A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Congenital craniostenosis with syndactyly.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.
Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.

Midpalatal suture of osteopetrotic (op/op) mice exhibits immature fusion. (1/206)

The midpalatal suture was observed histologically in both toothless osteopetrotic (op/op) and normal (control) mice. The normal mice had a mature sutural structure, which consists of a well-developed cartilage cell zone and palatal bone. In contrast, the thickness of the cartilage cell zone was substantially greater in the op/op mice than that in the controls. Moreover, the cartilage cells in the op/op mice were frequently found in the palatal bone as well as in the sutural space, exhibiting an imperfect fusion. It seems that immature fusion at the sutural interface in the op/op mice is related to a decrease in biting or masticatory force accompanied by the failure of tooth eruption in addition to an essential defect in osteoclast differentiation, which is a congenital symptom in op/op mice.  (+info)

Craniofacial sutures: morphology, growth, and in vivo masticatory strains. (2/206)

The growth and morphology of craniofacial sutures are thought to reflect their functional environment. However, little is known about in vivo sutural mechanics. The present study investigates the strains experienced by the internasal, nasofrontal, and anterior interfrontal sutures during masticatory activity in 4-6-month-old miniature swine (Sus scrofa). Measurements of the bony/fibrous arrangements and growth rates of these sutures were then examined in the context of their mechanical environment. Large tensile strains were measured in the interfrontal suture (1,036 microepsilon +/- 400 SD), whereas the posterior internasal suture was under moderate compression (-440 microepsilon +/- 238) and the nasofrontal suture experienced large compression (-1,583 microepsilon +/- 506). Sutural interdigitation was associated with compressive strain. The collagen fibers of the internasal and interfrontal sutures were clearly arranged to resist compression and tension, respectively, whereas those of the nasofrontal suture could not be readily characterized as either compression or tension resisting. The average linear rate of growth over a 1-week period at the nasofrontal suture (133.8 micrometer, +/- 50.9 S.D) was significantly greater than that of both the internasal and interfrontal sutures (39.2 micrometer +/- 11.4 and 65. 5 micrometer +/- 14.0, respectively). Histological observations suggest that the nasofrontal suture contains chondroid tissue, which may explain the unexpected combination of high compressive loading and rapid growth in this suture.  (+info)

Craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in anomalous calves with clefts of the face. (3/206)

Thirteen anomalous calves with clefts of the face were morphologically examined, and craniofacial skeletons were studied in detail. According to the type and site of the cleft, four groups could be distinguished: median cleft lip and jaw (CLJ); median cleft lip, jaw, and palate (CLJP); lateral CLJ; and cleft palate (CP), including unilateral and bilateral type. Craniofacial skeletal abnormalities were observed in several bones at the roof, wall, and floor of the nasal cavity and at the boundary portion between the nasal and cranial cavities. Fissure formation at the cranial sutures, partial absence of the nasal process of the incisive bone, and opening of the bony palate were characteristic changes in median CLJ and CLJP, lateral CLJ, and CP, respectively. Furthermore, various associated changes were recognized in the median and paramedian skeletal elements of the face and other organs. The morphological changes of craniofacial skeletons with various types of clefts of the face depended on the site and degree of the cleft formation and reflected developmental errors of the facial embryonic segments. These changes would suggest disorders of the correlated development of facial processes and of other fetal organs of the face. For these conditions, etiologically hereditary cases were negative.  (+info)

Expression patterns of Twist and Fgfr1, -2 and -3 in the developing mouse coronal suture suggest a key role for twist in suture initiation and biogenesis. (4/206)

Sutural growth depends on maintenance of a balance between proliferation of osteogenic stem cells and their differentiation to form new bone, so that the stem cell population is maintained until growth of the skull is complete. The identification of heterozygous mutations in FGFR1, -2 and -3 and TWIST as well as microdeletions of TWIST in human craniosynostosis syndromes has highlighted these genes as playing important roles in maintaining the suture as a growth centre. In contrast to Drosophila, a molecular relationship between human (or other vertebrate) TWIST and FGFR genes has not yet been established. TWIST mutations exert their effect via haploinsufficiency whereas FGFR mutations have a gain-of-function mechanism of action. To investigate the biological basis of FGFR signalling pathways in the developing calvarium we compared the expression patterns of Twist with those of Fgfr1, -2 and -3 in the fetal mouse coronal suture over the course of embryonic days 14-18, as the suture is initiated and matures. Our results show that: (1) Twist expression precedes that of Fgfr genes at the time of initiation of the coronal suture; (2) in contrast to Fgfr transcripts, which are localised within and around the developing bone domains, Twist is expressed by the midsutural mesenchyme cells. Twist expression domains show some overlap with those of Fgfr2, which is expressed in the most immature (proliferating) osteogenic tissue.  (+info)

Location of the glenoid fossa after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits. (5/206)

Changes in glenoid fossa position and skull morphology after a period of unilateral masticatory function were studied. The right-side maxillary and mandibular molars in twenty-seven 10-day-old rabbits were ground down under general anaesthesia. The procedure was repeated twice a week, until the rabbits were 50 days old. Fourteen rabbits were then killed and 13 left to grow to age 100 days. Nine 50-day-old and sixteen 100-day-old rabbits with unmodified occlusions served as controls. Three-dimensional measurements were made using a machine-vision technique and a video-imaging camera. The glenoid fossa position become more anterior in both groups of animals subjected to molar grinding as compared with controls (P < 0.01 in the 50-day-old group and P < 0.05 in 100-day-old group). In the 100-day-old group the right-side fossa was also in a more inferior position (P < 0.01). The glenoid fossa was more anteriorly located on the right than on the left side of individual animals in the group in which the right-side molars had been ground down (P < 0.001).  (+info)

Strain in the braincase and its sutures during function. (6/206)

The skull is distinguished from other parts of the skeleton by its composite construction. The sutures between bony elements provide for interstitial growth of the cranium, but at the same time they alter the transmission of stress and strain through the skull. Strain gages were bonded to the frontal and parietal bones of miniature pigs and across the interfrontal, interparietal and coronal sutures. Strains were recorded 1) during natural mastication in conjunction with electromyographic activity from the jaw muscles and 2) during stimulation of various cranial muscles in anesthetized animals. Vault sutures exhibited vastly higher strains than did the adjoining bones. Further, bone strain primarily reflected torsion of the braincase set up by asymmetrical muscle contraction; the tensile axis alternated between +45 degrees and -45 degrees depending on which diagonal masseter/temporalis pair was most active. However, suture strains were not related to overall torsion but instead were responses to local muscle actions. Only the coronal suture showed significant strain (tension) during jaw opening; this was caused by the contraction of neck muscles. All sutures showed strain during jaw closing, but polarity depended on the pattern of muscle usage. For example, masseter contraction tensed the coronal suture and the anterior part of the interfrontal suture, whereas the temporalis caused compression in these locations. Peak tensile strains were larger than peak compressive strains. Histology suggested that the skull is bent at the sutures, with the ectocranial surface tensed and the endocranial surface predominantly compressed. Collectively, these results indicate that skulls with patent sutures should be analyzed as complexes of independent parts rather than solid structures.  (+info)

