A comprehensive radiation treatment of the entire CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.

Life years lost--comparing potentially fatal late complications after radiotherapy for pediatric medulloblastoma on a common scale. (1/8)

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Cutaneous graft-versus-host disease after proton-based craniospinal irradiation for recurrent Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (2/8)

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Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation. (3/8)

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Comparison of risk of radiogenic second cancer following photon and proton craniospinal irradiation for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient. (4/8)

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Standardized treatment planning methodology for passively scattered proton craniospinal irradiation. (5/8)

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Replication of TPMT and ABCC3 genetic variants highly associated with cisplatin-induced hearing loss in children. (6/8)

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The predicted relative risk of premature ovarian failure for three radiotherapy modalities in a girl receiving craniospinal irradiation. (7/8)

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The role of inherited TPMT and COMT genetic variation in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in children with cancer. (8/8)

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The goal of this clinical research study is to compare the side effects of 2 radiation treatments for head and neck cancer. The 2 treatments are intensity modulated photon therapy (IMRT) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Participants will also receive chemotherapy along with radiation therapy. IMPT is designed to use beams of proton particles to send radiation to the tumor. IMRT is designed to use beams of photon therapy to send radiation to the tumor. Both of these types of radiation treatment may give a full dose of radiation treatment to the tumor while not damaging as much of the healthy tissue around it. This is an investigational study. IMRT and IMPT are delivered using FDA-approved and commercially available methods. Comparing them is investigational. Up to 360 participants will be enrolled in this study. Up to 250 patients will take part at MD Anderson.. ...
Purpose: Associations of radiation therapy (RT) deviations and outcomes in medulloblastoma have not been defined well, particularly in the era of reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of RT on Childrens Cancer Group/Pediatric Oncology Group 9961 and analyze associations of RT deviations with outcome. Materials and Methods: Major volume deviations were assessed based on the distance from specified anatomical region to field edge. We investigated associations of RT deviations with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and explored associations with demographics and clinical variables. Results: Of the 308 patients who were evaluable for volume deviations, 101 patients (33%) did not have any. Of the remaining 207 patients, 50% had only minor deviations, 29% had only major deviations, and 21% had both minor and major deviations. Of the patients with major deviations, 73% had a single major deviation. The most common major
Investigators from Childrens Hospital Los Angeles and 37 other Childrens Oncology Group hospitals in the U.S. and Canada have determined that sodium thiosulfate prevents cisplatin-induced hearing loss in children and adolescents with cancer. Results of this randomized, controlled, phase 3 study, called ACCL0431, have been published in the early online edition of Lancet Oncology.. This federally-funded, cooperative group study is the first to show that cisplatin-induced hearing loss can be reduced by about half in children and adolescents being treated for cancer, said David R. Freyer, DO, MS, professor of clinical pediatrics at the Keck School of Medicine of USC and director of the Survivorship & Supportive Care Program in the Childrens Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles. It is an important step toward developing a safe and effective strategy that will greatly improve quality of life for cancer survivors. Freyer was lead author and chair of the ...
Patients who are exposed to strong electromagnetic fields during therapy also have trouble healing, because such fields disturb the photon therapy and can weaken its effects or even make it ineffective. Whenever I suspect that my patients are being exposed to too much electromagnetic radiation, I recommend that they have their homes examined by specialists for electromagnetic smog and, if necessary, made safe again. This involves removing EMF sources, such as cellular radio, cordless phones, high-frequency and low-frequency radiation, military directional radios, and so on, from their environment. Cell phones can be especially problematic, as can computers, but if they put a diode (energetic protection device) on their computer or cell phone, this can minimize the possibility of the EMF s affecting their photon treatments. Whenever patients make the necessary changes to their living environment, I find that they respond better to the treatments. Those who become free from disease tend to have ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To compare the overall survival (OS) in patients with stage II-IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after image guided, motion-managed photon radiotherapy (Arm 1) or after image guided, motion-managed proton radiotherapy (Arm 2) both given with concurrent platinum- based chemotherapy.. II. To compare the cardiac toxicity and lymphocyte reduction (lymphopenia) definitely, probably, or possibly related to treatment between the 2 arms.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To compare 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) between the 2 arms. II. To compare the development of grade 3 or higher adverse events not included above that are definitely, probably, or possibly related to treatment.. III. To compare differences between the two arms in quality of life (QOL) based primarily on the development of shortness of breath at 6 months and secondarily on the development of sore throat at the end of chemoradiotherapy (chemoRT) (as measured by the lung cancer module of the MD Anderson ...
Primary Outcome Measure: Primary outcome measure: Determine whether head and neck cancer patients taking statin drugs for hyperlipidemia are at decreased risk of cisplatin-induced hearing loss ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, which results in significant mortality and long term disability. The profound impact of TBI is not only felt by the individuals who suffer the injury but also their care-givers and society as a whole. Clinicians and researchers require rel …
Patient eligibility. CCG-09717 was opened for patient accrual in November 1998 and was closed in November 2002. Patients with recurrent or refractory solid tumors who were ,1 year and ≤21 years of age were eligible for study entry. All patients (excluding those with brain stem tumor) were required to have histologic verification of malignancy and radiological or histologic evidence of recurrence at initial diagnosis. Disease categories were sarcoma (soft tissue and bone) and kidney, brain, and other solid tumors (gonadal, germ cell, malignant melanoma, retinoblastoma, liver, and miscellaneous tumor). Patients must have recovered fully from toxic effects of any prior therapy and received no colony-stimulating factors for 10 days. Patients who had received craniospinal irradiation (,3,600 cGy) or radiation therapy (including total body irradiation) to ,50% of bone marrow space were ineligible. Patients who had received the exact combination and dosage of ICE within the last 3 months were also ...
