or from an infection that starts in the brain itself (such as from a head injury or surgery).

The symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, confusion, seizures, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, and changes in vision, speech, or behavior. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical drainage of the abscess to relieve pressure on the brain.

It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent potentially life-threatening complications such as brain herniation or permanent neurological damage.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

A Hematocele is a medical term that refers to the collection or accumulation of blood in the tunica vaginalis, which is the sac that surrounds and encloses the testicle. This condition usually results from trauma or injury to the scrotum, which can cause bleeding into the tunica vaginalis. A hematocele may also occur as a complication of surgical procedures involving the scrotal area.

The buildup of blood in the tunica vaginalis can create a palpable mass or swelling in the scrotum, which may be painful or painless depending on the severity of the injury and the amount of blood accumulated. In some cases, a hematocele may resolve on its own as the body reabsorbs the blood over time. However, if the bleeding continues or if the collection of blood is large, medical intervention may be necessary to drain the blood and repair any underlying damage.

It's important to note that a hematocele can sometimes be mistaken for other conditions such as an inguinal hernia or a hydrocele (fluid accumulation in the tunica vaginalis), so proper diagnosis by a healthcare professional is essential for appropriate treatment.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the head, below the occipital lobe and above the brainstem. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control, coordination, balance, and some cognitive functions.

Cerebellar diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, tumors, stroke, trauma, or degenerative processes. These conditions can result in a wide range of symptoms, such as:

1. Ataxia: Loss of coordination and unsteady gait
2. Dysmetria: Inability to judge distance and force while performing movements
3. Intention tremors: Shaking or trembling that worsens during purposeful movements
4. Nystagmus: Rapid, involuntary eye movement
5. Dysarthria: Speech difficulty due to muscle weakness or incoordination
6. Hypotonia: Decreased muscle tone
7. Titubation: Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of the head and neck
8. Cognitive impairment: Problems with memory, attention, and executive functions

Some examples of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Ataxia-telangiectasia
2. Friedrich's ataxia
3. Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
4. Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)
5. Cerebellar tumors, such as medulloblastomas or astrocytomas
6. Infarctions or hemorrhages in the cerebellum due to stroke or trauma
7. Infections, such as viral encephalitis or bacterial meningitis
8. Autoimmune disorders, like multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraneoplastic syndromes
9. Metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or phenylketonuria (PKU)
10. Chronic alcoholism and withdrawal

Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, physical therapy, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

A ventriculostomy is a medical procedure in which an opening is made into one of the cerebral ventricles, the fluid-filled spaces within the brain, to relieve pressure or to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing. This is typically performed using a catheter known as an external ventricular drain (EVD). The EVD is inserted through a burr hole in the skull and into the ventricle, allowing CSF to drain out and be measured or tested. Ventriculostomy may be necessary in the management of various conditions that can cause increased intracranial pressure, such as hydrocephalus, brain tumors, or traumatic brain injuries.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

The skull base is the lower part of the skull that forms the floor of the cranial cavity and the roof of the facial skeleton. It is a complex anatomical region composed of several bones, including the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, occipital, and ethmoid bones. The skull base supports the brain and contains openings for blood vessels and nerves that travel between the brain and the face or neck. The skull base can be divided into three regions: the anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa, which house different parts of the brain.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "consciousness monitors." The term "consciousness" generally refers to an individual's state of being awake and aware of their surroundings and experiences. In a medical context, healthcare professionals may monitor a person's level of consciousness as part of their overall assessment of the patient's neurological status.

There are several tools and scales that healthcare providers use to assess a person's level of consciousness, including:

1. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS): This is a widely used tool for assessing level of consciousness in patients with traumatic brain injury or other conditions that may affect consciousness. The GCS evaluates a patient's ability to open their eyes, speak, and move in response to stimuli.
2. The Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive (AVPU) scale: This is another tool used to assess level of consciousness. It evaluates whether a patient is alert, responds to voice, responds to pain, or is unresponsive.
3. Pupillary response: Healthcare providers may also monitor the size and reactivity of a person's pupils as an indicator of their level of consciousness. Changes in pupil size or reactivity can be a sign of brainstem dysfunction or increased intracranial pressure.

