Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mobius Syndrome: A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Trochlear Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TROCHLEAR NERVE.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Glomus Jugulare Tumor: A paraganglioma involving the glomus jugulare, a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the bulb of the jugular vein. It may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. It is not resectable but radiation therapy is effective. It regresses slowly, but permanent control is regularly achieved. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1603-4)Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Glossopharyngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Neuroradiography: Radiography of the central nervous system.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Vagus Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the VAGUS NERVE. Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Abducens Nerve Injury: Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Herpes Zoster Oticus: A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Neurofibromatosis 2: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Nerve Tissue ProteinsInfratentorial Neoplasms: Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Neurologic Manifestations: Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.PolyvinylsNerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Platybasia: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Epidermal Cyst: Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.

Differential distribution of retinoic acid synthesis in the chicken embryo as determined by immunolocalization of the retinoic acid synthetic enzyme, RALDH-2. (1/248)

Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6-29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and discrete patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the embryo, particularly within the somitic mesoderm, lateral mesoderm, kidney, heart, and spinal motor neurons. Prior to somitogenesis, RALDH-2-IR is present in the paraxial mesoderm with a rostral boundary at the level of the presumptive first somite; as the somites form, they exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR. Cervical presomitic mesoderm exhibits RALDH-2-IR but thoracic presomitic mesoderm does not. Neural crest cells do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2, but migrating crest cells are associated with RALDH-2 expressing mesoderm. The developing limb mesoderm expresses little RALDH-2-IR; however, RALDH-2-IR is strongly expressed in tissues adjacent to the limb. The most lateral, earliest-projecting motor neurons at all levels of the spinal cord exhibit RALDH-2-IR. Subsequently, many additional motor neurons in the brachial and lumbar cord regions express RALDH-2-IR. Motor neuronal expression of RALDH-2-IR is present in the growing axons as they extend to the periphery, indicating a potential role of retinoic acid in nerve influences on peripheral differentiation. With the exception of a transient expression in the facial/vestibulocochlear nucleus, cranial motor neurons do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2-IR.  (+info)

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with multiple hypertrophic nerves in intracranial, and intra- and extra-spinal segments. (2/248)

Hypertrophic nerves have occasionally been seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), but most are in the cauda equina. We report a case with CIDP in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement demonstrated hypertrophy of various peripheral nerves including multiple cranial nerves. Interestingly, none showed neurological signs corresponding to the lesions, except for clinical signs consistent with CIDP. MRI can be useful for the detection of silent, but abnormal nerve involvement in CIDP.  (+info)

Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse. (3/248)

Mouse fetuses carrying targeted inactivations of both the RAR(&agr;) and the RARbeta genes display a variety of malformations in structures known to be partially derived from the mesenchymal neural crest originating from post-otic rhombomeres (e.g. thymus and great cephalic arteries) (Ghyselinck, N., Dupe, V., Dierich, A., Messaddeq, N., Garnier, J.M., Rochette-Egly, C., Chambon, P. and Mark M. (1997). Int. J. Dev. Biol. 41, 425-447). In a search for neural crest defects, we have analysed the rhombomeres, cranial nerves and pharyngeal arches of these double null mutants at early embryonic stages. The mutant post-otic cranial nerves are disorganized, indicating that RARs are involved in the patterning of structures derived from neurogenic neural crest, even though the lack of RARalpha and RARbeta has no detectable effect on the number and migration path of neural crest cells. Interestingly, the double null mutation impairs early developmental processes known to be independent of the neural crest e.g., the initial formation of the 3rd and 4th branchial pouches and of the 3rd, 4th and 6th arch arteries. The double mutation also results in an enlargement of rhombomere 5, which is likely to be responsible for the induction of supernumerary otic vesicles, in a disappearance of the rhombomere 5/6 boundary, and in profound alterations of rhombomere identities. In the mutant hindbrain, the expression domain of kreisler is twice its normal size and the caudal stripe of Krox-20 extends into the presumptive rhombomeres 6 and 7 region. In this region, Hoxb-1 is ectopically expressed, Hoxb-3 is ectopically up-regulated and Hoxd-4 expression is abolished. These data, which indicate that retinoic acid signaling through RARalpha and/or RARbeta is essential for the specification of rhombomere identities and for the control of caudal hindbrain segmentation by restricting the expression domains of kreisler and of Krox-20, also strongly suggest that this signaling plays a crucial role in the posteriorization of the hindbrain neurectoderm.  (+info)

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor is a neurotrophic survival factor for lumbar but not for other somatic motoneurons in the chick embryo. (4/248)

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is expressed in the developing limb muscles of the chick embryo during the period of spinal motoneuron (MN) programmed cell death, and its receptor c-met is expressed in lumbar MNs during this same period. Although cultured motoneurons from brachial, thoracic, and lumbar segments are all rescued from cell death by chick embryo muscle extract (CMX) as well as by other specific trophic agents, HGF/SF only promotes the survival of lumbar MNs. Similarly, treatment of embryos in ovo with exogenous HGF/SF rescues lumbar but not other somatic MNs from cell death. Blocking antibodies to HGF/SF (anti-HGF) reduce the effects of CMX on MN survival in vitro and decrease the number of lumbar MNs in vivo. The expression of c-met on MNs in vivo is regulated by a limb-derived trophic signal distinct from HGF/SF. HGF/SF is a potent, select, and physiologically relevant survival factor for a subpopulation of developing spinal MNs in the lumbar segments of the chick embryo.  (+info)

Neuropilin-2 regulates the development of selective cranial and sensory nerves and hippocampal mossy fiber projections. (5/248)

Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 bind differentially to different class 3 semaphorins and are thought to provide the ligand-binding moieties in receptor complexes mediating repulsive responses to these semaphorins. Here, we have studied the function of neuropilin-2 through analysis of a neuropilin-2 mutant mouse, which is viable and fertile. Repulsive responses of sympathetic and hippocampal neurons to Sema3F but not to Sema3A are abolished in the mutant. Marked defects are observed in the development of several cranial nerves, in the initial central projections of spinal sensory axons, and in the anterior commissure, habenulo-interpeduncular tract, and the projections of hippocampal mossyfiber axons in the infrapyramidal bundle. Our results show that neuropilin-2 is an essential component of the Sema3F receptor and identify key roles for neuropilin-2 in axon guidance in the PNS and CNS.  (+info)

Vitamin A deficiency results in the dose-dependent acquisition of anterior character and shortening of the caudal hindbrain of the rat embryo. (6/248)

