Paranasal Sinus Diseases
Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial
Sick Sinus Syndrome
Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms
Superior Sagittal Sinus
Multiple dural arteriovenous shunts in a 5-year-old boy. (1/170)We describe a rare case of multiple dural arteriovenous shunts (DAVSs) in a 5-year-old boy. MR imaging performed at 1 year of age showed only a dilated anterior part of the superior sagittal sinus; however, angiography at 5 years of age revealed an infantile-type DAVS there and two other DAVSs of the adult type. The pathophysiological evolution of DAVSs in children and their treatment strategies are discussed. (+info)
Variant arteriovenous fistula of the superior sagittal sinus--case report. (2/170)A 57-year-old male presented with a rare variant of dural arteriovenous fistula, located in the wall of an unobstructed superior sagittal sinus. Drainage occurred through a cortical vein no longer connected to its parent sinus, which filled up a cluster of transmedullary running veins, one of which was the presumed site of hemorrhage. Arterial blood was supplied via the external carotid artery branches. This type of fistula seriously increases the risk of hemorrhage in the patient and therefore requires complete obliteration. Attempts to embolize the fistula failed. The draining vein was isolated and coagulated resulting in permanent occlusion of the fistula. The fistula probably developed through a process of thrombophlebitis and revascularization via arterioles of the vein rather than previous occlusion of the sinus. (+info)
Cavernous sinus and inferior petrosal sinus flow signal on three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography. (3/170)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Venous flow signal in the cavernous sinus and inferior petrosal sinus has been shown on MR angiograms in patients with carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). We, however, identified flow signal in some patients without symptoms and signs of CCF. This review was performed to determine the frequency of such normal venous flow depiction at MR angiography. METHODS: Twenty-five 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiograms obtained on two different imaging units (scanners A and B) were reviewed with attention to presence of venous flow signal in the cavernous sinus or inferior petrosal sinus or both. Twenty-five additional MR angiograms were reviewed in patients who had also had cerebral arteriography to document absence of CCF where venous MR angiographic signal was detected, as well as to gain insight into venous flow patterns that might contribute to MR angiographic venous flow signal. Differences in scanning technique parameters were reviewed. RESULTS: Nine (36%) of the 25 MR angiograms obtained on scanner A but only one (4%) of the 25 obtained on scanner B showed flow signal in the cavernous or inferior petrosal sinus or both in the absence of signs of CCF. On review of 25 patients who had both MR angiography and arteriography, three patients with venous signal at MR angiography failed to exhibit CCF at arteriography. CONCLUSION: Identification of normal cavernous sinus or inferior petrosal sinus venous signal on 3D TOF MR angiograms may occur frequently, and is probably dependent on technical factors that vary among scanners. The exact factors most responsible, however, were not elucidated by this preliminary review. (+info)
Regions of interest in the venous sinuses as input functions for quantitative PET. (4/170)As clinical PET becomes increasingly available, quantitative methods that are feasible in busy clinical settings are becoming necessary. We investigated the use of intracranial blood pools as sources of an input function for quantitative PET. METHODS: We studied 25 patients after the intravenous injection of [18F]6-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine and compared sampled blood time-activity curves with those obtained in small regions of interest (ROIs) defined in the blood pools visible in the PET images. Because of the comparatively large dimensions of the blood pool at the confluence of the superior sagittal, straight and transverse sinuses, a venous ROI input function was chosen for further analysis. We applied simple corrections to the ROI-derived time-activity curves, deriving expressions for partial volume, spillover and partition of tracer between plasma and red blood cells. The results of graphic and compartmental analysis using both sampled [Cs(t)] and ROI [Cr(t)] venous input functions for each patient were compared. We also used an analytic approach to examine possible differences between venous and arterial input functions in the cerebral circulation. RESULTS: Cr(t) peaked significantly earlier and higher than Cs(t) in this patient population, although the total integral under the curves did not differ significantly. We report some apparent differences in the results of modeling using the two input functions; however, neither the graphically determined influx constant, Ki, nor the model parameter that reflects presynaptic dopaminergic metabolism, k3, differed significantly between the two methods. The analytic results suggest that the venous ROI input function may be closer to the arterial supply of radiotracer to the brain than arterialized venous blood, at least in some patient populations. CONCLUSION: We present a simple method of obtaining an input function for PET that is applicable to a wide range of tracers and quantitative methods and is feasible for diagnostic PET imaging. (+info)
