Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.
Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
An 'accident' in a medical context often refers to an unintended event or harm that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, resulting in injury or illness, and is typically not planned or intended.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.

Avulsion fracture of the anterior half of the foramen magnum involving the bilateral occipital condyles and the inferior clivus--case report. (1/45)

A 38-year-old male presented with an avulsion fracture of the anterior half of the foramen magnum due to a traffic accident. He had palsy of the bilateral VI, left IX, and left X cranial nerves, weakness of his left upper extremity, and crossed sensory loss. He was treated conservatively and placed in a halo brace for 16 weeks. After immobilization, swallowing, hoarseness, and left upper extremity weakness improved. Hyperextension with a rotatory component probably resulted in strain in the tectorial membrane and alar ligaments, resulting in avulsion fracture at the sites of attachment, the bilateral occipital condyles and the inferior portion of the clivus. Conservative treatment is probably optimum even for this unusual and severe type of occipital condyle fracture.  (+info)

Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms: Texas Heart Institute experience. (2/45)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid artery (ECA) are rare. Large single-institution series are seldom reported and usually are not aneurysm type-specific. Thus, information about immediate and long-term results of surgical therapy is sparse. This review was conducted to elucidate etiology, presentation, and treatment for ECA aneurysms. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case records of the Texas Heart Institute/St Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, and found 67 cases of ECA aneurysms treated surgically (the largest series to date) between 1960 and 1995: 38 pseudoaneurysms after previous carotid surgery and 29 atherosclerotic or traumatic aneurysms. All aneurysms were surgically explored, and all were repaired except two: a traumatic distal internal carotid artery aneurysm and an infected pseudoaneurysm in which the carotid artery was ligated. RESULTS: Four deaths (three fatal strokes and one myocardial infarction) and two nonfatal strokes were directly attributed to a repaired ECA aneurysm (overall mortality/major stroke incidence, 9%); there was one minor stroke (incidence, 1.5%). The incidence of cranial nerve injury was 6% (four cases). During long-term follow-up (1.5 months-30 years; mean, 5.9 years), 19 patients died, mainly of cardiac causes (11 myocardial infarctions). CONCLUSION: The potential risks of cerebral ischemia and rupture as well as the satisfactory long-term results achieved with surgery strongly argue in favor of surgical treatment of ECA aneurysms.  (+info)

Cranial and cervical nerve injuries after repeat carotid endarterectomy. (3/45)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of cranial and/or cervical nerve injuries after primary carotid endarterectomy (CEA) ranges from 3% to 48%; however, the clinical outcome of these injuries after repeat CEA has not been thoroughly analyzed in the English-language medical literature. This prospective study analyzes the incidence and outcome of cranial nerve injuries after repeat CEA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study includes 89 consecutive patients who had repeat CEAs. Preoperative and postoperative cranial nerve evaluations were performed, including clinical examinations (neurologic) and direct laryngoscopy. Patients with vagal or glossopharyngeal nerve injuries also underwent comprehensive speech evaluations, video stroboscopy, fluoroscopy, and methylene blue testing for aspiration. Patients with postoperative cranial nerve injuries were followed up for a long time to assess their recovery. RESULTS: Twenty-five cranial and/or cervical nerve injuries were identified in 19 patients (21%). They included 8 hypoglossal nerves (9%), 11 vagal nerves or branches (12%) (6 recurrent laryngeal nerves [7%], 3 superior laryngeal nerves [3%], and 2 complex vagal nerves [2%]), 3 marginal mandibular nerves (3%), 2 greater auricular nerves (2%), and 1 glossopharyngeal nerve (1%). Twenty-two (88%) of these injuries were transient with a complete healing time ranging from 2 weeks to 28 months (18 of 22 injuries healed within 12 months). The remaining three injuries (12%) were permanent (1 recurrent laryngeal nerve, 1 glossopharyngeal nerve, and 1 complex vagal nerve injury). The recurrent laryngeal nerve injury had a longer healing time than the other cranial nerve injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat CEA is associated with a high incidence of cranial and/or cervical nerve injuries, most of which are transient. However, some of these have a long healing time, and a few can be permanent with significant disability.  (+info)

Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure. (4/45)

Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.  (+info)