The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to vitamin A deficiency. Retinoid has been proposed to be a posteriorizing factor during hindbrain development, although direct evidence in the mammalian embryo is lacking. In the present study, pregnant vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats were fed purified diets containing varying levels of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA; 0, 0.5, 1.5, 6, 12, 25, 50, 125, or 250 microg/g diet) or were supplemented with retinol. Hindbrain development was studied from embryonic day 10 to 12.5 ( approximately 6 to 40 somites). Normal morphogenesis was observed in all embryos from groups fed 250 microg atRA/g diet or retinol. The most caudal region of the hindbrain was the most sensitive to retinoid insufficiency, as evidenced by a loss of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) in embryos from the 125 microg atRA/g diet group. Further reduction of atRA to 50 microg/g diet led to the loss of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII and associated sensory ganglia IX and X in all embryos as well as the loss of hindbrain segmentation caudal to the rhombomere (r) 3/4 border in a subset of embryos. Dysmorphic orthotopic otic vesicles or immature otic-like vesicles in both orthotopic and caudally ectopic locations were also observed. As the level of atRA was reduced, a loss of caudal hindbrain segmentation was observed in all embryos and the incidence of otic vesicle abnormalities increased. Perturbations in hindbrain segmentation, cranial nerve formation, and otic vesicle development were associated with abnormal patterning of the posterior hindbrain. Embryos from VAD dams fed between 0.5 and 50 microg atRA/g diet exhibited Hoxb-1 protein expression along the entire neural tube caudal to the r3/r4 border at a time when it should be restricted to r4. Krox-20 protein expression was expanded in r3 but absent or reduced in presumptive r5. Hoxd-4 mRNA expression was absent in the posterior hindbrain, and the rostral limit of Hoxb-5 protein expression in the neural tube was anteriorized, suggesting that the most posterior hindbrain region (r7/r8) had been deleted and/or improperly patterned. Thus, when limiting amounts of atRA are provided to VAD dams, the caudal portion of the hindbrain is shortened and possesses r4/r5-like characteristics, with this region finally exhibiting r4-like gene expression when retinoid is restricted even more severely. Thus, regions of the anterior hindbrain (i.e., r3 and r4) appear to be greatly expanded, whereas the posterior hindbrain (r5-r8) is reduced or absent. This work shows that retinoid plays a critical role in patterning, segmentation, and neurogenesis of the caudal hindbrain and serves as an essential posteriorizing signal for this region of the central nervous system in the mammal.  (+info)

Development of the cavernous sinus in the fetal period: a morphological study. (7/248)

The development and morphological structure of the lateral sellar compartment (LSC), an interdural space containing the cavernous sinus (CS), cranial nerves, and internal carotid artery (ICA), was investigated by histological examination of sections of the LSC and cerebral venograms from human fetal specimens. Twenty-eight LSC coronal sections were obtained from 14 fetuses of 13-32 weeks' gestation. Venograms of 11 other fetuses of 13-32 weeks' gestation were studied to observe changes in venous drainage. The CS appeared as a collection of small venous canals with an endothelial layer. These venous canals gradually became much larger through expansion and unification. The CS and basilar venous plexus were demonstrated as a faint cluster of small vessels on venograms obtained after 13 weeks' gestation. The dura mater increased in thickness and collagen fiber networks developed around all the components in the LSC after 23 weeks' gestation. The LSC lateral wall could not be histologically differentiated as separate multiple layers. Branching and joining of the cranial nerve fascicles were completed with the envelopment of collagen fibers after 23 weeks' gestation. The ICA at 13-15 weeks' gestation ran straight within the LSC, becoming tortuous before birth. CS formation occurs through the development of venous canals without smooth muscle layers, followed by web-formation by collagen fibers in the mesenchymal interstices. LSC formation, including the dense dura mater and an internal structure like that seen in the adult, is largely completed before birth.  (+info)

Facial palsy in cerebral venous thrombosis : transcranial stimulation and pathophysiological considerations. (8/248)

BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsy in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CVT) is rare, its pathophysiology remains unclear, and data from electrophysiological examinations in such patients are missing. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 17-year-old woman with familial protein S deficiency who was admitted with extensive multiple CVT. Two weeks after onset of symptoms, she developed isolated right peripheral facial palsy, and MR venography showed segmental occlusion of the ipsilateral transverse sinus. Complete recovery of facial palsy occurred concomitant with recanalization of the transverse sinus. Facial neurography, including transcranial magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve and related motor cortex, ruled out a coincidental idiopathic palsy and revealed conduction block proximal to the facial canal. CONCLUSIONS: Facial palsy in our patient was caused by transient neurapraxia in the intracranial segment of the nerve. We suggest that elevated venous transmural pressure in the nerve's satellite vein, which belongs to the affected drainage territory of the transverse sinus, might have caused venous blood-brain barrier dysfunction in the intrinsic vascular system of the nerve, with leakage of fluids and ions into the endoneurial space and thus an increase in interstitial resistance.  (+info)

*Cranial nerves

... accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve (XII). (There may be a thirteenth cranial nerve, the terminal nerve (nerve O or N ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII). The fibers of these cranial nerves exit the brainstem from ... A cranial nerve exam begins with observation of the patient because some cranial nerve lesions may affect the symmetry of the ...

*Cranial nerve examination

The cranial nerve exam is part of the neurological examination. It is used to identify problems with the cranial nerves by ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerve nucleus Jon Brillman; Scott Kahan (1 March 2005). In A Page Neurology. Lippincott Williams & ... "Examination of the Cranial Nerves". "Examination of the Cranial Nerves". NeurologyExam.com Free neurology exam videos by ... Can assist in testing the vestibulocochlear cranial nerve. Cranial nerve examinations are a common type of role-play in the ...

*Cranial nerve disease

The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...

*Cranial nerve ganglia

... the cranial nerve ganglia are either parasympathetic or sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves . The four cranial autonomic ... ganglion of vagus nerve Inferior (nodose) ganglion of vagus nerve Purves, Dale, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, William ... the autonomic ganglia of the Vagus nerve (X) form lie outside of the head, frequently within the organ which they innervate. In ...

*Cranial nerve nucleus

... in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) ... Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically ... Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Brain stem sagittal ... All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. In general, motor nuclei ...

*Cranial root of accessory nerves

Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. ... The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally ... part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve ... it appears more useful to consider them in general to be part of the cranial roots of the vagal nerve. The accessory nerve ...

*Edinger-Westphal nucleus

The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ... cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves ... Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. ...

*Deep petrosal nerve

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) "7-17". Cranial Nerves. Yale ... and joins with the greater superficial petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal, also known as the Vidian nerve ... The deep petrosal nerve (large deep petrosal nerve) is given off from the internal carotid plexus, and runs through the carotid ... It carries postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion, also known as the sphenopalatine ganglion. ...

*Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by ... The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve, the principal motor nerve of the pharynx, arises from the upper part of the ganglion ... and consists principally of filaments from the cranial portion of the accessory nerve. It passes across the internal carotid ... which is supplied by the nerve to tensor veli palatini, a branch of the nerve to medial pterygoid (which itself is a branch of ...

*Lesser petrosal nerve

PMID 17876229 Lesser petrosal nerve diagram cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (IX) ... The nucleus of the lesser petrosal nerve is the inferior salivatory nucleus. Tympanic nerve Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Overview of ... The lesser petrosal nerve (also known as the small superficial petrosal nerve) is the General visceral efferent (GVE) component ... Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. ...

*Anterior olfactory nucleus

The information is sent via the olfactory nerve (Cranial Nerve I) to the olfactory bulb. After the processing in the bulb the ... PMID 16229895 "1-4". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. NIF Search - Anterior ...

*Olfactory tract

Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. "Anatomy diagram: 13048.000-1". Roche ... The olfactory tract is a bundle of afferent nerve fibers from the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb that connects ... Optic and olfactory nerves.Inferior view. Deep dissection. Cerebrum.Inferior view. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Inferior view. ... Human brainstem anterior view Olfactory nerve Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum. ...

*Vagus nerve

The vagus nerve (/ˈveɪɡəs/ VAY-gəs), historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and ... Pharyngeal nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Superior cervical cardiac branches of vagus nerve Inferior cervical cardiac branch ... Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled. Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical ... MedEd at Loyola grossanatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn10.htm "10-1". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on ...

*Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus

... cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (IX) "9-13". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of ... The branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to the carotid sinus (Hering's nerve) is a small nerve in the neck, that innervates the ... It communicates with the vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk and then divides in the angle of the bifurcation of the common ... It is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that runs downwards, anterior to the internal carotid artery. ...

*Lateral olfactory stria

Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. http://isc.temple.edu/neuroanatomy/lab/atlas ...

*Rhinencephalon

ISBN 978-961-90305-5-4. "1-5". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. ...