Trigonocephaly in rabbits with familial interfrontal suture synostosis: the multiple effects of premature single-suture fusion. (7/206)

Previous studies from our laboratory have characterized the craniofacial morphology and growth patterns of an inbred strain of rabbits with autosomal dominant coronal suture synostosis. A number of rabbit perinates from this colony have been collected sporadically over a 5-year period with premature interfrontal suture synostosis. The present study describes the very early onset of craniofacial dysmorphology of these rabbits and compares them to similar-aged normal control rabbits. A total of 40 perinatal New Zealand White rabbits were used in the present study. Twenty-one comprised the sample with interfrontal suture synostosis and ranged in age from 27 to 38 days postconception (term = 31 days) with a mean age of 33.53 days (+/-2.84 days). Nineteen rabbits served as age-matched, normal controls (mean age = 33.05 days +/-2.79 days). Lateral and dorsoventral radiographs were collected from each rabbit. The radiographs were traced, computer digitized, and 12 craniofacial measurements, angles, and indices were obtained. Mean measures were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. All synostosed rabbits were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Grossly, these rabbits exhibited extreme frontal bossing, trigonocephaly with sagittal keeling, and midfacial shortening. No somatic anomalies were noted. Radiographically, rabbits with interfrontal suture synostosis had significantly (P < 0.05) narrower bifrontal widths, shorter cranial vault lengths, kyphotic cranial base angles, and different cranial vault indices (shapes) compared to controls. Results reveal severe and early pathological and compensatory cranial vault changes associated with premature interfrontal suture synostosis in this rabbit model. The 100% mortality rate noted in this condition may be related to the inheritance of a lethal genetic mutation or to neural compression from reduced intracranial volume. Results are discussed in light of current pathogenic hypotheses for human infants with premature metopic suture synostosis.  (+info)

Compressive force promotes chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy in midpalatal suture cartilage in growing rats. (8/206)

Midpalatal suture cartilage (MSC) is secondary cartilage located between the bilateral maxillary bones and has been utilized in the analysis of the biomechanical characteristics of secondary cartilage. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of compressive force on the differentiation of cartilage in midpalatal suture cartilage in rats. Forces of various magnitudes were applied to the midpalatal suture cartilage in 4-week-old male Wistar rats for 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days, mediated through the bilateral 1st molars using orthodontic wires. The differentiation pathways in the MSC cells were examined by immunohistochemistry for the differentiation markers type I, type II and type X collagen, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate and keratan sulfate. Histologically and immunohistochemically, the midpalatal suture cartilage in control rats had the characteristic appearance of secondary cartilage. In the experimental groups, the center of the midpalatal suture cartilage that contained osteo-chondro progenitor cells seemed to become mature cartilage and its immuno-reaction to type II and X collagen and GAGs increased as the experiment progressed. This differentiation was dependent upon the magnitude and duration of the force applied to the midpalatal suture cartilage; i.e., cartilaginous differentiation progressed more rapidly as the applied force increased. The present results suggest that the differentiation of osteo-chondro progenitor cells into mature and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the precartilaginous cell layer is promoted by compressive force.  (+info)

Cranial sutures are the fibrous joints that connect and hold together the bones of the skull (cranium) in humans and other animals. These sutures provide flexibility for the skull during childbirth and growth, allowing the skull to expand as the brain grows in size, especially during infancy and early childhood.

There are several cranial sutures in the human skull, including:

1. The sagittal suture, which runs along the midline of the skull, connecting the two parietal bones.
2. The coronal suture, which connects the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.
3. The lambdoid suture, which connects the occipital bone to the two parietal bones.
4. The squamosal suture, which connects the temporal bone to the parietal bone.
5. The frontosphenoidal and sphenoethmoidal sutures, which connect the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone in the anterior cranial fossa.

These sutures are typically made up of a specialized type of connective tissue called Sharpey's fibers, which interdigitate with each other to form a strong yet flexible joint. Over time, as the skull bones fully fuse together, these sutures become less prominent and eventually ossify (turn into bone). In some cases, abnormalities in cranial suture development or fusion can lead to medical conditions such as craniosynostosis.

Craniosynostosis is a medical condition that affects the skull of a developing fetus or infant. It is characterized by the premature closure of one or more of the fibrous sutures between the bones of the skull (cranial sutures). These sutures typically remain open during infancy to allow for the growth and development of the brain.

When a suture closes too early, it can restrict the growth of the surrounding bones and cause an abnormal shape of the head. The severity of craniosynostosis can vary depending on the number of sutures involved and the extent of the premature closure. In some cases, craniosynostosis can also lead to increased pressure on the brain, which can cause a range of neurological symptoms.

There are several types of craniosynostoses, including:

1. Sagittal synostosis: This is the most common type and involves the premature closure of the sagittal suture, which runs from front to back along the top of the head. This can cause the skull to grow long and narrow, a condition known as scaphocephaly.
2. Coronal synostosis: This type involves the premature closure of one or both of the coronal sutures, which run from the temples to the front of the head. When one suture is affected, it can cause the forehead to bulge and the eye socket on that side to sink in (anterior plagiocephaly). When both sutures are affected, it can cause a flattened appearance of the forehead and a prominent back of the head (brachycephaly).
3. Metopic synostosis: This type involves the premature closure of the metopic suture, which runs from the top of the forehead to the bridge of the nose. It can cause a triangular shape of the forehead and a prominent ridge along the midline of the skull (trigonocephaly).
4. Lambdoid synostosis: This is the least common type and involves the premature closure of the lambdoid suture, which runs along the back of the head. It can cause an asymmetrical appearance of the head and face, as well as possible neurological symptoms.