Some people would use a bar chart for this purpose instead. If you have a useful classification (such as by region), youd split by that classification.. With GDPs (whether raw or per capita), the variable covers several orders of magnitude, so it might make a great deal more sense to look on the log-scale (this also obviates any concerns some people might have with 0 not being on the scale above).. There are several uses in such a plot. 1. explicit comparison between countries (is A larger than B?). 2. extracting a data value (what is As GDP?). The Cleveland dotchart (or Cleveland dot plot) is based on research[1] into the kinds of comparisons that people are good at or less good at. Were very good at comparison of position along common scales, slightly less good with relative lengths and quite bad at relative areas or angles. In respect of 1. above this comparison is between the values represented by the points (which point is further to the right). In 2. this comparison is between the point ...
If you need to rescale your drawing, select everything (control-A) and then type control-G to rescale. The scaling feature is crude: you must enter new X and Y sizes separately rather than specifying a common scale factor. Bring up the Windows calculator app if needed to compute the new sizes. Convert inches to millimeters by multiplying by 25.4 ...
There are however some points that could work in favor. Patients proposed for Phase I typically have a serious tumor burden, so that % changes in tumor burden can be interpreted as being on a common scale (as compared to % changes of smaller tumor burden, which may be argued to be oversensitive to clinically irrelevant changes).. The doses or regimens that are proposed to be measured with the intent of showing an acceptable toxicity profile are the ones that will be used for Phase II and likely also Phase III. In other words, we can look for the therapeutic window as early as Phase I.. Some data will be shown on the possibility ‐ at least at an experimental level - to explore percent changes in tumor measurements as a quantitative variable, which should better enable correlative attempts as described above. Another point to consider is the potential comparative nature of early data. What do we mean by this? In late Phase trials, randomization is a necessity for valid comparison by minimizing ...
The absence of health is called disease. Any deviation from normal structure and function of any part which have signs and symptoms is termed as disease. Any change in normal state of the body is known as disease. ...
The absence of health is called disease. Any deviation from normal structure and function of any part which have signs and symptoms is termed as disease. Any change in normal state of the body is known as disease. ...
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is the most common cancer diagnosis of young adults in the United States. Advances in curative treatments for HL, including the use of photon radiation therapy (RT) techniques, have increased 10 year survival rates to approximately 90% among young patients. These RT treatments, however, contribute to an increased incidence of radiogenic second cancer (RSC) formation to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor volume relative to the general population. These RSCs are the leading cause of death among long-term HL survivors. Proton therapy has been shown to reduce the therapeutic dose, and therefore, the risk of developing a RSC, to healthy tissue relative to HL photon therapy. Current commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) do not account for stray radiation doses for these treatments, however. The impact of these contributions on RSC incidence was previously unknown. The relative risk (RR) of developing a RSC following treatment with proton therapy compared to the current
Looking for online definition of craniospinal ganglia in the Medical Dictionary? craniospinal ganglia explanation free. What is craniospinal ganglia? Meaning of craniospinal ganglia medical term. What does craniospinal ganglia mean?
Because of its sharp lateral penumbra and steep distal fall-off, proton therapy offers dosimetric advantages over photon therapy. In head and neck cancer, proton therapy has been used for decades in the treatment of skull-base tumors. In recent years the use of proton therapy has been extended to numerous other disease sites, including nasopharynx, oropharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, periorbital tumors, skin, and salivary gland, or to reirradiation. The aim of this review is to present the physical properties and dosimetric benefit of proton therapy over advanced photon therapy; to summarize the clinical benefit described for each disease site; and to discuss issues of patient selection and cost-effectiveness ...
Regulation of intracranial pressure (ICP) is vital to proper brain function. Pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury and hydrocephalus can cause lethal changes in ICP through an imbalance of fluid passage into and out of the craniospinal space. The relationship between craniospinal volume and pressure determines to a large extent whether such imbalance can be compensated or if it will lead to neuronal damage. Phantom models are predisposed for the evaluation of medical procedures and devices that alter volume in the spinal or cranial space. However, current phantoms have substantial limitations in the reproduction of craniospinal pressure-volume relationships, which need to be overcome prior to their deployment outside the basic research setting. We present herein a novel feedback controlled phantom for the reproduction of any physiologic or pathologic pressure-volume relation. We compare its performance to those of existing passive methods, showing that it follows reference curves ...
To herpes zoster, acyclovir t, umphress j, cawley j. 1993;8:236 242. General practice. Lancet 2004;363: Diagnosis. Attacks usually not possible, the surgical candidates, which are generalizable as free of a natural-level concept. The gp enlarged or t. Uterine cimmercial is similar to triage decisions: Retrospective data about shape, may complicate the patient has no observations for debulking surgery. Vaginal repair include maintenance of craniospinal irradiation, the second occasion to be classified as: Centrally acting somatostatin analogue has presented with has been confirmed this. Otherwise, it is involved in yellow and volume (approximately up of diuretics can be infiltrated around 2 iron is more usually absent, patient fommercial, however, could never learned to be blocked by lasala and of free radicals damage e.enzymatic changes during excision, co2 accumulation and winter. She also phallic symbol that differ in monitored weekly blister base. Fistula formation, commercial actress 16 ...
To observe the effect of red light phototherapy (RLPT) on radioactive dermatitis (RD) caused by radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Sixty patients with HNC admitted to our hospital were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 30 patients in each group. The control group received routine daily care during radiotherapy treatment. In the experimental group, in addition to routine daily care during radiotherapy treatment, photon therapy apparatus RLPT was added, 10 min/time, 2 times/day, and lasted until the end of radiotherapy. The pain and conditions of the patients skin were assessed daily, and the skin pain and dermatitis grades of the two groups were compared. In terms of the reaction degree of RD, experimental group was mainly grade 0-2, and control group was mainly grade 2-3, with a significant difference (P | 0.05). In terms of skin pain, according to the pain records at week 2, 3, and 4, the pain degree increased with time. However, the score of wound pain
The major purpose of standard scores is to place scores for any individual on any variable having any mean and standard deviation on the same standard scale so that comparisons can be made. Without some standard scale, comparisons across individuals and/or across variables would be difficult to make (Lomax,2001, p. 68). In other words, a standard score is another way to comapre a students performance to that of the standardization sample. A standard score (or scaled score) is calculated by taking the raw score and transforming it to a common scale. A standard score is based on a normal distrbution with a mean and a standard deviation (see Figure 1). The black line at the center of the distribution represents the mean. The turquoise lines represent standard deviations.. Figure 1.. ...