Redo carotid endarterectomy versus primary carotid endarterectomy. (5/45)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several authorities have recently advocated carotid stenting for recurrent carotid stenosis because of the perception that redo surgery has a higher complication rate than primary carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This study compares the early and late results of reoperations versus primary CEA. METHODS: All reoperations for recurrent carotid stenosis performed during a recent 7-year period by a single vascular surgeon were compared with primary CEA. Because all redo CEAs were done with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or vein patch closure, we only analyzed those primary CEAs that used the same patch closures. A Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis was used to estimate stroke-free survival rates and freedom from >/=50% recurrent stenosis. RESULTS: Of 547 primary CEAs, 265 had PTFE or saphenous vein patch closure, and 124 reoperations had PTFE or vein patch closure during the same period. Both groups had similar demographic characteristics. The indications for reoperation and primary CEA were symptomatic stenosis in 78% and 58% of cases and asymptomatic >/=80% stenosis in 22% and 42% of cases, respectively (P<0.001). The 30-day perioperative stroke and transient ischemic attack rates for reoperation and primary CEA were 4.8% versus 0.8% (P=0.015) and 4% versus 1.1%, respectively, with no perioperative deaths in either group. Cranial nerve injury was noted in 17% of reoperation patients versus 5.3% of primary CEA patients; however, most of these injuries were transient (P<0.001). Mean hospital stay was 1.8 days for reoperation versus 1.6 days for primary CEA. Cumulative rates of stroke-free survival and freedom from >/=50% recurrent stenosis for reoperation and primary CEA at 1, 3, and 5 years were 96%, 91%, and 82% and 98%, 96%, and 95% versus 94%, 92%, and 91% and 98%, 96%, and 96%, respectively (no significant differences). CONCLUSIONS: Reoperation carries higher perioperative stroke and cranial nerve injury rates than primary CEA. However, reoperations are durable and have stroke-free survival rates that are similar to primary CEA. These considerations should be kept in mind when carotid stenting is recommended instead of reoperation.  (+info)

Long-term outcome after severe head injury. (6/45)

From a consecutive series of 7000 patients with head injuries admitted to the regional accident service, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford between 10 and 24 years earlier, every patient was taken who had been amnesic or unconscious for one week or longer. Of these 479 patients, all but ten were traced, and either the cause of death was established or the survivors examined. Ten years after injury 4% were totally disabled, and 14% severely disabled to a degree precluding normal occupational or social life. Of the remainder, 49% had recovered, and the rest were dead. Additionally, a selected series of 64 patients whose unconsciousness had been prolonged for a month or more were studied. Forty of these had survived between three and 25 years after injury and were re-examined. On the basis of age at injury, the worst state of neurological responsiveness, and the duration of posttraumatic amnesia, the outcome of head injury can be predicted reliably in most cases. Patients and relatives need more reassurance and simple psychotherapeutic support, especially in the first few months after injury. Extrapolation from our figures suggests that each year in England and Wales 210 patients survive totally disabled and another 1500 are severely disabled.  (+info)

Tapia's syndrome following shoulder surgery. (7/45)

Multiple cranial palsy occurred after shoulder surgery in the sitting position. Compression by the tracheal tube, caused by displacement of the head, may have caused the injury.  (+info)

Perceptual and instrumental evaluation of voice and tongue function after carotid endarterectomy. (8/45)

OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal and tongue function was assessed in 28 patients to evaluate the presence, nature, and resolution of superior recurrent laryngeal and hypoglossal nerve damage resulting from standard open primary carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS: The laryngeal and tongue function in 28 patients who underwent CEA were examined prospectively with various physiologic (Aerophone II, laryngograph, tongue transducer), acoustic (Multi-Dimensional Voice Program), and perceptual speech assessments. Measures were obtained from all participants preoperatively, and at 2 weeks and at 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The perceptual speech assessment indicated that the vocal quality of "roughness" was significantly more apparent at the 2-week postoperative assessment than preoperatively. However, by the 3-month postoperative assessment these values had returned to near preoperative levels, with no significant difference detected between preoperative and 3-month postoperative levels or between 2-week and 3-month postoperative levels. Both the instrumental assessments of laryngeal function and the acoustic assessment of vocal quality failed to identify any significant difference on any measure across the three assessment periods. Similarly, no significant impairment in tongue strength, endurance, or rate of repetitive tongue movements was detected at instrumental assessment of tongue function. CONCLUSIONS: No permanent changes to vocal or tongue function occurred in this group of participants after primary CEA. The lack of any significant long-term laryngeal or tongue dysfunction in this group suggests that the standard open CEA procedure is not associated with high rates of superior recurrent and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction, as previously believed.  (+info)

Cranial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma to one or more of the twelve cranial nerves (CN I through CN XII). These nerves originate from the brainstem and are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and balance) and controlling various motor functions (like eye movement, facial expressions, swallowing, and speaking).

Cranial nerve injuries can result from various causes, including head trauma, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions. The severity of the injury may range from mild dysfunction to complete loss of function, depending on the extent of damage to the nerve. Treatment options vary based on the type and location of the injury but often involve a combination of medical management, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or rehabilitation.