*Chorda tympani

It joins the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) inside the facial canal, at the level where the facial nerve exits the skull via ... The chorda tympani carries two types of nerve fibers from their origin with the facial nerve to the lingual nerve that carries ... The chorda tympani is part of one of three cranial nerves that are involved in taste. The taste system involves a complicated ... Anatomy figure: 27:03-08 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center "7-18". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine ...

*Short ciliary nerves

Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. lesson3 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley ... The short ciliary nerve contains parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers. The parasympathetics arise from the Edinger- ... Long ciliary nerves This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) "3-11". ... They run forward with the ciliary arteries in a wavy course, one set above and the other below the optic nerve, and are ...

*Accessory nerve

"Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... It is considered the eleventh of twelve pairs of cranial nerves, or simply cranial nerve XI, as part of it was formerly ... The spinal accessory nerve is notable for being the only cranial nerve to both enter and exit the skull. This is due to it ... The cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve, and there is ongoing debate about whether the cranial part should be ...

*Medial olfactory stria

Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. ...

*Startle response

... cranial nerve VIII (auditory) -> cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) -> LLN -> caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The ... First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ...

*Hypoglossal nerve

The hypoglossal nerve is one of twelve cranial nerves found in amniotes including reptiles, mammals and birds. As with humans, ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, ... The hypoglossal nerve may be connected (anastamosed) to the facial nerve to attempt to restore function when the facial nerve ... Because of the close proximity of the nerve to other structures including nerves, arteries, and veins, it is rare for the nerve ...

*Abducens nerve

It is also known as the abducent nerve, the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. ... of people with tuberculosis have some resulting cranial nerve deficit. The sixth nerve is the most commonly affected cranial ... Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ... n/cn/cn1/cn6.htm Animations of extraocular cranial nerve and muscle function and damage (University of Liverpool) cranialnerves ...

*Trochlear nerve

The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that ... The nuclei of other cranial nerves generally affect ipsilateral structures (for example, the optic nerves - cranial nerves II ... cranial nerve III and abducens - cranial nerve VI) and the first two branches of the trigeminal nerve (V), Ophthalmic (V1) and ... The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ...

*Olfactory nerve

The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the ... The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers ... "1-1". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by ... the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The ...

