Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Traumatic injuries to the TROCHLEAR NERVE.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
A paraganglioma involving the glomus jugulare, a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the bulb of the jugular vein. It may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. It is not resectable but radiation therapy is effective. It regresses slowly, but permanent control is regularly achieved. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1603-4)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
Traumatic injuries to the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Radiography of the central nervous system.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
Traumatic injuries to the VAGUS NERVE. Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)

Differential distribution of retinoic acid synthesis in the chicken embryo as determined by immunolocalization of the retinoic acid synthetic enzyme, RALDH-2. (1/248)

Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6-29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and discrete patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the embryo, particularly within the somitic mesoderm, lateral mesoderm, kidney, heart, and spinal motor neurons. Prior to somitogenesis, RALDH-2-IR is present in the paraxial mesoderm with a rostral boundary at the level of the presumptive first somite; as the somites form, they exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR. Cervical presomitic mesoderm exhibits RALDH-2-IR but thoracic presomitic mesoderm does not. Neural crest cells do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2, but migrating crest cells are associated with RALDH-2 expressing mesoderm. The developing limb mesoderm expresses little RALDH-2-IR; however, RALDH-2-IR is strongly expressed in tissues adjacent to the limb. The most lateral, earliest-projecting motor neurons at all levels of the spinal cord exhibit RALDH-2-IR. Subsequently, many additional motor neurons in the brachial and lumbar cord regions express RALDH-2-IR. Motor neuronal expression of RALDH-2-IR is present in the growing axons as they extend to the periphery, indicating a potential role of retinoic acid in nerve influences on peripheral differentiation. With the exception of a transient expression in the facial/vestibulocochlear nucleus, cranial motor neurons do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2-IR.  (+info)

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with multiple hypertrophic nerves in intracranial, and intra- and extra-spinal segments. (2/248)

Hypertrophic nerves have occasionally been seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), but most are in the cauda equina. We report a case with CIDP in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement demonstrated hypertrophy of various peripheral nerves including multiple cranial nerves. Interestingly, none showed neurological signs corresponding to the lesions, except for clinical signs consistent with CIDP. MRI can be useful for the detection of silent, but abnormal nerve involvement in CIDP.  (+info)

Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse. (3/248)

Mouse fetuses carrying targeted inactivations of both the RAR(&agr;) and the RARbeta genes display a variety of malformations in structures known to be partially derived from the mesenchymal neural crest originating from post-otic rhombomeres (e.g. thymus and great cephalic arteries) (Ghyselinck, N., Dupe, V., Dierich, A., Messaddeq, N., Garnier, J.M., Rochette-Egly, C., Chambon, P. and Mark M. (1997). Int. J. Dev. Biol. 41, 425-447). In a search for neural crest defects, we have analysed the rhombomeres, cranial nerves and pharyngeal arches of these double null mutants at early embryonic stages. The mutant post-otic cranial nerves are disorganized, indicating that RARs are involved in the patterning of structures derived from neurogenic neural crest, even though the lack of RARalpha and RARbeta has no detectable effect on the number and migration path of neural crest cells. Interestingly, the double null mutation impairs early developmental processes known to be independent of the neural crest e.g., the initial formation of the 3rd and 4th branchial pouches and of the 3rd, 4th and 6th arch arteries. The double mutation also results in an enlargement of rhombomere 5, which is likely to be responsible for the induction of supernumerary otic vesicles, in a disappearance of the rhombomere 5/6 boundary, and in profound alterations of rhombomere identities. In the mutant hindbrain, the expression domain of kreisler is twice its normal size and the caudal stripe of Krox-20 extends into the presumptive rhombomeres 6 and 7 region. In this region, Hoxb-1 is ectopically expressed, Hoxb-3 is ectopically up-regulated and Hoxd-4 expression is abolished. These data, which indicate that retinoic acid signaling through RARalpha and/or RARbeta is essential for the specification of rhombomere identities and for the control of caudal hindbrain segmentation by restricting the expression domains of kreisler and of Krox-20, also strongly suggest that this signaling plays a crucial role in the posteriorization of the hindbrain neurectoderm.  (+info)

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor is a neurotrophic survival factor for lumbar but not for other somatic motoneurons in the chick embryo. (4/248)

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is expressed in the developing limb muscles of the chick embryo during the period of spinal motoneuron (MN) programmed cell death, and its receptor c-met is expressed in lumbar MNs during this same period. Although cultured motoneurons from brachial, thoracic, and lumbar segments are all rescued from cell death by chick embryo muscle extract (CMX) as well as by other specific trophic agents, HGF/SF only promotes the survival of lumbar MNs. Similarly, treatment of embryos in ovo with exogenous HGF/SF rescues lumbar but not other somatic MNs from cell death. Blocking antibodies to HGF/SF (anti-HGF) reduce the effects of CMX on MN survival in vitro and decrease the number of lumbar MNs in vivo. The expression of c-met on MNs in vivo is regulated by a limb-derived trophic signal distinct from HGF/SF. HGF/SF is a potent, select, and physiologically relevant survival factor for a subpopulation of developing spinal MNs in the lumbar segments of the chick embryo.  (+info)

Neuropilin-2 regulates the development of selective cranial and sensory nerves and hippocampal mossy fiber projections. (5/248)

Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 bind differentially to different class 3 semaphorins and are thought to provide the ligand-binding moieties in receptor complexes mediating repulsive responses to these semaphorins. Here, we have studied the function of neuropilin-2 through analysis of a neuropilin-2 mutant mouse, which is viable and fertile. Repulsive responses of sympathetic and hippocampal neurons to Sema3F but not to Sema3A are abolished in the mutant. Marked defects are observed in the development of several cranial nerves, in the initial central projections of spinal sensory axons, and in the anterior commissure, habenulo-interpeduncular tract, and the projections of hippocampal mossyfiber axons in the infrapyramidal bundle. Our results show that neuropilin-2 is an essential component of the Sema3F receptor and identify key roles for neuropilin-2 in axon guidance in the PNS and CNS.  (+info)

Vitamin A deficiency results in the dose-dependent acquisition of anterior character and shortening of the caudal hindbrain of the rat embryo. (6/248)

The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to vitamin A deficiency. Retinoid has been proposed to be a posteriorizing factor during hindbrain development, although direct evidence in the mammalian embryo is lacking. In the present study, pregnant vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats were fed purified diets containing varying levels of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA; 0, 0.5, 1.5, 6, 12, 25, 50, 125, or 250 microg/g diet) or were supplemented with retinol. Hindbrain development was studied from embryonic day 10 to 12.5 ( approximately 6 to 40 somites). Normal morphogenesis was observed in all embryos from groups fed 250 microg atRA/g diet or retinol. The most caudal region of the hindbrain was the most sensitive to retinoid insufficiency, as evidenced by a loss of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) in embryos from the 125 microg atRA/g diet group. Further reduction of atRA to 50 microg/g diet led to the loss of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII and associated sensory ganglia IX and X in all embryos as well as the loss of hindbrain segmentation caudal to the rhombomere (r) 3/4 border in a subset of embryos. Dysmorphic orthotopic otic vesicles or immature otic-like vesicles in both orthotopic and caudally ectopic locations were also observed. As the level of atRA was reduced, a loss of caudal hindbrain segmentation was observed in all embryos and the incidence of otic vesicle abnormalities increased. Perturbations in hindbrain segmentation, cranial nerve formation, and otic vesicle development were associated with abnormal patterning of the posterior hindbrain. Embryos from VAD dams fed between 0.5 and 50 microg atRA/g diet exhibited Hoxb-1 protein expression along the entire neural tube caudal to the r3/r4 border at a time when it should be restricted to r4. Krox-20 protein expression was expanded in r3 but absent or reduced in presumptive r5. Hoxd-4 mRNA expression was absent in the posterior hindbrain, and the rostral limit of Hoxb-5 protein expression in the neural tube was anteriorized, suggesting that the most posterior hindbrain region (r7/r8) had been deleted and/or improperly patterned. Thus, when limiting amounts of atRA are provided to VAD dams, the caudal portion of the hindbrain is shortened and possesses r4/r5-like characteristics, with this region finally exhibiting r4-like gene expression when retinoid is restricted even more severely. Thus, regions of the anterior hindbrain (i.e., r3 and r4) appear to be greatly expanded, whereas the posterior hindbrain (r5-r8) is reduced or absent. This work shows that retinoid plays a critical role in patterning, segmentation, and neurogenesis of the caudal hindbrain and serves as an essential posteriorizing signal for this region of the central nervous system in the mammal.  (+info)

Development of the cavernous sinus in the fetal period: a morphological study. (7/248)

The development and morphological structure of the lateral sellar compartment (LSC), an interdural space containing the cavernous sinus (CS), cranial nerves, and internal carotid artery (ICA), was investigated by histological examination of sections of the LSC and cerebral venograms from human fetal specimens. Twenty-eight LSC coronal sections were obtained from 14 fetuses of 13-32 weeks' gestation. Venograms of 11 other fetuses of 13-32 weeks' gestation were studied to observe changes in venous drainage. The CS appeared as a collection of small venous canals with an endothelial layer. These venous canals gradually became much larger through expansion and unification. The CS and basilar venous plexus were demonstrated as a faint cluster of small vessels on venograms obtained after 13 weeks' gestation. The dura mater increased in thickness and collagen fiber networks developed around all the components in the LSC after 23 weeks' gestation. The LSC lateral wall could not be histologically differentiated as separate multiple layers. Branching and joining of the cranial nerve fascicles were completed with the envelopment of collagen fibers after 23 weeks' gestation. The ICA at 13-15 weeks' gestation ran straight within the LSC, becoming tortuous before birth. CS formation occurs through the development of venous canals without smooth muscle layers, followed by web-formation by collagen fibers in the mesenchymal interstices. LSC formation, including the dense dura mater and an internal structure like that seen in the adult, is largely completed before birth.  (+info)

Facial palsy in cerebral venous thrombosis : transcranial stimulation and pathophysiological considerations. (8/248)

BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsy in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CVT) is rare, its pathophysiology remains unclear, and data from electrophysiological examinations in such patients are missing. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 17-year-old woman with familial protein S deficiency who was admitted with extensive multiple CVT. Two weeks after onset of symptoms, she developed isolated right peripheral facial palsy, and MR venography showed segmental occlusion of the ipsilateral transverse sinus. Complete recovery of facial palsy occurred concomitant with recanalization of the transverse sinus. Facial neurography, including transcranial magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve and related motor cortex, ruled out a coincidental idiopathic palsy and revealed conduction block proximal to the facial canal. CONCLUSIONS: Facial palsy in our patient was caused by transient neurapraxia in the intracranial segment of the nerve. We suggest that elevated venous transmural pressure in the nerve's satellite vein, which belongs to the affected drainage territory of the transverse sinus, might have caused venous blood-brain barrier dysfunction in the intrinsic vascular system of the nerve, with leakage of fluids and ions into the endoneurial space and thus an increase in interstitial resistance.  (+info)