Skull metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma--three case reports. (5/170)Three cases of skull metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma were treated. The metastatic lesion was located at the midline of the skull above the superior sagittal sinus in all cases. Surgery was performed in two patients with solitary skull lesions involving short segments of the superior sagittal sinus without remarkable systemic metastasis, resulting in good outcome. The third patient had extensive, multiple tumors involving the superior sagittal sinus which could not be excised, and died due to intracranial hypertension. The surgical indication for skull metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma depends on the location and length of the involved superior sagittal sinus, and general condition. (+info)
Absent vestibulo-ocular reflexes and acute supratentorial lesions. (6/170)Loss of vestibulo-ocular reflexes occurred in two patients with acute supratentorial lesions who received therapeutic doses of anticonvulsant drugs. There was no clinical or angiographic evidence of focal brain-stem damage. Absence of vestibulo-ocular reflexes is attributed to a combination of acute cerebral damage and anticonvulsant drugs. The loss of these reflexes in patients with acute cerebral lesions cannot be interpreted as evidence of irreversible brain-stem injury. (+info)
Scalp vein detected using internal carotid angiography that did not result in venous sinus compromise. (7/170)We present an unusual case of a scalp vein detected by using angiography of the internal carotid artery. The vein arose from the superior sagittal sinus and drained into the deep posterior cervical vein via the parietal emissary vein. This scalp vein may be a collateral pathway for venous sinuses; however, the patient had no evidence of venous sinus occlusive disease or intracranial hypertension. (+info)
Sigmoid sinus thrombosis after mild closed head injury in an infant: diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging in the acute phase--case report. (8/170)Intracranial sinus thrombosis following a mild closed head injury without a skull fracture or intracranial hematoma is extremely rare. A 23-month-old girl presented with vomiting and gait ataxia 1 day after occipital trauma. Computed tomography revealed a slightly increased density area in the region of the left sigmoid sinus. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an isointense area in the left sigmoid sinus and T2-weighted imaging showed a hyperintense area reflecting the characteristics of oxyhemoglobin. MR angiography and cerebral angiography indicated occlusion of the left sigmoid sinus. After 4 days of conservative treatment, her symptoms subsided completely. Follow-up MR angiography and cerebral angiography showed recanalization of the sigmoid sinus. The MR images and MR angiograms were useful for both early diagnosis and follow-up. Treatment should reflect the severity of individual cases, and early diagnosis will help achieve a good outcome. (+info)
The most common paranasal sinus diseases include:
1. Acute Sinusitis: This is an infection of the paranasal sinuses that can be caused by a virus or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, headache, and facial pain or pressure.
2. Chronic Sinusitis: This is a persistent infection of the paranasal sinuses that can last for more than 12 weeks. Symptoms are similar to acute sinusitis, but may be less severe.
3. Rhinosinusitis: This is an inflammation of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses that can be caused by infection or allergies. Symptoms include nasal congestion, facial pain or pressure, and headache.
4. Nasal Polyps: These are growths that occur in the lining of the nasal passages or paranasal sinuses. They can cause blockage of the nasal passages and sinuses, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms.
5. Cerebral Abscess: This is a collection of pus in the brain that can be caused by an infection that spreads from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include fever, headache, and neurological problems such as confusion or seizures.
6. Meningitis: This is an infection of the protective membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It can be caused by bacteria or viruses and can lead to serious complications if left untreated.
7. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bones of the face, which can be caused by spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include facial pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
8. Orbital Cellulitis: This is an infection of the tissues surrounding the eye that can be caused by spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include protrusion of the eye, swelling of the eyelid, and difficulty moving the affected eye.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection of the interior of the eye that can be caused by spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, redness, and vision loss.
10. Cranial Nerve Palsy: This is a condition where one or more of the cranial nerves are affected by an infection, leading to symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelid, or weakness of the facial muscles.
It's important to note that these complications can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it's important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or reduce the risk of these complications.
