Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Oculomotor Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. This may result in various eye movement dysfunction.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Anisocoria: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.InkTrigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Parasympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Accessory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Mobius Syndrome: A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that causes painful oculomotor (especially sixth nerve) palsies. ... It is also known as the abducent nerve, the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. ... of people with tuberculosis have some resulting cranial nerve deficit. The sixth nerve is the most commonly affected cranial ... Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ...
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...
It is the most common painful orbital mass in the adult population, and is associated with proptosis, cranial nerve palsy ( ... Although a benign condition, it may present with an aggressive clinical course with severe vision loss and oculomotor ... In chronic disease or sclerosing variant, T2WI with FS will show hypointensity (due to fibrosis). Findings on STIR (Short T1 ... Another disease variant is Sclerosing pseudotumor, which more often presents bilaterally and may extend into the sinuses. CT ...
The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... The orbit of the eye, including mechanical restrictions of eye movement, as in Graves disease. The muscle, as in progressive ... The brainstem nuclei of these nerves, as in certain patterns of brainstem stroke such as Foville's syndrome. White matter ... It is a physical finding in certain neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine disease. Internal ophthalmoplegia means ...
... or sixth cranial nerves, which control eye movements. Cataract Diabetes Drunkenness Fluoroquinolone antibiotics Graves disease ... 2007). "Oculomotor disorders". Semin Neurol. 27 (3): 244-56. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979682. PMID 17577866. Kernich, C.A. (2006). " ... Problems with EOMs may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the cranial nerves ... Diplopia can be one of the first signs of a systemic disease, particularly to a muscular or neurological process, and it may ...
Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ... Diseases of the brainstem can result in abnormalities in the function of cranial nerves that may lead to visual disturbances, ... Cranial nerve III (the oculomotor nerve) emerges ventrally from the midbrain, while the CN IV (the trochlear nerve) emerges out ... Ten of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves either target or are sourced from the brainstem. The nuclei of the oculomotor nerve ( ...
... damage to the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion or damage to the nerve (3rd cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve)) which ... Ptosis that is caused by a disease may improve if the disease is treated successfully, although some related diseases, such as ... Neurogenic ptosis which includes oculomotor nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, Marcus Gunn jaw winking syndrome, third cranial ... oculomotor nerve for levator palpebrae superioris and sympathetic nerves for superior tarsal muscle). It can affect one eye or ...
... including cranial nerve V (trigeminal), cranial nerve VII (facial), and cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear). The most common ... Chapter 10, "Cerebellar Disease." Elsevier. Nedzelski JM (October 1983). "Cerebellopontine angle tumors: bilateral flocculus ... compression as cause of associated oculomotor abnormalities". Laryngoscope. 93 (10): 1251-60. PMID 6604857. E. Rodríguez-Castro ... Delays of one side relative to the other suggest a lesion in cranial nerve VIII between the ear and brainstem or in the ...
Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve ... Paralysis of the oculomotor nerve, i.e., oculomotor nerve palsy, can arise due to: direct trauma, demyelinating diseases (e.g ... Plan of oculomotor nerve. Pathways in the Ciliary Ganglion. Anisocoria Cranial nerve Oculomotor nucleus This article ... The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles ...
... or third nerve palsy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a branch ... Vascular disorders such as diabetes, heart disease, atherosclerosis and aneurysm, particularly of the posterior communicating ... Oculomotor palsy can arise as a result of a number of different conditions. Non traumatic pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve ... the oculomotor nerve supplies the majority of the muscles controlling eye movements. Thus, damage to this nerve will result in ...
... which is an accessory nucleus of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve number III; CN III). He was the first physician to provide ... A large portion of his written work dealt with diseases of the spinal cord and neuropathological issues. He trained a number of ... He also demonstrated a relationship between tabes dorsalis (nerve degeneration in the spinal cord) and paralysis in the ... He is credited with providing an early diagnosis of "pseudosclerosis", a disease known today as hepatolenticular degeneration. ...
The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) supplies the inferior oblique muscle (along with four other eye muscles - superior ... Malinsertion Scarring secondary to alignment surgery Muscle diseases (e.g. Myasthenia gravis) Orbital anomalies Tumor (e.g. ... The inferior oblique muscle is innervated by cranial nerve III (oculomotor nerve). Excyclotorsion may also be used to describe ... Three nerves control the eye muscles. These are the oculomotor nerve, which controls the majority of the muscles, the trochlear ...