Hypoglossal nerve injuries refer to damages or impairments to the twelfth cranial nerve, also known as the hypoglossal nerve. This nerve is primarily responsible for controlling the movements of the tongue.

An injury to this nerve can result in various symptoms, depending on the severity and location of the damage. These may include:

1. Deviation of the tongue to one side when protruded (usually away from the side of the lesion)
2. Weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles
3. Difficulty with speaking, swallowing, and articulation
4. Changes in taste and sensation on the back of the tongue (in some cases)

Hypoglossal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma, surgical complications, tumors, or neurological disorders like stroke or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypoglossal nerve injuries typically focuses on managing symptoms and may involve speech and language therapy, exercises to strengthen the tongue muscles, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Laryngeal nerve injuries refer to damages or injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and/or the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), which are the primary nerves that supply the larynx, or voice box. These nerves play crucial roles in controlling the vocal cord movements and protecting the airway during swallowing.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor function to all intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, which is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. The RLN also carries sensory fibers from a small area of the mucous membrane below the vocal folds.

Injuries to these nerves can result in voice changes, breathing difficulties, and swallowing problems. Depending on the severity and location of the injury, patients may experience hoarseness, weak voice, breathy voice, coughing while swallowing, or even complete airway obstruction in severe cases. Laryngeal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as surgical complications (e.g., thyroid, esophageal, and cardiovascular surgeries), neck trauma, tumors, infections, or iatrogenic causes.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) from the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. The surgery involves making an incision in the neck, opening the carotid artery, and removing the plaque from the inside of the artery wall. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the brain and reduce the risk of stroke caused by the narrowing or blockage of the carotid arteries.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

Carotid stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or constriction of the lumen (inner space) of the carotid artery. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Carotid stenosis usually results from the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis.

As the plaque accumulates, it causes the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow to the brain. Severe carotid stenosis can increase the risk of stroke, as a clot or debris from the plaque can break off and travel to the brain, blocking a smaller blood vessel and causing tissue damage or death.

Carotid stenosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, and managing cholesterol levels), medications to reduce the risk of clots, or surgical procedures like endarterectomy or stenting to remove or bypass the blockage.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Facial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII). This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, eyelid movement, and taste sensation in the front two-thirds of the tongue.

There are two main types of facial nerve injuries:

1. Peripheral facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve outside the skull base, usually due to trauma from cuts, blunt force, or surgical procedures in the parotid gland or neck region. The injury may result in weakness or paralysis on one side of the face, known as Bell's palsy, and may also impact taste sensation and salivary function.

2. Central facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve within the skull base, often due to stroke, brain tumors, or traumatic brain injuries. Central facial nerve injuries typically result in weakness or paralysis only on the lower half of the face, as the upper motor neurons responsible for controlling the upper face receive innervation from both sides of the brain.

Treatment for facial nerve injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage. For mild to moderate injuries, physical therapy, protective eyewear, and medications like corticosteroids and antivirals may be prescribed. Severe cases might require surgical intervention, such as nerve grafts or muscle transfers, to restore function. In some instances, facial nerve injuries may heal on their own over time, particularly when the injury is mild and there is no ongoing compression or tension on the nerve.

Optic nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the optic nerve, which is a crucial component of the visual system. The optic nerve transmits visual information from the retina to the brain, enabling us to see. Injuries to the optic nerve can result in various visual impairments, including partial or complete vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color perception, and reduced field of view.

These injuries may occur due to several reasons, such as:

1. Direct trauma to the eye or head
2. Increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma)
3. Optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve
4. Ischemia, or insufficient blood supply to the optic nerve
5. Compression from tumors or other space-occupying lesions
6. Intrinsic degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve
7. Toxic exposure to certain chemicals or medications

Optic nerve injuries are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus exam, and additional diagnostic tests like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field testing. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the injury but may include medications, surgery, or vision rehabilitation.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Boston." It is a city in the state of Massachusetts, USA, and is widely known for its cultural institutions, such as Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, and The Museum of Fine Arts. Additionally, it is home to many renowned medical institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. However, "Boston" does not have a specific meaning or definition in the medical field.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury that occurs when there is extensive damage to the nerve fibers (axons) in the brain. It is often caused by rapid acceleration or deceleration forces, such as those experienced during motor vehicle accidents or falls. In DAI, the axons are stretched and damaged, leading to disruption of communication between different parts of the brain. This can result in a wide range of symptoms, including cognitive impairment, loss of consciousness, and motor dysfunction. DAI is often difficult to diagnose and can have long-term consequences, making it an important area of study in traumatic brain injury research.

A chronic brain injury, also known as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), is an injury to the brain that results in long-term or permanent impairment. It is caused by a significant blow to the head or body, or by a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal functioning of the brain.