In some cases, multiple sutures may be affected, leading to more complex craniofacial abnormalities. Treatment for craniosynostosis typically involves surgery to release the fused suture(s) and reshape the skull. The timing of the surgery depends on the type and severity of the condition but is usually performed within the first year of life. Early intervention can help prevent further complications, such as increased intracranial pressure and developmental delays.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

The parietal bone is one of the four flat bones that form the skull's cranial vault, which protects the brain. There are two parietal bones in the skull, one on each side, located posterior to the frontal bone and temporal bone, and anterior to the occipital bone. Each parietal bone has a squamous part, which forms the roof and sides of the skull, and a smaller, wing-like portion called the mastoid process. The parietal bones contribute to the formation of the coronal and lambdoid sutures, which are fibrous joints that connect the bones in the skull.

The frontal bone is the bone that forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets (orbits) in the skull. It is a single, flat bone that has a prominent ridge in the middle called the superior sagittal sinus, which contains venous blood. The frontal bone articulates with several other bones, including the parietal bones at the sides and back, the nasal bones in the center of the face, and the zygomatic (cheek) bones at the lower sides of the orbits.

Acrocephalosyndactyly is a genetic disorder that affects the development of the skull and limbs. The term comes from the Greek words "acros," meaning extremity, "cephale," meaning head, and "syndactylia," meaning webbed or fused fingers or toes.

There are several types of acrocephalosyndactyly, but the most common is Type 1, also known as Apert syndrome. People with Apert syndrome have a characteristic appearance, including a high, prominent forehead (acrocephaly), widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), and underdeveloped upper jaw and midface (maxillary hypoplasia). They also have webbed or fused fingers and toes (syndactyly) and may have other skeletal abnormalities.

Acrocephalosyndactyly is caused by a mutation in the FGFR2 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the development of bones and tissues. The mutation leads to overactive signaling of the FGFR2 protein, which can cause abnormal bone growth and fusion.

Treatment for acrocephalosyndactyly typically involves a team of specialists, including geneticists, orthopedic surgeons, craniofacial surgeons, and other healthcare professionals. Surgery may be necessary to correct skeletal abnormalities, improve function, and enhance appearance. Speech therapy, occupational therapy, and other supportive care may also be recommended.

A Twist Transcription Factor is a family of proteins that regulate gene expression through the process of transcription. The name "Twist" comes from the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) gene, which was first identified due to its role in causing twisted or spiral patterns during embryonic development.

The Twist protein is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences and regulates the expression of target genes. It forms homodimers or heterodimers with other bHLH proteins, which then recognize and bind to E-box motifs in the promoter regions of target genes.

Twist proteins have been shown to play critical roles in various biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and survival. In particular, they have been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as they can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step in tumor invasion and dissemination.

Abnormal expression or mutations of Twist transcription factors have been associated with several human diseases, including various types of cancer, developmental disorders, and neurological conditions.

Synostosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal or physiological fusion of adjacent bones. It's derived from two Greek words, "syn" meaning together and "osteon" meaning bone. In a normal physiological process, synostosis occurs during growth and development, where the growth of certain bones is stopped by the fusion of neighboring bones at specific sites known as sutures or fontanelles.

However, abnormal synostosis can occur due to various reasons such as injuries, infections, or genetic conditions. This can lead to restricted movement and growth disturbances in the affected area. Common examples include craniosynostosis, where the skull bones fuse prematurely, and syndactyly, where fingers or toes are fused together. Treatment for abnormal synostosis may involve surgery to correct the fusion and prevent further complications.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Craniofacial dysostosis is a term used to describe a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the development of the skull and face. These conditions are characterized by cranial and facial abnormalities, including a misshapen head, wide-set eyes, a beaked nose, and underdeveloped jaws.

The most common type of craniofacial dysostosis is Crouzon syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the FGFR2 gene. Other types include Apert syndrome (caused by mutations in the FGFR2 or FGFR3 gene), Pfeiffer syndrome (caused by mutations in the FGFR1 or FGFR2 gene), and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (caused by mutations in the TWIST1 gene).

These conditions can vary in severity, but they often cause complications such as breathing difficulties, vision problems, hearing loss, and developmental delays. Treatment typically involves a team of specialists, including craniofacial surgeons, orthodontists, ophthalmologists, and audiologists, and may include surgery to correct the structural abnormalities and improve function.

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Specifically, FGFR2 is activated by binding to its specific ligands, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), leading to the activation of downstream signaling pathways.

FGFR2 has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing, including FGFR2-IIIb and FGFR2-IIIc. These isoforms differ in their extracellular ligand-binding domains and have distinct expression patterns and functions. FGFR2-IIIb is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and binds to FGFs 1, 3, 7, 10, and 22, while FGFR2-IIIc is mainly expressed in mesenchymal cells and binds to FGFs 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 22.

Mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been associated with various human diseases, including developmental disorders, cancers, and fibrosis. In particular, activating mutations or amplifications of FGFR2 have been identified in several types of cancer, such as breast, lung, gastric, and endometrial cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

An epidural cranial hematoma is a specific type of hematoma, which is defined as an abnormal accumulation of blood in a restricted space, occurring between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull in the cranial region. This condition is often caused by trauma or head injury, which results in the rupture of blood vessels, allowing blood to collect in the epidural space. The accumulation of blood can compress the brain tissue and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

A suture anchor is a medical device used in surgical procedures, particularly in orthopedic and cardiovascular surgeries. It is typically made of biocompatible materials such as metal (titanium or absorbable steel) or polymer (absorbable or non-absorbable). The suture anchor serves to attach a suture to bone securely, providing a stable fixation point for soft tissue reattachment or repair.

Suture anchors come in various shapes and sizes, including screws, hooks, or buttons, designed to fit specific surgical needs. Surgeons insert the anchor into a predrilled hole in the bone, and then pass the suture through the eyelet or loop of the anchor. Once the anchor is securely in place, the surgeon can tie the suture to attach tendons, ligaments, or other soft tissues to the bone.

The use of suture anchors has revolutionized many surgical procedures by providing a more reliable and less invasive method for reattaching soft tissues to bones compared to traditional methods such as drill holes and staples.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are a group of cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and tumor growth. There are four high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFR1-4) in humans, which share a similar structure, consisting of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane region, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain.

These receptors bind to FGFs with different specificities and affinities, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Aberrant FGFR signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and fibrotic conditions. Dysregulation of FGFRs can occur through various mechanisms, including genetic mutations, amplifications, or aberrant expression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation. Therefore, FGFRs are considered promising targets for therapeutic intervention in several diseases.