Definition of Cranial nerve nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cranial nerve nucleus? Meaning of Cranial nerve nucleus as a legal term. What does Cranial nerve nucleus mean in law?
CranIal Nerve V lesion The differential diagnosis of cranial nerve V lesions / causes of cranial nerve lesion are : -neoplastic infiltration of the base of the skull -cerebellopontine angle tumor -acoustic neuroma
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Diagram of the sixth cranial nerve nuclei on a brainstem. Named for its function - innervating the lateral rectus muscle, whose action is to abduct the globe
There are twelve pair of cranial nerves and they are referred to by either Roman numeral or named for function. Below are links for each to describe signs and symptoms of lesions and illustrated manual tests. Cranial nerve I - the Olfactory nerve. Cranial nerve II - the Optic nerve. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI - the Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens nerves. Cranial nerve V - the Trigeminal nerve. Cranial nerve VII - the Facial nerve. Cranial nerve VIII - the Acoustic nerve. Cranial nerve IX - the Glossopharyngeal nerve. Cranial nerve X - the Vagus nerve. Cranial nerve XI - the Spinal Access nerve. Cranial nerve XII - the Hypoglossal nerve. ...
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Ok then. Lets get back to our slide and make sure that you are comfortable and familiar with what we see here in this slide and that you know what the 12 cranial nerves are and the 10 that connect to the brain stem in particular for this lesson. Now notice that in this figure theres a color code and the color code is meant. To help you understand which nerves are purely sensory. Which are purely motor. And then, which nerves. Like, most of our spinal nerves have a mixture of sensory and motor axons within them. Well, that may seem, perhaps, surprising that there would be nerves that are mixed for sensation, and. Motor output but that is the case for our spinal nerves and it is the case, as you can see by the abundance of green nerves here, for several of the cranial nerves. So that suggests that there must be some complex relationship between the brain stem and the nerves. And often that is the case. So what I want to help you with next is to understand, how do these nerves connect up with the ...
Ok then. Lets get back to our slide and make sure that you are comfortable and familiar with what we see here in this slide and that you know what the 12 cranial nerves are and the 10 that connect to the brain stem in particular for this lesson. Now notice that in this figure theres a color code and the color code is meant. To help you understand which nerves are purely sensory. Which are purely motor. And then, which nerves. Like, most of our spinal nerves have a mixture of sensory and motor axons within them. Well, that may seem, perhaps, surprising that there would be nerves that are mixed for sensation, and. Motor output but that is the case for our spinal nerves and it is the case, as you can see by the abundance of green nerves here, for several of the cranial nerves. So that suggests that there must be some complex relationship between the brain stem and the nerves. And often that is the case. So what I want to help you with next is to understand, how do these nerves connect up with the ...
Although the cranial nerves and their sensory and. of the brainstem showing the cranial nerves.Which cranial nerve carries sensory fibers from taste receptors of.This is an article introducing the 12 cranial nerves. this nerve governs the ocular and sensory functions.. The Cranial Nerves (Organization of the Central Nervous. motor neuron lesion of this cranial nerve (described in the following.The patient complains of decreased sense of taste (3 cranial nerves).Nerve - Cranial Nerve 9,10 The functions of the. 2004 - 08 Cranial Nerves.The olfactory nerve is a special sensory cranial nerve that ...
The present study examined the role of branchial and orobranchial O2 chemoreceptors in the cardiorespiratory responses, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), and the development of inferior lip swelling in tambaqui during prolonged (6 h) exposure to hypoxia. Intact fish (control) and three groups of denervated fish (bilateral denervation of cranial nerves IX+X (to the gills), of cranial nerves V+VII (to the orobranchial cavity) or of cranial nerves V alone), were exposed to severe hypoxia (PwO2=10 mmHg) for 360 min. Respiratory frequency (fr) and heart rate (fh) were recorded simultaneously with ASR. Intact (control) fish increased fr, ventilation amplitude (VAMP) and developed hypoxic bradycardia in the first 60 min of hypoxia. The bradycardia, however, abated progressively and had returned to normoxic levels by the last hour of exposure to hypoxia. The changes in respiratory frequency and the hypoxic bradycardia were eliminated by denervation of cranial nerves IX and X but were not affected by ...
PURPOSE: We report our experience with the use of maternally derived serum eye drops as adjunctive treatment in the management of pediatric persistent corneal epithelial defects. METHODS: Five eyes of 4 patients were identified in a retrospective review of pediatric patients with persistent corneal epithelial defects who received maternal serum drops. Diagnoses associated with the defects comprised pontine tegmental cap dysplasia with bilateral cranial nerve V1, V2, V3, and VII palsies; pontine tegmental cap dysplasia with left cranial nerve V1, VII, and VIII palsies; traumatic left cranial nerve II, V1, V2, and VI palsies due to a basilar skull fracture; and Stevens-Johnson syndrome with ocular involvement ...
Headaches can arise from many different causes. A partial list includes stress, lack of sleep, allergies, neck trauma (particularly sports injuries and car accidents), and more. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. A unique common denominator of headaches has to do with cervical spine anatomy, in particular the upper part of the neck. There are seven cervical vertebrae, and the top three (C1-3) give rise to three nerves that travel into the head. These nerves also share a pain nucleus with the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which can route pain signals to the brain. Depending on which nerve is most irritated, the location of the headache can vary. For example, C2-the greater occipital nerve-travels up the back of the head to the top. From there, it can communicate with another nerve (cranial nerve V or the trigeminal nerve), which can refer pain to the forehead and/or behind the eye. When C1-the lesser occipital nerve-is irritated, pain travels to the back of the head, while irritation ...
Headaches can arise from many different causes. A partial list includes stress, lack of sleep, allergies, neck trauma (particularly sports injuries and car accidents), and more. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.. A unique common denominator of headaches has to do with cervical spine anatomy, in particular the upper part of the neck. There are seven cervical vertebrae, and the top three (C1-3) give rise to three nerves that travel into the head. These nerves also share a pain nucleus with the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which can route pain signals to the brain.. Depending on which nerve is most irritated, the location of the headache can vary. For example, C2-the greater occipital nerve-travels up the back of the head to the top. From there, it can communicate with another nerve (cranial nerve V or the trigeminal nerve), which can refer pain to the forehead and/or behind the eye.. When C1-the lesser occipital nerve-is irritated, pain travels to the back of the head, while ...
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After exiting the hindbrain, branchial motor axons reach their targets in association with sensory ganglia. The trigeminal ganglion has been shown to promote motor axon growth from rhombomeres 2/3...
Structure. Development. During embryonic development, the embryonic metencephalon develops from the rhombencephalon and gives rise to two structures: the pons and the cerebellum. The alar plate produces sensory neuroblasts, which will give rise to the solitary nucleus and its special visceral afferent (SVA) column; the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which form the special somatic afferent (SSA) fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the spinal and principal trigeminal nerve nuclei, which form the general somatic afferent column (GSA) of the trigeminal nerve, and the pontine nuclei which relays to the cerebellum.. Basal plate neuroblasts give rise to the abducens nucleus,which forms the general somatic efferent fibers (GSE); the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, which form the special visceral efferent (SVE) column, and the superior salivatory nucleus, which forms the general visceral efferent fibers of the facial nerve.. Nucleus. A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the ...
Heres Everything You Need To Know About The Cranial Nerves - How Many Cranial Nerves Are There And The Cranial Nerves Function. How To Remember Cranial Nerves, In Order And Labeled. Learn About Brainstem
Cranial nerves are generally named according to their structure or function. For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: trigeminus meaning triplets),[6] and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus).[7] Cranial nerves are numbered based on their rostral-caudal (front-back) position,[1] when viewing the brain. If the brain is carefully removed from the skull the nerves are typically visible in their numeric order, with the exception of the last, CN XII, which appears to emerge rostrally to ...
Chuang K, Nguyen E, Sergeev Y, Badea TC. Novel Heterotypic Rox Sites for Combinatorial Dre Recombination Strategies. G3 (Bethesda). 2015 Dec 29;6(3):559-71.. Sajgo S, Ali S, Popescu O, Badea TC. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Sep 10.. Kretschmer F, Sajgo S, Kretschmer V, Badea TC. A system to measure the Optokinetic and Optomotor response in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Aug 14;256:91-105.. Sajgo S, Ghinia MG, Shi M, Liu P, Dong L, Parmhans N, Popescu O, Badea TC. Dre - Cre sequential recombination provides new tools for retinal ganglion cell labeling and manipulation in mice. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 7;9(3):e91435.. Shi M, Kumar SR, Motajo O, Kretschmer F, Mu X, Badea TC. Genetic Interactions between Brn3 Transcription Factors in Retinal Ganglion Cell Type Specification. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 8;8(10):e76347.. Badea TC, Williams J, Smallwood P, Shi M, Motajo O, Nathans J. Combinatorial expression of Brn3 transcription factors ...
The developing vertebrate hindbrain consists of segmental units known as rhombomeres. Hindbrain neuroectoderm expresses 3′ Hox 1 and 2 cluster genes in characteristic patterns whose anterior limit of expression coincides with rhombomere boundaries. One particular Hox gene, referred to as Ghox 2.9, is initially expressed throughout the hindbrain up to the anterior border of rhombomere 4 (r4). Later, Ghox 2.9 is strongly upregulated in r4 and Ghox 2.9 protein is found in all neuroectodermal cells of r4 and in the hyoid crest cell population derived from this rhombomere. Using a polyclonal antibody, Ghox 2.9 was immunolocalized after transplanting r4 within the hindbrain. Wherever r4 was transplanted, Ghox 2.9 expression was cell-autonomous, both in the neuroectoderm of the graft and in the hyoid crest cell population originating from the graft. In all vertebrates, rhombomeres and cranial nerves (nerves V, VII+VIII, IX, X) exhibit a stereotypic relationship: nerve V arises at the level of r2, ...
Thus, both a conscious and an unconscious person can survive longer without oxygen under water than in a comparable situation on dry land. Children tend to survive longer than adults when deprived of oxygen underwater.. When the face is submerged, receptors that are sensitive to water within the nasal cavity and other areas of the face supplied by cranial nerve V (trigeminal) relay the information to the brain and then innervate cranial nerve X, which is part of the autonomic nervous system. This causes bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction. Blood is removed from the limbs and all organs but the heart and the brain, creating a heart-brain circuit and allowing the mammal to conserve oxygen.. In humans, the mammalian diving reflex is not induced when limbs are introduced to cold water. Mild bradycardia is caused by the subject holding his breath without submerging the face within water. When breathing with face submerged this causes a diving reflex which increases proportionally to ...
Cranial Nerve 1- Olfaction This patient has difficulty identifying the smells presented. Loss of smell is anosmia. The most common cause is a cold (as in this patient) or nasal allergies. Other causes include trauma or a meningioma affecting the olfactory tracts. Anosmia is also seen in Kallman syndrome because of agenesis of the olfactory bulbs. Cranial Nerve 2- Visual acuity This patientâs visual acuity is being tested with a Rosenbaum chart. First the left eye is tested, then the right eye. He is tested with his glasses on so this represents corrected visual acuity. He has 20/70 vision in the left eye and 20/40 in the right. His decreased visual acuity is from optic nerve damage. Cranial Nerve II- Visual field The patients visual fields are being tested with gross confrontation. A right sided visual field deficit for both eyes is shown. This is a right hemianopia from a lesion behind the optic chiasm involving the left optic tract, radiation or striate cortex. Cranial Nerve II- Fundoscopy ...
Browse freely available diagrams covering Cerebellum, Cerebellar nuclei, Brainstem, Cranial nerve nuclei, Medulla oblongata - hypoglossal nerve level, Medulla oblongata - vagus nerve level - Start learning now!
The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve (or posterior motor nucleus of vagus) is a cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve that arises from the floor of the fourth ventricle. ...