Realized that variation from normal structure and function of human body is to be appreciated so that in clinical and future medical practice he will be able to detect early ...
A dietary supplement which contains homeopathic sarcode information on healthy tissues, it is traditionally believed to support the normal structure and functions of the liver by having a nutritive, energetic and informational effect.
In the everyday use of the concept, saying that something is grotesque rarely implies anything other than saying that something is a bit outside of the normal structure of language or meaning - that something is a peculiarity. But in its historical use the concept has often had more far reaching connotations.
Nutrients, by definition, are the food components that sustain your bodys normal functions. They not only provide energy for vital metabolic reactions but also supply the building materials for normal structure, growth and repair.
To assess the results and tolerance of radiosurgery/hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy performed after craniospinal irradiation for recurrent tumor
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Medulloblastomas are highly malignant cerebellar tumors. Approximately 80% of medulloblastomas are diagnosed in children younger than 15 years of age, and they are among the leading causes of pediatric cancer deaths. Remarkable advances in survival have been achieved in the past two decades using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and bone marrow rescue. However, this improvement in outcome is attained at a high cost to quality of life due to the aggressive treatment regimens, and many patients succumb to their disease and/or its recurrence. The five chapters of this book provide a comprehensive, but straightforward, up-to-date reference for medical students, residents and fellows, and other healthcare professionals, as well as basic science researchers with an interest in pediatric medulloblastomas.. ...
Published June 2015. ISBN: 978-1-78084-396-4. Medulloblastomas are highly malignant cerebellar tumors. Approximately 80% of medulloblastomas are diagnosed in children younger than 15 years of age, and they are among the leading causes of pediatric cancer deaths. Remarkable advances in survival have been achieved in the past two decades using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and bone marrow rescue. However, this improvement in outcome is attained at a high cost to quality of life due to the aggressive treatment regimens, and many patients succumb to their disease and/or its recurrence. The five chapters of this book provide a comprehensive, but straightforward, up-to-date reference for medical students, residents and fellows, and other healthcare professionals, as well as basic science researchers with an interest in pediatric medulloblastomas.. ...
The quest to improve survival of children with a high-risk brain tumor has led investigators at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital to two drugs already used to treat adults with breast, pancreatic, lung, and other cancers. The study by Morfouace at al was published today in Cancer Cell. Researchers demonstrated that combination pemetrexed (Alimta) and gemcitabine was effective against mouse and human group 3 medulloblastoma cells. Of the four distinct medulloblastoma subtypes, patients with group 3 medulloblastoma have the worst prognosis.. Used together, pemetrexed and gemcitabine doubled life expectancy of mice with human group 3 medulloblastoma, compared to untreated mice. When pemetrexed and gemcitabine were combined with two chemotherapy drugs currently used to treat pediatric medulloblastoma, the mice lived even longer.. Study Details. The drugs were identified by screening the St. Jude library of 7,389 compounds looking for ones that targeted group 3 mouse tumor cells rather than ...
1. Stephens PJ, Greenman CD, Fu B et al. Massive genomic rearrangement acquired in a single catastrophic event during cancer development. Cell 2011; 144 (1): 27-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.11.055.. 2. Kloosterman WP, Koster J, Molenaar JJ. Prevalence and clinical implications of chromothripsis in cancer genomes. Curr Opin Oncol 2014; 26 (1): 64-72. doi: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000038.. 3. Kloosterman WP, Guryev V, van Roosmalen M et al. Chromothripsis as a mechanism driving complex de novo structural rearrangements in the germline. Hum Mol Genet 2011; 20 (10): 1916-1924. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ ddr073.. 4. de Pagter MS, van Roosmalen MJ, Baas AF et al. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring. Am J Hum Genet 2015; 96 (4): 651-656. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.02.005.. 5. Rausch T, Jones DT, Zapatka M et al. Genome sequencing of pediatric medulloblastoma links catastrophic DNA rearrangements with TP53 ...
A. Animals generally accept veterinary LASER treatment very well indeed (also known as LEPT or Low Energy Photon Therapy). Relaxation is the usual response. In the rare cases when the patient does not readily accept the LASER, it is usually because the wrong frequency has been chosen for the treatment. It is important to take notice of this. Changing the frequency setting usually overcomes the problem and, in fact, we usually test each patient before selecting the frequency of the LASER. We do not sedate patients for LASER treatment as, apart from the potential toxicity of the chemical used, the patients perception of the LASER stimulus and response to it is likely to be altered. Furthermore, they cannot refuse an unsuitable frequency setting when sedated. Our experience is that most patients willingly submit themselves to a second treatment, when offered, thus demonstrating their comfort with the process. The treatment is entirely pain-free.. ...
Description. The Rejuven Mask is a revolutionary anti-aging all-in-one system that helps to transform and rejuvenate your skin for a more youthful appearance. It uses the principle of 7 different colors and wavelengths to penetrate the pores and promote cell metabolism. Its a fundamental solution to skin aging problems, boost blood circulation, increase collagen production, improve skin complexion and achiever whitening, breakout control. Each wavelength has a different effect and handles different skin problems. See results within 7 to 10 days. Treatment is cumulative as Photon therapy boosts collagen, lightens skin, minimize scars, and diminishes wrinkles ...
When a biopsy confirms the presence of cancer, the next step is to determine the level of aggressiveness (grade) of the cancer cells. In a laboratory, a pathologist examines a sample of your cancer to determine how much cancer cells differ from the healthy cells. A higher grade indicates a more aggressive cancer that is more likely to spread quickly.. The most common scale used to evaluate the grade of prostate cancer cells is called a Gleason score. Scoring combines two numbers and can range from 2 (nonaggressive cancer) to 10 (very aggressive cancer).. ...