While the chignon may cross suture lines, cranial sutures (strong tissue that is naturally found connecting the bones of the ... "Cranial sutures and fontanels". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2023-08-01. Ali UA, Norwitz ER (2009). "Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery ... A chignon is firm and can cross suture lines, and it is often circular in appearance due to the shape of the suction cap. The ... However, notifiable signs of a subgaleal hemorrhage include fluctuant scalp swelling, a lesion crossing the suture lines, ...
Cranial sutures are depicted. Frontal suture is highlighted in blue. Human baby skull. Anterior view. Wikimedia Commons has ... Persistent frontal sutures should not be confused with supranasal sutures (a small zig-zag shaped suture located at and/or ... Persistent frontal sutures are of no clinical significance, although they can be mistaken for cranial fractures.As persistent ... Its presence in a fetal skull, along with other cranial sutures and fontanelles, provides a malleability to the skull that can ...
"Cranial Sutures: A Brief Review". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 121 (4): 170e-8e. doi:10.1097/01.prs.0000304441.99483.97 ... The five sutures are the two squamous sutures, one coronal, one lambdoid, and one sagittal suture. The posterior fontanelle ... These cranial measurements are the basis of what is known as craniology. These cranial measurements were also used to draw a ... forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem. The upper areas of the cranial bones ...
Based on data from quantitative real-time PCR on samples of suture junctions during development, cranial suture fusion in ... rendering the sutures of the cranial vault useless. As a consequence, the sutures close, presenting a pansynostosis like image ... An excision of the flattened occipital bone with release of the fused suture tends to correct the cranial vault deformity. The ... Slater BJ, Lenton KA, Kwan MD, Gupta DM, Wan DC, Longaker MT (April 2008). "Cranial sutures: a brief review". Plastic and ...
Same number of cranial sutures. Wormian (intra-sutural) bones also present (though not present in all humans). Cribriform plate ... Cranial ridge beneath the eyebrow. Hairier. Smaller thumb, than a human or an ape, more like a monkey's. Long, narrow palms. ...
Cranial sutures shown from top of head. infant skull. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fontanelle (anatomy). "fontanelle ... It can occur due to: Craniosynostosis - premature fusion of the cranial sutures Encephalitis - swelling (inflammation) of the ... It is at the junction of the coronal suture and sagittal suture. The fetal anterior fontanelle may be palpated until 18 months ... It lies at the junction between the sagittal suture and lambdoid suture. At birth, the skull features a small posterior ...
The eight cranial bones are separated by sutures : one frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, one occipital bone ... The middle cranial fossa, a depression at the base of the cranial cavity forms the thinnest part of the skull and is thus the ... When a diastatic fracture occurs in adults it usually affects the lambdoidal suture as this suture does not fully fuse in ... Diastatic fractures occur when the fracture line transverses one or more sutures of the skull causing a widening of the suture ...
Sagittal suture. Sagittal suture. Top view of cranial suture. A syndesmosis is a slightly mobile fibrous joint in which bones ... suture Petrosquamous suture Sphenoethmoidal suture Sphenopetrosal suture Lambdoid suture Coronal suture Squamosal suture ... the lambdoid suture Sphenofrontal suture Sphenoparietal suture Sphenosquamosal suture Sphenozygomatic suture Squamosal suture ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: 002320 Age at Death Estimation from Cranial Suture Closures Cranial suture closure and its ...
Jasinoski, SC; Reddy, BD (2012). "Mechanics of cranial sutures during simulated cyclic loading". Journal of Biomechanics. 45 ( ...
suture, referring to an articulation between cranial bones. Bones are commonly described with the terms head, neck, shaft, body ... Examples include the cranial (skull) bones, the scapulae (shoulder blades), the sternum (breastbone), and the ribs. Flat bones ...
"In vivo strain in cranial sutures: The zygomatic arch". Journal of Morphology. 207 (3): 225-239. doi:10.1002/jmor.1052070302. ... the two being united by an oblique suture (the zygomaticotemporal suture); the tendon of the temporal muscle passes medial to ( ... base of skull Anatomy portal Zygoma fracture Zygomasseteric system Zygomatic complex fracture Zygomaticotemporal suture This ...
Markey, M. J., Main, R. P., & Marshall, C. R. (2006). In vivo cranial suture function and suture morphology in the extant fish ... Markey, M. J., Main, R. P., & Marshall, C. R. (2006). In vivo cranial suture function and suture morphology in the extant fish ... Cranial sutures are indicators of skull function and morphologies can be linked to specific feeding modes. Transitional feeding ... Herring, S. W., & Mucci, R. J. (1991). In vivo strain in cranial sutures: the zygomatic arch. Journal of morphology, 207(3), ...
Cranial sutures is a good example of this method. The auricular surface displays both types of methods, where the traits are ... These include cranial sutures, degradation of the pubic symphysis, auricular surface, and the sternal rib end of the first and ... The method for cranial sutures was developed by Owen Lovejoy and Richard Meindl in 1985. (Lovejoy and Meindl 1985). This ... Cranial trepanation can also be considered ante-mortem trauma if there is evidence of healing, otherwise it would be considered ...
Wormian bone occurs when extra bones appear between cranial sutures. Fetuses with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome often will not be seen ...
Gorski, A. Z.; Skrzat, J. (2006). "Error estimation of the fractal dimension measurements of cranial sutures". Journal of ...
ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9. Roston, R.A.; Roth, V.L. (2019). "Cetacean Skull Telescoping Brings Evolution of Cranial Sutures into ...
Some examples include sutures of cranial vault, lateral cranial base and maxilla. Growth Centers is an area in the bone that ... Cranial vault increases in size via the primary growth of bone that happens at the suture. Sicher theorized that tissues such ... "Studies in Cranial Suture Biology: Part II. Role of the Dura... : Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery". LWW. Retrieved 2016-07- ... Evidence says that sutures are growth sites that respond intrinsically to signals. This theory was popularized by Scott in ...
Although cranial sutures appear to be wide, this reflects hypomineralization of the skull, and there is often "functional" ... Premature bony fusion of the cranial sutures may elevate intracranial pressure. Adult hypophosphatasia can be associated with ... making it appear that areas of the unossified calvarium have cranial sutures that are widely separated when, in fact, they are ... If the patient survives infancy, these sutures can permanently fuse. Defects in the chest, such as flail chest resulting from ...
... membrane-covered gaps that lie between the skull bones and at the intersection of the cranial sutures. The cranial sutures are ... This is likely because there is premature closure of the skull base cranial sutures (brachycephaly due to craniosynostosis). To ... 3rd and cranial cerebral aqueduct. Ultrasound through the molera was also useful in revealing ventriculomegaly in 5 of 20 ( ... the junctions between cranial (or skull) bones. The fontanelles serve as the major sites of bone expansion during post-natal ...
"The BMP antagonist noggin regulates cranial suture fusion". Nature. 422 (6932): 625-9. Bibcode:2003Natur.422..625W. doi:10.1038 ...
The Physiological Mechanism of the Cranial Sutures". J Soc. Osteopaths (12). ISSN 0308-8766. Harris, H.A. (1928). "Bone ... In the skull the main function of Sharpey's fibres is to bind the cranial bones in a firm but moveable manner; they are most ... Retzlaff, EW; Mitchell FL; Upledger JE (March 1982). "Efficacy of Cranial Sacral Manipulation: ...