The corneal reflex test (blink test) examines the reflex pathway involving cranial nerves V and VII. Classically the provider lightly touches a wisp of cotton on the patients cornea. This foreign body sensation should cause the patient to reflexively blink.. This maneuver always makes me a little worried about causing a corneal abrasion, especially if you are examining a very somnolent patient. You are wondering - Is there no blinking because youre not touching the cornea hard enough? You apply harder pressure but still no blink. You repeat the test and now the patient finally blinks. Thats 3 times youve just scraped against the cornea.. Whats an alternative approach?. ...
I just googled it, and we have an REI store that sells lightweight Merino wool socks for $7.95 a pair. Multiple sclerosis may also affect the medulla adjacent to the cranial nerve nuclei. I peripheral neuropathy medical definition of abortion how depressing it can all be. Basbaum AI, Fields HL.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cranial Nerve Nuclei at Stanford. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Introduction Examination of the cranial nerves allows one to view the brainstem all the way from its rostral to caudal extent. The brainstem can be divided into three levels, the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. The cranial nerves for each of these are: 2 for the midbrain (CN 3 & 4), 4 for the pons (CN 5-8), and 4 for the medulla (CN 9-12). It is important to remember that cranial nerves never cross (except for one exception, the 4th CN) and clinical findings are always on the same side as the cranial nerve involved. Cranial nerve findings when combined with long tract findings (corticospinal and somatosensory) are powerful for localizing lesions in the brainstem. Cranial Nerve 1 Olfaction is the only sensory modality with direct access to cerebral cortex without going through the thalamus. The olfactory tracts project mainly to the uncus of the temporal lobes. Cranial Nerve 2 This cranial nerve has important localizing value because of its x axis course from the eye to the occipital ...
The next time youre trying to remember the locations and functions of the cranial nerves, picture this drawing. All twelve cranial nerves are represented, though some may be a little harder to spot than others. For example, the shoulders are formed by the number 11 because cranial nerve XI controls neck and shoulder movement. If you immediately recognize that the sides of the face and the top of the head are formed by the number 7, youre well on your way to using this memory device.. Tags: nerfs craniensneurologieneurology. ...
Upledger Institute UK Cranial Nerves Wallchart [cnchart] - This beautiful wall-sized chart designed by Jean-Pierre Barral, D.O. and Alain Croibier, D.O. allows you to see the cranial nerves you can access in treatment in vivid detail. The full-color illustration highlights the nerves, their exit points through the
Eye movements depend on correct patterns of connectivity between cranial motor axons and the extraocular muscles. Despite the clinical importance of the ocular motor system, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying its development. We have recently shown that mutations in the Chimaerin-1 gene encoding the signaling protein α2-chimaerin (α2-chn) perturb axon guidance in the ocular mot ...
Now, take a look at what I call cranial nerve maps. These are icons of cranial nerves, their branches, what they supply and what foramina they use. Sensory is yellow and motor is red. Solid red is for skeletal muscle. Dashed red is for parasympathetic fibers. You sort of have to memorize which nerves have motor or sensory or both modalities, then consider what part of the head and neck is involved with each nerve. For example, when you look at the olfactory road map, you will see that it is yellow which means it is purely sensory. Then you consider what kind of sensation of picked up in the periphery which, in this case, is smell. The smell impulses then go back to the central nervous system. If there is red included in the map, that means that something will receive efferent fibers and will either contract or secrete. The impulse starts out in the central nervous system and passes out to a muscle or gland. ...
The cranial nerves are a set of 12 nerves which emerge directly from the brain. The names of the cranial nerves relate to their function and they are also numerically identified in roman numerals I-XII by their specific location of the brain and by the order in which they exit the cranium.
The cranial nerves originate in the brain and have power over some of the most important neurological functions of the body. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.
There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cran...
Cranial nerve damage can cause sensory, motor function and parasympathetic abnormalities, depending on which of the 12 cranial nerves are affected. Read this informative article to learn about damage results and treatment options.
Cranial Nerve Examination - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Guide to cranial nerve examination
When performing a cranial nerve examination, always ask to perform fundoscopy. This may provide valuable information regarding ocular or cranial nerve pathology, and reveals signs of diabetic or hypertensive nephropathy.
Free pdf of cranial nerves, with emphasis on those that relate to voice & swallowing. Patients dysphagia need a full exam of their cranial nerves.
About this Chapter Autonomic division Somatic motor division Antagonistic controls Somatic motor division CNS control of skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions ****** Review the overall organization of the NS
Can you find the cranial nerves in this puzzle? Print out this page, then circle all cranial nerve names that you find. The words can be up, down or backwards. There are also a few cranial nerves MISSING from this puzzle. Do you know which ones are missing? For more information of the cranial nerves, go the Cranial Nerve Page. Here is the puzzle: ...
the first two cranial nerves olfactory nerve i that transmits signals make up your sense of smell and optic ii responsible brain diagram brains.. ...
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The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement. Learn more here.
We wouldnt be able to talk, taste, chew, or swallow without the cranial nerves of our face and mouth. Find out how these nerves help us move our...
Netters Cranial Nerve Collection brings together classic illustrations of these clinically important nerves by Frank H. Netter, MD, combined with illustrated
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Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves Head and Neck ContinuedSkull Part of Axial Skeleton Cranial bones = cranium Enclose and protect brain Attachment for
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The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ... cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves ... Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.. ...
The information is sent via the olfactory nerve (Cranial Nerve I) to the olfactory bulb. After the processing in the bulb the ... "1-4". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. NIF Search - Anterior Olfactory ...
Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. v t e. ... Optic and olfactory nerves.Inferior view. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Inferior view.Deep dissection Allison, A. C. (1954). "The ... The olfactory tract is a bilateral bundle of afferent nerve fibers from the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb that ... Human brainstem anterior view Olfactory nerve Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum. ...
This syndrome occurs when the sixth cranial nerve which controls the lateral rectus muscle does not develop properly. It is ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... Anatomy figure: 29:01-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center "6-1". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine ... A sixth nerve palsy, also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired ...
Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. https://web.archive.org/web/20091208125451/ ...
ISBN 978-961-90305-5-4. "1-5". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. v t e. ...
It joins the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) inside the facial canal, at the level where the facial nerve exits the skull via ... The chorda tympani carries two types of nerve fibers from their origin with the facial nerve to the lingual nerve that carries ... with each nerve acting to inhibit the signals of other nerves. The chorda tympani exits the cranial cavity through the internal ... The chorda tympani is part of one of three cranial nerves that are involved in taste. The taste system involves a complicated ...
Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. v t e Anatomy portal. ...
... on Cranial Nerves; Selected Letters trans. John Reddick (Penguin Classics, 1993) ISBN 0-14-044586-2. Georg Büchner, Danton's ...
Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ... The cranial nerves III-XII emerge from the brainstem. These cranial nerves supply the face, head, and viscera. (The first two ... Cranial nerve III (the oculomotor nerve) emerges ventrally from the midbrain, while the CN IV (the trochlear nerve) emerges out ... It also provides the main motor and sensory nerve supply to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Ten pairs of cranial ...
Facial nerve". In Barral JP, Croibier A (eds.). Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. pp. ... Diseases of the Seventh Cranial Nerve". In Dyck PJ, Thomas PK (eds.). Peripheral Neuropathy (Fourth ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. ... The facial nerve passes close to the mastoid process. The inner surface of the mastoid portion presents a deep, curved groove, ...
"Development of the Brain and Cranial Nerves"". Larsen's human embryology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/ ...
The pathway and extent are currently not known, but may involve CSF flow along some cranial nerves and be more prominent in the ... CSF has also been seen to be reabsorbed through the sheathes of cranial and spinal nerve sheathes, and through the ependyma. ... Schoenwolf GC, Larsen WJ (2009). "Development of the Brain and Cranial Nerves". Larsen's human embryology (4th ed.). ... particularly those surrounding the nose via drainage along the olfactory nerve through the cribriform plate. ...
The rami recurrentes of certain cranial nerves. Certain elements of the brachial and lumbo-sacral plexuses. The coccygeal nerve ... The hypophysis cerebri (pituitary body). The dorsal roots and ganglia of the hypoglossus nerve. ...
Cranial nerves Nerve Neuralgia Neuritis Neuropathy "Taxonomy". International Association for the Study of pain. Archived from ... Galen also suggested nerve tissue as the transferring route of pain to the brain through the invisible psychic pneuma. The idea ... Neuropathic pain is common in cancer as a direct result of cancer on peripheral nerves (e.g., compression by a tumor), or as a ... In chronic nerve injury, there is redistribution and alteration of subunit compositions of sodium and calcium channels ...
1997) Campbell, William W. The Cranial Nerves. DeJong's The Neurologic Examination. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. (2005) JW ... This specifically involves the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), and hypoglossal nerve (XII). This disorder should ... It was observed that a distinction from ALS was fatigue that predominated in muscles innervated by lower cranial nerve nuclei, ... PBP is a disease that attacks the nerves supplying the bulbar muscles. These disorders are characterized by the degeneration of ...
There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Due to their short cochlea, reptiles use electrical tuning to expand their range of ... Graciela Piñeiro, Jorge Ferigolo, Alejandro Ramos and Michel Laurin (2012). "Cranial morphology of the Early Permian mesosaurid ...
... transmitted through spinoreticular pathways and cranial nerves (trigeminal nerve - polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic ... Out from this area spring the cranial nerves, including the very important vagus nerve.[clarification needed] The lateral RF is ... 2010a). "Chapter 6 - Cranial Nerves and the Brainstem". Systems of The Body: The Nervous System - Basic Science and Clinical ... The lateral RF is close to the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves, and mostly mediates their function. The medial reticular ...
The human body has twelve cranial nerves. The duodenum (from Latin duodecim, "twelve") is the first part of the small intestine ...
Cranial neuritis is an inflammation of cranial nerves. When due to Lyme, it most typically causes facial palsy impairing ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... Lyme radiculopathy is an inflammation of spinal nerve roots that often causes pain and less often weakness, numbness, or ... In infection involving the PNS, electromyography and nerve conduction studies can be used to monitor objectively the response ...
Cranial nerve palsies occur in some unusual cases. In the bestselling 1996 non-fiction book Into Thin Air: A Personal Account ... but the increase in brain volume from edema does not likely cause cranial vault impingement. The presence of large sulci ...
Cranial nerves - are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves ( ... ISBN 978-1-118-49201-7. Standring, Susan; Borley, Neil R. (2008). "Overview of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei". Gray's ... Ten of the cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body ... Ulnar nerve - In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve that runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow ...
It is innervated by the femoral nerve. Gracilis: originates on the pelvic symphysis and inserts on the cranial border of the ... It is innervated by the femoral nerve. Craniolateral muscles of the leg: Cranial tibial: originates on tibia and inserts on the ... It is innervated by the cranial pectoral nerves. Deep pectoral: originates on the ventral sternum and inserts on the lesser ... It is innervated by the radial nerve. Cranial muscles of the arm: Biceps brachia: originates on the supraglenoid tubercle and ...
... where the optic nerve does not interrupt the view. See also: Evolution of the eye. Another example is the cranial nerves in ... In early vertebrate evolution, sharks, skates, and rays (collectively Chondrichthyes), the cranial nerves run from the part of ... In his book, Why We Get Sick, Randolph Nesse uses the "blind spot" in the vertebrate eye (caused by the nerve fibers running ... In tetrapods, however, and mammals in particular, the nerves take an elaborate winding path through the cranium around ...
Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Solitary tract Duane ... Dulak, Dominika; Naqvi, Imama A (2020). Neuroanatomy, Cranial Nerve 7 (Facial). StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. PMID ... Taste information from the facial nerve via the chorda tympani (anterior 2/3 of the tongue), glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior ... in the carotid body via glossopharyngeal nerve, aortic bodies, and the sinoatrial node, via the vagus nerve Chemically and ...
To nuclei of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Signals sent to these nerves cause the vestibulo-ocular reflex. They allow for the ... In addition, the function of the vestibular system can be affected by tumors on the vestibulocochlear nerve, an infarct in the ...
The schwannomas develop on cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Chronic pain, and sometimes numbness, tingling and weakness. ... An acoustic neuroma is a schwannoma on the vestibular nerve in the brain. This nerve is involved in hearing and patients with ... Damaged nerves and scar tissue can be a result of surgery and pain can be an ongoing problem. Sometimes, a tumor will reappear ... Schwannomas on sensory nerve axons cause chronic severe pain. Treatment options for schwannomas are to surgically remove them, ...
"The naming of the cranial nerves: A historical review". Clinical Anatomy. 27 (1): 14-19. doi:10.1002/ca.22345. ISSN 1098-2353. ... the two optic nerves merge in the optic chiasm. In such a merged optic chiasm, part of the nerve fibres do not cross the ... The crossing of nerve fibres, and the impact on vision that this had, was probably first identified by Persian physician " ... This article is about the optic chiasm of vertebrates, which is the best known nerve chiasm, but not every chiasm denotes a ...
The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ... The muscles supplied by the vagus (included with this is the cranial root of the accessory nerve), such as levator veli ... cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a ... This nucleus gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X) terminating in the laryngeal, ...
The superior salivatory nucleus (or nucleus salivatorius superior) of the facial nerve is a visceromotor cranial nerve nucleus ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ... They both are examples of cranial nerve nuclei. The superior salivatory nucleus innervates the submandibular gland and the ... They leave the glossopharngeal nerve by its tympanic branch and then pass via the tympanic plexus and the lesser petrosal nerve ...
"A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". J. Physiol. 117 (4 ...
In turn, a fairly complex reflex is triggered involving cranial nerves sub-serving respiration, retroperistalsis, and general ... with an amidation at the C-terminus.[4] Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in ... When the innervation to substance P nerve terminals is lost, post-synaptic cells compensate for the loss of adequate ... This, ultimately, leads to a condition known as denervation supersensitivity as the post-synaptic nerves will become ...
Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ... Subspecialties include electroencephalography, electromyography, evoked potential, nerve conduction study and polysomnography. ...
"Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... and cranial.[75] Chiropractic biophysics technique uses inverse functions of rotations during spinal manipulation.[76] Koren ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ... Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called ...
Cranial nerve examination. *Upper limb neurological examination. Neonatal. *Apgar score. *Ballard Maturational Assessment ...
There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves.[108] Due to their short cochlea, reptiles use electrical tuning to expand their range ... NervesEdit. The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and ... Graciela Piñeiro, Jorge Ferigolo, Alejandro Ramos and Michel Laurin (2012). "Cranial morphology of the Early Permian mesosaurid ...
From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory ...
Cranial nerve palsies. *Arthritis. *Fatigue. *Headache. *Myalgias (muscle pain) and arthralgias (joint pain) ...
However, the way in which the bone was laid down makes it possible to examine the imprints of nerves and other soft tissues. ... This is due to the development of paired fins, and their complicated cranial anatomy. The osteostracans were more similar to ...
... ninth and tenth cranial nerves. ... Innervated by facial nerve.. *Foliate papillae - these are ... Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae).. *Circumvallate papillae - ... The nerve fibrils after losing their medullary sheaths enter the taste bud, and end in fine extremities between the gustatory ... They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands, and are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve. ...
Sensory cranial and spinal nerves. *Optic (II). *Vestibulocochlear (VIII). *Olfactory (I). *Facial (VII) ... The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ...
Following is a list of sensory cranial nerves:. *V1 (1st division of the Trigeminal nerve) - associated with Herpes zoster ... 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves and 5 sacral nerves. Each of these nerves relays sensation (including pain) from a ... A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.[1] There are 8 cervical nerves (C1 being an ... Following is a list of spinal nerves and points that are characteristically belonging to the dermatome of each nerve:[2] ...
করোটীয় স্নায়ু (Cranial nerve). *সুষুম্নীয় স্নায়ু (Spinal nerve). *স্নায়ুগ্রন্থি (Nerve ganglion). *স্নায়ুধার কোষ (Glial ... স্নায়ু (Nerve) *অন্তর্বাহী স্নায়ু (Afferent nerve). *বহির্বাহী স্নায়ু (Efferent nerve) / চেষ্টীয় স্নায়ু (Motor nerve) ...
... "cranial" and "cephalic" are used to refer to the skull, with "cranial" being used more commonly. The term "rostral" is rarely ... Hypo- (from Ancient Greek ὑπό 'under') is used to indicate something that is beneath.[13] For example, the hypoglossal nerve ... Cranial (from Greek κρανίον 'skull') or cephalic (from Greek κεφαλή 'head') describes how close something is to the head of an ... the infraorbital nerve runs within the orbit. ... MW 2020, p. "cranial" and "cephalic", accessed 3 July 2020. *^ ...
Morimitsu, T; Kawano, H; Torihara, K; Kato, E; Koono, M (1992). "Histopathology of eighth cranial nerve of mass stranded ... one case report of strandings in Japan's Goto Islands has been associated with parasitic neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve ...
Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle ... specialized to conduct nerve impulses called action potentials) - and somas (the cell bodies of the neurons containing the ... or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during the Neolithic period. Manuscripts dating to 1700 BC indicate that the ...
In the CNS for example, cranial nerve injury typically presents as a visual acuity loss 1-14 years post treatment.[25] In the ... Radiation treatments are vitally necessary but may damage nerves near the target area or within the delivery path as nerve ... capillary damage and nerve demyelination.[25] Subsequent damage occurs from vascular constriction and nerve compression due to ... Mahmood SS (2016). "Cardiovascular Complications of Cranial and Neck Radiation". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular ...
... and the glossopharyngeal nerve. Taste messages are sent via these cranial nerves to the brain. The brain can distinguish ... 194: Sensory Nerves, Brendan J. Canning, Domenico Spina. Springer. Page 341. *^ Costa, M; Brookes, S J H; Hennig, G W (2000). " ... The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve.[10]:1465 Muscles in the pharynx push the food into the ... Parasympathetic innervation to the ascending colon is supplied by the vagus nerve. Sympathetic innervation is supplied by the ...
"Peripheral nerve regeneration". Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School; Liuzzi FJ, Tedeschi B ... "Penggunaan Trans Cranial Doppler untuk Deteksi Perubahan Hemodinamik Serebral pada Pasien Kritis". Diakses tanggal 3 April 2015 ... "Neural plasticity after peripheral nerve injury and regeneration". Group of Neuroplasticity and Regeneration, Institute of ... Intra-cranial stenting yang diterapkan pada gejala penyumbatan intracranial arterial stenosis, boleh dikatakan sukses ...
... fourth cranial nerve), which controls the action of the superior oblique muscle in the eye.[2] By 1998, there had been only one ... The interposition of a Teflon pad between the trochlear nerve and a compressing artery and vein at the nerve's exit from the ... In 1983, Bringewald postulated that superior oblique myokymia resulted from vascular compression of the trochlear nerve ( ... magnetic resonance imaging experiments have shown that neurovascular compression at the root exit zone of the trochlear nerve ...
Proper myelination is critical for carrying electrical signals, or data, from one nerve cell to the next. When myelin becomes ... Cranial computed topography, magnetic resonance imaging, and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission topography are just some of ...
1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.[edit]. The use of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for the assessment of ICP dates back to ... of ICP are based on an assumption that changes in ICP affect the physical dimensions and/or acoustic properties of the cranial ... 8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal venous outflow pressure (VOP ... While the ONSD can at any given point along the optic nerve be measured with a precision of ,1mm, reliability of derived ICP ...
മസ്തിഷ്കത്തിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന കപാല നാഡികൾ (Cranial nerves). 12 ജോടികളുണ്ട്. മസ്തിഷ്കത്തിന്റെ വിവിധ ഭാഗങ്ങളിലുള്ള ... നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... സുഷുമ്നയിലെ പുരോ നാഡീമൂലം (ventral nerve root), പൃഷ്ഠനാഡീമൂലം (dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ... ഒരു നാഡീജാലിക (nerve net) പോലെയാണ് ഇവയുടെ നാഡീവ്യൂഹം. നാഡീകോശത്തിൽ ആക്സോണുകളും,
After cranial reconstructive surgery, a child may be required to wear a molding helmet or some other form of head protection ... Decreased space may also lead to abnormal or missing tear ducts and nerve damage. Reconstructive surgery is usually required in ... The cranial sutures eventually close within the first couple of years following birth, after the brain has finished growing. In ... Cranioplasty is a surgical procedure to correct prematurely fused cranial bones. The surgery acts to reconstruct and reposition ...
Cranial nerve examination. *Upper limb neurological examination. Neonatal. *Apgar score. *Ballard Maturational Assessment ...
A study of cranial openings for facial nerves connected whiskers in extant mammals indicate the Prozostrodontia, small ... of cynodonts as channels that supplied blood vessels and nerves to vibrissae (whiskers) and suggested that this was evidence of ... "Cranial anatomy of the cynodont reptile Thrinaxodon liorhinus". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 125 (1253): 165 ...
an eye that cannot move or is deviated to one side can indicate that a broken facial bone is pinching a nerve that innervates ... CT scans can show brain bleeds, fractures of the skull, fluid build up in the brain that will lead to increased cranial ... In children with uncomplicated minor head injuries the risk of intra cranial bleeding over the next year is rare at 2 cases per ... "Is cranial computed tomography unnecessary in children with a head injury and isolated vomiting?". BMJ. 365: l1875. doi: ...
The Eocene bats Icaronycteris (52 million years ago) and Palaeochiropteryx had cranial adaptations suggesting an ability to ... This skin membrane consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. The muscles keep the ...
Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... nerves to be brain tracts, rather than cranial nerves.[27] Further, the very small terminal nerve (nerve N or O) exists in ... vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII). The fibers of these cranial nerves exit the brainstem from ...
The focus of this module is on the cranial nerves, their function and their assessment. There are several types of materials: ... Cranial Nerves Date last modified:. October 16, 2019. Created by:. Taylor Bailey License:. ... Cranial nerves are essential to the body and important to know about if your going into the healthcare field. This module is a ... The focus of this module is on the cranial nerves, their function and their assessment. There are several types of materials: ...
... www.knowyourbody.net/cranial-nerves.html Butler, Ann B.; Hodos, William (2005). Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution ...
Cranial Nerves The human body is a unique and fascinating entity. There is not much notice taken of the features the human body ... via input from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Cranial nerves with sensory functions allow us to smell and see. Nerves with ... via input from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Cranial nerves with sensory functions allow us to smell and see. Nerves with ... Cranial Nerves. 3654 Words Apr 2nd, 2012 15 Pages Cranial Nerves. The human body is a unique and fascinating entity. There is ...
... The nervus intermedius is one sub-branching of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. *Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve. *Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Mandibular Nerve ... the seventh pairing of cranial nerves and, therefore, numbered VII. It holds the parasympathetic and sensory fibers in the ... Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Ophthalmic Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VI - Abducens Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve ...