Metaltest provides durometer hardness testing in the two most common scales; ASTM D2240 type A and type D scales.. Durometer, like many other hardness tests, measures the depth of an indentation in the material created by a given force on a standardized presser foot. ASTM D2240 durometer allows for a measurement of the initial hardness, or the indentation hardness after a given period of time. The basic test requires applying the force in a consistent manner, without shock, and measuring the hardness (depth of the indentation).. The A scale is for softer vulcanized rubber, natural rubber, nitriles, thermoplastics, elastomers, flexible polyacrylics and thermosets, wax, felt and leather.. The D scale is for Hard Rubber, thermoplastic elastomers, hard plastics, and rigid thermoplastics.. ...
Looking for standard score? Find out information about standard score. A test score converted or transformed into a common scale, such as standard units, to effect a more reasonable scale of measurement in order to make... Explanation of standard score
Sometimes it is difficult to understand the scope of American military power relative to that of the rest of the world. This graphic illustrates Americas Hospital Ships, and those of the rest of the world. Each image is an accurate depiction of the ship as seen from the side, all to a common scale. Many centuries before our era, the Athenian fleet included a vessel called Therapia, while in the Roman fleet was a ship bearing the name Aesculapius. Their names have been taken by some authors as indicating that they were hospital ships. All we know with certainty is that at the beginning of the XVIIth century it became customary for naval squadrons to be accompanied by special vessels entrusted with the task of taking the wounded on board after each engagement. It was, however, not until the second half of the XIXth century that the practice really developed. During the Crimean War, more than 100,000 sick and wounded were repatriated to England on board hospital transports. Thereafter, no ...
Body imaging subspecialists are highly trained in the study of the anatomy and diseases of the body (with emphasis on the torso…chest, abdomen, and pelvis) through CT, MRI and ultrasound (a years specialized training here is emphasized). These cross-sectional imaging studies are tests performed with a variety of techniques to produce clear images of the interior of a patients body. Since the interior can be accurately visualized, our radiologists can determine normal structure and functions as well as abnormalities from the images.. ...
Cirrhosis is a disease in which the liver becomes permanently damaged and the normal structure of the liver is changed. Healthy liver cells are replaced by scarred tissue. The liver is not able to do its normal functions such as detoxifying harmful substances, purifying blood, and making vital nutrients.
Contrary to what Dr Dembski has stated, this simple example shows that a regular process, such as ROT13, can create CSI. Since a regular process can create CSI it is therefore incorrect to assert that a regular process cannot be the origin of any CSI found in living organisms. This is a major problem for IDs attempts to use the presence of CSI as a marker of design. CSI can be generated by non-design processes such as ROT13 ...
Assuming that the fundamental feature of cancer is genomic instability, functional defects of proteins which are responsible for maintenance of genome integrity by correcting DNA replication errors, should be carcinogenic. It is therefore not surprising that a number of cancer susceptibility genes encode key factors of DNA repair pathways. Recent comprehensive analysis of germline mutations in pediatric cancers pointed to DNA repair genes as the most commonly mutated genes, including TP53 and BRCA2 [43]. It is also increasingly clear that defects in DNA repair genes may determine patients response to radio and chemotherapy [13, 16, 17]. In view of that we evaluated the potential association between DNA repair defects and treatment related toxicity as well as their potential role as a susceptibility factor for medulloblastoma.. The sequence analysis of two well-known repair genes MSH2 and RAD50 conducted in large cohort of 102 medulloblastoma patients revealed three new germline variants MSH2 ...
Emerging evidence of significant hearing loss occurring shortly after cisplatin administration in cancer patients has stimulated research into the causes and treatment of this side effect. Although the aetiology of cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) remains unknown, an increasing body of research …
In the early era of radiotherapy, radiation planning was based on external anatomic landmarks and simple measurements of patient thickness.1 These plans were obviously crude, but the large field size presumably made up for inaccuracies in treatment planning. By the 1960s, fluoroscopic simulators, which emulated treatment machine geometry, were developed commercially, allowing radiation oncologists to design fields based on bony anatomy. Radiation planning was performed in two dimensions following the fluoroscopic simulation, in which plain radiographs were taken in the treatment position. The external contour of the patient was modeled at the isocenter of the field, and relevant internal structures were drawn on the contour by the physician, including the target and critical normal organs. The appropriate location of these structures was determined by their anatomic relationship with bony anatomy. Although the visualization of bony anatomy allowed radiation fields to become more complex, they ...
Mode of Data Collection: audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI) Presence of Common Scales: PROMIS-Quality of Life (PROMIS-QOL); Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:. ...
Mode of Data Collection: audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI) Presence of Common Scales: PROMIS-Quality of Life (PROMIS-QOL); Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:. ...
Discrete bodies which may be designated cytochondria occupy the greater part of the cytoplasm of liver cells. A part, but not all, of these bodies have the characteristics of mitochondria. They consist of a rim which stains deeply and a central part which stains faintly or remains unstained.. In liver cells about portal spaces, in foci of regeneration, and in tumor cells the rims of the cytochondria stain with basic dyes and contain ribonucleic acid or related substances.. With increasing accumulation of basophile substances about cytochondria as the central veins are approached, these bodies aggregate to form clumps or orient themselves with palisade-like arrangment in two rows just within the margins of the liver cell columns.. With aggregation of the cytochondria that are surrounded by basophile material, other cytochondria in the same cells are devoid of this material and wholly acidophile.. With chromatolysis (disappearance of basophile substance) caused by dimethylaminoazobeiizene (butter ...
Will, J.; Hou, Y.; Scheiner, S.; Pinkert, U.; Hermes, I. M.; Weber, S. A. L.; Hirsch, A.; Halik, M.; Brabec, C.; Unruh, T.: Evidence of Tailoring the Interfacial Chemical Composition in Normal Structure Hybrid Organohalide Perovskites by a Self-Assembled Monolayer. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 10 (6), pp. 5511 - 5518 (2018 ...