It's important to note that while healthcare professionals may monitor a patient's level of consciousness, there is no single device or tool that can directly measure "consciousness" itself. Instead, these tools and assessments provide valuable information about a person's neurological status and help healthcare providers make informed decisions about their care.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

Skull base neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the skull base, which is the region where the skull meets the spine and where the brain connects with the blood vessels and nerves that supply the head and neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells in this area, including bone, nerve, glandular, and vascular tissue.

Skull base neoplasms can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Some common symptoms include headaches, vision changes, hearing loss, facial numbness or weakness, difficulty swallowing, and balance problems. Treatment options for skull base neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Conscious sedation, also known as procedural sedation and analgesia, is a minimally depressed level of consciousness that retains the patient's ability to maintain airway spontaneously and respond appropriately to physical stimulation and verbal commands. It is typically achieved through the administration of sedative and/or analgesic medications and is commonly used in medical procedures that do not require general anesthesia. The goal of conscious sedation is to provide a comfortable and anxiety-free experience for the patient while ensuring their safety throughout the procedure.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain or its surrounding tissues. It's a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. The bleeding can occur in various locations:

1. Epidural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater (the outermost protective covering of the brain) and the skull. This is often caused by trauma, such as a head injury.
2. Subdural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain's surface, which can also be caused by trauma.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding in the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounds the brain. This type of ICH is commonly caused by the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: Bleeding within the brain tissue itself, which can be caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), amyloid angiopathy, or trauma.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage: Bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, which contains CSF and communicates with the subarachnoid space. This type of ICH is often seen in premature infants but can also be caused by head trauma or aneurysm rupture in adults.

Symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, confusion, seizures, weakness, numbness, or paralysis on one side of the body, vision changes, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further brain damage and potential long-term disabilities or death.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

A craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor that develops near the pituitary gland, which is a small gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors arise from remnants of Rathke's pouch, an embryonic structure involved in the development of the pituitary gland.

Craniopharyngiomas are typically slow-growing and benign (non-cancerous), but they can still cause significant health problems due to their location. They can compress nearby structures such as the optic nerves, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland, leading to symptoms like vision loss, hormonal imbalances, and cognitive impairment.

Treatment for craniopharyngiomas usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy in some cases. Regular follow-up with a healthcare team is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

The Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) is a paired set of arteries that originate from the internal carotid artery or its branch, the posterior communicating artery. They supply oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes and parts of the parietal lobes of the brain.

The ACA runs along the medial side of each hemisphere, anterior to the corpus callosum, which is the largest bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. It gives off branches that supply the motor and sensory areas of the lower extremities, as well as the areas responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, and emotion.

The ACA is divided into several segments: A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1 segment runs from its origin at the internal carotid artery to the anterior communicating artery, which connects the two ACAs. The A2 segment extends from the anterior communicating artery to the bifurcation of the ACA into its terminal branches. The A3 and A4 segments are the distal branches that supply the frontal and parietal lobes.

Interruptions or blockages in the flow of blood through the ACA can lead to various neurological deficits, including weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities, language impairment, and changes in cognitive function.

In medical terms, the orbit refers to the bony cavity or socket in the skull that contains and protects the eye (eyeball) and its associated structures, including muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and the lacrimal gland. The orbit is made up of several bones: the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone, and palatine bone. These bones form a pyramid-like shape that provides protection for the eye while also allowing for a range of movements.

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical technique that involves the use of an endoscope to access and treat various conditions within the brain and spinal column. An endoscope is a long, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, which allows surgeons to view and operate on internal structures through small incisions or natural openings in the body.

In neuroendoscopy, the surgeon uses the endoscope to navigate through the brain's ventricular system (fluid-filled spaces) or other narrow spaces within the skull or spine to diagnose and treat conditions such as hydrocephalus, brain tumors, arachnoid cysts, and intraventricular hemorrhage.

The benefits of neuroendoscopy include reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, shorter hospital stays, faster recovery times, and improved outcomes compared to traditional open surgical approaches. However, neuroendoscopic procedures require specialized training and expertise due to the complexity of the anatomy involved.

Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs due to the rupture of blood vessels in the brain as a result of chronic high blood pressure (hypertension). It is also known as hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

Hypertension can weaken and damage the walls of the small arteries and arterioles in the brain over time, making them more susceptible to rupture. When these blood vessels burst, they cause bleeding into the surrounding brain tissue, forming a hematoma that can compress and damage brain cells.

Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Symptoms may include sudden severe headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, loss of balance or coordination, and altered level of consciousness.

The diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is typically made through imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Treatment may involve medications to reduce blood pressure, surgery to remove the hematoma, and supportive care to manage complications such as brain swelling or seizures.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

In general, a craniotomy will be preceded by an MRI scan which provides an image of the brain that the surgeon uses to plan the ... A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. ... Human craniotomy is usually performed under general anesthesia but can be also done with the patient awake using a local ... Craniotomy is distinguished from craniectomy (in which the skull flap is not immediately replaced, allowing the brain to swell ...
... is a surgical process which is used to target different tumors or malfunctioning areas of the brain. " ... "Extended Bifrontal Craniotomy , Brain Tumor Surgery , Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Brain Tumor Center". v t e (Neurosurgical ...
... is a neurosurgical technique and type of craniotomy that allows a surgeon to remove a brain tumor while the ... Awake craniotomy is also associated with reduced iatrogenic brain damage after surgery. Before an awake craniotomy begins for ... The craniotomy begins with a surgeon removing an area of the skull over the tumor and cutting into the meninges, the membranes ... Awake craniotomy can be used in a variety of brain tumors, including glioblastomas, gliomas, and brain metastases. It can also ...
n.d). Craniotomy. Health. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/craniotomy ... longitudinal fissure can serve as an effective surgical passage in the frontal bone during central and pterional craniotomies, ...
An emergency craniotomy was performed. After the operation he required continued ventilation and did not improve. Borusiewicz ...
These models require a small craniotomy. The technique of modeling ischemic stroke by transient transcranial MCAO is similar to ... craniotomy is required and common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion can be combined. Occluding one MCA and both CCAs is referred ... MCAO avoiding craniotomy Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion Endovascular filament middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ... transient or permanent) MCAO involving craniotomy Permanent transcranial middle cerebral artery occlusion Transient ...
Modern surgeons generally use the term craniotomy for this procedure. Unlike in folk practices, a craniotomy must be performed ... Craniotomy Mütter Museum Shrunken head Harper, Douglas. "trepan". Online Etymology Dictionary. τρύπανον. Liddell, Henry George ... Mondorf, Y.; Abu-Owaimer, M.; Gaab, M.R.; Oertel, J.M. (December 2009). "Chronic subdural hematoma - craniotomy versus burr ... A History of Craniotomy phisick.com 14 Nov 2011 (Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, CS1 German-language ...
Decompressive craniotomy: an international survey of practice. PMID 33738561. Neurotrauma clinicians' perspectives on the ...
CSM can be done performed on awake patients, called an awake craniotomy or in patients who have been placed under general ... The more common technique for the awake craniotomy is conscious sedation. In conscious sedation, the patient is only sedated ... Patients who undergo the procedure with an awake craniotomy instead of general anesthesia have better preservation of language ... Through the technique of CSM, generally using awake craniotomies, the neurosurgeon has the ability to monitor the functioning ...
Craniotomy; a ,much-alive tradition with the Kisii (Kenya)]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (in Dutch). 138 (52): 2621 ...
Nakul, Estelle; Lopez, Christophe (2017). "Commentary: Out-of-Body Experience during Awake Craniotomy". Frontiers in Human ...
This is accomplished via burr hole or craniotomy. This is referred to variously as "electrocorticography (ECoG)", "intracranial ... through either a craniotomy or a burr hole. The recording of these signals is referred to as electrocorticography (ECoG), ...
Bekker, A. Y., Kaufman, B., Samir, H., & Doyle, W. (2001). The Use of Dexmedetomidine Infusion for Awake Craniotomy. Anesthesia ... The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Perioperative Hemodynamics in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107(4), ... "The effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative hemodynamics in patients undergoing craniotomy". Journal of Neurosurgical ...
Gormley KM, Zajicek JP (2006). "Alemtuzumab and craniotomy for severe acute demyelinating illness". 16th Meeting of the ...