It is the point where three cranial sutures meet: the lambdoid suture. parietomastoid suture. occipitomastoid suture. It is ... The asterion is a meeting point between three sutures between bones of the skull. It is an important surgical landmark. In ... Ucerler, Hulya; Govsa, Figen (2006-10-01). "Asterion as a surgical landmark for lateral cranial base approaches". Journal of ... also the point where three cranial bones meet: the parietal bone. the occipital bone. the mastoid portion of the temporal bone ...
He had very serious tooth decay and "advanced fusion of cranial sutures". His skeleton also showed severe biparietal thinning, ...
... cranial suture areas excised during strip craniectomy still became fused and led to an abnormal cranial contour.[citation ... Joints called cranial sutures, made of strong, fibrous tissue, hold these bones together. In the front of the baby's skull, the ... Therefore, if a suture line is prematurely ossified, no growth is present in the direction perpendicular to that suture. ... The metopic suture runs from the baby's nose to the sagittal suture. Premature fusion gives the scalp a triangular appearance. ...
The skull bones in adults are fused and do not show cranial sutures. The orbital cavities that house the eyeballs are large and ...
As the cranial sutures are far from fusioned, this specimen was probably immature. At the time, Rozhdestvensky argued that the ... It is known only by a posterior half of a skull (devoid of its mandible) and some post-cranial bones found in the Bostobe ... Aralosaurus also exhibits several cranial characters which indicate that it was a basal member of the group. Although having a ... which are hadrosaurs devoid of cranial crest or with a solid bony crest. In 2004, the skull of Aralosaurus was re-examined by ...
Cranial suture closure suggests a young adult age at death. The cranium has a suite of male and female characters making it ... It is 178.5 mm long and 145.0 mm in maximum width, with a cranial index of 81. Other authors consider the fossil female due to ... Apart from the vault, the splanchnocranium and other major elements of the cranial base are missing. In the parts where the ... "Internal cranial structures of the Sambungmacan 1 Homo erectus (Java, Indonesia)". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 1 (5): 305-310. 2002 ...
... cranial anomalies, such as persistence of fontanelles and failure of closure of cranial sutures; frontal and occipital bossing ... Within the open sutures of the skull, there may be many small bones (called wormian bones). The midface is less full than usual ... In PYCD, there is also: Wormian bones Delayed closure of sutures and fontanels Obtuse mandibular angle Gracile clavicles that ... sutures) of the skull bones in infancy, so that the "soft spot" (fontanelle) on top of the head remains widely open. Because of ...
The bones of the human skull are joined by cranial sutures (see figure 1). The anterior fontanelle is where the metopic, ... Growth in the skull is perpendicular to the sutures. When a suture fuses too early, the growth perpendicular to that suture ... Normally the sutures gradually fuse within the first few years after birth. In infants where one or more of the sutures fuses ... The metopic suture is situated in the medial line of the forehead. Premature fusion of this suture causes the forehead to ...
The sphenofrontal suture is the cranial suture between the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. The skull from the side. The ... Cranial sutures, Human head and neck, Joints, Joints of the head and neck, Skeletal system, Skull, All stub articles, ...
Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull. ... Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull. ... Feeling the cranial sutures and fontanelles is one way that health care providers follow the childs growth and development. ... Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull. ...
SABINO, Nathalí Di Martino et al. Exploratory study on the effects of closuring cranial sutures on discriminative learning in ... Four surgical intact rats and nine rats that had different surgical procedures for the closing of cranial sutures were used as ... This study analyzed the effects of rats cranial suture closing upon discriminative learning. ... Palavras-chave : Discriminative learning; multiple schedule; cranial suture closure; bar press; rats. ...
Cranial sutures are depicted. Frontal suture is highlighted in blue. Human baby skull. Anterior view. Wikimedia Commons has ... Persistent frontal sutures should not be confused with supranasal sutures (a small zig-zag shaped suture located at and/or ... Persistent frontal sutures are of no clinical significance, although they can be mistaken for cranial fractures.As persistent ... Its presence in a fetal skull, along with other cranial sutures and fontanelles, provides a malleability to the skull that can ...
Craniosynostosis (premature fusion of cranial sutures). *. Fetal infection during pregnancy (eg, rubella, toxoplasmosis, ...
Cranial suture fusion. Cranial suture fusion can be used when other macroscopic methods are not possible. [24, 40] However, ... Fragmentary turtle shell will present with very busy and interdigitated sutures, whereas human cranial fragments have ... cranial vault suture fusion tends to have variable results and should only be used when other methods are not possible. [41] By ... Maxillary suture obliteration: aging the human skeleton based on intact or fragmentary maxilla. J Forensic Sci. 1987 Jan. 32(1 ...
Runx2 regulates cranial suture closure by inducing hedgehog, Fgf, Wnt and Pthlh signaling pathway gene expressions in suture ... was reduced in the sutures, but not the calvarial bone tissues of Runx2+/- mice. Bone formation and suture closure were ... These results indicate that more than a half dosage of Runx2 is required for the proliferation of suture mesenchymal cells, ... However, it currently remains unclear why suture closure is severely impaired in CCD patients. The closure of posterior frontal ...
Synonym: Early Fusion of Cranial Sutures. Synonym: Premature Closure of Cranial Sutures ... Hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis is a cranial malformation characterized by facial dysmorphism (proptosis, frontal ... Hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis is a cranial malformation characterized by facial dysmorphism (proptosis, frontal ... Hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis is a cranial malformation characterized by facial dysmorphism (proptosis, frontal ...
Overriding cranial sutures, prominent occipital shelf, and scalp rugae were confirmatory for fetal brain disruption sequence. ...
RAB23 mutations in Carpenter syndrome imply an unexpected role for hedgehog signaling in cranial-suture development and obesity ...
The joints of the cranial and facial bones are called sutures.. The cranium surrounds and protects the brain and the organs of ... The skull is made up of the cranial bones (cranium) and the facial bones (which include the mandible). ...
Stripping of cranial suture 396220004. *Surgical arrest of post-extraction hemorrhage 173330006 ...
Cranial Suture Regeneration Mitigates Skull and Neurocognitive Defects in CraniosynostosisCell. 2021 01 07; 184(1):243-256. e18 ...
The late fusion of cranial sutures means that the diagnosis is often delayed and typically presents signs of increased ... 3D volume rendered bone window shows fusion of all major cranial sutures (pansynostosis) ... is a rare form of craniosynostosis characterized by the late fusion of all cranial sutures. ...
Purse-string sutures were placed cranial and caudal to the right atrium with 6-0 PVDF sutures. The azygous vein was isolated ... and a 6-0 polyvinylidene fluoride suture purse-string suture placed. The cranial and caudal vena cavae were isolated and ... The cranial and caudal vena cavae were then occluded to initiate total CPB. The aorta was occluded using an arterial clamp, and ... For the venous return line, 14-Fr CPB cannulae were inserted in the cranial and caudal vena cavae, respectively. CPB was ...