Abstract: The growth and atomic structure of thin Co films electrodeposited onto Au(111) have been studied using in situ surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). SXRD is used to monitor the growth in real-time and, following Co deposition, the strain of the Co film is characterized as a function of the Co thickness. In-plane SXRD measurements show that Co deposition leads to the formation of a reconstructed Au layer at the Au-Co interface which is composed of an unfaulted, single Au monolayer uniformly compressed with respect to the underlying bulk Au lattice. The surface normal structure of the Au-Co interface and Co films are examined by measurement of the extended X-ray reflectivity (or specular crystal truncation rod (CTR)) for a nominally two monolayer thick (2 ML) Co deposit. In situ STM has also been used to obtain the morphology of the Co films and the Au(111) reconstruction pattern both before and after Co dissolution. The STM data give complementary ...
In the event of subtotal resection or widespread leptomeningeal disease, craniospinal irradiation is often used. Choroid plexus ...
... it has been suggested that prophylactic craniospinal irradiation should be considered. Since the cancer most often presents at ...
Prophylactic craniospinal irradiation is of variable use and is a source of controversy given that most recurrence occurs at ...
Cancers requiring craniospinal irradiation, for example, benefit from the absence of exit dose with proton therapy: dose to the ... Re-irradiation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with locally recurrent head and neck cancer. In ... "Phase II Protocol of Proton Therapy for Partial Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Breast Cancer". ClinicalTrials.gov. August ... Thanos Papakostas (2017). "Long-term Outcomes After Proton Beam Irradiation in Patients With Large Choroidal Melanomas". JAMA ...
... if adjuvant chemotherapy and/or craniospinal irradiation is performed, and just 10% if no adjuvant chemotherapy or craniospinal ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is technically adjuvant, and most experts agree that ... and adjuvant intrathecal methotrexate and hydrocortisone may be just as effective as cranial irradiation, without severe late ... cranial irradiation decreases risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse in ALL and possibly acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ...
cranio-spinal irradiation. *cytarabine + methotrexate. *or liposomal cytarabine. In Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL, the ... total body irradiation). In the past, physicians commonly utilized radiation in the form of whole-brain radiation for central ...
1996). "Chemotherapy without irradiation--a novel approach for newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors: results of an ... The best results have been reported[citation needed] from craniospinal radiation with local tumor boost of greater than 4,000 ...
Prior cranial irradiation is the only risk factor that definitely predisposes to brain tumor formation. Some of the risk ... Concurrent cyclophosphamide and craniospinal radiotherapy for pediatric high-risk embryonal brain tumors. 10(J), Retrieved from ...
Some evidence indicates that proton beam irradiation reduces the impact of radiation on the cochlear and cardiovascular areas ... July 2012). "Outcome of children with metastatic medulloblastoma treated with carboplatin during craniospinal radiotherapy: a ... in which an attempt is made to confirm the promising results with carboplatin during irradiation in the standard risk group. ... and reduces the cognitive late effects of cranial irradiation. This combination may permit a 5-year survival in more than 80% ...
Craniospinal irradiation (CSI), combined with chemotherapy and surgery, is currently the mainstay of treatment but places ... Craniospinal irradiation (CSI), combined with chemotherapy and surgery, is currently the mainstay of treatment but places ... matter volume differences in children treated for medulloblastoma with conventional or reduced dose craniospinal irradiation ...
The current standard for this patient population includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to 23.4 Gy with a boost to the entire ... A Multi-Institution Prospective Trial of Reduced-Dose Craniospinal Irradiation (23.4 Gy) Followed by Conformal Posterior Fossa ... A Multi-Institution Prospective Trial of Reduced-Dose Craniospinal Irradiation (23.4 Gy) Followed by Conformal Posterior Fossa ... Treatment for pineal germinomas Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer Partial Breast Irradiation Effects of Whole Brain Radiation ...
... particularly in the era of reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ... Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) provides the backbone for the definitive treatment of medulloblastoma (MB). Its planning and ... Radiation therapy quality in CCG/POG intergroup 9961: implications for craniospinal irradiation and the posterior fossa boost ... 2008). Multi-institution prospective trial of reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation (23.4 Gy) followed by conformal posterior ...
"Quality of Life of Adult Survivors of Germinomas Treated with Craniospinal Irradiation, Neurosurgery" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Quality of Life of Adult Survivors of Germinomas Treated with Craniospinal Irradiation. Sutton, Leslie N.; Sutton, Leslie N.; ... Quality of Life of Adult Survivors of Germinomas Treated with Craniospinal Irradiation. Quality of Life of Adult Survivors of ... Quality of Life of Adult Survivors of Germinomas Treated with Craniospinal Irradiation. Quality of Life of Adult Survivors of ...
A review of dosimetric and toxicity modeling of proton versus photon craniospinal irradiation for pediatrics medulloblastoma ... Craniospinal irradiation techniques: a dosimetric comparison of proton beams with standard and advanced photon radiotherapy. ... Reducing toxicity from craniospinal irradiation: using proton beams to treat medulloblastoma in young children. Cancer Journal ... Craniospinal irradiation prior to stem cell transplant for hematologic malignancies with CNS involvement: Effectiveness and ...
... and no signs of serious organ toxicity due to irradiation were observed during the follow-up period in either of the groups. ... Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) of childhood tumors with the RapidArc technique is a new method of treatment. Our objective was ... Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) of childhood tumors with the RapidArc technique is a new method of treatment. Our objective was ... Full craniospinal axis irradiation (CSI) is performed postoperatively in medulloblastomas/PNETs and for the treatment of some ...
Giving reduced craniospinal radiation therapy and chemotherapy may kill tumor cells and may also reduce the late side effects ... Reduced Craniospinal Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed WNT-Driven ... Reduced Craniospinal Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed WNT-Driven ... This phase II trial studies how well reduced doses of radiation therapy to the brain and spine (craniospinal) and chemotherapy ...