Bungee) "Craniotomy" (Doctor, Nancy D, Minister, Mimi, Roger, Gordon)* "An Invitation to Sleep in My Arms" (Gordon, Roger, ... Berensteiner tells Gordon that he has an arteriovenous malformation, and needs a "Craniotomy". Nancy D. informs him of the ... Bungee with Gordon, Roger, Rhoda, Mimi) "Craniotomy (Reprise)" (Doctor)* "You Boys Are Gonna Get Me in Such Trouble/Sailing ( ... Berensteiner celebrates the successful surgery ("Craniotomy (Reprise)"). Gordon and Roger fool around in the hospital shower, ...
"Anticonvulsant therapy increases fentanyl requirements during anaesthesia for craniotomy". Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 37 ... reported in 1990 that primidone and other anticonvulsant drugs increase the amount of fentanyl needed during craniotomy based ...
Craniotomy is performed immediately, followed by orbitofacial repair 7-10 days later and finally cranioplasty after 6-12 months ... Krebsbach PH, Mankani MH, Satomura K, Kuznetsov SA, Robey PG (November 1998). "Repair of craniotomy defects using bone marrow ...
"Perforated skulls provide evidence of craniotomy in ancient China". China Economic Net. 2007-01-26. Archived from the original ...
In East Africa, pre-colonial practice of craniotomy involved the use of fungi to prevent the onset of sepsis. The yeast species ... doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(09)80073-6. Vaidya, Pieter; van den Hombergh (24 December 1994). "Craniotomy;a much-alive tradition with ...
The surgeons perform a craniotomy to remove the tumor. The ability to remove the tumor and to what extent it is removed is ...
In an open craniotomy, a cavity is opened within the skull to reach the pituitary gland. Once the cavity is open, the pituitary ... These include transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, open craniotomy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. Each of these methods differ in ... These methods include transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, open craniotomy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. Medications that are ...
In 1956, Zhu performed the first craniotomy in Zhejiang. In the following year, Zhu established the first neurosurgery clinic ...
Craniotomy for unruptured intracranial aneurysm is another risk factor for the development of chronic subdural hematoma. The ... Large or symptomatic hematomas require a craniotomy. A surgeon opens the skull and then the dura mater; removes the clot with ...
The first awake craniotomy in Pakistan was performed by Enam. It is a type of procedure performed on the brain while a patient ...
Kelly, D.F.; Payne-Johnson, C.E. (1993). "Cerebral healing after craniotomy to evacuate a coenurus cerebralis cyst". Journal of ...
... but had rejected direct attacks on the fetus such as craniotomy. Craniotomy was thus prohibited in 1884 and again in 1889. In ... letter published in the New York Medical Record in 1895 spoke of the Jesuit Augustine Lehmkuhl as considering craniotomy lawful ...
Emergency treatment requires decompression of the haematoma, usually by craniotomy. Subdural bleeding is usually venous in ...
Treatment is generally by urgent surgery in the form of a craniotomy or burr hole. Without treatment, death typically results. ... The hematoma is evacuated through a burr hole or craniotomy. If transfer to a facility with neurosurgery is unavailable, ... Large hematomas and blood clots may require an open craniotomy. Medications may be given after surgery. They may include ...
During craniotomy and dural opening, platelet-rich plasma and red blood cells can be harvested for postbypass reinfusion to aid ... Woodhall B, Sealy WC, Hall KD, Floyd WL (July 1960). "Craniotomy under conditions of quinidine-protected cardioplegia and ... Woodhall B, Sealy WC, Hall KD, Floyd WL (July 1960). "Craniotomy under conditions of quinidine-protected cardioplegia and ... Woodhall B, Sealy WC, Hall KD, Floyd WL (July 1960). "Craniotomy under conditions of quinidine-protected cardioplegia and ...
ISBN 978-0-520-03744-1. Stone JL (July 1991). "Paul Broca and the first craniotomy based on cerebral localization". Journal of ...
In general, a craniotomy will be preceded by an MRI scan which provides an image of the brain that the surgeon uses to plan the ... A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. ... Human craniotomy is usually performed under general anesthesia but can be also done with the patient awake using a local ... Craniotomy is distinguished from craniectomy (in which the skull flap is not immediately replaced, allowing the brain to swell ...
Meet your meter: The "Restrict to meter" strip above will show you the related words that match a particular kind of metrical foot. Meter is denoted as a sequence of x and / symbols, where x represents an unstressed syllable and / represents a stressed syllable. (See "Slash & x" notation for more info on how this works.) Once you select a meter, it will "stick" for your searches until you unselect it. Get sorted: Try the new ways to sort your results under the menu that says "Closest meaning first". You can use it to find the alternatives to your word that are the freshest, most funny-sounding, most old-fashioned, and more!. Primary vowel: Try the "Primary vowel" option under ...