Most commonly optic nerve is involved. The most common finding is oculomotor nerve dysfunction leading to ophthalmoplegia. This ... Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a collection of cranial nerve deficits associated with a mass lesion ... Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Giant cell arteritis Thyroid disease Iatrogenic ... The optic nerve may eventually be involved, with resulting visual impairment. Jacod Syndrome is commonly associated with a ...
Cranial neuropathy[edit]. When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) ... Vascular and neural diseases are closely related. Blood vessels depend on normal nerve function, and nerves depend on adequate ... Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... The oculomotor nerve controls all the muscles that move the eye except for the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles. It ...
Hence the subsequent nerve supply (innervation) of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves. The development of the ... The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... Certain diseases of the pulleys (heterotopy, instability, and hindrance of the pulleys) cause particular patterns of incomitant ... 13 at the University of Michigan Health System Animations of extraocular cranial nerve and muscle function and damage ( ...
More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ... chronic kidney disease, and Behçet's disease. The cause of IIH is not known. The Monro-Kellie rule states that the intracranial ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... The first case of the disease was recorded in 1898. The initial symptoms of pituitary apoplexy are related to the increased ... The oculomotor nerve is predominantly affected as it lies closest to the pituitary. The cavernous sinus also contains the ... The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during neurosurgery (such as tumor removal) ... accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve (XII). (There may be a thirteenth cranial nerve, the terminal nerve (nerve O or N ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. Damage to nerves III, IV, or ...
... including the superior colliculus adjacent oculomotor (origin of cranial nerve III) and Edinger-Westphal nuclei, causing ... Vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia has also been associated with metabolic disorders, such as Niemann-Pick disease, Wilson's ... oculomotor nerve palsy, trochlear nerve palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Parinaud's Syndrome results from injury, either ... disease, kernicterus, and barbiturate overdose. The eye findings of Parinaud's Syndrome generally improve slowly over months, ...
"Cranial Nerve VI Palsy", Handbook of Ocular Disease Management, 2000 - 2001 Jobson Publishing L.L.C. (2000-2001).[2] The Wills ... affected arising as a result of partial innervation of the lateral rectus by branches from the IIIrd oculomotor cranial nerve. ... Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ...
Such diseases are caused by an error in a single DNA gene. Because the disease is autosomal, the defective gene is found on an ... Proper myelination is critical for carrying electrical signals, or data, from one nerve cell to the next. When myelin becomes ... Cranial computed topography, magnetic resonance imaging, and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission topography are just some of ... Ocular problems related to the disorder include strabismus, nystagmus, retinitis, disc pallor, and oculomotor apraxia. Over ...
... oculomotor nerve palsy, fourth nerve palsy, sixth nerve palsy). Initially, imaging studies are often performed to rule out more ... Suspicion for myopathies should be increased in patients whose ophthalmoplegia does not match a particular set of cranial nerve ... Because the mutation in mitochondrial disease most often occurs early in gestation in these diseases, only those mitochondria ... The first symptom of this disease is a unilateral ptosis, or difficulty opening the eyelids, that gradually progresses to a ...
Oculomotor nerve palsy: Ischemia, intracranial aneurysm, demyelinating diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis), head trauma, and ... This is because a hemorrhage, tumor or another intracranial mass can enlarge to a size where the third cranial nerve (CN III) ... brain tumors are the most common causes of oculomotor nerve palsy in adults. In ischemic lesions of the oculomotor nerve, ... These cases may be due to brain mass lesions which cause oculomotor nerve palsy. Anisocoria in the presence of confusion, ...
... cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being innervated by a branch of the oculomotor nerve ( ... These evaluations will be used to determine the extent of the disease as well as the needs of the individual. Eyes - Complete ... cranial nerve III) This is characterized by hand and arm abnormalities. The following are specific characteristics: Malformed ... After being diagnosed, there are other evaluations that one may go through in order to determine the extent of the disease. ...