*Euchambersia

Abdel-Kader, T.G.; Ali, R.S.; Ibrahim, N.M. (2011). "The Cranial Nerves of Mabuya quinquetaeniata III: Nervus Trigeminus" (PDF ... All of these canals would have brought nerves and nutrient-rich tissue to the root of the canines and the rest of the upper jaw ... The forward-directed canal also splits into the three main branches of the infraorbital nerve, all of which connect to the ... CT scanning shows that these openings lead to canals that connect to the trigeminal nerve, which controls facial sensitivity. ...
Definition of Cranial nerve nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cranial nerve nucleus? Meaning of Cranial nerve nucleus as a legal term. What does Cranial nerve nucleus mean in law?
CranIal Nerve V lesion The differential diagnosis of cranial nerve V lesions / causes of cranial nerve lesion are : -neoplastic infiltration of the base of the skull -cerebellopontine angle tumor -acoustic neuroma
Diagram of the sixth cranial nerve nuclei on a brainstem. Named for its function - innervating the lateral rectus muscle, whose action is to abduct the globe
Do You Have Cranial Nerve Vii Diseases? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Cranial Nerve VII Diseases group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. Cranial Nerve VII Diseases anonymous su...
Ok then. Lets get back to our slide and make sure that you are comfortable and familiar with what we see here in this slide and that you know what the 12 cranial nerves are and the 10 that connect to the brain stem in particular for this lesson. Now notice that in this figure theres a color code and the color code is meant. To help you understand which nerves are purely sensory. Which are purely motor. And then, which nerves. Like, most of our spinal nerves have a mixture of sensory and motor axons within them. Well, that may seem, perhaps, surprising that there would be nerves that are mixed for sensation, and. Motor output but that is the case for our spinal nerves and it is the case, as you can see by the abundance of green nerves here, for several of the cranial nerves. So that suggests that there must be some complex relationship between the brain stem and the nerves. And often that is the case. So what I want to help you with next is to understand, how do these nerves connect up with the ...
Ok then. Lets get back to our slide and make sure that you are comfortable and familiar with what we see here in this slide and that you know what the 12 cranial nerves are and the 10 that connect to the brain stem in particular for this lesson. Now notice that in this figure theres a color code and the color code is meant. To help you understand which nerves are purely sensory. Which are purely motor. And then, which nerves. Like, most of our spinal nerves have a mixture of sensory and motor axons within them. Well, that may seem, perhaps, surprising that there would be nerves that are mixed for sensation, and. Motor output but that is the case for our spinal nerves and it is the case, as you can see by the abundance of green nerves here, for several of the cranial nerves. So that suggests that there must be some complex relationship between the brain stem and the nerves. And often that is the case. So what I want to help you with next is to understand, how do these nerves connect up with the ...
Although the cranial nerves and their sensory and. of the brainstem showing the cranial nerves.Which cranial nerve carries sensory fibers from taste receptors of.This is an article introducing the 12 cranial nerves. this nerve governs the ocular and sensory functions.. The Cranial Nerves (Organization of the Central Nervous. motor neuron lesion of this cranial nerve (described in the following.The patient complains of decreased sense of taste (3 cranial nerves).Nerve - Cranial Nerve 9,10 The functions of the. 2004 - 08 Cranial Nerves.The olfactory nerve is a special sensory cranial nerve that ...
The present study examined the role of branchial and orobranchial O2 chemoreceptors in the cardiorespiratory responses, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), and the development of inferior lip swelling in tambaqui during prolonged (6 h) exposure to hypoxia. Intact fish (control) and three groups of denervated fish (bilateral denervation of cranial nerves IX+X (to the gills), of cranial nerves V+VII (to the orobranchial cavity) or of cranial nerves V alone), were exposed to severe hypoxia (PwO2=10 mmHg) for 360 min. Respiratory frequency (fr) and heart rate (fh) were recorded simultaneously with ASR. Intact (control) fish increased fr, ventilation amplitude (VAMP) and developed hypoxic bradycardia in the first 60 min of hypoxia. The bradycardia, however, abated progressively and had returned to normoxic levels by the last hour of exposure to hypoxia. The changes in respiratory frequency and the hypoxic bradycardia were eliminated by denervation of cranial nerves IX and X but were not affected by ...
PURPOSE: We report our experience with the use of maternally derived serum eye drops as adjunctive treatment in the management of pediatric persistent corneal epithelial defects. METHODS: Five eyes of 4 patients were identified in a retrospective review of pediatric patients with persistent corneal epithelial defects who received maternal serum drops. Diagnoses associated with the defects comprised pontine tegmental cap dysplasia with bilateral cranial nerve V1, V2, V3, and VII palsies; pontine tegmental cap dysplasia with left cranial nerve V1, VII, and VIII palsies; traumatic left cranial nerve II, V1, V2, and VI palsies due to a basilar skull fracture; and Stevens-Johnson syndrome with ocular involvement ...
Headaches can arise from many different causes. A partial list includes stress, lack of sleep, allergies, neck trauma (particularly sports injuries and car accidents), and more. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.. A unique common denominator of headaches has to do with cervical spine anatomy, in particular the upper part of the neck. There are seven cervical vertebrae, and the top three (C1-3) give rise to three nerves that travel into the head. These nerves also share a pain nucleus with the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which can route pain signals to the brain.. Depending on which nerve is most irritated, the location of the headache can vary. For example, C2-the greater occipital nerve-travels up the back of the head to the top. From there, it can communicate with another nerve (cranial nerve V or the trigeminal nerve), which can refer pain to the forehead and/or behind the eye.. When C1-the lesser occipital nerve-is irritated, pain travels to the back of the head, while ...
Headaches can arise from many different causes. A partial list includes stress, lack of sleep, allergies, neck trauma (particularly sports injuries and car accidents), and more. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. A unique common denominator of headaches has to do with cervical spine anatomy, in particular the upper part of the neck. There are seven cervical vertebrae, and the top three (C1-3) give rise to three nerves that travel into the head. These nerves also share a pain nucleus with the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which can route pain signals to the brain. Depending on which nerve is most irritated, the location of the headache can vary. For example, C2-the greater occipital nerve-travels up the back of the head to the top. From there, it can communicate with another nerve (cranial nerve V or the trigeminal nerve), which can refer pain to the forehead and/or behind the eye. When C1-the lesser occipital nerve-is irritated, pain travels to the back of the head, while irritation ...
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After exiting the hindbrain, branchial motor axons reach their targets in association with sensory ganglia. The trigeminal ganglion has been shown to promote motor axon growth from rhombomeres 2/3...
Structure. Development. During embryonic development, the embryonic metencephalon develops from the rhombencephalon and gives rise to two structures: the pons and the cerebellum. The alar plate produces sensory neuroblasts, which will give rise to the solitary nucleus and its special visceral afferent (SVA) column; the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which form the special somatic afferent (SSA) fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the spinal and principal trigeminal nerve nuclei, which form the general somatic afferent column (GSA) of the trigeminal nerve, and the pontine nuclei which relays to the cerebellum.. Basal plate neuroblasts give rise to the abducens nucleus,which forms the general somatic efferent fibers (GSE); the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, which form the special visceral efferent (SVE) column, and the superior salivatory nucleus, which forms the general visceral efferent fibers of the facial nerve.. Nucleus. A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the ...
Heres Everything You Need To Know About The Cranial Nerves - How Many Cranial Nerves Are There And The Cranial Nerves Function. How To Remember Cranial Nerves, In Order And Labeled. Learn About Brainstem
Chuang K, Nguyen E, Sergeev Y, Badea TC. Novel Heterotypic Rox Sites for Combinatorial Dre Recombination Strategies. G3 (Bethesda). 2015 Dec 29;6(3):559-71.. Sajgo S, Ali S, Popescu O, Badea TC. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Sep 10.. Kretschmer F, Sajgo S, Kretschmer V, Badea TC. A system to measure the Optokinetic and Optomotor response in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Aug 14;256:91-105.. Sajgo S, Ghinia MG, Shi M, Liu P, Dong L, Parmhans N, Popescu O, Badea TC. Dre - Cre sequential recombination provides new tools for retinal ganglion cell labeling and manipulation in mice. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 7;9(3):e91435.. Shi M, Kumar SR, Motajo O, Kretschmer F, Mu X, Badea TC. Genetic Interactions between Brn3 Transcription Factors in Retinal Ganglion Cell Type Specification. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 8;8(10):e76347.. Badea TC, Williams J, Smallwood P, Shi M, Motajo O, Nathans J. Combinatorial expression of Brn3 transcription factors ...
The developing vertebrate hindbrain consists of segmental units known as rhombomeres. Hindbrain neuroectoderm expresses 3′ Hox 1 and 2 cluster genes in characteristic patterns whose anterior limit of expression coincides with rhombomere boundaries. One particular Hox gene, referred to as Ghox 2.9, is initially expressed throughout the hindbrain up to the anterior border of rhombomere 4 (r4). Later, Ghox 2.9 is strongly upregulated in r4 and Ghox 2.9 protein is found in all neuroectodermal cells of r4 and in the hyoid crest cell population derived from this rhombomere. Using a polyclonal antibody, Ghox 2.9 was immunolocalized after transplanting r4 within the hindbrain. Wherever r4 was transplanted, Ghox 2.9 expression was cell-autonomous, both in the neuroectoderm of the graft and in the hyoid crest cell population originating from the graft. In all vertebrates, rhombomeres and cranial nerves (nerves V, VII+VIII, IX, X) exhibit a stereotypic relationship: nerve V arises at the level of r2, ...
Thus, both a conscious and an unconscious person can survive longer without oxygen under water than in a comparable situation on dry land. Children tend to survive longer than adults when deprived of oxygen underwater.. When the face is submerged, receptors that are sensitive to water within the nasal cavity and other areas of the face supplied by cranial nerve V (trigeminal) relay the information to the brain and then innervate cranial nerve X, which is part of the autonomic nervous system. This causes bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction. Blood is removed from the limbs and all organs but the heart and the brain, creating a heart-brain circuit and allowing the mammal to conserve oxygen.. In humans, the mammalian diving reflex is not induced when limbs are introduced to cold water. Mild bradycardia is caused by the subject holding his breath without submerging the face within water. When breathing with face submerged this causes a diving reflex which increases proportionally to ...
Browse freely available diagrams covering Cerebellum, Cerebellar nuclei, Brainstem, Cranial nerve nuclei, Medulla oblongata - hypoglossal nerve level, Medulla oblongata - vagus nerve level - Start learning now!
The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve (or posterior motor nucleus of vagus) is a cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve that arises from the floor of the fourth ventricle. ...
The corneal reflex test (blink test) examines the reflex pathway involving cranial nerves V and VII. Classically the provider lightly touches a wisp of cotton on the patients cornea. This foreign body sensation should cause the patient to reflexively blink.. This maneuver always makes me a little worried about causing a corneal abrasion, especially if you are examining a very somnolent patient. You are wondering - Is there no blinking because youre not touching the cornea hard enough? You apply harder pressure but still no blink. You repeat the test and now the patient finally blinks. Thats 3 times youve just scraped against the cornea.. Whats an alternative approach?. ...