After the clot was removed, patients were randomly assigned to undergo craniotomy or craniectomy. Those in the craniotomy group ... "At 12 months, death had occurred in 30.2% of the patients in the craniotomy group and in 32.2% of those in the craniectomy ... In a new study, outcomes were nearly alike after both craniotomy, in which the bone flap is replaced, and decompressive ... It appears likely that craniotomy will be less expensive, since it avoids the second operation to replace the missing skull ...
Craniotomy of Reign. GAS CHAMBER RENAISSANCE [Collaboration by: Edge Of Decay / Goat Tunnel / Circle of Shit]. CD Digipak (FA- ... 2 Craniotomy Of Reign 6:12. 3 Procreation Prohibited 5:21. 4 Anomaly In The Flesh 10:02. ...
Objective Phenytoin (PHT) is routinely used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumours during and after craniotomy ... Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II ... Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II ... In a subgroup analysis of patients who did not have seizures before craniotomy, similar results were demonstrated: the ...
Craniotomy, optic nerve decompression, and ethmoid sinus wall repair are featured. ... Craniotomy Procedure to Remove a Hematoma. This medical illustration series shows severe fractures to the skull, resulting ... craniotomies, craniotomy, damage, decompressed, descriptions, drill, drilled, drilling, drills, encision, encisions, entering, ... Craniotomy, optic nerve decompression, and ethmoid sinus wall repair are featured. Copyright:. © 2012 Nucleus Medical Art/ ...
Kimitian, S, Aguilar, D, Rudy, S, Henry, J & Sinz, EH 2006, Venous air embolism during sitting craniotomy., Simulation in ... Kimitian, S., Aguilar, D., Rudy, S., Henry, J., & Sinz, E. H. (2006). Venous air embolism during sitting craniotomy. Simulation ... Venous air embolism during sitting craniotomy. Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. ... Venous air embolism during sitting craniotomy. / Kimitian, Stephen; Aguilar, David; Rudy, Sally et al. In: Simulation in ...
2.1.2 Craniotomy group. A total of 39 patients underwent craniotomy for the study, including 24 men and 15 women aged 66-84 ... Comparison of postoperative outcomes btween MIPD and craniotomy groups.. MIPD Craniotomy. Clinical outcomes. MIPD (47) ... Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in the MIPD and craniotomy groups.. MIPD. Craniotomy. P. ... 2.2.2 Craniotomy group. The patient was placed in a supine position, adjust the head angle so that intracranial hematoma was ...
Of these, 16 patients underwent a small craniotomy with partial membranectomy and 42 patients underwent a large craniotomy with ... Among the cases of CSDH initially requiring craniotomy, the large craniotomy with extended membranectomy technique reduced the ... The mean ages were 69.4+/-12.1 and 55.6+/-9.3 years in the small and large craniotomy groups, respectively. The recurrence of ... There are few studies comparing small and large craniotomies for the initial treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) ...
propofol; awake craniotomy; neurocognitive impairment; digit span; trail making; word fluency. Dewey Decimal Classification:. ... Results in digit span test were compared to 21 patients during awake craniotomies. Results: Word fluency was reduced to 30, 33 ... Background: Short-acting anesthetics are used for rapid recovery, especially for neurological testing during awake craniotomy. ... Background: Short-acting anesthetics are used for rapid recovery, especially for neurological testing during awake craniotomy. ...
craniotomy they cracked a panel. free, easy as any. china, tiny saucer of you. that held, like a fossil,. an impression. lifted ...
Leonard Kress has published poetry and fiction in Missouri Review, Massachusetts Review, Iowa Review, American Poetry Review, Harvard Review, and other journals. His recent collections are The Orpheus Complex, Walk Like Bo Diddley, and Living in the Candy Store and Other Poems. He has also completed a new verse transla
Copyright © 2024 · All Rights Reserved · www.craniotomy.sk. Music Lite by Organic Themes. ...
Previous studies of craniotomy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) did not show improved mortality or morbidity. The current ...
This site uses cookies to offer you the best possible experience when accessing and navigating through our website and using its features. ...
A 48-year-old patient with a brain tumor at the motor cortex was scheduled for an awake craniotomy. Ultrasound-guided scalp ... In this report, we demonstrate that ultrasound-guided scalp blocks can be used effectively for a craniotomy. ... No additional local anesthetic agent was given for skull pinning, skin incision, or the craniotomy. Postoperatively, the ... Ultrasound-Guided Scalp Blocks for an Awake Craniotomy: A Case Report. A & A PRACTICE, 16 (9). pp. 1-4. ISSN 2575-3126 ...