... Cranial nerve IV, the trochlear nerve, is the smallest of the cranial nerves. These ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. *Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve. *Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Mandibular Nerve ... which are not supplied by the oculomotor nerves, but aid in moving the muscles of the eye. The trochlear nerves contain some ... Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Ophthalmic Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VI - Abducens Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve ...
Explain and demonstrate the anatomy of the cranial nerve.. *Describe and demonstrate the normal cranial nerve functions with ... It integrates the cranial nerve function (normal and abnormal) examination well in the clinical case studies and quizzes. ... It can be easily integrated into the curriculum after identifying the student learning outcomes of each topic of cranial nerve ... A PDF transcript of each video of each topic of cranial nerve function examination (normal and abnormal examples) is highly ...
... hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, olfactory nerve, optic nerve, trigeminal nerve, trochlear nerve, and vagus nerve. See more ... these are the abducens nerve, accessory nerve, auditory nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, ... any of the nerves arising from the brainstem and exiting to the periphery of the head through skull openings, including 10 ... hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, olfactory nerve, optic nerve, trigeminal nerve, trochlear nerve, and vagus nerve. ...
... in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) ... ISBN 0-387-94227-0 Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves ... Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Brain stem sagittal ... All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. In general, motor nuclei ...
The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement ... Sensory cranial nerves help a person to see, smell, and hear.. *Motor cranial nerves help control muscle movements in the head ... The twelve cranial nerves are a group of nerves that start in the brain and provide motor and sensory functions to the head and ... The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement. ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Cranial Nerve 10 , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Cranial Nerve 10 via the Trip Database. ... Cranial Nerves Tractography Cranial Nerves Tractography Cranial Nerves Tractography - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide ... Third Cranial Nerve Palsy in the Setting of Chikungunya Virus Infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro. Third Cranial Nerve ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Cranial Nerve 10 , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Cranial Nerve 10 via the Trip Database. ... Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia ... isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve ...
Optic Nerve Hyoplasia, Retinitis Pigmentosa, and Retinal detachment. ...
Can you name the Cranial Nerves? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. ... Tags:cranial, Cranial Nerves, function, location, motor, nerve, sensory. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. * ... Science Quiz / Cranial Nerves. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Cranial Nerves?. by san88diego ... Cranial Nerve X (Vagus) Answer only 1st part. Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear)-Answer only 1st part. ...
... , Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11. ... Cranial Nerve 11, Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11 ...
... , Cranial Nerve VIII, Acoustic Nerve, Cochlear Nerve, Vestibular Nerve, Vestibulocochlear Nerve, CN 8. ... Cranial Nerve 8. search Cranial Nerve 8, Cranial Nerve VIII, Acoustic Nerve, Cochlear Nerve, Vestibular Nerve, ... Fibers from both nerves join to form one trunk. *Passes via Internal Auditory Canal to their respective somatic sensory ganglia ...
... , Cranial Nerve VII, Facial Nerve, CN 7, Geniculate Ganglion, Superior Salivatory Nucleus, Superior Salivary ... Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 3 Cranial Nerve 4 Cranial Nerve 5 Cranial Nerve 6 Cranial Nerve 7 Cranial Nerve 8 Cranial Nerve 9 ... Facial Nerve, Nerve, Facial, Cranial Nerve VII, Cranial Nerve, Seventh, Nerve, Seventh Cranial, Seventh Cranial Nerve, cranial ... cranial nerve vii, nervus facialis, Cranial Nerve VIIs, Facial Nerves, Nerves, Seventh Cranial, Seventh Cranial Nerves, Nerves ...
... , Cranial Nerve XII, Hypoglossal Nerve, CN 12, Hypoglossal Nucleus. ... Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 3 Cranial Nerve 4 Cranial Nerve 5 Cranial Nerve 6 Cranial Nerve 7 Cranial Nerve 8 Cranial Nerve 9 ... Cranial, Nerve, Twelfth Cranial, Nerves, Twelfth Cranial, Twelfth Cranial Nerve, Twelfth Cranial Nerves, cranial nerve XII, ... Hypoglossal nerve [XII], cranial xii nerve, nerve xii, cranial nerve xii, Nerve XIIs, Cranial, Cranial Nerve XIIs, 12n, ...
Ninth cranial nerve definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... ninth cranial nerve in Medicine Expand. ninth cranial nerve n. See glossopharyngeal nerve. ...
Perform cranial nerve testing. Have the patient walk on the heels and toes; heel-toe walking tests not only distal lower- ... Perform cranial nerve testing. Have the patient walk on the heels and toes; heel-toe walking tests not only distal lower- ... How is cranial nerve testing performed in patients with diabetic neuropathy?. Updated: Jan 17, 2020 ... Understanding Diabetic Neuropathy: From Subclinical Nerve Lesions to Severe Nerve Fiber Deficits. A Cross-Sectional Study in ...
Cranial Nerves book. Read reviews from worlds largest community for readers. Unique...provid[es] clear, concise descriptions ... the cranial nerves with practical coverage of clinical concepts for the assessment and differential diagnosis of cranial nerve ... Each of the twelve chapters that follow is devoted to in-depth coverage of a different cranial nerve. These chapters open with ... "This book is of interest to everyone who aims a solid understanding of the cranial nerves." --Central European Neurosurgery. ...
Can you name the Cranial Nerves By number? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ... Science Quiz / Cranial Nerves By number. Random Science or Numbers Quiz QUIZ: Can you name the Cranial Nerves By number?. by ... Tags:Numbers Quiz, cranial, Cranial Nerves, nerve, numeral, roman. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. *Periodic ...
Cranial nerve palsy was found in 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 5-Minute Clinical Consult (5MCC) app and website powered by Unbound ...
Cranial nerve mononeuropathies may produce the following manifestations: Impaired taste and smell Blindness, blurry vision, ... encoded search term (What are the signs and symptoms of cranial nerve mononeuropathies in neurosarcoidosis?) and What are the ... What are the signs and symptoms of cranial nerve mononeuropathies in neurosarcoidosis?. Updated: Nov 13, 2018 ... This postgadolinium, T1-weighted axial image shows abnormal enhancement of both optic nerves, with the left optic nerve ...
sixth cranial nerve synonyms, sixth cranial nerve pronunciation, sixth cranial nerve translation, English dictionary definition ... Noun 1. sixth cranial nerve - a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye abducens, abducens nerve, ... abducens, abducens nerve, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens. cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate ... sixth cranial nerve. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to sixth cranial nerve: ...
The most common compression syndrome affects the trigeminal nerve and leads to trigeminal neuralgia, followed by hemifacial... ... Neurovascular compression syndromes are clinically characterized by functional disturbances of individual cranial nerves. ... Results: These syndromes are caused by compression of a cranial nerve by an artery or vein at the zone of the nerve s entry to ... In the area of the root entry zone or root exit zone (REZ) of the relevant cranial nerve at the brainstem, the nerve comes into ...
CRANIAL NERVE EXAM. Anatomy. Normal Exam. Abnormal Examples. Quiz. Media Resources. COORDINATION EXAM. Anatomy. Normal Exam. ... Cranial Nerve 9 & 10- Sensory and Motor: Gag Reflex. Using a tongue blade, the left side of the patients palate is touched ... Cranial Nerve 7- Motor. The first patient has weakness of all the muscles of facial expression on the right side of the face ... Cranial Nerve 8- Auditory Acuity, Weber & Rinne Tests. This patient has decreased hearing acuity of the right ear. The Weber ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cranial Nerves. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble ...
Penn neurosurgery offers many cranial nerve treatment options for cranial nerve disorders including surgical and non-surgical ... Types of Cranial Nerve Disorder Treatment Options. Penn Neurosurgeons are pioneers in cranial nerve treatment techniques - ... The types of treatment options for cranial nerve disorders include:. Medication. The first line of treatment for cranial never ... Researchers in the Penn Center for Cranial Nerve Disorders are pushing the boundaries of medical research. Penn Neurosurgery is ...
  • Bell's palsy is a common disorder of the facial nerve, which causes paralysis on one side of the face and possibly loss of taste sensation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Petropoulos IK, Zuber JP, Guex-Crosier Y. Heerfordt syndrome with unilateral facial nerve palsy: a rare presentation of sarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Cause and prognosis of neurologically isolated third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve dysfunction in cases of oculomotor palsy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But with start of steroid therapy, fourth cranial nerve palsy improved partially whereas third and sixth cranial nerve palsy persisted on left side (Table 1, Figure 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first patient shown has incomplete abduction of her left eye from a 6th nerve palsy. (utah.edu)
  • The second patient has a left 3rd nerve palsy resulting in ptosis, dilated pupil, limited adduction, elevation, and depression of the left eye. (utah.edu)
  • On exam, a left sixth nerve palsy was noted. (aao.org)
  • A sixth nerve palsy in a patient without a history of hypertension or diabetes is concerning for a brain etiology. (aao.org)
  • Acute, isolated cranial nerve VI palsy from presumed microvascular ischemia was traditionally observed for spontaneous resolution for 3 months prior to further workup. (aaopt.org)
  • Cranial nerve palsy in Wegener's granulomatosis--lessons from clinical cases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One patient developed de novo 6(th) nerve palsy as an isolated relapse manifestation and the second patient a sequence of multiple cranial nerve palsies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bell's Palsy is the result of an idiopathic (unknown), unilateral lower motor neuron lesion of the facial nerve and is characterized by an inability to move the ipsilateral muscles of facial expression, including elevation of the eyebrow and furrowing of the forehead. (listography.com)
  • Transient Third Cranial Nerve Palsy Caused by Sphenoid Sinus. (lww.com)
  • We recently examined a patient who developed a nearly complete unilateral third cranial nerve palsy attributed to sphenoid sinus aspergillosis. (lww.com)
  • The transient nature of our patient's third cranial nerve palsy is curious. (lww.com)
  • We report a new case of primary lymphoma of the temporal bone that manifested as XIIth cranial nerve palsy, and we review the recent literature on this entity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, no case of primary bone lymphoma presenting as XIIth cranial nerve palsy has been previously reported in the literature. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Once you have done this, describe the nature of any problem and don't leap to a "VIIth nerve palsy" if there is a left facial weakness. (teesneuro.org)
  • On physical examination, the gag reflex was decreased, the uvula was deviated to the left, and a right vocal cord palsy and right-sided paresis of the tongue were noted and attributed to palsies of cranial nerves IX, X, and XII. (ajnr.org)
  • Two months following completion of chemotherapy, the patient developed a right abducens nerve palsy. (ajnr.org)
  • Sixth nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. (ajnr.org)
  • Soulfly frontman Max Cavalera is recovering from a bout with Bell's Palsy, a temporary condition that is a form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) that results in the inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. (braingell.com)
  • The brainstem, with deeper cranial nerve nuclei and tracts inside the brain-stem shaded red. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of many of the neurons of most of the cranial nerves are contained in one or more nuclei in the brainstem . (wikipedia.org)
  • These nuclei are important relative to cranial nerve dysfunction because damage to these nuclei such as from a stroke or trauma can mimic damage to one or more branches of a cranial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of the olfactory nerve (I) and optic nerve (II), all the nuclei are present in the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the medulla has the nuclei of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII). (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory nerve (I) emerges from the olfactory bulb, and depending slightly on division the optic nerve (II) is considered to emerge from the lateral geniculate nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the trigeminal nerve (V), which has a sensory and a motor role, has at least four nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of the cranial nerve ganglia and related nuclei in the rat. (nih.gov)
  • Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves form a synapse first at these nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lesions occurring at these nuclei can lead to effects resembling those seen by the severing of nerve(s) they are associated with. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the motor part of the trigeminal nerve nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the tracts and nuclei of the cranial nerves are intricate, they can be systematised in terms of their function components contained within each nerve. (videohelp.com)
  • nerve nuclei. (coursera.org)