I just googled it, and we have an REI store that sells lightweight Merino wool socks for $7.95 a pair. Multiple sclerosis may also affect the medulla adjacent to the cranial nerve nuclei. I peripheral neuropathy medical definition of abortion how depressing it can all be. Basbaum AI, Fields HL.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cranial Nerve Nuclei at Stanford. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
The next time youre trying to remember the locations and functions of the cranial nerves, picture this drawing. All twelve cranial nerves are represented, though some may be a little harder to spot than others. For example, the shoulders are formed by the number 11" because cranial nerve XI controls neck and shoulder movement. If you immediately recognize that the sides of the face and the top of the head are formed by the number 7," youre well on your way to using this memory device.. Tags: nerfs craniensneurologieneurology. ...
Eye movements depend on correct patterns of connectivity between cranial motor axons and the extraocular muscles. Despite the clinical importance of the ocular motor system, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying its development. We have recently shown that mutations in the Chimaerin-1 gene encoding the signaling protein α2-chimaerin (α2-chn) perturb axon guidance in the ocular mot ...
Now, take a look at what I call cranial nerve maps. These are icons of cranial nerves, their branches, what they supply and what foramina they use. Sensory is yellow and motor is red. Solid red is for skeletal muscle. Dashed red is for parasympathetic fibers. You sort of have to memorize which nerves have motor or sensory or both modalities, then consider what part of the head and neck is involved with each nerve. For example, when you look at the olfactory road map, you will see that it is yellow which means it is purely sensory. Then you consider what kind of sensation of picked up in the periphery which, in this case, is smell. The smell impulses then go back to the central nervous system. If there is red included in the map, that means that something will receive efferent fibers and will either contract or secrete. The impulse starts out in the central nervous system and passes out to a muscle or gland. ...
The cranial nerves are a set of 12 nerves which emerge directly from the brain. The names of the cranial nerves relate to their function and they are also numerically identified in roman numerals I-XII by their specific location of the brain and by the order in which they exit the cranium.
The cranial nerves originate in the brain and have power over some of the most important neurological functions of the body. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.
There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cran...
Cranial nerve damage can cause sensory, motor function and parasympathetic abnormalities, depending on which of the 12 cranial nerves are affected. Read this informative article to learn about damage results and treatment options.
Cranial Nerve Examination - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Guide to cranial nerve examination
When performing a cranial nerve examination, always ask to perform fundoscopy. This may provide valuable information regarding ocular or cranial nerve pathology, and reveals signs of diabetic or hypertensive nephropathy.
Free pdf of cranial nerves, with emphasis on those that relate to voice & swallowing. Patients dysphagia need a full exam of their cranial nerves.
About this Chapter Autonomic division Somatic motor division Antagonistic controls Somatic motor division CNS control of skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions ****** Review the overall organization of the NS
Can you find the cranial nerves in this puzzle? Print out this page, then circle all cranial nerve names that you find. The words can be up, down or backwards. There are also a few cranial nerves MISSING from this puzzle. Do you know which ones are missing? For more information of the cranial nerves, go the Cranial Nerve Page. Here is the puzzle: ...
the first two cranial nerves olfactory nerve i that transmits signals make up your sense of smell and optic ii responsible brain diagram brains.. ...
Study Flashcards On Cranial Nerves, Brainstem Location and Nuclei at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
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The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement. Learn more here.
Study Flashcards On [visual] Cranial Nerves & Brainstem at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
... ContinuedSkull Part of Axial Skeleton Cranial bones = cranium Enclose and protect brain Attachment for
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13 The Brain, Cranial Nerves, and Sensory and Motor Pathways Lecture Presentation by Lori Garrett Note to the Instructor: For the third edition of Visual Anatomy & Physiology, we have updated our PowerPoints
French antique anatomy of BRAIN CRANIAL NERVES print poster between and These beautyfull illustration come from a series of hand colored lithographs from J M Bourgery They make elegant Medical
BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline Brain structure 1. Cerebrum Hemispheres: left & right Cerebral cortex Gyri Sulci Fissures Longitudinal fissure Corpus callosum Lobes Central
Use videos, quizzes, articles and a full atlas to learn: [86 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the cranial nerves.
Phone numbers, addresses and other contact information for the Center for Cranial Nerve and Brainstem Disorders at the University of Pittsburgh.
The mnemonic is 2 2 4 4. The number of Cranial Nerves leaving or exiting from each Brain segments (namely and respectively Cerebrum, Mid brain, Pons and, Medulla) are denominated in each of these numbers ...
Can you name the Can you name the CRANIAL EXITS of the cranial nerves?? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by dashloose
List of causes of Cranial nerve dysfunction and Ear bleeding and Energy symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cranial Nerves. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Start studying The Brain and the Cranial Nerves. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Video shows the examination of an infant cranial nerves by an expert doctor. Infant is of 6 months and a careful examination is shown here.
This useful table summarising the anatomy and function of the cranial nerves was compiled by James Barber, ST8, Salford Royal Hospital, Manchester. ...
The ICD-10 Code D43.3 is the code used for Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of cranial nerves .An alternative description for this code is Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of cranial ...
S04.9 is a non-billable code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of injury of unspecified cranial nerve.
In this presentation, CST instructor Karen Axelrod, Cst-D discusses the anatomical pathways of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and also begins discussing ways to treat them using manual therapy techniques based on CST principles. Presenter: Karen Axelrod Cst-D *** Cost: $25 for recording. (Included in membership)
Can you name the Cranial Nerves by number in order? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by candacem4308
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ICD-10 C72.5 is malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified cranial nerves (C725). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for neoplasms.
In the video below, NAIOMT Faculty Karen Walz, PT, DPT, OCS, COMT, FAAOMPT takes you through a clinical cranial nerve screening post-MVA. Let us know if you have questions, and for more MVA-related education, join Karen for Cervicothoracic MVA Regional Interdependence, our new online course.
Study Cranial Nerves flashcards from Faith Hislop's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Study cranial nerves flashcards from Carmina Mislang's University of Santo Tomas class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Learn Cranial Nerve Chart facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
ASMR - Cranial Nerve Exam Hey there, wolf pack! Here\s my version of an ASMR classic. Hope you guys like it. (PS: I just launched my Patreon! I will be making an announcement video about that within
201969-Its been over a year since my first cranial nerve exam rp so I felt like I needed to do a new one for you guys(: Enjoy! Make sure to give ...
Stimulate your cranial nerves with face reflexology ❉ Les nerfs crâniens en réflexologie faciale ❉ Los nervios craneales en Facioterapia - Dien Chan.
The next time youre trying to remember the locations and functions of the cranial nerves, picture this drawing. All twelve cranial nerves are represented, though some may be a little harder to spot than others. For example, the shoulders are formed by the number 11" because cranial nerve XI controls…. ...
App: Cranial Nerves: Pocket Clinical Resource Price: $2.99 What it is: An incredibly simple app to use to learn and look up information on cranial nerves. System: iOS (iPhone and iPad) Version: 1.2.4 Let me start off by saying: I LOVE THIS APP! I was referenced to a cranial nerve app which was $60. I [...]. ...
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send fibers to short ciliary nerves (postganglionic parasympt. fibre) - supply sphincter papillae and ciliary muslce ( ma fi dilater papillae okay) ...
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Snellen Test - ask them to stand at 6 metres (measure it out if you need to) and read out the lowest set of letters they can see. In a traditional test, there will be 11 rows of letters, the row with 8th row being the smallest a person with 6/6 vision can read. The biggest letters represent 6/60 vision. Often a smaller 3m Snellen test is used on the ward due to lack of space! Patients should wear their normal glasses - if they have any. You are not an optician - just looking for any serious visual defects! Make sure to test one eye at a time! - ask the patient to cover their eye; just asking them to close it isnt good enough (as it can be difficult for patient,s and they may partially close the eye you are assessing, which obviously has implications for your results ...
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Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words ...
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Hybridization and the Structure of Polyatomic Molecules Waarom hebben moleculen bepaalde vormen? H 2 O driehoek, NH 3 pyramide CH 4 tetrahedral, CO 2 linear? H 2 O O elektron configuratie: Dus een basis set van met 4 elektronen te verdelen over deze bindingen overlap elke H1s met een O2p, resulterend in 2 σ-bonds, met elk 2 e, dus: Maar: hoek van 90 o, in werkelijkheid 104 o …
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Video created by Université Duke for the course Neurosciences médicales. We now begin in earnest our lessons on neuroanatomy with the surface of the human brain, including a brief run through the cranial nerves and the blood supply to the CNS. ...
The cranial nerve V, the trigeminal maxillary nerve, is one of the divisions of the cranial nerve. It is one of three such branches of the trigeminal nerve. This maxillary division carries impulses from the upper teeth, upper gum, upper lip, and the mucous lining of the palate and the skin of the face.. ...
Cranial Nerve Involvement, Large Ears, Otalgia Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Otitis Externa, Mastoiditis, Acoustic Neuroma. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
The nervus intermedius is one sub-branching of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), the seventh pairing of cranial nerves and, therefore, numbered VII. It holds the parasympathetic and sensory fibers in the facial nerve.. ...
Cranial Nerves Different From Spinal Nerves - See more about Cranial Nerves Different From Spinal Nerves, cranial nerve different than spinal nerve, cranial nerves + spinal nerves + ganglia, cranial nerves different spinal nerves, cranial nerves spinal nerves
In a prospective study of 271 new patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 36 (13.3%) were found to have cranial nerve involvement. Serous otitis media (SOM) was found in 98 (41.4%) of 237 patients who had undergone complete otologic assessment. The local control of tumor and actuarial survival of three subgroups of patients, namely, 80 patients with SOM only, 11 patients with cranial nerve palsy only, and 18 patients with both SOM and cranial nerve palsy, were analyzed. The local control of tumor was better in patients with SOM alone than in those with cranial nerve palsy alone; those patients with both SOM and cranial nerve involvement had worse local control as well as survival. As SOM is not uncommon in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and adult-onset SOM is otherwise distinctly uncommon, this provides a good opportunity for early recognition and, perhaps, better control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma ...