... and is made up of the cranial bones held together by sutures, synchondroses, and bony unions (Dorland, 2011). ... The cranial bones are considered flat bones derived from the mesenchyme and develop by intramembranous and endochondral ... The cranial bone is located deep to the scalp and superficial to the meninges and brain parenchyma. ... Due to its elasticity, the pericranium can be easily removed from the calvaria, except at the location of the suture lines ...
... overlapping cranial sutures, prominent occipital bone, redundant scalp skin, and severe neurologic impairment (13,14). Other ...
The metopic suture is an important sight of cranial growth as the brain rapidly expands in the first year of life. Patients ... We compared the cranial base of newborn Pax7-deficient and wildtype mice using a computational shape modeling technology called ... In this grant proposal, we aim to increase our understanding of the cranial dysmorphology in patients with metopic ... Craniosynostosis affects close to one in 2000 newborns and causes growth restriction perpendicular to the affected suture. ...
In clinical practice, both cranial shape and suture fusion are evaluated using CT images, which involve the use of harmful ... and uses it to quantify objectively cranial malformations. We calculated the cranial malformations on 17 craniosynostosis ... The evaluation of cranial malformations plays an essential role both in the early diagnosis and in the decision to perform ... We calculated cranial malformations, HC, and CI for 28 patients with craniosynostosis, and we compared them with those computed ...
Normally, there is high tracer uptake in the skull base, orbits, nasal region, temporomandibular joints, and cranial sutures, ...
... which presents with delayed cranial suture closure phenotypes, hypoplastic clavicles, extra teeth, and short stature, is caused ... Activation of the IGF1 Pathway Mediates Changes in Cellular Contractility and Motility in Single-Suture Craniosynostosis J Cell ...
Lateral retinacular suture repair for cranial cruciate ligament rupture Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in the stifle ... Tibial tuberosity advancement for treating cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament ...
Premature synostosis involves numerous cranial sutures with the sagittal suture commonly involved causing acrocephaly (tower ... RAB23 mutations in Carpenter syndrome imply an unexpected role for hedgehog signaling in cranial-suture development and obesity ... RAB23 mutations in Carpenter syndrome imply an unexpected role for hedgehog signaling in cranial-suture development and obesity ...
Cranial sutures and fontanelles can be reliably demonstrated using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound with rendering. Our ... OBJECTIVE: Cranial sutures and fontanelles can be reliably demonstrated using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound with rendering ... Biometry, Cranial Fontanelles, Female, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Phantoms, ...
The midline forehead suture fusion results in a narrow anterior cranial fossa with a midline keel. Patients have hypotelorism ... The tongue can also be advanced using a suture passed through it. It can be sutured to the lip mucosa or a Kirschner wire can ... Early skull base suture fusion results in interference with forward facial growth; thus, release of the affected sutures should ... In some areas, the suture is closed; in others, the sutures may be wide open. The flow of cerebrospinal fluid seems to be ...
Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,200 ( ... N2 - Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 in ... AB - Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 in ... abstract = "Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 ...
Cranial SuturesSuture - flat, immovable joint that unites. cranial bones• Coronal suture -joins frontal bone with ... parietal bones• Squamous suture - joins temporal bones with. parietal bones (on flat part of skull)• Lamboid suture - joins ... Fibrous - held together by fibrous connective tissue- Sutures of the skull- Immovable joint so also termed synarthrodial ...
  • The sutures and fontanelles are needed for the infant's brain growth and development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without flexible sutures and fontanelles, the child's brain could not grow enough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Feeling the cranial sutures and fontanelles is one way that health care providers follow the child's growth and development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: Cranial sutures and fontanelles can be reliably demonstrated using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound with rendering. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The closure of posterior frontal (PF) and sagittal (SAG) sutures was completely interrupted in Runx2+/- mice , and the proliferation of suture mesenchymal cells and their condensation were less than those in wild-type mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis is a cranial malformation characterized by facial dysmorphism (proptosis, frontal bossing, midface and zygomatic arches hypoplasia, short nose with anteverted nostrils, microstomia with persistent buccopharyngeal membrane, severe hypoglossia with glossoptosis, severe mandibular hypoplasia, and low set ears) associated with laryngeal hypoplasia and craniosynostosis. (nih.gov)
  • Anteriorly, the widened frontal and sagittal sutures can be seen. (medscape.com)
  • The median frontal, or metopic, suture usually closes by 2-6 years. (medscape.com)
  • The mendosal is an obscure suture in the occipital bone running horizontally from the medial portion of the lambdoid suture. (medscape.com)
  • These occur with premature fusion of sagittal, metopic, or coronal sutures, with the coronal sutures being the most common. (medscape.com)
  • Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. (nih.gov)
  • Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The skull is made up of the cranial bones (cranium) and the facial bone s (which include the mandible ). (exploringnature.org)
  • Gentle hands on work with the spine and skull and its cranial sutures, diaphragms, and fascia. (clickbook.net)
  • Craniosynostosis refers to a specific aberration of the growth process in which bone growth at a particular suture site (or sites) is arrested prematurely, resulting in a specific skull shape deformity. (medscape.com)
  • The neurocranium (calvaria in the adult) and viscerocranium (facial bones and portions of cranial base in the adult) combine to form the skull and grow independently through separate mechanisms. (medscape.com)
  • These portions of the skull undergo endochondral ossification and form the greater portion of the cranial base, contributing little to the cranial suture involved in most syndromal and nonsyndromal craniosynostoses. (medscape.com)
  • These bones are held together by strong, fibrous, elastic tissues called sutures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cranial bones remain separate for about 12 to 18 months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During childbirth, the flexibility of the sutures allows the bones to overlap so the baby's head can pass through the birth canal without pressing on and damaging their brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The joints of the cranial and facial bones are called sutures . (exploringnature.org)
  • it encloses the brain, forms the skeleton of the midface, and is made up of the cranial bones held together by sutures, synchondroses, and bony unions (Dorland, 2011). (elsevier.com)
  • The cranial bones are considered flat bones derived from the mesenchyme and develop by intramembranous and endochondral ossification. (elsevier.com)
  • The cranial bones protect the brain within the cranial vault. (elsevier.com)
  • The flexible membranous junctions between neurocranial bones, termed sutures, are formed where growth from two ossification centers meet. (medscape.com)