... seen with damage to the oculomotor nerve). Due to albinism, the lack of pigment in the colored part of the eyes (irises) makes ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (28 October 1994). "Human Rabies - Miami, 1994". Morbidity and Mortality ... Subarachnoid haemorrhage Tumor of the posterior cranial fossa Ankylosing spondylitis - Causes Uveitis as an extra-articular ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 43 (42): 773-5. PMID 7935313. SCDS Society Bailey, Gretchyn. "Photophobia (Light ...
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the muscles that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation (ability to focus on near objects as in reading). The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve nucleus at the level of the superior colliculus in the midbrain. The third nerve nucleus is located ventral to ...
... is a form of brainstem stroke syndrome characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral ataxia, and contralateral hemiplegia of the lower face, tongue, and shoulder. Claude's syndrome affects oculomotor nerve, red nucleus and brachium conjunctivum Claude's syndrome is caused by midbrain infarction as a result of occlusion of a branch of the posterior cerebral artery. This lesion is usually a unilateral infarction of the red nucleus and cerebral peduncle, affecting several structures in the midbrain including: It is very similar to Benedikt's syndrome. It has been reported that posterior cerebral artery stenosis can also precipitate Claude's syndrome. It carries the name of Henri Charles Jules Claude, a French psychiatrist and neurologist, who described the condition in 1912. Wallenberg's syndrome Moritz Benedikt Harrison's "Claude's ...
... , also called Benedikt's syndrome or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare type of posterior circulation stroke of the brain, with a range of neurological symptoms affecting the midbrain, cerebellum and other related structures. It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and involuntary choreoathetotic movements. Neuroanatomical structures affected include CNIII nucleus, Red nucleus, corticospinal tracts, brachium conjunctivum, and the superior cerebellar peduncle decussation. It has a very similar cause, morphology and signs and symptoms to Weber's syndrome; the main difference between the two being that Weber's is more associated with hemiplegia (i.e. paralysis), and Benedikt's with hemiataxia (i.e. disturbed coordination of movements). It is also similar to Claude's syndrome, but is distinguishable in that Benedikt's has more predominant tremor and choreoathetotic movements while ...
... , or CFEOM, is a class of rare genetic disorders affecting one or more of the muscles that move the eyeballs. Individuals with CFEOM have varying degrees of ophthalmoplegia (an inability to move the eyes in one or more directions) and ptosis. The condition is present from birth and non-progressive, runs in families, and usually affects both eyes similarly. In the most common form, the superior recti are dysfunctional and the inferior recti, lacking proper opposition, pull the eyes down, forcing the head to be tilted upward in order to see straight ahead.[citation needed] There are three types of CFEOM, numbered 1-3. CFEOM1, the most common type, is now known to be caused by one of several mutations in the KIF21A gene, while CFEOM2 is caused by mutations in the PHOX2A gene. CFEOM3 is caused by mutations in the TUBB3 gene. CFEOM was first named in 1956, although papers describing conditions now known or assumed to be CFEOM appear in the medical ...
Because the trochlear nerve is the thinnest and has the longest intracranial course of the cranial nerves, it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. To compensate for the double-vision resulting from the weakness of the superior oblique, patients characteristically tilt their head down and to the side opposite the affected muscle. When present at birth, it is known as congenital fourth nerve palsy. ...
மூளைத் தண்டு (brain stem) என்பது மூளையின் கீழ்ப்பகுதி ஆகும். இது மூளையின் பிற பகுதிகளை தண்டுவடத்துடன் இணைக்கின்றது. இதை மூன்று பகுதிகளாகப் பிரிக்கலாம். அவை பான்ஸ், நடுமூளை, பின்மூளை(முகுளம்) என்பனவாம். முதல் இரண்டு கபால நரம்புகள் (cranial nerves) தவிர மற்ற கபால நரம்புகள் மூளைத் தண்டில் இருந்து தான் புறப்படுகின்றன. ...
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the muscles that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation (ability to focus on near objects as in reading). The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve nucleus at the level of the superior colliculus in the midbrain. The third nerve nucleus is located ventral to ...