  • The central processes of these neurons are part of tegmentum of pons and terminate in the sensory nuclei of trigeminal nerve: nucleus tractus n. trigemini (pain, temperatura), the zone which applies to cervical segments of the spinal cord, and nucleus sensorius superior (tactile sensitivity). (scribd.com)
  • Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of the cranial nerves and their nuclei correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature and magnetic resonance imaging. (springer.com)
  • With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate. (umassmed.edu)
  • Efferent System of Cranial Nerve Nuclei : A Comparative Neuromorphological Study, Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology by George Szekely, 9783540562078. (booktopia.com.au)
  • A new approach using comparative neuromorphology is taken in this study dealing with the organization of the efferent nuclei of cranial nerves. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 11.1 The Arrangement of Cranial Nerve Motor Nuclei. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 11.3 Trends in the Evolution of Cranial Nerve Nuclei. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Explain and demonstrate the anatomy of the cranial nerve. (merlot.org)
  • It must be part of the library of the neurological surgery student as a useful tool for understanding basic anatomy and physiology, as well as the most common pathologies and the basic neuroradiology of the cranial nerves. (goodreads.com)
  • This beautifully illustrated book combines a detailed exposition of the anatomy and function of the cranial nerves with practical coverage of clinical concepts for the assessment and differential diagnosis of cranial nerve dysfunction. (goodreads.com)
  • An introductory chapter provides a brief overview of cranial nerve anatomy and function, skull base anatomy, classification of pathologies, and imaging approaches. (goodreads.com)
  • These chapters open with detailed discussion of the various functions of each nerve and normal anatomy. (goodreads.com)
  • It will also serve as a valuable resource for students seeking to gain a solid understanding of the anatomy, function, and pathology of the cranial nerves. (goodreads.com)
  • Click here for the gross anatomy of the cranial nerves (First Year Medicine ANAT1006 ). (videohelp.com)
  • With rich color and 39 beautifully designed parts, this Human Cranial Nerve Skull 4-D Vision Anatomy Model Kit teaches you everything you would want to know - and more - about your brain! (entertainmentearth.com)
  • When assembled, the Human Cranial Nerve Skull 4-D Vision Anatomy Model Kit measures 3-inches tall x 2-inches long x 1 1/2-inches wide. (entertainmentearth.com)
  • Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Cranial work involves the use of highly refined palpation skills with a good knowledge of the anatomy and physiology and in particular the relationship between structure and function. (positivehealth.com)
  • The book is divided into logical sections including dentistry, facial anatomy, cranial nerves, eyes, cheeks and nose, with due attention being paid to the importance of key areas such as the TMJ (jaw). (positivehealth.com)
  • Virtually every anatomy student has had to memorize the following mnemonic for the cranial nerves: "On Old Olympus's Towering Tops A Finn and German Viewed Some Hops. (encognitive.com)
  • The method comprises coupling an electrode to the cranial nerve selected from the group consisting of a vagus nerve, a trigeminal nerve, and a glossopharyngeal nerve. (google.com)
  • For treating a patient with a metabolic or an endocrine disorder associated with the thyroid gland, a neurostimulator may be adapted to apply an electrical stimulus to the vagus nerve and/or a branch of the vagus nerve associated with the thyroid gland. (google.com)
  • The vagus nerve enervates the gut (gastrointestinal tract), heart and larynx. (cancer.gov)
  • Major effects of damage to the vagus nerve may include a rise in blood pressure and heart rate. (listography.com)
  • It is generally considered as a part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The Vagus nerve (X) is the only Cranial nerve that extends beyond the head and neck of the horse. (holistichorse.com)
  • the nerve fibers of the cranial root join the intracranial portion of the vagus nerve and are distributed to the pharyngeal plexus, providing the motor innervation of the soft palate (except the tensor veli palati) and the pharynx. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent studies indicate that the cranial root should be considered a root of the vagus nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vagus nerve - feedback on aortic blood pressure. (healthhype.com)
  • For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With the exception of the olfactory nerve (I) and optic nerve (II), the cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory nerve (I) and optic nerve (II) emerge separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory nerve exits from. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Although the cranial nerve exam can be carried out in any order, doctors may begin with the first cranial nerve, the olfactory nerve, which controls the sense of smell. (wisegeek.com)
  • The olfactory nerve carries impulses for the sense of smell. (cancer.gov)
  • CN I is the Olfactory Nerve and is responsible for the horse's sense of smell. (holistichorse.com)
  • Cranial nerve IV, the trochlear nerve, is the smallest of the cranial nerves. (innerbody.com)
  • The trochlear nerve is also involved in eye movement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the midbrain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve (III) and trochlear nerve (IV) emerge from the midbrain, the trigeminal (V), abducens (VI), facial (VII) and vestibulocochlea (VIII) from the pons, and the glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), accessory (XI) and hypoglossal (XII) emerge from the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trochlear nerve controls an extraocular muscle. (cancer.gov)
  • This is due to impairment in the superior oblique muscle, which is innervated by the trochlear nerve. (listography.com)
  • The Oculomotor nerve (III), the Trochlear nerve (IV), and the Abducent nerve (VI) are a motor nerve and responsible for eye movement, pupil size, and focusing the lenses. (holistichorse.com)
  • Trochlear nerve - outer and downward (inferolateral) eyeball movement. (healthhype.com)
  • The Vestibular nerve (VIII) is responsible for hearing and the horse's balance. (holistichorse.com)
  • 6) When sensorineural hearing loss occurs, it is typically the result of involvement of cranial nerve VIII. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Images from 10 patients with posterior fossa tumors (4 male, mean age: 63.5), affecting either the trigeminal nerve (CN V) or the facial/vestibular complex (CN VII/VIII), were employed. (frontiersin.org)
  • V pair of cranial nerves, trigeminal nerve, n. (scribd.com)
  • VII pair of cranial nerves, facial nerve, n. facialis Brief anatomical and physiological data. (scribd.com)
  • in man, the eighth pair of cranial nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each pair of cranial nerves is numbered from one to twelve Roman numerals) and designated as CN. (healthhype.com)
  • The abducens nerve also helps control eye movements. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The abducens nerve starts in the pons of the brainstem, enters an area called Dorello's canal, travels through the cavernous sinus, and ends at the lateral rectus muscle within the bony orbit. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The sixth cranial nerve (abducens nerve) innervates the lateral rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Very rarely, the oculomotor nerve or the abducens nerve is involved. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • We report a case of perineural tumor spread (PTS) involving the abducens nerve in a 61-year-old Asian woman. (ajnr.org)
  • Enlargement and thickening of the right abducens nerve was noted on both CT and MR imaging compatible with PTS along the sixth nerve. (ajnr.org)
  • 2 Our case is unique in that there had been no previous reports of isolated PTS along the abducens nerve in the literature, to our knowledge. (ajnr.org)
  • The mechanism of spread from the primary malignancy to the abducens nerve in our case was likely a manifestation of disease that had initially infiltrated the cavernous sinus with subsequent tracking along the sixth nerve. (ajnr.org)
  • This report highlights an unusual pattern of PTS along the abducens nerve. (ajnr.org)
  • Abducens nerve - moves eyeball to the outer side (laterally). (healthhype.com)
  • Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck . (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor cranial nerves help control muscle movements in the head and neck. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Except for the tenth and the eleventh nerve, they primarily serve the motor and sensory systems of the head and neck region. (wikidoc.org)
  • The 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the brain provide motor and sensory nerves to the head and neck. (aapmr.org)
  • Its main part consists of motor fibers (actual facial nerve) innervating mimetic muscles of the face: the frontal (i.e. frontalis), the circular muscle of the eye (i.e. orbicularis oculi), buccal (i.e. buccalis), circular muscle of the mouth (i.e. orbicularis oris) and some other muscles of the head and neck. (scribd.com)
  • For the motor nerves, just split the head and neck into 5 bits, and do some stuff in each bit. (teesneuro.org)
  • Because of their extensive and intricate network of nerve fibers within the head and neck, the trigeminal and facial nerves are the nerves most commonly affected. (medscape.com)
  • PTS is a well-known phenomenon that occurs predominantly in malignancies of the head and neck, whereby tumor extends along the nerves away from the primary site of malignancy. (ajnr.org)
  • The oculomotor nerve helps control muscle movements of the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles that move the eyeball and upper eyelid, known as extraocular muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oculomotor nerve exits from. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Cranial Nerve III (the Oculomotor nerve) leaves the brainstem at a higher position than Cranial nerve XII, whose origin is located more caudally (lower) than the other cranial nerves. (wikidoc.org)
  • Oculomotor nerve - eyelid movements, most eyeball movements, constricts pupils and changes the shape of lens (accommodation for visual acuity). (healthhype.com)
  • The second cranial nerve is optic nerve. (bartleby.com)
  • The cell bodies of the optic nerve are located in the Retina (ganglion cells). (bartleby.com)
  • Optic nerve begins with unmyelinated axons of the rentinal ganglion cells, which later become myelinated in the optic disc. (bartleby.com)
  • That is when the bipolar cells transmit electrical activity to the CNS through the optic nerve. (bartleby.com)
  • There can be many possible causes for these dysfunctions to name a few, immediate loss of vision is due to injury to optic nerve due to ischemia or death, delayed vision loss is due to infarction of the optic nerve or less frequently by hematoma surrounding the nerve. (bartleby.com)
  • The cranial nerves include the optic nerve and the auditory nerve. (dictionary.com)
  • The optic nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's vision. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These photoreceptors carry signal impulses along nerve cells to form the optic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most of the fibers of the optic nerve cross into a structure called the optic chiasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Image guidance assisted the surgeons in localizing the optic nerve and chiasm in 64% of cases. (tripdatabase.com)
  • His decreased visual acuity is from optic nerve damage. (utah.edu)
  • The second photograph shows optic atrophy , which is pallor of the optic disc resulting form damage to the optic nerve from pressure, ischemia, or demyelination. (utah.edu)
  • In the next part of the cranial nerve examination the optic nerve may be tested. (wisegeek.com)
  • The optic nerve carries impulses for the sense of sight. (cancer.gov)
  • The Optic Nerve, CN II, is responsible for vision and completely a sensory nerve. (holistichorse.com)
  • See glossopharyngeal nerve . (dictionary.com)
  • Less well-known nerve compression syndromes affect the glossopharyngeal nerve, the nervus intermedius and the vestibulocochlear nerve. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve enervates muscles involved in swallowing and taste. (cancer.gov)
  • These are the Facial nerve (VII), Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), and the Hypoglossal nerve (XII). (holistichorse.com)
  • The Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) is responsible for swallowing and some motor tongue movement. (holistichorse.com)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve - muscles that assist with swallowing. (healthhype.com)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve is involved with a person's hearing and balance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for the sense of hearing and balance (body position sense). (cancer.gov)
  • With infectious or traumatic disorders of the fibers of the cochlear portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve, hearing disorders and even deafness may result. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve - sensation of hearing. (healthhype.com)
  • Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem ), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Ten of the cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numbering of the cranial nerves is based on the order in which they emerge from the brain, front to back ( brainstem ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The terminal nerves (0), olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves (II) emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), of which there are conventionally considered twelve pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves are numbered based on their position from front to back (rostral-caudal) of their position on the brain, as, when viewing the forebrain and brainstem from below, they are often visible in their numeric order. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves (II) arise from the base of the forebrain, and the other nerves, III to XII, arise from the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • These syndromes are caused by compression of a cranial nerve by an artery or vein at the zone of the nerve s entry to or exit from the brainstem. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In the area of the root entry zone or root exit zone (REZ) of the relevant cranial nerve at the brainstem, the nerve comes into contact with a blood vessel usually an artery, less commonly a vein. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In this procedure, the neurosurgeon surgically opens the skull, (a craniectomy), exposing the nerve at the base of the brainstem to insert a tiny sponge between the compressing vessel and the trigeminal nerve. (pennmedicine.org)
  • The locations of the cell bodies where cranial nerve afferents terminate or cranial nerve efferents originate , can be predicted to some extent from the embryology of the brainstem. (videohelp.com)
  • Building upon pioneering work accomplished by University of Pittsburgh faculty over the past four decades, the Center for Cranial Nerve and Brainstem Disorders is the international leader in the management of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. (pitt.edu)
  • There are conventionally twelve pairs of cranial nerves, which are described with Roman numerals I-XII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twelve pairs of cranial nerves exit/enter the cranium through openings in the skull. (xenbase.org)
  • The twelve pairs of cranial nerves were classified by a German medical student, Samuel Soemmering, nearly two centuries ago. (encognitive.com)
  • Left View of the human brain from below, showing origins of cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves as they pass through the skull base to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves are numbered based on their rostral-caudal (front-back) position, [1] when viewing the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the brain is carefully removed from the skull the nerves are typically visible in their numeric order, with the exception of the last, CN XII, which appears to emerge rostrally to (above) CN XI. (wikipedia.org)
  • This brain is made up of simple mater (Pia mater, Arachnoid mater, Dura mater) and the cranial surface to protect the brain. (bartleby.com)
  • The Brain and Cranial Nerves One of the most complex and fascinating things in the human body is the brain. (bartleby.com)
  • The brain is aware of its surroundings, via input from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. (bartleby.com)
  • These trochlear nerves arise from the mid-brain and carry motor impulses to a pair of external eye muscles, called the superior obliques, which are not supplied by the oculomotor nerves, but aid in moving the muscles of the eye. (innerbody.com)
  • Any of the 12 pairs of nerves in humans and other mammals that connect the muscles and sensory organs of the head and upper chest directly to the brain through openings in the skull. (dictionary.com)
  • The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists use Roman numerals from I-XII to label the cranial nerves in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The olfactory nerves emerge from the olfactory bulbs on either side of the crista galli, a bony projection below the frontal lobe, and the optic nerves (II) emerge from the lateral colliculus, swellings on either side of the temporal lobes of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whenever a nerve compression syndrome is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain should be performed, with particular attention to the posterior fossa. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • The surgeon peers into the opening through an operative microscope, looks around the cerebellum, and visualizes the trigeminal nerve as it arises from the brain stem. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Gamma Knife Perfexion Radiosurgery is one of the most precise, powerful, and proven treatments for brain disorders, including cranial nerve disorders. (pennmedicine.org)
  • A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerves from the third onward arise from the brain stem . (wikidoc.org)
  • In some primitive cartilagenous fishes, such as the dogfish ( Squalos acanthos ), there is a terminal nerve numbered zero (as it exits the brain before the first cranial nerve). (wikidoc.org)
  • The sixth nerve is the cranial nerve most likely to be involved in brain disease, such as brain edema, because it has the longest length and course. (aao.org)
  • Cranial nerve injuries are common complications of traumatic brain injury due to trauma or other conditions. (aapmr.org)
  • Most cranial nerve lesions are present at the time of traumatic brain injury, although some can develop later due to complications that arise following the injury. (aapmr.org)
  • The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the brain. (cancer.gov)
  • Most of these major nerves branch off of the spinal cord before making their way out into the body where they help send signals to and from the brain. (holistichorse.com)
  • But there is a special set of nerves that originate not from the spinal cord but from the brain itself inside the cranium of the skull. (holistichorse.com)
  • Some of the Cranial nerves are for sensory input and will relay messages to and from the brain. (holistichorse.com)
  • All the thirteen nerves but Cranial nerve IV exit the brain on the bottom (ventral) surface and then pass through small openings in the skull called foramen. (holistichorse.com)
  • Cranial nerve IV exits the brain on the top (dorsal) surface but immediately follows down to the bottom of the brain to join the other nerves. (holistichorse.com)
  • Both these nerves are sensory nerves and only relay information about smell to the brain. (holistichorse.com)
  • The signals from these nerves do not travel to the thalamus of the brain so there is no delay in the sensory input. (holistichorse.com)
  • This nerve sends sensory input from the inner ear to the brain. (holistichorse.com)
  • Any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stem. (bioontology.org)
  • The central processes of the vestibular and spiral ganglia emerge from the inner ear and, as the corresponding parts of the nerve, are directed to the base of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nerves are like the electrical wiring that carry signals to and from the brain. (healthhype.com)
  • However, there are 12 pairs of nerves that emerge directly from the brain and are therefore known as cranial nerves . (healthhype.com)
  • It is amazing how the significance of the face and associated structures can have a profound effect on body function, through the cranial base and associated brain structures, via the complex jaw joint with implications for headaches, via the teeth with implications for sinus function and via the facial muscles for self-expression and communication. (positivehealth.com)
  • Cranial nerve I is not a true nerve, but a fiber tract of the brain. (encognitive.com)
  • Cranial nerve II is also not a true nerve, but a fiber tract of the brain that terminates in the retina of the eye. (encognitive.com)
  • Cranial-Nerve Non-Invasive NeuroModulation (CN-NINM) is a primary and complementary multi-targeted rehabilitation therapy that initiates the recovery of multiple damaged or suppressed brain functions that are affected by neurological disorders. (mrn.org)
  • The nervus intermedius is one sub-branching of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), the seventh pairing of cranial nerves and, therefore, numbered VII. (innerbody.com)
  • It holds the parasympathetic and sensory fibers in the facial nerve. (innerbody.com)
  • The facial nerve also has both motor and sensory functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The most common compression syndrome affects the trigeminal nerve and leads to trigeminal neuralgia, followed by hemifacial spasm, which is caused by vascular compression of the facial nerve. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Facial Nerve exits from. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The facial nerve enervates the muscles of the face (facial expression). (cancer.gov)
  • Corneal reflex is explored by touching the cornea with a soft strip of paper or cotton wool, which normally causes closing of eyelid (facial nerve consists of its efferent part of the reflex). (scribd.com)
  • Facial nerve has motor, sensory and autonomic fibers. (scribd.com)
  • The Facial nerve is responsible for the motor function of the facial muscles, but also sensory input from the tongue for taste. (holistichorse.com)
  • This pictorial diagram lists the pertinent nerve branches related to the trigeminal nerve and the pterygopalatine fossa, as well as the facial nerve and its relation to the pterygopalatine fossa. (medscape.com)
  • MRI also provides a more accurate assessment of intracranial spread to the Meckel cave, the cavernous sinus, the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve, and the facial nerve in the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA). (medscape.com)
  • 2 The second and third divisions of the trigeminal nerve and the facial nerve are the most commonly involved cranial nerves. (ajnr.org)
  • Facial nerve - muscles that control facial expressions, scalp and stapedius muscle of middle ear. (healthhype.com)
  • The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). (fpnotebook.com)
  • motor nucleus for the hypoglossal nerve, supplying tongue muscles (all but the palatoglossus). (fpnotebook.com)
  • hypoglossal nerve exits from. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The hypoglossal nerve enervates the muscles of the tongue. (cancer.gov)
  • The Hypoglossal nerve is responsible for motor of the muscles of the tongue. (holistichorse.com)
  • Hypoglossal nerve - muscles of the tongue - swallowing and articulation (speech). (healthhype.com)
  • Third, Fourth, and Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsies in Pituitary Apoplexy Pituitary apoplexy (PA) often presents with acute headache and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, including ocular motility dysfunction (OMD) from cranial nerve palsies (CNPs). (tripdatabase.com)
  • She had been wrongly diagnosed as suffering from bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies as a result of raised intracranial pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cranial nerve palsies in spontaneous carotid artery dissection. (bmj.com)
  • Summary: We report the MR findings of parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst manifesting as multiple, lower cranial nerve palsies in a 35-year-old woman. (ajnr.org)
  • We describe a case of parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst manifesting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies, an unusual location and presentation for this lesion. (ajnr.org)
  • Gradual recovery of the multiple cranial nerve palsies occurred within 3 weeks. (ajnr.org)
  • The authors then describe common lesions and present a series of cases that are complemented by CT images and MRIs to illustrate disease entities that result in cranial nerve dysfunction. (goodreads.com)
  • Injury of the nerves that affect the eyes and ears can cause dysfunction in vision and hearing. (aapmr.org)
  • Pain stemming from dysfunction in this nerve can cause behavioral issues such as head shaking, head tossing, chewing on the bit, difficulty bridling/haltering, sensitivity to the head/poll area, tensed muscles of the jaw, or a number of other unwanted behaviors. (holistichorse.com)
  • Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers. (jove.com)
  • Some pairs of nerves serve both sensory and motor functions. (holistichorse.com)
  • This thesaurus page is about all possible synonyms, equivalent, same meaning and similar words for the term tenth cranial nerve . (synonyms.net)
  • Cranial nerves with sensory functions allow us to smell and see. (bartleby.com)
  • Sensory cranial nerves help a person to see, smell, and hear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • No effective treatments are available for cranial nerve injury-induced loss of smell. (aapmr.org)
  • The first two Cranial nerves both deal with the sense of smell. (holistichorse.com)
  • Depending on definition in humans there are twelve or thirteen cranial nerves pairs, which are assigned Roman numerals I-XII, sometimes also including cranial nerve zero . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although thirteen cranial nerves in humans fit this description, twelve are conventionally recognized. (wikidoc.org)
  • We report the case of a 67 year old man with acute ophthalmoplegia due to extensive damage to the fibers innervating the extrinsic muscles of the left third cranial nerve. (springer.com)
  • Answer CAP or compound action potential is a measure of the sum of the "all or none" single action potential of a group of fibers in a single nerve. (bartleby.com)
  • Specialized olfactory neurons and nerve fibers meet with other nerves, which pass into the olfactory tract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal nerve contains sensory fibers innervating the face, and motion fibers going to the masticatory muscles (Fig. 8). (scribd.com)
  • The cranial root fibers arise from the cells of the nucleus ambiguus and emerge as four or five delicate rootlets from the side of the medulla oblongata , below the roots of the vagus . (thefullwiki.org)
  • As the fibers from the presumptive cranial root may not join the accessory nerve at all or at best for a very short distance within the jugular foramen, it appears more useful to consider them in general to be part of the cranial roots of the vagal nerve. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers originating from the spinal segments C1-C5 (the medullary root of the accessory nerve). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Some of these nerves are sensory or motor only while others are mixed containing a combination of sensory and motor fibers. (healthhype.com)
  • others contain both sensory and motor fibers called mixed nerves. (encognitive.com)