  • The presence of sutures in the cranial skeleton allows for compression and overriding of cranial bones during birth. (medscape.com)
  • The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Runx2 regulates cranial suture closure by inducing hedgehog, Fgf, Wnt and Pthlh signaling pathway gene expressions in suture mesenchymal cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it currently remains unclear why suture closure is severely impaired in CCD patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Bone formation and suture closure were enhanced in an organ culture of Runx2+/- calvariae with ligands or agonists of hedgehog , Fgf, Wnt and Pthlh signaling, while they were suppressed and suture mesenchymal cell proliferation was decreased in an organ culture of wild-type calvariae with their antagonists. (bvsalud.org)
  • While the molding function of sutures may be questioned, normal growth relies on their patency and appropriately timed closure. (medscape.com)
  • Hence, the dosage of TCF12-TWIST1 heterodimers is critical for normal coronal suture development. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,200 (refs. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The cranial bone is located deep to the scalp and superficial to the meninges and brain parenchyma. (elsevier.com)
  • Progressive postnatal pansynostosis ( PPP ) is a rare form of craniosynostosis characterized by the late fusion of all cranial sutures . (radiopaedia.org)
  • We calculated cranial malformations, HC, and CI for 28 patients with craniosynostosis, and we compared them with those computed from the normative population. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This method has the potential to assist in the longitudinal evaluation of cranial malformations after surgical treatment of craniosynostosis. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • JAG1-NOTCH signaling is required for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes and cranial neural crest (CNC) cells differentiation into osteoblasts, making it a regenerative candidate for clinical therapy to treat craniofacial bone loss and myocardial infarction. (bvsalud.org)
  • RAB23 mutations in Carpenter syndrome imply an unexpected role for hedgehog signaling in cranial-suture development and obesity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The late fusion of cranial sutures means that the diagnosis is often delayed and typically presents signs of increased intracranial pressure with relatively normal, albeit smaller than average, head size 1,2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • 0.05) at the head regions with abnormal development due to suture fusion. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The fusion of the involved sutures can be seen. (medscape.com)
  • Three-dimensional CT scans can be produced but yield no more information than standard scans, although suture fusion can be graphically displayed. (medscape.com)
  • The correction of transverse demonstrating its efficacy, the understanding of the maturation maxillary atresia has long been a topic of discussion in the and fusion processes of the midpalatal suture (MPS) are literature. (bvsalud.org)
  • The membranous neurocranium is derived from mesenchyme that invests the developing brain, a relationship that may help explain the etiology of diseases of premature suture fusion. (medscape.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that JAG1 induces murine cranial neural crest (CNC) cells towards osteoblast commitment via a NOTCH non-canonical pathway involving JAK2-STAT5 (1) and that JAG1 delivery with CNC cells elicits bone regeneration in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Four surgical intact rats and nine rats that had different surgical procedures for the closing of cranial sutures were used as subjects. (bvsalud.org)
  • The CBCT scans were applied to evaluate midpalatal suture maturation status and comprised stages previously classified as B (29), C (92) and D (37). (bvsalud.org)
  • The cartilaginous neurocranium (or chondrocranium) comprises a number of cartilaginous plates that grow, ossify, and fuse to form most of the cranial base. (medscape.com)
  • A chignon is firm and can cross suture lines, and it is often circular in appearance due to the shape of the suction cap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its elasticity, the pericranium can be easily removed from the calvaria, except at the location of the suture lines where it is firmly attached. (elsevier.com)
  • Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in the stifle (knee) joint is a very common problem in dogs. (wm-referrals.com)
  • It begins with growth from 5 primary ossification centers meeting to form 6 main suture sites. (medscape.com)
  • Notre objectif était d'évaluer le coût réel de la prise en charge afin de servir de support aux politiques d'aide aux patientes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dans la présente étude de cohorte rétrospective, nous avons examiné le profil des patients atteints d'un strabisme vertical consultant en établissement de soins dans la ville de Yazd (République islamique d'Iran) et l'issue des interventions chirurgicales. (who.int)
  • L'étude des dossiers médicaux de 265 patients a mis en évidence une déviation verticale simple chez 19,2 % et un strabisme horizontal et vertical chez 80,8 % d'entre eux. (who.int)
  • Le dépistage, le diagnostic et la prise en charge précoces sont requis dans les familles affectées et chez les patients ayant des antécédents familiaux de strabisme. (who.int)
  • Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, monocentrique et descriptive, durant 12 mois, incluant les patients âgés d'au moins 18 ans admis en réanimation polyvalente pour un sepsis ou choc septique. (bvsalud.org)
  • This data provides the first evidence of a functional link between Twist1 and the FGF pathway, and indicates that differential regulation of FGF signaling by T/T and T/E dimers plays a central role in governing cranial suture patency. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to craniosynostosis, which occurs when 1 or more cranial sutures are prematurely fused (stenosed), nonsynostotic DP is not related to bone/skull fusion. (medscape.com)
  • In craniosynostosis, one or more sutures turn into bone too early, closing the gap between skull plates and leading to abnormal growth. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Human stanniocalcin-1 or -2 expressed in mice reduces bone size and severely inhibits cranial intramembranous bone growth. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Cell fate specification during calvarial bone and suture development. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Cranial sutures as intramembranous bone growth sites. (nih.gov)
  • Zika virus infection depend on whether abnormalities con- lapping cranial sutures, prominent occipital bone, redundant sistent with congenital Zika syndrome are present. (cdc.gov)
  • Small bone screws or specifically designed suture anchors can be used as anchors for sutures in the dorsal rim. (vin.com)
  • In the remaining cases, variants have been detected in genes with a role in cranial bone sutures, microcephaly, neural tube defects, and RASopathy. (unica.it)
  • Likewise, we observe abnormal cranial bone initiation that culminates in ectopic sutures and reduced BMD in mosaic atp6v1c1 knockouts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The coronal suture crosses the posterior part of the superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri in front of the precentral sulcus. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • The central sulcus has a more posterior slope than the coronal suture, thus placing the coronal suture nearer the lower end of the central sulcus than the upper end. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • The central sulcus is usually placed 3.5 to 4.5 cm behind the coronal suture. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Without flexible sutures and fontanelles, the child's brain could not grow enough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To see if flexible sutures could be restored in mice with craniosynostosis due to Twist1 mutations, the scientists focused on a group of stem cells normally found in healthy sutures. (nih.gov)