Chronic brain injuries can result in a wide range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, including:

* Persistent headaches or migraines
* Difficulty with memory, concentration, and decision-making
* Changes in mood, such as depression, anxiety, or irritability
* Difficulty with communication, including speaking and understanding language
* Sensory problems, such as vision or hearing loss
* Seizures
* Balance and coordination problems
* Weakness or paralysis on one side of the body

These symptoms can vary in severity and may not be immediately apparent following the initial injury. In some cases, they may not become apparent until days, weeks, or even months after the injury.

Chronic brain injuries are often classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the level of consciousness loss and the presence of other neurological deficits. Mild TBIs, also known as concussions, may not cause long-term impairment, while moderate to severe TBIs can result in significant disability and require ongoing rehabilitation and support.

Treatment for chronic brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes medical management of symptoms, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and counseling or psychotherapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address structural damage to the brain.

An "accident" is an unfortunate event that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in damage or injury. In medical terms, an accident refers to an unplanned occurrence resulting in harm or injury to a person's body, which may require medical attention. Accidents can happen due to various reasons such as human error, mechanical failure, or environmental factors.

Examples of accidents that may require medical attention include:

1. Traffic accidents: These can result in injuries such as fractures, head trauma, and soft tissue injuries.
2. Workplace accidents: These can include falls, machinery malfunctions, or exposure to hazardous substances, resulting in injuries or illnesses.
3. Home accidents: These can include burns, cuts, falls, or poisoning, which may require medical treatment.
4. Sports accidents: These can result in injuries such as sprains, strains, fractures, or concussions.
5. Recreational accidents: These can occur during activities such as swimming, hiking, or biking and may result in injuries such as drowning, falls, or trauma.

Preventing accidents is crucial to maintaining good health and safety. This can be achieved through education, awareness, and the implementation of safety measures in various settings such as homes, workplaces, and roads.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