Here are some possible clinical presentations and diagnostic procedures for intracranial sinus thrombosis:
* Headache (most common symptom)
* Nasal congestion or swelling
* Pain in the face, particularly on one side
* Vision changes or blurriness
* Nausea and vomiting
1. Imaging studies (CT or MRI scans) to confirm the presence of a blood clot within a sinus and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
2. Endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the nasal cavity to visualize the inside of the sinuses and to collect tissue or fluid samples for further examination.
3. Blood tests to check for infection or inflammation.
4. Sinus aspiration, which involves draining fluid from the affected sinus to determine if there is a blood clot present.
Treatment options for intracranial sinus thrombosis depend on the severity of the condition and may include antibiotics, anticoagulation medications, or surgical drainage of the affected sinus. In some cases, the condition may be life-threatening and require emergency treatment.
There are several types of SSS, including:
1. Sinus bradycardia: a slow heart rate due to sinus node dysfunction.
2. Sinus pauses: periods of complete cessation of sinus node activity.
3. Sinus arrhythmias: irregular heart rhythms caused by sinus node dysfunction.
4. Atrioventricular (AV) block: a delay or blockage in the electrical signal passing from the atria to the ventricles due to sinus node dysfunction.
Symptoms of SSS can include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and fainting. In severe cases, SSS can lead to heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or ventricular tachycardia.
Diagnosis of SSS is typically made through a combination of physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), and echocardiography. Treatment options for SSS include medications to regulate the heart rhythm, cardioversion (electrical shock to restore a normal heart rhythm), and in some cases, implantation of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD).
Prognosis for SSS is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated appropriately. However, if left untreated, SSS can lead to serious complications, such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or ventricular tachycardia, which can be life-threatening.
In summary, sick sinus syndrome is a group of heart rhythm disorders that affect the sinus node and can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and fainting. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent serious complications and improve prognosis.
Paranasal sinus neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that occur within the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the skull that drain into the nasal passages. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can affect various structures in the head and neck, including the sinuses, nasal passages, eyes, and brain.
Types of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
There are several types of paranasal sinus neoplasms, including:
1. Nasal cavity squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of paranasal sinus cancer and arises from the lining of the nasal cavity.
2. Maxillary sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma: This type of tumor is slow-growing and usually affects the maxillary sinus.
3. Esthesioneuroepithelioma: This rare type of tumor arises from the lining of the nasal cavity and is more common in women than men.
4. Sphenoid sinus mucocele: This type of tumor is usually benign and occurs in the sphenoid sinus.
5. Osteochondroma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the bone and cartilage of the paranasal sinuses.
Symptoms of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
The symptoms of paranasal sinus neoplasms can vary depending on the size, location, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include:
1. Nasal congestion or blockage
3. Pain or pressure in the face, especially in the cheeks, eyes, or forehead
4. Double vision or other vision problems
5. Numbness or weakness in the face
6. Discharge of fluid from the nose or eyes
7. Swelling of the eyelids or face
8. Coughing up blood
Diagnosis of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
The diagnosis of paranasal sinus neoplasms is based on a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. The following tests may be used to help diagnose a paranasal sinus tumor:
1. Computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): These imaging tests can provide detailed pictures of the paranasal sinuses and any tumors that may be present.
2. Endoscopy: A thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end can be inserted through the nostrils to examine the inside of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
3. Biopsy: A sample of tissue from the suspected tumor site can be removed and examined under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis.
4. Nasal endoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera on the end can be inserted through the nostrils to examine the inside of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Treatment of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
The treatment of paranasal sinus neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. The following are some of the treatment options for paranasal sinus neoplasms:
1. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor is often the first line of treatment for paranasal sinus neoplasms. The type of surgery used depends on the location and extent of the tumor.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used alone or in combination with surgery to treat paranasal sinus neoplasms that are difficult to remove with surgery or have spread to other parts of the skull base.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy to treat paranasal sinus neoplasms that are aggressive and have spread to other parts of the body.
4. Endoscopic surgery: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses an endoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) to remove the tumor through the nostrils or mouth.
5. Skull base surgery: This is a more invasive procedure that involves removing the tumor and any affected bone or tissue in the skull base.
6. Reconstruction: After removal of the tumor, reconstructive surgery may be necessary to restore the natural anatomy of the skull base and nasal cavity.