  • Chai and his colleagues reasoned that replenishing the cells might help regenerate the flexible sutures in affected animals. (nih.gov)
  • After controlling for variables contributing to potential bias, FGF7, SFRP4, and VCAM1 emerged as genes associated with single-suture craniosynostosis due to their significantly large changes in gene expression compared to the control population. (nih.gov)
  • The team had also found that Gli1+ cells are depleted from the sutures of mice that develop craniosynostosis due to Twist1 mutations. (nih.gov)
  • Plagiocephalies not due to intrinsic factors such as abnormal fusion of cranial bones (synostoses, etc.) can be corrected by use of helmets to re-direct growth. (medword.net)
  • Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These bones are held together by strong, fibrous, elastic tissues called sutures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Skull imaging and tissue analysis revealed that after six months, new fibrous sutures had formed in treated areas and that the new tissue remained intact even after a year. (nih.gov)
  • The pterion is located at the lateral margin of the sphenoid ridge near the junction of the coronal, squamosal, and frontosphenoid sutures. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • C , The sutures have been removed to expose the gyri and sulci. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • To study this question, we use combined computed tomography (CT) and MRI head data of humans and chimpanzees and quantify the spatial correlations between brain sulci and cranial sutures. (anthropogeny.org)
  • The prodigious ability of the skull to grow and sutures to widen can allow some of the most severe cases of hydrocephalus to result in relatively mild pressure effects, even when the need for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting is clear. (obgynkey.com)
  • Interspecific differences in suture morphology shown here might represent adaptations to different mechanical demands (i.e., soft vs. tough foods) or behaviors (e.g., chisel-tooth digging), which evolved in close association with the diverse environments occupied by caviomorph rodents. (mpg.de)
  • Cranial sutures are an essential part of the growing skull, allowing bones to increase in size during growth, with their morphology widely believed to be dictated by the forces and displacements that they experience. (worktribe.com)
  • Our data supported a model that within the calvaria sutures Twist1 homodimers (T/T) reside in the osteogenic fronts while Twist1/E protein heterodimers (T/E) are in the mid-sutures. (nih.gov)
  • Twist1 haploinsufficiency alters the balance between these dimers, favoring an increase in homodimer formation throughout the sutures. (nih.gov)
  • The data we present here further supports this model and extends it to integrate the Twist1 dimers with the pathways that are known to regulate cranial suture patency. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we show that inhibition of FGF signaling prevents craniosynostosis in Twist1(+/-) mice, demonstrating that inhibition of a signaling pathway that is not part of the initiating mutation can prevent suture fusion in a relevant genetic model of craniosynostosis. (nih.gov)
  • That gene, called TWIST1 , is thought to be important for suture formation during development. (nih.gov)
  • Differential expression of extracellular matrix-mediated pathways in single-suture craniosynostosis. (nih.gov)
  • Healthy infants are born with sutures - flexible tissue that fills the space between the skull bones - that allow the skull to expand as the brain grows rapidly in the first few years of life. (nih.gov)
  • We wanted to know if restoring sutures could improve neurocognitive function in mice with mutations in a gene that causes craniosynostosis in both mice and humans. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies by the group indicated that these stem cells-called Gli1+ cells-are key to keeping skull sutures of young mice intact. (nih.gov)
  • They deposited the mixture into grooves meant to re-create the space where skull sutures had been in mice with craniosynostosis. (nih.gov)
  • Four surgical intact rats and nine rats that had different surgical procedures for the closing of cranial sutures were used as subjects. (bvsalud.org)
  • During childbirth, the flexibility of the sutures allows the bones to overlap so the baby's head can pass through the birth canal without pressing on and damaging their brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Due to their flexibility, sutures are regions that experience greater strains than the surrounding rigid cranial bones. (mpg.de)
  • These treatments can include meditation, mindfulness, acupuncture, energy balance, biodfeedback, and craniosacral therapy (basically, gentle manipulation of the skull and its cranial sutures to enhance the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, and release restrictions in the connective tissue that protects the brain. (brainline.org)
  • The mechanistic pathology of single-suture craniosynostosis is complex and while a number of genetic biomarkers and environmental predispositions have been identified, in many cases the causes remain controversial and inconclusive. (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that timely removal of the cartilage primordia is critical in cranial morphogenesis and suture formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cranial bones remain separate for about 12 to 18 months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • after age 24 months, the cranial sutures are generally fused. (medscape.com)
  • The sutures and fontanelles are needed for the infant's brain growth and development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Feeling the cranial sutures and fontanelles is one way that health care providers follow the child's growth and development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study compared five sutures from the rostrum and cranial vault across seven caviomorph families, and assessed their complexity by means of the relative length and fractal dimension. (mpg.de)
  • This study analyzed the effects of rat's cranial suture closing upon discriminative learning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Current Research and Scholarly Interests We have six main areas of current interest: 1) Cranial Suture Developmental Biology, 2) Distraction Osteogenesis, 3) Fibroblast heterogeneity and fibrosis repair, 4) Scarless Fetal Wound Healing, 5) Skeletal Stem Cells, 6) Novel Gene and Stem Cell Therapeutic Approaches. (stanford.edu)
  • There is movement, pulsation along the sutures on the skull. (brainline.org)
  • beyond age 3 yrs., cranial sutures appear similar to adults. (docslib.org)
  • The Neurosurgical Atlas collection presents the nuances of technique for complex cranial and spinal cord operations. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Simple and multiple linear regression models were developed using the cranial suture obliteration scores to estimate age. (bvsalud.org)
  • These sutures do have the potential to do significant damage to the dorsal portion of the femoral head if the rub on the articular surface. (vin.com)
  • The findings suggest that Gli1+ cell implantation leads to suture regeneration in part by recruiting native Gli1+ stem cells to help in the process. (nih.gov)
  • Research studies conducted more than 100 years ago by Dr. William Sutherland - the father of osteopathy in the cranial field - proved that cranial sutures were, in fact, designed to express small degrees of motion. (brainline.org)
  • There is evidence indicating that a more convoluted suture better enables the absorption of high stresses coming from dynamic masticatory forces, and other functions. (mpg.de)