"Clinical Relevance of Cranial Nerve Injury following Carotid Endarterectomy." European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular ... "Clinical relevance of cranial nerve injury following carotid endarterectomy". Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 47 (1): 2-7. doi: ... 2012). "The dangers of being a "weekend warrior": A new call for injury prevention efforts". The Journal of Trauma and Acute ... April 2007). "The midterm results of stent graft treatment of thoracic aortic injuries". J. Surg. Res. 138 (2): 181-8. doi: ...
Due to the proximity of the cranial nerves, injury to those nerves may occur. This can cause loss of function of the facial ... Surgery may be performed to seal a CSF leak that does not stop, to relieve pressure on a cranial nerve or repair injury to a ... Other complications include injuries to the cranial nerves or blood vessels. A basilar skull fracture typically requires a ... nerve or oculomotor nerve, or hearing loss due to damage of cranial nerve VIII. Evidence does not support the use of preventive ...
Bilateral optic pseudoneuritis and unilateral medullated nerve fibers in cranial injury by blunt force. Med Rec New York 1913; ...
... and cranial nerve injury are also risks at the time of surgery. Following surgery, a rare early complication is cerebral ... Contralateral laryngeal nerve injury Tracheostoma Carotid artery stenting is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy in cases ...
Injury to cranial nerve XI will cause weakness in abducting the shoulder above 90 degrees. When the scapulae are stable, a co- ... Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ... Trapezius palsy, due to damage of the spinal accessory nerve, is characterized by difficulty with arm adduction and abduction, ... Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position (proprioception), ...
... cranial nerve injury typically presents as a visual acuity loss 1-14 years post treatment. In the PNS, injury to the plexus ... Nerve damage from ionizing radiation occurs in phases, the initial phase from microvascular injury, capillary damage and nerve ... Delayed tissue injury with impaired wound healing capability often develops after 65 Gray radiation. A diffuse injury pattern ... Late or delayed radiation injury (6 months to decades) may develop after 65 Gy. Most side effects are predictable and expected ...
... and cranial nerve injuries. Caput Succeedaneum is seen as edema in the scalp due to squeezing of the veins from increase ... It is also crucial to distinguish between "birth trauma" and "birth injury". Birth injuries encompass any systemic damages ... Birth injury occupies a unique area of concern and study in the medical canon. In ICD-10 "birth trauma" occupied 49 individual ... In the West injury occurs in 1.1% of C-sections. Cephalo-pelvic disproportion, the quick and rapid delivery, delayed and ...
In fatalities related to cranial or neural injury, nerve damage in the brain may inhibit the ability to release a weapon from ...
... cranial nerve dysfunction, and traumatic brain injuries. The original medical report stated that neuropathologist Lucy Balian ...
... palsy is identified through loss of lateral gaze after application of the orthosis and is the most common cranial nerve injury ... Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ... "Cranial Mononeuropathy VI". Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. Sowka JW, Gurwood AS, Kabat AG (2000-2001). "Cranial Nerve VI ...
... and injuries of cranial nerves II-VII. Mariak has explored the revival of psychosurgery, commenting that deep brain stimulation ... Detachment after injuries and in aphakic eyes". Klinika Oczna. 87 (10): 404-405. PMID 3831555 - via ppm.umb.edu.pl. Stankiewicz ... "Internal ophthalmoplegia as a direct consequence of head injury. Report on 2 cases". Klinika Oczna. 94 (5-6): 163-164. PMID ...
Fourth cranial nerve palsy or trochlear nerve palsy, is a condition affecting cranial nerve 4 (IV), the trochlear nerve, which ... it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. To compensate for the double-vision resulting from the weakness of the ... Because the trochlear nerve is the thinnest and has the longest intracranial course of the cranial nerves, ... When present at birth, it is known as congenital fourth nerve palsy. Harada-Ito procedure "Fourth Nerve Palsy". www.aao.org. ...
Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duane's syndrome or ... orbital injury. Someone with esotropia will squint with either the right or the left eye but never with both eyes ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
It has been postulated that the synkinesis is due to damage to cranial nerve nuclei, caused by peripheral nerve injury and the ... There are also several abnormal cranial nerve synkineses, both acquired and congenital. Marcus Gunn jaw-winking is an example ... The stimulation of the trigeminal nerve by contraction of the pterygoid muscles of jaw results in the excitation of the branch ... of the oculomotor nerve that innervates the levator palpebrae superioris ipsilaterally (on the same side of the face), so the ...
Injuries to the base of the skull can damage nerves that emerge directly from the brain (cranial nerves). Cranial nerve damage ... "Traumatic brain injury Complications - Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-01-31. "Brain Injury: Complications and ... Different behavioral problems are characteristic of the location of injury; for instance, frontal lobe injuries often result in ... Most of these injuries develop within a few weeks of the initial trauma and result from skull fractures or penetrating injuries ...
Recovery rate also depends on the cause of the facial nerve palsy (e.g. infections, perinatal injury, congenital dysplastic). ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ...