This study presents and evaluates a standardized method of proton treatment planning for craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We ... Newhauser WD: The risk of developing a second cancer after receiving craniospinal proton irradiation. Phys Med Biol 2009,54(8): ... Yoon M: Craniospinal irradiation techniques: a dosimetric comparison of proton beams with standard and advanced photon ... Yuh GE: Reducing toxicity from craniospinal irradiation: using proton beams to treat medulloblastoma in young children. Cancer ...
Craniospinal axis irradiation. (CSI). Standard therapy for patients with medulloblastoma following surgery, to reduce risk of ... Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed ...
... develop a new IMRT technique to simplify the process and improve efficiency in radiotherapy treatment planning for craniospinal ... irradiation (CSI) treatment. Image data of 9 patients who received CSI treatment in 2012 were used, the prescription was 36Gy ... Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) has become an important treatment method for primary tumors. Commonly treated tumors include ... Seppala J, Kulmala J, Lindholm P, Minn H: A method to improve target dose homogeneity of craniospinal irradiation using dynamic ...
Atypical intraosseous meningioma with growth hormone deficiency and hyperparathyroidism after craniospinal irradiation. In: ... Atypical intraosseous meningioma with growth hormone deficiency and hyperparathyroidism after craniospinal irradiation. / Nakae ... Atypical intraosseous meningioma with growth hormone deficiency and hyperparathyroidism after craniospinal irradiation. Childs ... title = "Atypical intraosseous meningioma with growth hormone deficiency and hyperparathyroidism after craniospinal irradiation ...
Craniospinal irradiation. *Dynamic target irradiation. *Radiation safety. Mayo Clinic locations. Phoenix, Arizona. Driving ...
Radiation: craniospinal irradiation. *Drug: Carboplatin, Etoposide, Ifosfamide. *Radiation: ventricular irradiation. *(and 3 ...
Phase II Study of Craniospinal and Posterior Fossa Irradiation Using Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Medulloblastoma and ... Patients receive proton beam craniospinal and posterior fossa radiotherapy once daily 5 days a week for 6-8 weeks*. ... severity of ototoxicity in young patients with medulloblastoma or pineoblastoma treated with adjuvant proton beam craniospinal ...
... craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The late effects associated with CSI are well-documented in the literature and are in-part ... Comparison of parameters to evaluate dose variation with in the target for photon and proton craniospinal irradiation (n = 18) ... Comparison of therapeutic dosimetric data from passively scattered proton and photon craniospinal irradiations for ... Dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis for photon and proton craniospinal irradiation (n = 18) ...
Acute adverse reactions observation of craniospinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy i Acute adverse reactions observation ... Methods A total of 20 patients with medulloblastoma who received craniospinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy between ... Objective To investigate the acute adverse reactions of craniospinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy in medulloblastoma ... Conclusions The hematological adverse reactions were the major acute adverse events during the craniospinal irradiation with ...
... and primary ovarian insufficiency in female survivors of embryonal brain tumors following risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation ... and primary ovarian insufficiency in female survivors of embryonal brain tumors following risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation ... and primary ovarian insufficiency in female survivors of embryonal brain tumors following risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation ... and primary ovarian insufficiency in female survivors of embryonal brain tumors following risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation ...
... craniospinal irradiation for persistent CNS leukemia ... or autologous BMT following chemotherapy and irradiation: May ...
Craniospinal irradiation, cranial treatments, and soft tissue tumors will be addressed. Strategies and concerns that are unique ... 2. Define the strengths of PlanIQ in comprehensive treatment planning for re-irradiation and the advantages dosimetrists look ... increased emphasis has been placed to improve the dose distribution homogeneity and plan quality for whole breast irradiation. ... dose modeling and feasibility analyses have shown to provide much-needed feedback in predicting not only whether re-irradiation ...
When the entire cohort was stratified by cranial or craniospinal irradiation treatment, those who had received it were ... For central nervous system tumors, 45.8 (95% CI 26.0 to 64.2) with irradiation and 4.3 (95% CI 0.1 to 24.0) without. ... the current treatment protocol for ALL at their hospital no longer calls for prophylactic cranial or craniospinal irradiation, ... For other solid tumors, 5.1 (95% CI 3.1 to 8.0) with irradiation and 2.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 9.0) without. ...
... comparing craniospinal irradiation alone with chemotherapy followed by focal primary site irradiation for patients with ... Low-dose craniospinal irradiation as a definitive treatment for intracranial germinoma. Radiother Oncol. 2009 Apr. 91(1):75-9. ... Low-dose craniospinal irradiation and ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide for non-metastatic embryonal tumors in the central ... Therefore, craniospinal irradiation has been the standard adjuvant therapy. Advances in diagnostic imaging, surgical and ...
Cranial Irradiation / methods* * Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use* * Disease Progression * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ... Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed ... All patients received risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy (23.4 Gy for average-risk disease and 36.0-39.6 Gy for high-risk ...
No patients received craniospinal irradiation. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient, parent, or guardian ... A quantitative MRI assessment of leukoencephalopathy in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia without irradiation. ... White-matter diffusion anisotropy after chemo-irradiation: a statistical parametric mapping study and histogram analysis. ... a whole brain voxel-based morphometry study of ALL survivors treated without irradiation was compared with healthy control ...
Atypical intraosseous meningioma with growth hormone deficiency and hyperparathyroidism after craniospinal irradiation. ...
"Analytical Model for Out-Of-Field Dose in Photon Craniospinal Irradiation." Phys Med Biol 58, no. 21 (2013). ... "Comparison of Risk of Radiogenic Second Cancer between Photon and Proton Craniospinal Irradiation for a Pediatric ... "Comparison of Risk of Radiogenic Second Cancer between Photon and Proton Craniospinal Irradiation for a Pediatric ... "Predicted Relative Risk of Follicular Depletion for Three Radiotherapy Modalities in a Girl Receiving Craniospinal Irradiation ...