... is a form of brainstem stroke syndrome characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral ataxia, and contralateral hemiplegia of the lower face, tongue, and shoulder. Claude's syndrome affects oculomotor nerve, red nucleus and brachium conjunctivum Claude's syndrome is caused by midbrain infarction as a result of occlusion of a branch of the posterior cerebral artery. This lesion is usually a unilateral infarction of the red nucleus and cerebral peduncle, affecting several structures in the midbrain including: It is very similar to Benedikt's syndrome. It has been reported that posterior cerebral artery stenosis can also precipitate Claude's syndrome. It carries the name of Henri Charles Jules Claude, a French psychiatrist and neurologist, who described the condition in 1912. Wallenberg's syndrome Moritz Benedikt Harrison's "Claude's ...
The sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion is one of three roots of the ciliary ganglion, a tissue mass behind the eye. It contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers whose cell bodies are located in the superior cervical ganglion. Their axons ascend with the internal carotid artery as a plexus of nerves, the carotid plexus. Sympathetic fibers innervating the eye separate from the carotid plexus within the cavernous sinus. They run forward through the superior orbital fissure and merge with the long ciliary nerves (branches of the nasociliary nerve) and the short ciliary nerves (from the ciliary ganglion). Sympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses. Preganglionic sympathetic fibers originate from neurons in the intermediolateral column of the thoracic spinal cord, at the level of ...
In addition to controlling the amount of light that enters the eye, the pupillary light reflex provides a useful diagnostic tool. It allows for testing the integrity of the sensory and motor functions of the eye.[1] Under normal conditions, the pupils of both eyes respond identically to a light stimulus, regardless of which eye is being stimulated. Light entering one eye produces a constriction of the pupil of that eye, the direct response, as well as a constriction of the pupil of the unstimulated eye, the consensual response. Comparing these two responses in both eyes is helpful in locating a lesion.[1][11] For example, a direct response in the right pupil without a consensual response in the left pupil suggests a problem with the motor connection to the left pupil (perhaps as a result of damage to the oculomotor nerve or Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the brainstem). Lack of response to light stimulation of the right eye if both eyes respond normally to ...
... , or CFEOM, is a class of rare genetic disorders affecting one or more of the muscles that move the eyeballs. Individuals with CFEOM have varying degrees of ophthalmoplegia (an inability to move the eyes in one or more directions) and ptosis. The condition is present from birth and non-progressive, runs in families, and usually affects both eyes similarly. In the most common form, the superior recti are dysfunctional and the inferior recti, lacking proper opposition, pull the eyes down, forcing the head to be tilted upward in order to see straight ahead.[citation needed] There are three types of CFEOM, numbered 1-3. CFEOM1, the most common type, is now known to be caused by one of several mutations in the KIF21A gene, while CFEOM2 is caused by mutations in the PHOX2A gene. CFEOM3 is caused by mutations in the TUBB3 gene. CFEOM was first named in 1956, although papers describing conditions now known or assumed to be CFEOM appear in the medical ...
... , also called Benedikt's syndrome or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare type of posterior circulation stroke of the brain, with a range of neurological symptoms affecting the midbrain, cerebellum and other related structures. It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and involuntary choreoathetotic movements. Neuroanatomical structures affected include CNIII nucleus, Red nucleus, corticospinal tracts, brachium conjunctivum, and the superior cerebellar peduncle decussation. It has a very similar cause, morphology and signs and symptoms to Weber's syndrome; the main difference between the two being that Weber's is more associated with hemiplegia (i.e. paralysis), and Benedikt's with hemiataxia (i.e. disturbed coordination of movements). It is also similar to Claude's syndrome, but is distinguishable in that Benedikt's has more predominant tremor and choreoathetotic movements while ...
... , also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, vertical gaze palsy, and Sunset Sign, is an inability to move the eyes up and down. It is caused by compression of the vertical gaze center at the rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF). The eyes lose the ability to move upward and down. It is a group of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction. It is caused by lesions of the upper brain stem and is named for Henri Parinaud (1844-1905), considered to be the father of French ophthalmology. Parinaud's Syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction, characterized by: Paralysis of upgaze: Downward gaze is usually preserved. This vertical palsy is supranuclear, so doll's head maneuver should elevate the eyes, but eventually all upward gaze mechanisms fail. Pseudo-Argyll Robertson pupils: Accommodative paresis ensues, and pupils become mid-dilated and show light-near dissociation. Convergence-Retraction nystagmus: ...