7. Observation: In some cases, small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular imaging studies to see if they grow or change over time.
It is important to note that the most appropriate treatment plan for a patient with a paranasal sinus neoplasm will depend on the specific characteristics of the tumor and the individual patient's needs and medical history. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific condition.
Note: Sinus tachycardia is different from atrial fibrillation, which is another type of arrhythmia that can also cause a rapid heart rate. In atrial fibrillation, the heart's upper chambers (atria) contract in a disorganized and irregular manner, rather than in a regular and coordinated pattern like in sinus tachycardia.
Benign maxillary sinus tumors may include:
* Papilloma: A benign growth that resembles a finger-like protrusion and is usually slow-growing and non-aggressive.
* Pyogenic granuloma: A type of benign bacterial infection that can cause localized tissue growth and inflammation.
* Osteoid osteoma: A rare, benign tumor that forms in the bone and can cause pain and swelling.
Malignant maxillary sinus tumors are more aggressive and can include:
* Squamous cell carcinoma: A type of skin cancer that can occur in the maxillary sinus and can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
* Adenoid cystic carcinoma: A rare, malignant tumor that can grow slowly over time and can be difficult to treat.
* Esthesioneuroblastoma: A rare, malignant tumor that originates in the nasal cavity and can extend into the maxillary sinus.
The symptoms of maxillary sinus neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, but may include:
* Pain or swelling in the face or neck
* Difficulty breathing through the nose
* Nasal congestion or discharge
* Eye problems such as double vision or protrusion
* Headaches or facial pain
The diagnosis of maxillary sinus neoplasms is typically made using a combination of imaging studies, such as CT scans or MRI, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options can range from observation to surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.
Pilonidal sinuses are caused by an ingrown hair or other debris that becomes trapped in the skin and forms a sac-like structure. This can become infected, leading to pain, swelling, and discharge. In severe cases, pilonidal sinuses can lead to abscesses, which are pockets of pus that must be drained surgically.
Treatment for pilonidal sinuses usually involves draining the fluid from the sac and applying antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, the affected area may need to be surgically opened and cleaned to promote healing. Prevention is key to avoiding pilonidal sinuses, so good hygiene practices such as keeping the area clean and dry can help reduce the risk of developing this condition.
Symptoms of a pilonidal sinus can include:
* Redness and swelling in the affected area
* Pain or tenderness in the tailbone region
* A foul-smelling discharge from the sac
* Fever and chills if the infection is severe
If you suspect you have a pilonidal sinus, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. With proper treatment, most people with this condition can expect a full recovery.
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- Glomus jugulare tumors are rare, slow-growing, hypervascular tumors that arise within the jugular foramen of the temporal bone and frequently involve the lower cranial nerves. (medscape.com)
- [ 2 ] Jugular foramen syndrome, or paresis of cranial nerves IX to XI, is pathognomonic for these tumors. (medscape.com)
- Although these lesions appear to be histologically benign, they clinically present with great morbidity, especially due to invasion of nearby structures such as lower cranial nerves. (medscape.com)
- Surgical resection for type I tumors is relatively simple and complication free, but large tumors affecting the lower cranial nerves and extending beyond the petrous apex carry a significant risk of postoperative complications, especially in older patients. (medscape.com)
- Another cause of acute-onset, constant diplopia is a pathology that affects the cavernous sinus and may involve multiple cranial nerves. (medscape.com)
- The lateral walls of the cavernous sinuses carry the third and fourth cranial nerves and the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the fifth cranial nerve. (ophthalmologytraining.com)
- The internal carotid arteries and sixth cranial nerves pass forward through the sinuses. (ophthalmologytraining.com)
- It is one of the four cranial nerves that has sensory, motor, and parasympathetic functions. (statpearls.com)
- Sphenoidal mucocele have varied presentations because of adjacent nonbony structures, namely first six cranial nerves, the carotid arteries, the cavernous sinuses and the pituitary gland. (dragarwal.com)
- It is the involvement of the cranial nerves that brings the patient to the physician. (dragarwal.com)
- The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord , including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves . (lookformedical.com)