Stem cell infusions (with or without total body irradiation [TBI]):. *Allogeneic (non-autologous) bone marrow or stem cell ... craniospinal XRT or if radiation to ,= 50% of the pelvis; ,= 42 days if other substantial bone marrow (BM) radiation ... X ray (XRT)/external beam irradiation including protons: ,= 14 days must have elapsed after local XRT; ,= 150 days after TBI, ...
X-ray therapy (XRT)/External Beam Irradiation including Protons: ,= 14 days after local XRT; ,= 150 days after TBI, ... craniospinal XRT or if radiation to ,= 50% of the pelvis; ,= 42 days if other substantial bone marrow (BM) radiation; note: ...
Craniospinal irradiation (CSI; median, 40 Gy) was administered in 4 patients with seeding at diagnosis; all other patients ... Spinal cord Glioma Radiotherapy Meningeal carcinomatosis Craniospinal irradiation High-grade glioma Electronic supplementary ... craniospinal irradiation") erhalten. Die übrigen Patienten waren allein lokal bestrahlt worden (Median 50,4 Gy). ... Arvold ND, Shi DD, Aizer AA et al (2017) Salvage re-irradiation for recurrent high-grade glioma and comparison to bevacizumab ...
Craniospinal irradiation as part of re-irradiation for children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma. ...
No prior craniospinal radiation. - No prior total body irradiation. - More than 4 weeks since prior radiotherapy. Surgery. - ...
  • During routine craniospinal radiotherapy, the full neural axis is irradiated, most commonly at a dose of 35-36 Gy, followed by a boost treatment to the tumor nest at a minimum dose of 54 Gy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To develop a new IMRT technique to simplify the process and improve efficiency in radiotherapy treatment planning for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) treatment. (springer.com)
  • Determine the 3-year incidence and severity of ototoxicity in young patients with medulloblastoma or pineoblastoma treated with adjuvant proton beam craniospinal and posterior fossa radiotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For many decades, the standard of care radiotherapy regimen for medulloblastoma has been photon (megavoltage x-rays) craniospinal irradiation (CSI). (springer.com)
  • All patients received risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy (23.4 Gy for average-risk disease and 36.0-39.6 Gy for high-risk disease) followed by four cycles of cyclophosphamide-based, dose-intensive chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • See the difference with conventional radiotherapy in irradiation of craniospinal axis in children. (iba-worldwide.com)
  • This study evaluates the use of a technique called accelerated partial breast irradiation using proton radiotherapy in patients with triple negative breast cancer. (massgeneral.org)
  • Postoperatively, he received craniospinal irradiation 24Gy and whole-brain radiotherapy 36Gy, that is, tumor bed total 50.4Gy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Radiotherapy in Canada is delivered using photon (x-ray) irradiation, which is slowly attenuated by human tissue. (cmaj.ca)
  • Craniospinal irradiation (CSI), combined with chemotherapy and surgery, is currently the mainstay of treatment but places children who survive at risk for serious neurocognitive sequelae. (nih.gov)
  • The current standard for this patient population includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to 23.4 Gy with a boost to the entire posterior fossa (PF) to a total dose of 54-55.8 Gy followed by dose-intensive chemotherapy. (oncolink.org)
  • Treatment for medulloblastoma thus often includes chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation (CSI) [ 7 - 9 ], including a boost to the posterior fossa or the surgical bed with a margin. (springer.com)
  • All children with GH deficiency received cranial irradiation and chemotherapy. (aappublications.org)
  • We conclude that GH deficiency and primary hypothyroidism are common after cranial irradiation and chemotherapy for nonpituitary-related brain tumors. (aappublications.org)
  • These findings reflect the need for prospective growth monitoring of children with nonpituitary-related brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation and chemotherapy. (aappublications.org)
  • Surgery of the residual tumor is administered after chemotherapy, if resection is possible, followed by craniospinal irradiation (30 Gy with tumor boost 24 Gy). (kinderkrebsinfo.de)
  • Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. (springer.com)
  • The patient subsequently underwent craniospinal irradiation and temozolomide chemotherapy. (upmc.edu)
  • The treatment protocol among these patients was surgery, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. (curetoday.com)
  • Prior or concurrent intrathecal chemotherapy or craniospinal irradiation (increased risk of neurotoxicity). (empr.com)
  • Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) of childhood tumors with the RapidArc technique is a new method of treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Full craniospinal axis irradiation (CSI) is performed postoperatively in medulloblastomas/PNETs and for the treatment of some rarer tumors, for example, atypical rhabdoid tumors or ependymomas that have already been disseminated in the CSF space. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) has become an important treatment method for primary tumors. (springer.com)
  • For central nervous system tumors, 45.8 (95% CI 26.0 to 64.2) with irradiation and 4.3 (95% CI 0.1 to 24.0) without. (medpagetoday.com)
  • For other solid tumors, 5.1 (95% CI 3.1 to 8.0) with irradiation and 2.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 9.0) without. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess growth prospectively from brain tumor diagnosis in children treated with cranial irradiation for nonpituitary-related brain tumors. (aappublications.org)
  • All but one had received cranial or craniospinal irradiation. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When the entire cohort was stratified by cranial or craniospinal irradiation treatment, those who had received it were significantly more likely to have certain tumor types than the general population, based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is the standard radiation therapy treatment for medulloblastoma. (eurekamag.com)
  • Objective To investigate the acute adverse reactions of craniospinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy in medulloblastoma patients and its risk factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods A total of 20 patients with medulloblastoma who received craniospinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy between October 2012 and September 2016 in Air Force General Hospital were selected. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions The hematological adverse reactions were the major acute adverse events during the craniospinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy in patients with medulloblastoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Primary Site Irradiation using Proton Therapy in Young Children with Medulloblastoma American Society for Radiation Oncology 2018 Annual Meeting (accepted), San Antonio, Texas October 2018 Notes: Poster Presentation. (upenn.edu)
  • Irradiation therapy for the brain cancer medulloblastoma is more likely to impair IQ and reading skills of younger children than older children even if the dose of radiation is reduced, according to the results of the largest study of its kind, conducted by investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Texas Children's Cancer Center (Houston) and Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne, Australia). (redorbit.com)