Among these, cranial nerve deficits are the most characteristic due to the proximity of the injury to the jugular foramen and ... Surgery may become necessary if there is significant compression of the brainstem, spinal cord, the lower cranial nerves or ... This injury tends to be unstable and may co-occur with atlanto-occipital subluxation or dislocation. Neurological injury may ... and possibly lower cranial nerve (IX, X, XI, XII) deficits, tetraparesis or abnormal breathing. ...
... cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.237.162 - abducens nerve injury MeSH C21.866.260.237.325 - facial nerve injuries MeSH ... post-head injury MeSH C21.866.915.300.400 - cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.100 - abducens nerve injury MeSH ... facial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.650 - optic nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.450 - head injuries, closed MeSH ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.275 - facial injuries MeSH C21.866.260.275.250 - eye injuries MeSH C21.866.260.275. ...
Pathological descriptions of BVVL include injury and depletion of 3rd-7th cranial nerves, loss of the spinal anterior horn ... including those of the motor components involving the 7th and 9th-12th cranial nerves, spinal motor nerves, and upper motor ... Nathalie syndrome does not involve lower cranial nerve symptoms, so it can be excluded if those are present. If there is ... BVVL is marked by a number of cranial nerve palsies, ... and this time is usually marked by cranial nerve degeneration. ...
He was substituted off directly afterward in the 20th minute and diagnosed with a left sixth cranial nerve palsy, resulting in ... Despite the injury, however, Gattuso played the entire 90 minutes before being diagnosed by the club doctors after the match. ... In a UEFA Champions League group stage match against Ajax in September 2003, he was sent off during second-half injury time ... Despite having only recently recovered from a serious knee injury, Lippi included Gattuso in Italy's squad for the 2009 FIFA ...
Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ... The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial ... of people with tuberculosis have some resulting cranial nerve deficit. The sixth nerve is the most commonly affected cranial ... Cranial Nerves: Anatomy and Clinical Comments. Decker, 1998. Books Susan Standring; Neil R. Borley; et al., eds. (2008). Gray's ...
... which may impinge on the third cranial nerve, causing a fixed and dilated pupil on the side of the injury. The eye will be ... Chapter 5, "Pathology of Brain Damage After Head Injury" Cooper P and Golfinos G. 2000. Head Injury, 4th Ed. Morgan Hill, New ... About 2 percent of head injuries and 15 percent of fatal head injuries involve an epidural hematoma. The condition is more ... The trigeminal nerve may be involved late in the process as the pons is compressed, but this is not an important presentation, ...
... injury, inflammation) Peripheral neuropathy and other Peripheral nervous system disorders Cranial nerve disorder such as ... spinal cord injury, nerve injury or gluten sensitivity (with or without intestinal damage or digestive symptoms). Metal ... Nerves tend to lie deep under the skin but can still become exposed to damage. Individual neurons, the neural circuits, and ... Neuroregeneration may occur in the peripheral nervous system and thus overcome or work around injuries to some extents, but it ...
In some extreme cases, this could cause temporary or permanent facial nerve injury. Furthermore, if the forceps' handler were ... Increased risk of damage to cranial nerve VI, resulting in strabismus. Increased risk of perineal lacerations, pelvic organ ... Increased risk of facial nerve injury (usually temporary). Increased risk of clavicle fracture (rare). Increased risk of ... include nerve damage, Descemet's membrane rupture, skull fractures, and cervical cord injury. Maternal factors for use of ...
... unspecified 950 Injury to optic nerve and pathways 951 Injury to other cranial nerve(s) 952 Spinal cord injury without evidence ... Injury to axillary nerve 955.1 Injury to median nerve 955.2 Injury to ulnar nerve 955.3 Injury to radial nerve 955.4 Injury to ... Injury to cervical nerve root 953.1 Injury to dorsal nerve root 953.2 Injury to lumbar nerve root 953.3 Injury to sacral nerve ... musculocutaneous nerve 955.5 Injury to cutaneous sensory nerve upper limb 955.6 Injury to digital nerve upper limb 955.7 Injury ...
... and Other Cranial Nerve Disorders Chapter 434: Diseases of the Spinal Cord Chapter 435: Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain ... Injuries Chapter 436: Multiple Sclerosis Chapter 437: Neuromyelitis Optica Section 3: Nerve and Muscle Disorders Chapter 438: ... Acute Kidney Injury Chapter 305: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter 306: Dialysis in the Treatment of Renal Failure Chapter 307: ... Vascular Injury to the Kidney Chapter 312: Nephrolithiasis Chapter 313: Urinary Tract Obstruction Part 10: Disorders of the ...
When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) are most common. The ... These changes are thought to result from a microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum ... "What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy?". aao.org. 1 September 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Behl T ... Damage to a specific nerve of the thoracic or lumbar spinal nerves can occur and may lead to painful syndromes that mimic a ...
EMG is used for cranial nerve monitoring in skull base cases and for nerve root monitoring and testing in spinal surgery. ABR ( ... and for early detection of intraoperative neural injury, allowing for immediate corrective measures. For example, during any ... Intraoperative monitoring is used to : to localize neural structures, for example to locate cranial nerves during skull base ... Since the 1970s, SSEP (somatosensory evoked potentials) have been used to monitor spinal cord function by stimulating a nerve ...