- It sits above the pituitary gland and has the internal carotid arteries passing laterally on either side, the arteries having pierced the roof of the cavernous sinuses (which are positioned below the lateral edges of the chiasma). (ophthalmologytraining.com)
- A coronal representation of the cavernous sinuses which are situated in the middle cranial fossa on each side of the body on the sphenoid bone. (ophthalmologytraining.com)
- Fifty cavernous sinuses obtained from twenty-five cadaver heads were studied in detail using magnification. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- Stepwise dissections of the cavernous sinuses performed to demonstrate the intradural and extradural routes, anatomy of the triangles and osseous relationships in the region. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- Isolated cranial nerve palsies often cause a sudden onset of diplopia that does not resolve. (medscape.com)
- The sixth cranial may splite into rootlets as it passes lateral to the carotid artery. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- Sinusitis can rarely spread beyond the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity into surrounding structures such as the central nervous system, orbit, or surrounding tissue. (cdc.gov)
- The trigeminal cave (TC) is a special channel of dura mater, which extends from the posterior cranial fossa into the posteromedial portion of the middle cranial fossa at the skull base. (intjmorphol.com)
- Diagram highlighting the anatomical relationship of the sphenoid sinuses, pituitary gland and optic chiasm. (ophthalmologytraining.com)
- I'd like to welcome you to today's COCA Call: Johnson and Johnson Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia -- Update for Clinicians on Early Detection and Treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Today I'll be discussing some background on the CVST situation and then move into a description of the reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia following the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- OBJECTIVE Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), thrombosis of the dural sinus, cerebral veins, or both, is a rare cerebrovascular disease. (lww.com)
- A) Noncontrast cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan of a 26-year-old immunocompetent man with influenza, showing diffuse cerebral edema (Ed) and bilateral parieto-occipital hematoma (H). B) Cranial CT scan with. (cdc.gov)
- A cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan showed thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus associated with 3 cerebral hematomas (left frontal and bilateral parieto-occipital) and diffuse cerebral edema with signs of increased intracranial pressure ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
- Do not apply electrodes directly over the eyes or the carotid sinus area (upper side of the neck below the ear and behind the jaw). (elixa.com)
- Its branches consist of tympanic, tonsillar, stylopharyngeal, carotid sinus nerve, branches to the tongue, lingual branches, and a communicating branch to cranial nerve X (vagus nerve). (statpearls.com)
- General visceral afferent fibers (visceral sensory) carry sensory information from the carotid sinus and carotid body. (statpearls.com)
- After the jugular foramen are the superior and inferior ganglia, which house the cell bodies of the sensory fibers, and then the nerve descends the neck, where it provides innervation to the stylopharyngeus and sensation to the carotid sinus and body. (statpearls.com)
- Excessive anterior cranial base length and enlarged frontal and maxillary sinus may be a contributing factor in the development of class IIdiv. (slideshare.net)
- Mount Fuji sign is typical of tension pneumocephalus while herniation of extra-ocular muscles into the maxillary sinus is diagnostic of blowout orbit. (bvsalud.org)
- We report a rare case of pupil sparing 3rd nerve palsy caused by mucocele of the sphenoid sinus. (dragarwal.com)
- A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a homogenous cystic lesion in the left sphenoid sinus with expansion suggestive of a mucocele causing mild displacement and partial encasement of adjacent left Internal carotid artery (ICA). (dragarwal.com)
- the sulcus lodges the superior sagittal sinus, while its margins and the crest afford attachment to the falx cerebri. (theodora.com)
- when open, it transmits a vein from the nose to the superior sagittal sinus. (theodora.com)
- Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus). (bvsalud.org)
- TC had relations with internal carotid artery, the cavernous sinus, the superior petrosal sinus, the apex of petrous temporal bone and the endosteal dura of middle cranial fossa. (intjmorphol.com)
- Trans Cranial Routes means drugs are delivered to the brain through transcranial route, it was stated that the passage of an oil solubilized drug moiety across the skin of the scalp including appendages of the skin such as sebaceous glands, walls of the hair follicles and sweat glands, through the cranial bones along with the diploe, the cranial bone sutures, the meninges and specifically through the emissary veins into the brain. (ijpsr.com)