A prospective evaluation of cholinergic supersensitivity of the iris sphincter in patients with oculomotor nerve palsies. Am J ... The traumatic injury can also be a lesion of the III cranial nerve. 2 ... These instrumental examinations did not show vascular or neurological diseases. The pupils returned to their physiological ... Unilateral mydriasis can be caused by a contusion injury to the iris sphincter or by a direct trauma to the oculomotor nerve. 4 ...
Parkinson Disease - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Su. This 76-year-old man ... Posterior Fossa Tumor - Cranial Nerves Exam - Hypoglossal (CN XII) Nerve Sub-exam - Patient 9. Patient is a 58-year-old white ... He has residual cranial nerve palsies on the right side and experiences tremors, ataxia and disequilibrium. His wife reports ... He has residual cranial nerve palsies on the right side and experiences tremors, ataxia and disequilibrium. His wife reports ...
Parkinson Disease - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Su. This 76-year-old man ... He has residual cranial nerve palsies on the right side and experiences tremors, ataxia and disequilibrium. His wife reports ...
Optic nerve. - sense of sight (vision). *Oculomotor nerve. - eyelid movements, most eyeball movements, constricts pupils and ... Cranial Nerve Function, Testing and Disease Symptoms. Posted by Dr. Chris. The Cranial Nerves. The brain is the central ... Functions of Cranial Nerves. In order to understand that nature of the symptoms in cranial nerve damage or disease, it is ... Names of the Cranial Nerves. Each pair of cranial nerves is numbered from one to twelve Roman numerals) and designated as CN. ...
... see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; ... Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result ... Surgical Peripheral Nerve Decompression for the Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy of the Foot - a Level 1 Pragmatic ... Glycogen Storage Disease Type V. Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following ...
... see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; ... Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result ... Diabetic eye disease remains a major cause of visual loss for individuals with type 1 diabetes, despite currently available ... A Comparison of Islet Cell Transplantation With Medical Therapy for the Treatment of Diabetic Eye Disease ...
... see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; ... Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result ... The Importance of Disease Duration. J Diabetes Res. 2018; 2018:1631263. ... Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy ( ...
Ptosis can also be the result of a brain tumor that affects the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III). Sudden development of the ... Abel over at Terra Sigillata got is writ in a tinger over bad grammar and was concerned that Alzheimers Disease had been tied ... CR may also reduce the risk of Alzheimers Disease, and can prevent the formation of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models ... Now a group suggests that antisense oligonucleotide therapy may be used to effectively treat some forms of the disease. Some ...
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that causes painful oculomotor (especially sixth nerve) palsies. ... It is also known as the abducent nerve, the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. ... of people with tuberculosis have some resulting cranial nerve deficit. The sixth nerve is the most commonly affected cranial ... Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ...
Open Access journal that publishes case reports and case series focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as abnormal ... Diplopia is one of the most evident features related to alterations of cranial nerves, namely, oculomotor, trochlear, and ... Finally, the XI nerve involvement was never reported.. 3.8. Phrenic Nerve Involvement. Phrenic nerve is not a cranial nerve; it ... Ipo-Anosmia (I Cranial Nerve). Alterations of the I cranial nerve were rarely observed; to date, only 4 cases were described [ ...
Find out information about Cranial nerve diseases. the 12 pairs of nerves that branch off from the anterior surface of the ... brain stem in succession from front to back through special openings in the skull.... Explanation of Cranial nerve diseases ... The third, fourth, and sixth pairs are the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves; they develop in association with ... Cranial Nerves. (redirected from Cranial nerve diseases). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical. Cranial Nerves. the 12 pairs of ...
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...
... are much more ALS-resistant than those of other cranial nerve nuclei and of the spinal cord (SC) anterior horns, and their ... However, oculomotor activity usually persists until late in the disease. Detailed studies revealed a variety of oculomotor ... The motoneurons of oculomotor nuclei in the midbrain were also studied. The control material comprised paraffin blocks with ... A crucial question in the studies on motor neuron diseases is the cause and mechanism of selective MN death. Spinal -MNs are ...