Background: The cranial sensory ganglia represent populations of neurons with distinct functions, or sensory modalities. The production of individual ganglia from distinct neurogenic placodes with different developmental pathways provides a powerful model to investigate the acquisition of specific sensory modalities. To date there is a limited range of gene markers available to examine the molecular pathways underlying this process.. Results: Transcriptional profiles were generated for populations of differentiated neurons purified from distinct cranial sensory ganglia using microdissection in embryonic chicken followed by FAC-sorting and RNAseq. Whole transcriptome analysis confirmed the division into somato- versus viscerosensory neurons, with additional evidence for subdivision of the somatic class into general and special somatosensory neurons. Cross-comparison of distinct ganglia transcriptomes identified a total of 134 markers, 113 of which are novel, which can be used to distinguish ...
Alternating hemiplegia is a form of hemiplegia that has an ipsilateral and contralateral presentation in different parts of the body. The disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of paralysis on one side of the body. There are multiple forms of alternating hemiplegia, Webers syndrome, middle alternating hemiplegia, and inferior alternating hemiplegia. This type of syndrome can result from a unilateral lesion in the brainstem affecting both upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. The muscles that would receive signals from these damaged upper motor neurons result in spastic paralysis. With a lesion in the brainstem, this affects the majority of limb and trunk muscles on the contralateral side due to the upper motor neurons decussation after the brainstem. The cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei are also located in the brainstem making them susceptible to damage from a brainstem lesion. Cranial nerves III (Oculomotor), VI (Abducens), and XII (Hypoglossal) are most often associated ...
We observed that most CN palsies had 1 or more MRI findings of intracranial or orbital CN involvement; this may be a reason for the adverse prognostic significance of CN palsies, and patients with CN palsies are determined to be at stage T4.3. Several investigators have reported that the perineural tumor spread in patients with non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma of the head and neck is associated with an increased incidence of recurrence.18-21 However, in our series, MRI-detected CN involvement was not associated with the 3-year LRFS rate in NPC patients with local advanced disease. The primary treatment modality for NPC was radiation therapy, whereas that of other carcinomas of the head and neck was surgery. Lawrence and Cottel reported that postoperative radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma with perineural invasion resulted in a much improved survival probability when compared with that observed after conventional surgical excision.20 Radiation therapy (relatively large treatment volume) provided ...
The primary gustatory sensory nuclei in catfish are grossly divisible into a vagal lobe and a facial lobe. In this study, the reflex connections of each gustatory lobe were determined with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing methods. In addition, in order to determine the loci and morphology of the other brainstem cranial nerve nuclei, HRP was applied to the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, or vagus nerve. The sensory fibers of the facial nerve terminate in the facial lobe. The facial lobe projects bilaterally to the posterior thalamic nucleus, superior secondary gustatory nucleus, and medial reticular formation of the rostral medulla ...
Cranial nerve palsy is a type of muscle malfunction involving at least one of the cranial nerves. Those with cranial nerve palsy...
Key challenges for formal accounts of brain function are emotion, self-awareness and their disorders. Recently, people have started to cast emotional processing in terms of predictive coding or inference about interoceptive or bodily states [9,10,53,54]. The basic argument follows the explanation for action above, namely, motor reflexes are driven by proprioceptive prediction errors. Proprioceptive prediction errors compare primary afferents from stretch receptors with proprioceptive predictions that descend to alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerve nuclei. This effectively replaces descending motor commands with proprioceptive predictions, which are fulfilled by peripheral reflexes [24]. These predictions rest on deep hierarchical inference about states of the world, including our own body. Replacing proprioceptive signals with interoceptive signals, one can see how autonomic reflexes can transcribe descending interoceptive predictions into physiological homoeostasis (e.g. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cranial Nerve 7, Cranial Nerve VII, Facial Nerve, CN 7, Geniculate Ganglion, Superior Salivatory Nucleus, Superior Salivary Nucleus.
Cranial Neuropathies What are cranial neuropathies? Nerves power your entire body, but those nerves can be damaged by injury or an illness such as diabetes. Neuropathy is a disorder that causes nerve damage and affects your ability to feel and move. Exactly how your body and your movement are affected depends on where in the body the damaged nerves are located. When nerves in the brain or brainstem are affected, it is called cranial neuropathy. The cranial nerves are those that arise directly from your ...
Cranial Nerves and Swallowing: Speech-Language Pathologists need to know how cranial nerves impact swallowing. Patients need cranial nerve examinations.
The ninth cranial nerve is the glossopharyngeal nerve. The 12 cranial nerves, the glossopharyngeal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column. The…
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cranial Nerve 12, Cranial Nerve XII, Hypoglossal Nerve, CN 12, Hypoglossal Nucleus.
The present invention provides a composition for preventing, alleviating, or treating cranial nerve diseases caused by dopamine deficiency, the composition containing triiodidethyronine and tyroxine, or a salt thereof. According to the present invention, the triiodidethyronine and tyroxine, or a salt thereof significantly promote the expression and proliferation of dopamine neurons, thereby exhibiting excellent effects in the prevention and treatment of cranial nerve diseases caused by dopamine deficiency, such as Parkinson´s disease.
Preservation of anatomic integrity and function of the cranial nerves during the removal of skull base tumors is one of the most challenging procedures in endoscopic endonasal surgery. It is possible to use intraoperative mapping and identification of the cranial nerves in order to facilitate their preservation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative trigger electromyography in prevention of iatrogenic damage to the cranial nerves. Twenty three patients with various skull base tumors (chordomas, neuromas, pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, cholesteatomas) underwent mapping and identification of cranial nerves during tumor removal using the endoscopic endonasal approach in Department of Neurooncology of Federal State Autonomous Institution
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the muscles that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation (ability to focus on near objects as in reading). The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve nucleus at the level of the superior colliculus in the midbrain. The third nerve nucleus is located ventral to the cerebral aqueduct, on the pre-aqueductal grey matter. The fibers from the two third nerve nuclei located laterally on either side of the cerebral aqueduct then pass through the red nucleus. From the red nucleus fibers then pass via the substantia nigra exiting through the interpeduncular fossa. On emerging from the brainstem, the nerve is ...
Neurovascular compression syndromes are usually caused by arteries that directly contact the cisternal portion of a cranial nerve. Not all cases of neurovascular contact are clinically symptomatic. The transition zone between the central and peripheral myelin is the most vulnerable region for symptomatic neurovascular compression syndromes. Trigeminal neuralgia (cranial nerve V) has an incidence of 4-20/100,000, a transition zone of 4 mm, with symptomatic neurovascular compression typically proximal. Hemifacial spasm (cranial nerve VII) has an incidence of 1/100,000, a transition zone of 2.5 mm, with symptomatic neurovascular compression typically proximal. Vestibular paroxysmia (cranial nerve VIII) has an unknown incidence, a transition zone of 11 mm, with symptomatic neurovascular compression typically at the internal auditory canal. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (cranial nerve IX) has an incidence of 0.5/100,000, a transition zone of 1.5 mm, with symptomatic neurovascular compression typically ...
Lower cranial nerve (IX-XII) palsy is a rare condition with numerous causes, usually non-traumatic. In the literature it has been described only a few times after trauma, mostly accompanied by a fracture of the occipital condyle. Although these types of fractures have rarely been reported one could suspect they have been under-diagnosed. During the past decade they have been seen more frequently, most probably due to increased use of CT- and MRI-scanning. The purpose of this review is to increase the awareness of complications following injuries in the craniocervical region. We based this article on a retrospective review of the medical record of a 24-year old woman admitted to our trauma center after being involved in a car accident and a review of the literature on occipital condyle fractures associated with lower cranial nerve palsy. The multitraumatized patient had suffered a dislocated occipital condyle fracture. Months later she was diagnosed with palsy to cranial nerve IX-XII. Literature review
We recently examined a patient who developed a nearly complete unilateral third cranial nerve palsy attributed to sphenoid sinus aspergillosis. The unusual feature is that the palsy resolved spontaneously within 2 days.. A 78-year-old retired teacher presented with the sudden onset of a ptotic right upper lid and diplopia for 1 day. There was no headache. He had hypertension and chronic renal impairment but no diabetes or head trauma.. Vital signs were normal. Visual acuity was 20/40 in both eyes attributed to cataract. Intraocular pressures were 12 mm Hg in both eyes. In dim light, pupils measured 4.5 mm in the right eye and 3 mm in the left eye. The right pupil was not reactive to light; the left pupil was normally reactive. There was no afferent pupil defect. There was complete right upper lid ptosis and a complete deficit of adduction, supraduction, and infraduction of the right eye with normal incyclotorsion and abduction. Ductions of the left eye were normal. Findings from ophthalmoscopy ...
Pterygopalatine fossa Maxillary steadfastness [V2] Mandibular firmness in infratemporal fossa [V3] Anterior superior alveolar Middle upper-class alveolar nerve High-class alveolar plexus alveolar resoluteness in mandibular canal Fig generic 150 mg fildena fast delivery erectile dysfunction natural remedies. Innervation of gingivae the nasopalatine steadfastness innervates gingiva associated Like the teeth generic fildena 150 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction caused by surgery, the gingivae are innervated at near nerves with the incisor and canine teeth generic fildena 50 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction gay. Gingiva on the buccal side of the mandibular molar teeth is innervated alongside the buccal tenacity buy generic fildena 150mg on-line impotence juicing, which originates in the the gingiva on the buccal side of the aristocrats teeth is infratemporal fossa from the mandibular nerve [V3] generic extra super levitra 100 mg mastercard. In beyond to the external acoustic meatus ...
The extradural middle fossa approach (EMFA) is an anterior petrosectomy useful for accessing lesions of petroclival and cavernous sinus regions. It may be included in combined petrosal approach and extended in the anterolateral transcavernous approach. To facilitate the first attempts with this relatively uncommon approach, during dissections of human cadaveric injected heads and isolated temporal bones, we developed a simple learning method useful for localizing all anatomical structures. Technically, EMFA is a demanding interdural dissection, that provides a wide exposure of an extradural corridor between the middle meningeal artery, 5th cranial nerve, gasserian ganglion, 7th cranial nerve, geniculate ganglion, and 8th cranial nerve, internal carotid artery (C5-C6 tract and the GSPN above), arcuate eminence, cochlea, petrous apex, and petro-clival junction. Its major advantages are that it offers extradural dissection, limits the temporal lobe retraction, and avoids the transposition of