- Scalp veins communicate with the sinuses of the brain via emissary veins. (ijpsr.com)
- Facial pain or numbness in addition to constant diplopia should increase suspicion of a cavernous sinus pathology. (medscape.com)
- granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) presents similarly to Balamuthia mandrillaris ( B. mandrillaris) GAE with early personality and behavioral changes, depressed mental status, fever, photophobia, seizures, nonspecific cranial nerve dysfunction, and visual loss. (cdc.gov)
- Granulomatous amebic encephalitis can include general symptoms and signs of encephalitis such as early personality and behavioral changes, depressed mental status, fever, photophobia, seizures, nonspecific cranial nerve dysfunction, and visual loss. (cdc.gov)
- In this course Dr. Nick Tancheff, Medical Director at the Earther Academy Hawaiian Retreats, will explain and demonstrate the sinus anatomy and specific treatments to stretch open the the 3 sinus, or air passage cavities, using a pressurized "Balloon Technique" through the nose. (eartheracademy.com)
- Acute bacterial sinusitis is often triggered by obstruction of orifices by viral infection, pollutants, or allergens in the atmosphere, together with fluid accumulation in paranasal sinus cavities. (cdc.gov)
- 3 Instead, rupture of a cavernous carotid aneurysm (CCA) usually causes a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula or, rarely, epistaxis. (bmj.com)
- The aim of this article is to describe the microsurgical anatomy of the cavernous sinus, the triangles, and the osseous relationships in the region with special attention to the relationships important in surgical approaches on the intracavernous structures. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- Aprecise understanding of the bony relationships, the anatomy of the triangels and neurovascular content of the cavernous sinus, together with the use of cranial base and microsurgical techniques are necessary for safer surgery. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- A head computed tomography (CT) scan uses many x-rays to create pictures of the head, including the skull, brain, eye sockets, and sinuses. (medlineplus.gov)
- Method of Action: Cranial electrostimulation uses microcurrent pulsed high frequency carrier waves (15,000 Hz) which utilizes the bulk capacitance of the body and a modulating bioactive frequency at low current levels to reestablish optimal neurotransmitter levels and functioning in the brain. (elixa.com)
- The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. (lookformedical.com)
- The following lesions of traumatic brain injuries were pictorially depicted, namely Tension pneumocephalus, Blow out orbit, Bilateral subacute subdural haematomata, Acute-onchronic subdural haematoma, Middle cranial fossa acute epidural haematoma, Traumatic basal ganglial haematoma and Acute intra-ventricular haematoma. (bvsalud.org)
- Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve , which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. (lookformedical.com)
- Presentations of CVT can be roughly divided into four syndromes: (1) isolated headache or increased intracranial pressure, (2) focal neurologic presentations, (3) subacute encephalopathy, and (4) cavernous sinus syndrome with multiple cranial neuropathies. (lww.com)
- Unlike like other deformities, where the whole cranial structure is affected, with arhinia only the nose and the sinuses are affected. (culturehook.com)
- Between July 1992 and October 1998, 92 patients harboring benign cavernous sinus meningiomas underwent GKS. (thejns.org)
- Mucocele is defined as the accumulation and retention of mucoid secretion within a paranasal sinus, leading to thinning and distension and erosion of one or several of its bony walls. (dragarwal.com)
- Secondary mucoceles arise either from the obstruction of the sinus ostium or because of cystic degeneration of the polyps. (dragarwal.com)
- While the pain is centered around the eye, it can radiate, thus causing confusion with secondary conditions such as dental disease, cranial neuralgias, or sinus disease. (medmastery.com)
- My history of multiple sinus surgeries* provided the surgical team with an unusual challenge and the operation now planned, had the potential to become a valuable training resource. (wordpress.com)
- Middle cranial fossa. (intjmorphol.com)
- Closed NTDs are confined to the spine and include groups, parity, geographical areas and different seasons contribute to encephalocele, SB occulta and cranial dermal sinus. (who.int)
- Skin lesions and sinus disease may also be seen. (cdc.gov)
- To determine the long term visual and neurological outcome of patients diagnosed with cavernous sinus aneurysms (CCAs). (bmj.com)
- Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (lookformedical.com)
- Proptosis and dilated episcleral and conjunctival blood vessels are additional indicators of cavernous sinus abnormalities. (medscape.com)
- 28 prominent ridges are, however, occasionally associated with small air sinuses. (theodora.com)