  • A literature search was carried out in PubMed with the following search terms: neurovascular compression syndrome, cranial neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, vestibular nerve compression, vestibular paroxysmia, intermedius neuralgia and microvascular decompression. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Vestibulocochlear (auditory) nerve: splits into the vestibular and cochlear nerve. (listography.com)
  • The nerve copsists of two functional parts- the vestibular, which is the conductor of the impulses from the organ of equilibrium, and the cochlear, which perceives auditory stimuli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Right Juxtaposed skull base with foramina in which many nerves exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves have paths within and outside the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many holes in the skull called "foramina" by which the nerves can exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description Go to Brief Summary: Introduction: The skull base tumors surgery remains a challenge since numerous cranial nerves or vessels closely surround them. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Spinal nerves emerge sequentially from the spinal cord with the spinal nerve closest to the head ( C1 ) emerging in the space above the first cervical vertebra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hes1 and Hes5 regulate the development of the cranial and spinal nerve systems. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we found that in Hes1;Hes5 double-mutant mice, the cranial and spinal nerve systems are also severely disorganized. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that Hes1 and Hes5 play an important role in the formation of the cranial and spinal nerve systems. (nih.gov)
  • The branches of the trigeminal nerve innervate fronto-parietal part of the head and face (sensitive innervations of skin of the back of the head is provided by upper cervical spinal nerve roots), mucosal membrane of the mouth, nose and sinuses, the front 2/3 of tongue, teeth and partially meninges. (scribd.com)
  • Grossly, all cranial nerves have a nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each nerve may have several functions, the nerve fibres that make up the nerve may collect in more than one nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8.3.3 The Relation to the Accessory Nerve Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 9 The Control of Head Movements: The Accessory Nerve Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 9.3 The Topography and Cytoarchitecture of the Accessory Nerve Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of cranial nerve mononeuropathies in neurosarcoidosis? (medscape.com)
  • The nerve is especially sensitive to mechanical irritation here, which provokes the clinical symptoms of nerve compression. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • By alleviating and removing the neurovascular compression, the trigeminal nerve recovers and painful symptoms are relieved. (pennmedicine.org)
  • A physical exam will be utilized to evaluate the patient's symptoms and to identify the specific cranial nerve injury. (aapmr.org)
  • Cranial Nerve VII Diseases anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, along with personal stories and experiences with Cranial Nerve VII Diseases. (experienceproject.com)
  • In order to understand that nature of the symptoms in cranial nerve damage or disease, it is important to first know its functions. (healthhype.com)
  • Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Cranial nerve disorders affecting neuromuscular coordination of sucking and swallowing difficulty, as listed in our database. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Understanding Diabetic Neuropathy: From Subclinical Nerve Lesions to Severe Nerve Fiber Deficits. (medscape.com)
  • Lesions of the ninth nerve result in difficulty swallowing and disturbance of taste. (cancer.gov)
  • The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. (ovid.com)
  • Part I of this series, "Evaluating the Cranial Nervies," will give an overview of cranial nerves I and II. (encognitive.com)
  • The cranial nerves, however, emerge from the central nervous system above this level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranial nerves emerge from the central nervous system above the level of the first vertebrae of the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranial nerves are in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these nerves emerge pass through the spinal cord and are known as the spinal nerves. (healthhype.com)
  • The first line of treatment for cranial never disorders is to help relieve the pain of trigeminal neuralgia is usually medication therapy. (pennmedicine.org)
  • The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. (ovid.com)
  • for a full list refer to causes of Cranial nerve disorders affecting neuromuscular coordination of swallowing . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • The following list of conditions have ' Cranial nerve disorders affecting neuromuscular coordination of swallowing ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. (umassmed.edu)
  • The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Cranial nerve disorders affecting neuromuscular coordination of sucking and swallowing difficulty. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Demonstration and review of neurological examination of cranial nerves-includes video snipits. (merlot.org)
  • It is clear and concise in presenting the cranial nerve function examination. (merlot.org)
  • It provides a complete explanation of the cranial nerve function examination. (merlot.org)
  • It integrates the cranial nerve function (normal and abnormal) examination well in the clinical case studies and quizzes. (merlot.org)
  • It can be easily integrated into the curriculum after identifying the learning objectives for each topic of cranial nerve examination. (merlot.org)
  • A PDF transcript of each video of each topic of cranial nerve function examination (normal and abnormal examples) is highly recommended. (merlot.org)
  • What Should I Expect during a Cranial Nerve Examination? (wisegeek.com)
  • During a cranial nerve examination, the doctor will carry out a number of simple tests to assess the function of the 12 cranial nerves. (wisegeek.com)
  • Before carrying out a cranial nerve examination, doctors should ask for your consent to a physical examination and should wash their hands. (wisegeek.com)
  • Part of the cranial nerve examination assesses the fifth, or trigeminal, cranial nerve, which controls chewing muscles and sensation in the face and eyes. (wisegeek.com)
  • To test this during the cranial nerve examination, the doctor might ask you to lift your eyebrows, screw up your eyes, bare your teeth and puff out your cheeks. (wisegeek.com)
  • As the list is important to keep in mind during the examination of the nervous system, there are many mnemonic devices in circulation to help remember the names and order of the cranial nerves. (wikidoc.org)
  • Neurological examination revealed multiple cranial nerves deficits and haematology and serum biochemistry revealed mild anaemia. (bva.co.uk)
  • Re-examination of the medullary rootlets of the accessory and vagus nerves. (thefullwiki.org)
  • First thing to say is that there is no such thing as the cranial nerve examination. (teesneuro.org)
  • Examination may reveal vertigo and ipsilateral hearing loss, seventh-nerve paresis, and tinnitus. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • There is a section on cranial nerves including a list of foramina (holes through which nerves pass through the bones, very useful for linking clinical presentation to findings on examination. (positivehealth.com)
  • A thorough neurological examination includes the evaluation of a patient's mental status and speech, motor system, sensory system, reflexes, and cranial nerves. (encognitive.com)
  • The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although on a structural level the olfactory (I), optic (II), and trigeminal (V) nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryle C, Donaghy M. Non-enzymatic glycation of peripheral nerve proteins in human diabetics. (medscape.com)
  • Nakatani-Enomoto S, Aizawa H, Koyama S, Kuroda K, Kimura T, Kikuchi K. Transient swelling of peripheral nerves in a case of neurosarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • This is a natural weak point of the nerve, the site of transition between central and peripheral myelin. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • However, unlike peripheral nerves which are separated to achieve segmental innervation , cranial nerves are divided to serve one or a few specific functions in wider anatomical territories. (wikidoc.org)
  • The peripheral processes of the nerve cells of that ganglion approach the receptor elements of the sacculus, utriculus, and ampulla of the membranous semicircular canals of the inner ear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensory enervation of the face and motor enervation to muscles of mastication (chewing). (cancer.gov)
  • The accessory nerve enervates the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the trapezius muscles. (cancer.gov)
  • Trigeminal nerve: Combined, these nerves provide sensation to the skin of the face and also controls the muscles of mastication/chewing. (listography.com)
  • The motor portion of the trigeminal n. exit with mandibular nerve and innervate m. masseter and some other muscles. (scribd.com)
  • This nerve is both responsible for sensation to the head and face, but also motor function to the chewing muscles. (holistichorse.com)
  • Accessory nerve - muscles for head and shoulder movements. (healthhype.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both motor and sensory functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory components. (videohelp.com)
  • The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. (ovid.com)
  • Which of the following cranial nerves is most responsible for your swallowing and gag reflexes? (study.com)
  • Solve the case studies on different cranial function with normal and abnormal functions. (merlot.org)
  • Each of the twelve chapters that follow is devoted to in-depth coverage of a different cranial nerve. (goodreads.com)
  • Cranial examinations are administered by confrontation.The patient is checked for different cranial nerves both sensory and motor. (dnatube.com)
  • He further goes on to explain some cranial-sacral methods he has developed to interrogate the patient's mechanism. (positivehealth.com)
  • The trigeminal ganglion and the sixth cranial nerve are separated from the bony petrous apex only by the dura mater, hence their vulnerability to inflammatory processes occurring within this region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A , Contrast-enhanced CT image shows abnormal thickening and mild enhancement along the right sixth cranial nerve ( arrow ). (ajnr.org)
  • They are numbered in a rostral to caudal sequence, with the exception of the lateral line nerves. (xenbase.org)
  • The nerves contain efferent axons with motor and glandular functions, as well as afferent axons from cranial ganglia with sensory functions. (xenbase.org)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cranial Nerve 7. (fpnotebook.com)
  • This nerve helps with sensory of the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract, motor to the larynx, and parasympathetic motor to the abdominal and thoracic organs. (holistichorse.com)
  • 10 Neurons of the Cranial Parasympathetic Outflow. (booktopia.com.au)
  • I. Neurons/nerve cells A neuron is a cell specialized to conduct electrochemical impulses called nerve impulses or action potentials. (bartleby.com)
  • In these mutant mice, axonal projections from the mesencephalic neurons to the trigeminal (V) ganglion become aberrant and the proximal parts of the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) nerves are fused. (nih.gov)
  • The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is referred to an ipsilateral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve, on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is an ipsilateral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 74-year-old man who had suffered from right herpes zoster ophthalmicus developed ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve involvement two weeks later. (nih.gov)
  • Mandibular nerve exits from. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • damage = Conditions affecting the trigeminal nerve include trigeminal neuralgia (mostly V2 maxillary nerve and V3 mandibular nerve), cluster headache, and trigeminal zoster. (listography.com)
  • The three branches of this nerve are the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular portions. (holistichorse.com)
  • A case study by Fukai et al of a patient with perineural spread of adenoid cystic carcinoma along the mandibular nerve suggested that progression of this lesion is associated with elevated expression of ephrin type-A receptor 2 and a transition of the tumor cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. (medscape.com)
  • The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are traditionally abbreviated by the corresponding Roman numerals. (wikidoc.org)
  • These nerves are referred to as Cranial Nerves and are numbered using Roman numerals. (holistichorse.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder of the trigeminal nerve that can cause intense pain and facial tics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This class of medications has also been found to be quite effective in treating nerve pain, including trigeminal neuralgia when taken on an on-going basis. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Dr. Sekula has performed more than 1,000 microvascular decompressions for trigeminal neuralgia, and more than 1,000 MVDs for hemifacial spasms since finishing his mentorship with MVD pioneer Peter Jannetta, establishing him as one of today's preeminent international experts in the field of cranial nerve surgery. (pitt.edu)
  • In addition advice is given to the practitioner as to how by knowing the paths of the nerves areas of impingement can be determined such as in the case of trigeminal neuralgia. (positivehealth.com)
  • What are some alternative words for tenth cranial nerve ? (synonyms.net)
  • Are we missing a good synonym for tenth cranial nerve ? (synonyms.net)
  • What rhymes with tenth cranial nerve ? (synonyms.net)