Conclusions: This may cause an increased risk of unintentional opening of the left frontal sinus during frontal craniotomy or ... Conclusions: This may cause an increased risk of unintentional opening of the left frontal sinus during frontal craniotomy or ... Their unintended opening during craniotomy is not beneficial due to the risk of brain infections by bacteria inhabiting the ... Their unintended opening during craniotomy is not beneficial due to the risk of brain infections by bacteria inhabiting the ...
Brain surgery - awake craniotomy Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon, Dr. Alfredo Quinones, talks about awake craniotomy brain surgery. ... Quinones Awake Craniotomy. Posted on April 25, 2011. Posted in All Podcasts, Neurology And Neurosurgery ...
An in depth look at how the 3D recreation of a craniotomy came to life ... "Craniotomy". When I first heard the term, I didnt know what it referred to. The cranium, yeah, sure, but what about it. Turns ... To bring the craniotomy to life, I relied on a few of the "go-to" software technologies we often use in our daily workflow. The ... To create the craniotomy animation, I had to drill down on the specifics (you see what I did there?). I watched many videos on ...
Craniotomy and endarterectomy. Emergency decompression with craniotomy is performed in some centers in patients with malignant ...
View cost for Craniotomy, book appointment for Craniotomy on DoctoriDuniya ... Craniotomy in Agra. A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access ... Craniotomy procedure is performed by neurosurgeons. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of ... Craniotomies are often critical operations, performed on patients who are suffering from brain lesions or traumatic brain ...
It sounds like you have been through quite a bit... But, it sounds like things are under control. Welcome to the forum.. BiPAP - There is no significant disadvantage to using one, but it may not be necessary. They supply pressures up to 25 cm instead if the usual 20 cm with a CPAP. The BiPAP also allows for a differential of up to 10 cm between inhale and exhale. The APAP or CPAP usually only allows a 3 cm differential. Normally a BiPAP is not used unless you need pressures higher than 20 cm, or if you need some breathing assistance by the higher differential. Normally that would show up as a higher hypopnea incidence, high flow restriction, or RERA. With an AHI of 10 that is an indication there is room for improvement. The standard treatment goal is to be under 5 for AHI, and more ideally under 2. I dont think there is a problem with Ambien during the study, especially if you are not having any significant central apnea events. What is your breakdown of the type of Apnea events being reported? ...
Chinas leading Craniotomy Disposable Surgical Packs product, with strict quality control SMMMS Disposable Surgical Packs ... High quality PP SMS SMMS SMMMS SMF Craniotomy Disposable Surgical Packs With Tube Holder from China, ... PP / SMS / SMMS / SMMMS / SMF Disposable Surgical Craniotomy Pack, Surgical Craniotomy Drape With Tube Holder And Pouch ... Craniotomy Drape 2. 77 in. (195.5cm) / 128 in. (325cm) * 134 in. (340cm). Absorbent reinforcement,. 35 x 22 in. (89 x 56cm). ...
17.4 Open Craniotomy approaches. There are many surgical approaches for approaching tumors of the ventricular system. The open ... Treatment consists of open craniotomy for solid tumors and endoscopic approaches (transnasal transsphenoidal and cranial) for ... more immediate surgical options include craniotomy for microsurgical resection, neuroendoscopic removal, and CSF -diversion ... of the central nervous system are a serious complication of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures like craniotomy, ...
Craniotomy Average Treatment Cost: $66,935 A craniotomy is a complex surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the ... Single-use instrument costs for craniotomies also contribute significantly to expenses. A study emphasizes the need for cost ... often involving craniotomy, can range from $30,000 to $100,000, adding to the financial burden for patients and families. ...
Craniotomy * Embolization, Therapeutic * Granuloma, Giant Cell / diagnosis* * Granuloma, Giant Cell / therapy * Humans ...
Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for large medial sphenoid wing meningiomas. Cheng Mao Cheng, Cheng Fu Chang, Hsin I. Ma, ... Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for large medial sphenoid wing meningiomas. / Cheng, Cheng Mao; Chang, Cheng Fu; Ma, Hsin I ... Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for large medial sphenoid wing meningiomas. 於: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2009 ; 卷 ... Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for large medial sphenoid wing meningiomas. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2009 9月;16(9 ...