Cranial nerves Nerve Neuralgia Neuritis Neuropathy DiBonaventura, Marco D.; Sadosky, Alesia; Concialdi, Kristen; Hopps, Markay ... In chronic nerve injury, there is redistribution and alteration of subunit compositions of sodium and calcium channels ... Galen also suggested nerve tissue as the transferring route of pain to the brain through the invisible psychic pneuma. The idea ... Neuropathic pain is common in cancer as a direct result of cancer on peripheral nerves (e.g., compression by a tumor), or as a ...
Inferior to the orbit is the infraorbital nerve which is purely sensory. Five cranial nerves (optic, oculomotor, trochlear, ... and loss of sensation of the cheek and upper gums from infraorbital nerve injury. The two broad categories of blowout fractures ... orbit include the optic nerve at the apex of the orbit as well as the superior orbital fissure which contains cranial nerves 3 ... and move eyeball downward due to inferior rectus entrapment Bruising/ecchymosis Decreased movement of eyes Cranial nerve ...
Signs of cranial nerve injuries. Signs of cranial nerve injuries include the following:. * Facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) - ... Spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) - Inability to shrug a shoulder and to laterally rotate the chin to the opposite ... Brachial plexus injuries sustained from blunt trauma tend to involve the upper nerve roots (C5-C7), diminishing the capacity of ... Signs of penetrating injuries of the heart, aorta, and great vessels. Signs of penetrating injuries include the following:. * ...
Optic Nerve Trauma; Optic Neuropathy, Traumatic; Second Cranial Nerve Trauma. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked ... Optic Nerve Injuries (Optic Nerve Trauma; Optic Neuropathy, Traumatic; Second Cranial Nerve Trauma). Injuries to the optic ... Ranked list of diseases related to "Optic Nerve Injuries"Drugs, active principles and "Optic Nerve Injuries"Medicinal plants ... nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor ...
Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. ... Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized ... Cranial Nerve Injury. Cranial nerve and spinal cord injuries result from hyperextension, traction, and overstretching with ... Laryngeal Nerve Injury. Disturbance of laryngeal nerve function may affect swallowing and breathing. Laryngeal nerve injury ...
"Clinical Relevance of Cranial Nerve Injury following Carotid Endarterectomy." European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular ... "Clinical relevance of cranial nerve injury following carotid endarterectomy". Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 47 (1): 2-7. doi: ... 2012). "The dangers of being a "weekend warrior": A new call for injury prevention efforts". The Journal of Trauma and Acute ... April 2007). "The midterm results of stent graft treatment of thoracic aortic injuries". J. Surg. Res. 138 (2): 181-8. doi: ...
Cranial Nerve Injuries * Encephalopathies * Epilepsy * Facial Droop * Facial Nerve Pain (Neuralgia) * Facial Pain ...
Management: Cranial Nerve Injuries. Addressing the problem. Injury to the facial nerve (CN VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN ... Problem: Cranial Nerve Injuries. Although CN injuries are rarely considered in discussions of postoperative complications after ... Risk factors for cranial nerve injury after carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Aug. 62 (2):363-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Risk of persistent cranial nerve injury after carotid endarterectomy. J Neurosurg. 2004 Sep. 101 (3):445-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
Injury to their cranial nerves.. *Problems with healing at the surgical incision site. ... A carotid body tumor may not cause any symptoms, but as the mass grows, it may press on nearby nerves and blood vessels. You ... These tumors are typically benign (noncancerous), but may need surgical removal if they grow large and affect nearby nerves and ... These growths are typically benign (noncancerous), but may affect nearby nerves and blood vessels if they grow large. ...
This report describes the rate of unintentional traumatic brain injury related deaths among persons aged years in the United ... This report describes the rate of unintentional traumatic brain injury related deaths among persons aged years in the United ... crushing injuries involving head with neck); T06.0 (injuries of brain and cranial nerves with injuries of nerves and spinal ... injury to optic nerve and pathways); S06.0−S06.9 (intracranial injury); S07.0, S07.1, S07.8, and S07.9 (crushing injury of head ...
... also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. It occurs when ... These forces can cause intracranial hematoma, diffuse vascular injury, and injury to cranial nerves and the pituitary stalk. [2 ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability ...
These patients may also present with other lower cranial nerve injuries and hemiplegia or quadriplegia. ... and V cranial nerves, respectively. Transverse temporal bone fractures involve the VIII cranial nerve and the labyrinth, ... Collet-Sicard syndrome is occipital condylar fracture with IX, X, XI, and XII cranial nerve involvement. [25, 26, 27] ... Legros B, Fournier P, Chiaroni P, Ritz O, Fusciardi J. Basal fracture of the skull and lower (IX, X, XI, XII) cranial nerves ...
Studies find TCAR associated with lower risk of stroke and cranial nerve injury , UH News Release ...
Guo Y. Cranial Nerve XI Injury Associated with Radical Neck Dissection. In: Cancer Rehabilitation (Rehabilitation Medicine ... Radial nerve injuries from gunshot wounds and other trauma: comparison of electrodiagnostic findings. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 81( ... Muscle & Nerve 60(S1):45, 2019.. *Farinholt P, Park M, Guo Y, Bruera E, Hui D. A Comparison of the Accuracy of Clinician ... Overall Survival Among Patients with Cancer and Pressure Injury and its Association with Braden Scale Score. J Palliat Med 25(8 ...