Cranial nerve nucleus legal definition of Cranial nerve nucleusCranial nerve nucleus legal definition of Cranial nerve nucleus

What is Cranial nerve nucleus? Meaning of Cranial nerve nucleus as a legal term. What does Cranial nerve nucleus mean in law? ... Definition of Cranial nerve nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Cranial nerve nucleus legal definition of Cranial nerve nucleus https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cranial+nerve+ ... redirected from Cranial nerve nucleus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. See: center, ...
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Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with skull base metastases from systemic cancer involving the anterior...Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with skull base metastases from systemic cancer involving the anterior...

Twenty-nine had cranial nerve deficits, including optic nerve (reduced acuity in 7 and visual field defects in 9), oculomotor ( ... Svare A, Fosså SD, Heier MS: Cranial nerve dysfunction in metastatic cancer of the prostate. Br J Urol 1988, 61: 441-444. ... While the reported tolerance of cranial nerves in the cavernous after single-fraction SRS sinus is of 16-18 Gy [28], several ... Ransom DT, Dinapoli RP, Richardson RL: Cranial nerve lesions due to base of the skull metastases in prostate carcinoma. Cancer ...
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Daily Health Headlines | Neurology | Ramsay Hunt SyndromeDaily Health Headlines | Neurology | Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

The geniculate ganglion is a sensory ganglion associated with the VIIth cranial nerve. ... A herpes virus infection of the geniculate nerve ganglion that causes paralysis of the facial muscles on the same side of the ...
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Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... nerves to be brain tracts, rather than cranial nerves.[27] Further, the very small terminal nerve (nerve N or O) exists in ... vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII). The fibers of these cranial nerves exit the brainstem from ...
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Cranial NervesCranial Nerves

The focus of this module is on the cranial nerves, their function and their assessment. There are several types of materials: ... Cranial Nerves Date last modified:. October 16, 2019. Created by:. Taylor Bailey License:. ... Cranial nerves are essential to the body and important to know about if your going into the healthcare field. This module is a ... The focus of this module is on the cranial nerves, their function and their assessment. There are several types of materials: ...
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Cranial Nerves The human body is a unique and fascinating entity. There is not much notice taken of the features the human body ... via input from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Cranial nerves with sensory functions allow us to smell and see. Nerves with ... via input from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Cranial nerves with sensory functions allow us to smell and see. Nerves with ... Cranial Nerves. 3654 Words Apr 2nd, 2012 15 Pages Cranial Nerves. The human body is a unique and fascinating entity. There is ...
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Can you name the Cranial Nerves? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. ... Tags:cranial, Cranial Nerves, function, location, motor, nerve, sensory. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. * ... Science Quiz / Cranial Nerves. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Cranial Nerves?. by san88diego ... Cranial Nerve X (Vagus) Answer only 1st part. Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear)-Answer only 1st part. ...
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Can you name the Cranial Nerves by number in order? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your ... Science Quiz / Cranial Nerves. Random Science or Numbers Quiz QUIZ: Can you name the Cranial Nerves by number in order?. by ... Tags:Numbers Quiz, cranial, Cranial Nerves, nerve, order. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. *Hugging Animals169 ...
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The Cranial NervesThe Cranial Nerves

Use the "Printable HTML" button to get a clean page, in either HTML or PDF, that you can use your browsers print button to print. This page wont have buttons or ads, just your puzzle. The PDF format allows the web site to know how large a printer page is, and the fonts are scaled to fill the page. The PDF takes awhile to generate. Dont panic! ...
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Cranial Nerve VII - Nervus IntermediusCranial Nerve VII - Nervus Intermedius

... The nervus intermedius is one sub-branching of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. *Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve. *Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Mandibular Nerve ... the seventh pairing of cranial nerves and, therefore, numbered VII. It holds the parasympathetic and sensory fibers in the ... Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Ophthalmic Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VI - Abducens Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve ...
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Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear NerveCranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve

... Cranial nerve IV, the trochlear nerve, is the smallest of the cranial nerves. These ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. *Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve. *Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Mandibular Nerve ... which are not supplied by the oculomotor nerves, but aid in moving the muscles of the eye. The trochlear nerves contain some ... Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Ophthalmic Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VI - Abducens Nerve. *Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve ...
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Cranial Nerve 11Cranial Nerve 11

... , Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11. ... Cranial Nerve 11, Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11 ...
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... , Cranial Nerve VIII, Acoustic Nerve, Cochlear Nerve, Vestibular Nerve, Vestibulocochlear Nerve, CN 8. ... Cranial Nerve 8. search Cranial Nerve 8, Cranial Nerve VIII, Acoustic Nerve, Cochlear Nerve, Vestibular Nerve, ... Fibers from both nerves join to form one trunk. *Passes via Internal Auditory Canal to their respective somatic sensory ganglia ...
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Glossopharyngeal | Cranial NervesGlossopharyngeal | Cranial Nerves

The glossopharyngeal nerve consists of five components with distinct functions:Branchial motor(special visceral efferent) ... The glossopharyngeal nerve consists of five components with distinct functions: Branchial motor. (special visceral efferent). ...
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Cranial Nerves FlashcardsCranial Nerves Flashcards

Maxillary Nerve exits from.... Definition. Foramen rotundum of sphenoid bone. -some from infra orbital foramen of maxillary ...
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Cranial Nerve 12Cranial Nerve 12

... , Cranial Nerve XII, Hypoglossal Nerve, CN 12, Hypoglossal Nucleus. ... Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 3 Cranial Nerve 4 Cranial Nerve 5 Cranial Nerve 6 Cranial Nerve 7 Cranial Nerve 8 Cranial Nerve 9 ... Cranial, Nerve, Twelfth Cranial, Nerves, Twelfth Cranial, Twelfth Cranial Nerve, Twelfth Cranial Nerves, cranial nerve XII, ... Hypoglossal nerve [XII], cranial xii nerve, nerve xii, cranial nerve xii, Nerve XIIs, Cranial, Cranial Nerve XIIs, 12n, ...
more infohttp://www.fpnotebook.com/Neuro/Anatomy/CrnlNrv11.htm

Cranial Nerve 7Cranial Nerve 7

... , Cranial Nerve VII, Facial Nerve, CN 7, Geniculate Ganglion, Superior Salivatory Nucleus, Superior Salivary ... Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 3 Cranial Nerve 4 Cranial Nerve 5 Cranial Nerve 6 Cranial Nerve 7 Cranial Nerve 8 Cranial Nerve 9 ... Facial Nerve, Nerve, Facial, Cranial Nerve VII, Cranial Nerve, Seventh, Nerve, Seventh Cranial, Seventh Cranial Nerve, cranial ... cranial nerve vii, nervus facialis, Cranial Nerve VIIs, Facial Nerves, Nerves, Seventh Cranial, Seventh Cranial Nerves, Nerves ...
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fourth cranial nerve palsy | DailyStrengthfourth cranial nerve palsy | DailyStrength

My step mom was just diagnosed with this. It is basically double vision. It may never go away. She cant work and it is hard for her to function. Anyone have...
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Cranial Nerve 10 - Trip DatabaseCranial Nerve 10 - Trip Database

Helping you find trustworthy answers on Cranial Nerve 10 , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Cranial Nerve 10 via the Trip Database. ... Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia ... isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve ...
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Cranial Nerve 10 - Trip DatabaseCranial Nerve 10 - Trip Database

Helping you find trustworthy answers on Cranial Nerve 10 , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Cranial Nerve 10 via the Trip Database. ... Facial nerve paralysis: A three year retrospective study Of all the cranial nerves, the facial nerve is the one which is most ... The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that originates (...) Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia ...
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Cranial nerves - wikidocCranial nerves - wikidoc

Cranial Nerve III (the Oculomotor nerve) leaves the brainstem at a higher position than Cranial nerve XII, whose origin is ... Accessory nerve (or cranial accessory nerve or spinal accessory nerve). Nucleus ambiguus, Spinal accessory nucleus. Controls ... Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the ... Cranial nerves in non-human vertebrates. Human cranial nerves are evolutionarily homologous to those found in many other ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Cranial_nerves

What are the 12 cranial nerves? Functions and diagramWhat are the 12 cranial nerves? Functions and diagram

The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement ... Sensory cranial nerves help a person to see, smell, and hear.. *Motor cranial nerves help control muscle movements in the head ... The twelve cranial nerves are a group of nerves that start in the brain and provide motor and sensory functions to the head and ... The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement. ...
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Cranial nerve | Define Cranial nerve at Dictionary.comCranial nerve | Define Cranial nerve at Dictionary.com

... hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, olfactory nerve, optic nerve, trigeminal nerve, trochlear nerve, and vagus nerve. See more ... these are the abducens nerve, accessory nerve, auditory nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, ... any of the nerves arising from the brainstem and exiting to the periphery of the head through skull openings, including 10 ... hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, olfactory nerve, optic nerve, trigeminal nerve, trochlear nerve, and vagus nerve. ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/cranial-nerve

Free Anatomy Flashcards about Cranial NervesFree Anatomy Flashcards about Cranial Nerves

Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cranial Nerves. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble ...
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  • Bell's palsy is a common disorder of the facial nerve, which causes paralysis on one side of the face and possibly loss of taste sensation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bell's Palsy is the result of an idiopathic (unknown), unilateral lower motor neuron lesion of the facial nerve and is characterized by an inability to move the ipsilateral muscles of facial expression, including elevation of the eyebrow and furrowing of the forehead. (listography.com)
  • The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is referred to an ipsilateral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affected family members do not have evidence of other cranial or peripheral neuropathies. (tripdatabase.com)
  • However, unlike peripheral nerves which are separated to achieve segmental innervation , cranial nerves are divided to serve one or a few specific functions in wider anatomical territories. (wikidoc.org)
  • The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although on a structural level the olfactory, optic and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • I. Neurons/nerve cells A neuron is a cell specialized to conduct electrochemical impulses called nerve impulses or action potentials. (bartleby.com)
  • This beautifully illustrated book combines a detailed exposition of the anatomy and function of the cranial nerves with practical coverage of clinical concepts for the assessment and differential diagnosis of cranial nerve dysfunction. (goodreads.com)
  • The authors then describe common lesions and present a series of cases that are complemented by CT images and MRIs to illustrate disease entities that result in cranial nerve dysfunction. (goodreads.com)
  • Lesions of the ninth nerve result in difficulty swallowing and disturbance of taste. (cancer.gov)
  • Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck . (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for the tenth and the eleventh nerve, they primarily serve the motor and sensory systems of the head and neck region. (wikidoc.org)
  • Motor cranial nerves help control muscle movements in the head and neck. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The frog sciatic nerve gives a graded response de to the nerve being a bundle of axons and not a single axon, resulting in it not showing the "all or none" rule of an axon. (bartleby.com)
  • This article will explore the functions of the cranial nerves and provide a diagram. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cranial nerves are generally named according to their structure or function. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the function is on the opposite side to the origin of the nerve, this is known as a contralateral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus of this module is on the cranial nerves, their function and their assessment. (merlot.org)
  • Optic nerves main function is vision, one of the important senses of the human body. (bartleby.com)
  • Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It will also serve as a valuable resource for students seeking to gain a solid understanding of the anatomy, function, and pathology of the cranial nerves. (goodreads.com)
  • The first line of treatment for cranial never disorders is to help relieve the pain of trigeminal neuralgia is usually medication therapy. (pennmedicine.org)
  • This class of medications has also been found to be quite effective in treating nerve pain, including trigeminal neuralgia when taken on an on-going basis. (pennmedicine.org)