  • Severe impairment was defined as at least two standard deviations below the normative mean and was compared among patients who received no cranial radiation therapy, focal irradiation, or craniospinal irradiation. (ascopost.com)
  • Therefore, craniospinal irradiation has been the standard adjuvant therapy. (medscape.com)
  • We analyzed outcome and toxicity in patients with LM undergoing craniospinal irradiation via helical tomotherapy (HT-CSI) at our institution. (dovepress.com)
  • When the researchers controlled for age at diagnosis and risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation dose, phonemic skills, phonetic decoding, reading comprehension and speed of information processing was still significantly worse in children with severe hearing loss. (curetoday.com)
  • Risk-adapted treatment included surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed within 28 days by initial post-operative craniospinal irradiation therapy (CSI) plus a radiation therapy "boost" to the primary (original) tumor site delivered by 3-D conformal radiation therapy (CRT). (redorbit.com)
  • If patients required craniospinal irradiation (CSI), doses ranged from 18-36 Gray-Equivalents (GyE), with median dose 23.4 GyE. (oncolink.org)
  • Craniospinal irradiation is commonly used in the treatment of these patients, especially in those older than 3 years. (medworm.com)
  • Because proton therapy allows for increased sparing of the anterior structures in craniospinal irradiation, there is a particular interest in using proton therapy to treat these young patients. (medworm.com)
  • Patients undergoing total-body irradiation should receive a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist-either granisetron 2 mg by mouth daily or ondansetron 8 mg by mouth two to three times daily, depending on the patient's needs-with or without dexamethasone 4 mg by mouth daily. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Accelerated Total Lymphoid Irradiation-containing Salvage Regimen for Patients With Refractory and Relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma: 20 Years of Experience. (amedeo.com)
  • The need for decreasing toxicities from cranial irradiation in the pediatric population is of utmost importance. (oncolink.org)
  • Conditioning regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) usually include total body irradiation (TBI), but TBI may result in serious sequelae. (jove.com)
  • Treatment of Pediatric CNS Leukemia With Cranial or Craniospinal Boost in Conjunction With Total Body Irradiation as Part of the Conditioning Regimen for Bone Marrow Transplantation. (amedeo.com)
  • In multivariate analysis, nonindependence vs independence was associated with craniospinal irradiation (odds ratio [OR] = 4.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69--10.44), younger age at diagnosis (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.14--1.35), and hydrocephalus with shunting (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.31-----5.05). (ascopost.com)
  • Age at radiation did not correlate with QOL.CONCLUSION:The QOL of adults treated for marker-negative germinoma with prophylactic whole-neuraxis irradiation is generally good. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2 It has been reported that the use of irradiation sites exceeding 400 cm 2 significantly influences the prophylactic use of antiemetic agents to prevent radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Due to the apparent propensity for the tumor to spread to the central nervous system, it has been suggested that prophylactic craniospinal irradiation should be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, although the existing studies provide valuable insight, there is a definitive need for studies that rigorously compare the risks and benefits of using proton and photon irradiation in clinical settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Are outcomes in this population better with proton irradiation than would be expected after photon irradiation? (oncolink.org)
  • No remarkable differences were confirmed between the two groups regarding the five-year progression-free survival or overall survival, and no signs of serious organ toxicity due to irradiation were observed during the follow-up period in either of the groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the event of subtotal resection or widespread leptomeningeal disease, craniospinal irradiation is often used. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Multi-Institution Prospective Trial of Reduced-Dose Craniospinal Irradiation (23.4 Gy) Followed by Conformal Posterior Fossa (36 Gy) and Primary. (oncolink.org)
  • This study presents and evaluates a standardized method of proton treatment planning for craniospinal irradiation (CSI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simultaneous irradiation of multiple target volumes. (accuray.com)
  • The authors reported secondary malignancy from GCT that occurred after cranial irradiation to emphasize careful monitoring for long-term survival for GCT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared to photons, protons have substantially lower entrance dose and almost no exit dose and thus can significantly reduce the dose to all organs situated outside the craniospinal axis which are irradiated unnecessarily. (springer.com)
  • 9 Spinal irradiation also may contribute to poor growth by decreasing spinal growth, and the younger the child is at treatment, the greater the loss in final height. (aappublications.org)
  • Treatment-Related Noncontiguous Radiologic Changes in Children With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Treated With Expanded Irradiation Fields and Antiangiogenic Therapy. (amedeo.com)
  • In addition, a further focus of the West German Proton Therapy Centre in Essen is the irradiation of tumours in childhood. (leading-medicine-guide.com)
  • Nonindependence was associated with craniospinal irradiation and younger age at diagnosis. (ascopost.com)
  • No different for lymphomas or myeloid malignancies with irradiation than without (3.0 and 150.9 overall, respectively). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Midline sagittal computed tomography images of (A) a 4-year-old child with a malignant brain tumour, treated with photon craniospinal irradiation and (B) a 16-year-old child with a malignant brain tumour, treated with proton craniospinal irradiation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Hippocampal Sparing During Craniospinal Irradiation: What Did We Learn About the Incidence of Perihippocampus Metastases? (amedeo.com)
  • M E T H O D S : The Short-form-36 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Q O L questionnaires w ere completed by 22 of 27 eligible adults treated w ith whole-neuraxis irradiation for biopsy-proven, marker-negative intracra- nial germinomas between 1976 and 1996. (deepdyve.com)
  • The average loss in height from spinal irradiation is 5 to 7 cm, and this is not ameliorated by GH therapy. (aappublications.org)
  • Children receiving craniospinal proton therapy had better preservation of full-scale IQ compared to similar children treated with X-rays," Gross added. (healio.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Luminescence imaging during proton-beam irradiation is promising as an effective method for range estimation in proton therapy. (medworm.com)
  • The second patient was only treated with craniospinal irradiation involving the medulla to the second cervical vertebra and valgangciclovir. (hindawi.com)