... paresis and loss of sensitivity and cranial nerve function) frequently occur. Injury to the oculomotor nerves and drowsiness ... involvement of cranial nerves, and symptoms of meningeal irritation are characteristic. The course of the disease is often mild ... The inflammatory process may involve chiefly the white or gray matter of the brain (cranial nerves and subcortical ganglia), as ... infectious disease of horses caused by any of several viruses, four of which-the Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and St. Louis ...
Diseases associated with PNMA2 include Third Cranial Nerve Disease and Oculomotor Nerve Paralysis. An important paralog of this ... Additional Disease Information for PNMA2. Genetic Association Database (GAD) ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and ... Gene Damage Index Score: 6.68; 78.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing) ... Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 48.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing) ...
... and to those engaged in a large-volume neuroradiology practice are the sections on diseases of the cranial nerves, particularly ... where there are reviews of oculomotor disturbances, diagrams of the segmental lesions of the facial nerve, and abnormalities of ... The remainder of the book is devoted to specific diseases according to location and/or disease entity. Although this book is ... The various eye findings and descriptions of disturbance in oculomotor function, papillary mobility, and supranuclear ...
Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Oculomotor palsy due to diabetes. ... List of disease causes of Oculomotor palsy due to diabetes, patient stories, diagnostic guides. ... Oculomotor palsy due to diabetes refers to paralysis, numbness, and loss of control of the third cranial nerve, which controls ... Oculomotor palsy due to diabetes: Related Rare Diseases. Rare types of medical conditions and diseases in related medical ...
In front of any paralysis of the III cranial nerve, it is necessary a rigorous, obligatory and immediate neuro-ophthalmological ... Doen as do Nervo Oculomotor/diagn stico. Doen as do Nervo Oculomotor/diagn stico por imagem. ... Several neuro-ophthalmologic conditions are implicated in the disease ethiopathogeny, and most of them could lead to death. The ... The psycho-physical history led to a definitive diagnosis of aberrant regeneration of the III secondary cranial nerve, to ...
The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV) has a motor function involving eye movement. The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) ... and Psychological Diseases. Study concepts, example questions & explanations for CCRN. ... The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) has a sensory function involving eye movement. The hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) ...
Because a number of these diseases may initially present with ocular symptoms, physicians should maintain a high index of ... disease are autoimmune disorders commonly encountered by family physicians. These autoimmune disorders can have devastating ... and cranial nerve palsies, especially involving the sixth and third nerves, may result from lesions of the brain stem and ... oculomotor abnormalities, pseudotumor cerebri, and visual hallucinations.16 ...
Most of the patients were male (67.6 %). Only 23.5 % of the cases had identifiable underlying diseases. The sensitivity of the ... Cryptococcal meningitis is an infrequent disease with a high fatality rate in children in China. The majority of patients were ... Cranial nerve palsies were observed in 10 (29.4 %) cases involving the optic nerve, oculomotor nerve and facial nerve. Ten ... Demographic data, underlying diseases, clinical features in the patients history, laboratory findings, cranial imaging, ...
Cranial nerve palsy was the most frequent deficit (50%) which caused admission to a hospital followed by painful radiculitis ( ... and finally by cranial nerve palsy. Indeed, signs of meningitis were often found in patients with neuroborreliosis, but usually ... cases such as acute delirium indicate that neuroborreliosis has to be considered in a wide spectrum of neurological diseases. ... Neuroborreliosis represents a relevant infectious disease and can cause a variety of neurological manifestations. Different ...
... in 1999 demonstrated significant enlargement of the orbital segments of the oculomotor nerves, as well as enlargement of all ... As with CMT, cranial nerve involvement in the other types of HMSN (such as Déjérine-Sottas disease [type III] or Refsum disease ... neoplastic disease (metastatic disease and lymphoma), amyloid neuropathy, and neurosyphilis. The degree of cranial nerve ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: Extensive Cranial Nerve Involvement on CT and MR Imaging. Todd R. Aho, Robert C. Wallace, Alan M. ...
... cranial nerve (trigeminal) is unusual and would make invasive lesions more likely. However, these cranial nerve dysfunctions ... oculomotor , trochlear,9 as these may be indicative of invasive disease, and would warrant urgent referral. ... Sphenoid sinus mucocele presenting with oculomotor nerve palsy and affecting the functions of trigeminal nerve: A case report. ... Isolated sphenoid sinus disease is very rare in children.. * A deep-seated, retro-orbital headache in a child is suggestive of ...
Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are ... Central Nervous System Diseases. Cranial Nerve Diseases. Eye Diseases. Description. Disorders that feature impairment of eye ... Oculomotor Nerve Diseases. Ophthalmoplegia. Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome. Strabismus. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome. Search for this ... caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by ...
  • Optic nerve (ON) cross-section findings were similar to normal. (arvojournals.org)
  • This is where the retina is situated, a surface comprising millions of photoreceptive cells attached to special neurons, the axons of which form the optic nerve. (teknon.es)
  • When light hits these cells, it is turned to a set of neural signals which are transferred by the optic nerve and other optic pathways to the cerebral cortex where vision is processed. (teknon.es)
  • Any part of the optic nerve from the optic nerve head, or optic disc (to be found by exploring the fundus), to intracranial optic pathways can be subject to damage. (teknon.es)
  • This is a term for the abrupt loss of vision in the wake of destruction of the myelin sheath which covers the optic nerve, damage which can occur naturally or be inflicted upon it multiple sclerosis. (teknon.es)
  • This is the haemorrhage of blood entering the head of the optic nerve, the symptom of the condition being a sudden loss of sight in one eye. (teknon.es)
  • Study of the fundus will reveal the optic nerve head to become pale and swollen. (teknon.es)
  • An attack on the disc or head of the optic nerve can also happen to someone with arteritis in the temporal bone, a condition which normally affects people over the age of 70. (teknon.es)
  • With retinal migraine, however, this is not the case, since the lack of blood circulating round the retina or optic nerve are to blame for the problems with vision. (teknon.es)
  • Radiation optic neuropathy after proton beam therapy for optic nerve sheath meningioma. (utah.edu)
  • 2. Vaphiades MS. Disk edema and cranial MRI optic nerve enhancement: how long is too long? (utah.edu)
  • Response We thank Dr. Vaphiades for his interest in our article and agree that the etiology of optic nerve enhance-ment may be difficult to distinguish based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings alone. (utah.edu)
  • With an optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM), the tumor typically shows gadolinium enhancement rather than the nerve itself, giving rise to the typical tram-track sign, while with radi-ation optic neuropathy (RON), the optic nerve itself enhances and may therefore be indistinguishable from the enhancement of the surrounding ONSM. (utah.edu)
  • Radiographically, the area of new optic nerve enhancement corresponded to the exact location of the highest proton beam radiation dose. (utah.edu)
  • Although the optic nerve showed normal short T1 inversion recovery signal at the time of the initial ONSM diagnosis, it showed increased signal with proximal enhancement at the time the patient presented with visual loss, which began 27 months after completion of radiation therapy. (utah.edu)
  • A cancer, such as an optic glioma, can also affect the optic nerve (II). (elpasochiropractorblog.com)
  • A pituitary tumour can compress the optic tracts or the optic chiasm of the optic nerve (II), causing visual field loss. (elpasochiropractorblog.com)
  • In one cat, bilateral optic nerve deficits were also present. (avmi.net)
  • Binocular - Hemianopsia due to bilateral optic nerve disease. (wikem.org)
  • Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) has been described as a syndrome involving damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN3), trochlear nerve (CN4), ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN5) and abducens nerve (CN6) in association with optic nerve dysfunction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • RESUMEN Los trastornos de la motilidad ocular constituyen motivo de consulta peri dica en Oftalmolog a. (bireme.br)
  • Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (RPON), previously known as ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM), is an uncommon disorder with repeated episodes of ocular cranial nerve neuropathy associated with ipsilateral headache. (hindawi.com)
  • Unilateral arcus is a sign of decreased blood flow to the unaffected eye, due to carotid artery disease or ocular hypotony . (gutenberg.org)
  • Additionally, with an understanding of the various causes of adult strabismus, the orthoptist is able to identify specific information in the patient's medical history that could be relevant to the oculomotor system and apply that information to the evaluation strategy. (aao.org)
  • This is especially important for adults with childhood strabismus, with macular disease, or with strabismus secondary to severe head trauma. (aao.org)
  • Strabismus may result from several factors, including a blow on the head, disease, or heredity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the age of 7 years, left hand weakness developed due to nerve sheath tumors affecting the roots of C8 and T1. (utah.edu)