A medical illustration showing Craniotomy for Right Parietal Lobectomy for Resection of Devitalized/Hemorrhagic Brain Tissue. ... Craniotomy for Right Parietal Lobectomy for Resection of Devitalized/Hemorrhagic Brain Tissue - 203057_03X. ... Medical Legal Illustrations & Animations: Home , Personal Injury Exhibits , Head/Brain , Skull/Brain Surgeries , Craniotomy for ...
Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic ... This brain surgery is called a craniotomy.. The bone flap may not be put back if your surgery involved a tumor or an infection ...
  • Background: Short-acting anesthetics are used for rapid recovery, especially for neurological testing during awake craniotomy. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • A 48-year-old patient with a brain tumor at the motor cortex was scheduled for an awake craniotomy. (unimas.my)
  • Brain surgery - awake craniotomy Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon, Dr. Alfredo Quinones, talks about awake craniotomy brain surgery. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This may cause an increased risk of unintentional opening of the left frontal sinus during frontal craniotomy or pterional craniotomy with frontal extension. (viamedica.pl)
  • The pterional craniotomy is a unique approach that provides wide access to the skull base. (pitt.edu)
  • The pterional craniotomy is the approach of choice for resection of laterally-based skull base tumors (meningiomas, schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, fibrous dysplasia, orbital tumors, arachnoid cysts and brain malignancies) and clipping of cerebral aneurysms (both ruptured and unruptured). (pitt.edu)
  • Having mastered endoscopic skull base approaches in our center, endoscopic- assisted tumor resection during a pterional craniotomy is often used for better visualization and additional tumor resection. (pitt.edu)
  • Of the 86 patients, 47 received minimally invasive puncture and drainage and 39 underwent craniotomy. (imrpress.com)
  • Of these, 16 patients underwent a small craniotomy with partial membranectomy and 42 patients underwent a large craniotomy with extended membranectomy as the initial treatment. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Methods: A nationwide multicenter retrospective analysis of 341 patients who underwent craniotomy and evacuation of supratentorial ICH between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015, was performed. (lu.se)
  • No additional local anesthetic agent was given for skull pinning, skin incision, or the craniotomy. (unimas.my)
  • Depending on the type of craniotomy needed, an incision may be made along the hairline, in the eyebrow, or behind the ear. (dkglobal.net)
  • To minimize complications and maximize patient safety, intraoperative image navigation is used for customized incision and craniotomy planning, exact tumor location and avoidance of large underlying blood vessels. (pitt.edu)
  • Traumatic subdural hematoma often requires surgical evacuation using either craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Objective: To investigate long-term survival, neurologic outcome, and quality of life in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated with craniotomy and hematoma evacuation. (lu.se)
  • The two most common surgical interventions for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia of patients more than 65 years old are either minimally invasive puncture and drainage or craniotomy. (imrpress.com)
  • Methods: Prospective evaluation of patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection during general anesthesia with propofol (N of craniotomies = 35). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am interested in PP SMS SMMS SMMMS SMF Craniotomy Disposable Surgical Packs With Tube Holder could you send me more details such as type, size, quantity, material, etc. (delta-medi.com)
  • In a new study, outcomes were nearly alike after both craniotomy, in which the bone flap is replaced, and decompressive craniectomy, in which the bone flap is not replaced, at least not right away. (medscape.com)
  • 0.001), total cost of hospitalization ( P = 0.004), and incidence of epilepsy ( P = 0.045) were significantly higher for the craniotomy group than the minimally invasive puncture and drainage group. (imrpress.com)
  • It was found that, in patients older than 65 years with basal ganglia hemorrhage, minimally invasive puncture and drainage is less invasive, more cost efficient and induces less bleeding during surgery than craniotomy. (imrpress.com)
  • A CT scan showed no spread of the inflammatory process in the central nervous system and in any case this finding was important to determine that the drainage duct was confined without requiring craniotomy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar un caso clínico de un paciente de 33 años, que desarrollaron síntomas de desconexión interhemisférica después de la cirugía para la extirpación del tumor en la región pituitaria y alteraciones en la función ejecutiva y evaluar la aplicabilidad del programa de rehabilitación neuropsicológica para las quejas cognitivas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Craniotomy is distinguished from craniectomy (in which the skull flap is not immediately replaced, allowing the brain to swell, thus reducing intracranial pressure) and from trepanation, the creation of a burr hole through the cranium in to the dura mater. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the clot was removed, patients were randomly assigned to undergo craniotomy or craniectomy. (medscape.com)
  • At 12 months, 215 patients in the craniotomy group and 211 in the decompressive craniectomy group were evaluated. (medscape.com)
  • Further cranial surgery within 2 weeks was performed for 14.6% of the craniotomy group and 6.9% of the craniectomy group. (medscape.com)
  • Craniotomies are often critical operations, performed on patients who are suffering from brain lesions, such as tumors, blood clots, removal of foreign bodies such as bullets, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), and can also allow doctors to surgically implant devices, such as deep brain stimulators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and cerebellar tremor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain treatment after craniotomy: where is the (procedure-specific) evidence? (wikipedia.org)
  • Craniotomy has been the conventional procedure for treating ICH for several years. (imrpress.com)
  • However, the craniotomy procedure is itself traumatic for patients with ICH. (imrpress.com)
  • Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the curative effects of either MIPD or craniotomy for spontaneous ICH in the basal ganglia of patients older than 65 years to determine the better method of treatment. (imrpress.com)
  • Objective Phenytoin (PHT) is routinely used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumours during and after craniotomy, despite incomplete evidence. (bmj.com)
  • In a subgroup analysis of patients who did not have seizures before craniotomy, similar results were demonstrated: the incidence of seizures was 1.9% (LEV) and 13.8% (PHT, p=0.034), and OR was 8.16 (95% CI 1.42 to 154.19, p=0.015). (bmj.com)
  • Results in digit span test were compared to 21 patients during awake craniotomies. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In 21 patients undergoing awake craniotomies without pharmacological sedation, digit span was unaffected during intraoperative testing. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Neurocognitive testing was unimpaired in patients undergoing awake craniotomies without sedation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Chronic Subdural Hematoma Treated by Small or Large Craniotomy with Membranectomy as the Initial Treatment. (jkns.or.kr)
  • There are few studies comparing small and large craniotomies for the initial treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) which had non-liquefied hematoma, multilayer intrahematomal loculations, or organization/calcification on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy (MOZC) is an anterior lateral skull base approach characterized by simplicity and wide exposure. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • The victim was transported to the hospital where a craniotomy was performed. (cdc.gov)
  • The mean ages were 69.4+/-12.1 and 55.6+/-9.3 years in the small and large craniotomy groups, respectively. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Among the cases of CSDH initially requiring craniotomy, the large craniotomy with extended membranectomy technique reduced the reoperation rate, compared to that of the small craniotomy with partial membranectomy technique. (jkns.or.kr)
  • In general, a craniotomy will be preceded by an MRI scan which provides an image of the brain that the surgeon uses to plan the precise location for bone removal and the appropriate angle of access to the relevant brain areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the outcomes are similar, the findings actually favor craniotomy because it eliminates the need for a second operation to repair the skull, said lead author Peter Hutchinson, MBBS, PhD, a neurosurgeon with the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, in an interview. (medscape.com)
  • To create the craniotomy animation, I had to drill down on the specifics (you see what I did there? (dkglobal.net)
  • Their unintended opening during craniotomy is not beneficial due to the risk of brain infections by bacteria inhabiting the sinus mucosa. (viamedica.pl)
  • The Operation of Acute Epidural Hematoma Through Small Craniotomy: Technical Note. (jkns.or.kr)