  • One symptom indicating muscular disease is weakness, usually symmetrical (that is, affecting both sides of the body) and mainly affecting the proximal or girdle muscles . (britannica.com)
  • Oculomotor nerve - eyelid movements, most eyeball movements, constricts pupils and changes the shape of lens (accommodation for visual acuity). (healthhype.com)
  • Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo orthosis placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causative agents of primary encephalitides penetrate the brain through the blood and, less commonly, the nerve fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The evaluation of patients with suspected Cushing's disease and syndrome requires an understanding of the proper use and limitations of the tests commonly included in the diagnostic work-up. (aafp.org)
  • Commonly, nerves are affected according to their length, the longest ones "dying back" from the periphery , being least able to sustain vital metabolic processes. (britannica.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, mild TBI (mTBI) (often referred to as a concussion) manifests initially as a brief change in mental status or unconsciousness, whereas severe TBI results in an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia. (nap.edu)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The bulk of the imaging literature of this disorder concerns the identification of nerve root enlargement, often massive, within the lumbosacral spine in patients with nerve compression syndromes ( 2 - 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Case reports describing the imaging appearance of nerve hypertrophy in this disorder can be found from the mid-1970s with myelography, in the mid-1980s with CT, and to the current time with MR ( 2 - 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Leigh syndrome (also called Leigh disease and subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is an under-recognized inherited neurometabolic disorder that. (diabeticsfree.com)
  • This disorder affects the third cranial nerve in the skull. (baptistjax.com)
  • Whipple's disease is a rare systemic infectious disorder caused by Tropheryma whipplei . (biomedcentral.com)
  • WD, named after the American pathologist George H Whipple, who described this disease as 'intestinal lipodystrophy' in 1907, is a rare systemic infectious disorder with an estimated incidence of 0.4 per 1,000,000 a year [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 1st edition (1987) of the ICHD had considered this condition as a migraine variant [ 6 ], but in the ICHD-II (2004), the disorder, called "ophthalmoplegic migraine" (with the quotes around "migraine" included), was classified in the group of cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PGM3-CDG is a rare congenital disorder of glycosylation caused by mutations in the PGM3 gene and characterized by neonatal to childhood onset of recurrent bacterial and viral infections, inflammatory skin diseases, atopic dermatitis and atopic diatheses, and marked serum IgE elevation. (mendelian.co)
  • Gaucher disease refers to a group of inherited metabolic diseases in which harmful amounts of fatty materials (lipids) accumulate in various cells and tissues in the body (lipid storage disorder). (nih.gov)
  • For example, the ACR criteria include terms such as headache and mood disorder which are highly prevalent in the general population and observed at similar frequency in healthy, matched controls, as well as patients with other chronic inflammatory diseases ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This is because the parasympathetic nerve fibers within CNIII that influence pupillary size are found on the periphery of the nerve (in terms of a cross-sectional view), which makes them less susceptible to ischemic damage (as they are closer to the vascular supply). (wikipedia.org)
  • Common conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, may affect one or more of the cranial nerves, resulting in dysfunction of the specific regions innervated by them. (elpasochiropractorblog.com)
  • Other vascular causes include: Giant cell arteritis, microangiopathy of the brain, retina, and inner ear (Susac syndrome), acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, Eale disease (noninflammatory occlusive disease of the retinal vasculature), Cogan syndrome (interstitial keratitis, vestibular dysfunction, and deafness) and systemic hypercoaguable states, including anticardiolipin syndrome. (neuroweb.us)
  • Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: is SMN-Gemins protein complex of importance for the relative resistance of oculomotor nucleus motoneurons to degeneration? (termedia.pl)
  • A diagram of the 3rd nerve nucleus complex is shown below: Central caudal nucleus CCN: There is only one, unpaired CCN, which supplies the levator palpebrae superiorus. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Damage to the oculomotor nerve nucleus can also cause Weber syndrome, Claude syndrome, and Benedikt syndrome. (e-jar.org)
  • The efferent fibres for upgaze leave the riMLF and decussate in the midline of the posterior commissure, pass through the pretectum and enter the subnucleus of the superior rectus (SR) in the oculomotor nucleus. (reocities.com)