Except for the absence of 11th cranial nerve injury and the relative scarcity of 10th cranial nerve symptoms, our series ... Symptoms relating to injury of the ninth or 10th to 12th cranial nerves are less common. Although the clinical presentation of ... Patients often present with symptoms consistent with eighth cranial nerve injury or cerebellar or brain stem compression. ... Cranial nerve sheath tumors constitute 5% to 10% of all intracranial neoplasms. They most commonly arise from the vestibular ...
... followed by vagus nerve palsy and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy [5, 14]. So the high incidence of cranial nerve injury in our ... The incidence of cranial nerve injury in our series (35.3%) appears much higher than that in newly diagnosed patients (11.7% to ... The rate of other cranial nerve injuries was below 5%.. 3.3. Patterns of Recurrence and Distant Metastasis. Recurrence in local ... Y. S. Lin, Y. M. Jen, and J. C. Lin, "Radiation-related cranial nerve palsy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma," Cancer ...
767.7 Other cranial and peripheral nerve injuries due to birth trauma convert 767.7 to ICD-10-CM ... 767.5 Facial nerve injury due to birth trauma convert 767.5 to ICD-10-CM ... 767.19 Other injuries to scalp convert 767.19 to ICD-10-CM. *. 767.2 Fracture of clavicle due to birth trauma convert 767.2 to ... 767.1 Injuries to scalp due to birth trauma *. 767.11 Epicranial subaponeurotic hemorrhage (massive) convert 767.11 to ICD-10- ...
... but this structure is generally not surgically removed because of the risk of vascular and cranial nerve injury. This results ... The patient is a 51-year-old male with profound visual loss with homonymous hemianopsia and left optic nerve atrophy. The ...
Cranial Nerve Palsies, Craniofacial Injuries, Craniofacial Reconstruction, Craniofacial Surgery, Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, ... Resident Research Award, Basic Science (Effects of Deferoxamine on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Chronic Nerve Compression: A ... A New Center for Children with Complex Cranial Conditions. Whole Again: A Vet Maimed by an I.E.D. Receives a Transplanted ... Bells Palsy, Brachial Plexus Injuries, Chest Wall Reconstruction, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Complex Skull Reconstruction, ...
After a catastrophic injury, you need Scrantons top legal team on your side to fight for you and your family. Call today for a ... Facial and skull fractures, airway crush or obstruction, penetrating neck trauma, and cranial nerve injuries can all be ... Personal Injury Lawyers / Scranton Personal Injury Lawyer / Scranton Catastrophic Injury Lawyer. We help those who have ... Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain injuries are among the most devastating types of catastrophic injuries. TBI can occur as the ...
... or a shearing injury affecting [[cranial nerve]] VIII. * Noise-induced - prolonged exposure to loud noises (>90 [[Decibel,dB ... vestibulocochlear nerve]] ([[Cranial nerve]] VIII), the inner [[ear]], or central processing centers of the [[brain]]. ,br /> ... cranial nerve]] VIII, or central processing centers ,[[Middle ear]] (ossicular chain), [[tympanic membrane]], or [[external ear ... Patients with these tumours often have signs and symptoms corresponding to compression of both nerves) ** [[Acoustic neuroma ...
And the pain in the affected limb can be severe and even lead to an initial diagnosis of an injury in that extremity. Cranial ... Higher cuts of the brain stem or a complete brain MRI should be considered in a patient with cranial nerve deficits. Clearly ... We suggest conducting a thorough cranial nerve assessment to look for any facial, palatal or shoulder strength asymmetry and ... Synovitis neuritis and injury are often considered when just one limb is involved. GBS and transverse myelitis typically have ...
S04.21XA is a billable diagnosis code used to specify injury of trochlear nerve, right side, initial encounter. Synonyms: ... The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from block Injury of cranial nerve (S04). Use the following options ... S04.2 - Injury of trochlear nerve* S04.20 - Injury of trochlear nerve, unspecified side* S04.20XA - Injury of trochlear nerve, ... Injury of trochlear nerve, left side, sequela* S04.3 - Injury of trigeminal nerve* S04.30 - Injury of trigeminal nerve, ...
... cranial nerve dysfunction syndromes, peripheral nerve injuries, pain, and more. Our years of experience and personalized ... spinal cord injury, brain injury, amputation, post-polio, vestibular and balance dysfunction, diabetic neuropathy and other ... peripheral nerve disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, Lou Gehrigs disease (ALS), epilepsy ...
Cranial Nerve III Injury Injury, Cranial Nerve III Injury, Third Cranial Nerve Oculomotor Nerve Avulsion Oculomotor Nerve ... Third Cranial Nerve Injuries Third Cranial Nerve Injury Third-Nerve Palsy, Traumatic Third-Nerve Trauma Traumatic Third-Nerve ... Cranial Nerve Diseases [C10.292] * Cranial Nerve Injuries [C10.292.200] * Abducens Nerve Injury [C10.292.200.200] ... Cranial Nerve Injuries [C10.900.300.218] * Abducens Nerve Injury [C10.900.300.218.150] * Accessory Nerve Injuries [C10.900. ...
9th and 10th cranial nerves injury. Cranial nerve paralysis accompanied with injury has been repor ted in R amsay Hunt Syndrome ... Major clinical symptoms include 7th nerve paralysis or cranial nerve paralysis and vesicles along the nerve with cocomitant ear ... Multiple cranial nerve injury in Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: a case report. Mehmet Erkan Kaplama ( University of Health Sciences ... Cranial nerve involvement of nerve 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th was observed in this patient. Diphenhydramine 3x50 mg was given ...
... can lead to morbidity with injury to lower cranial nerves, and a decision must be made between subtotal resection with possible ... Patients with large vestibular schwannomas are at high risk of poor facial nerve (cranial nerve VII [CNVII]) function after ... Better immediate but not late CNVII outcome was associated with smaller tumors and larger tumor remnants.CNVII, cranial nerve ... In addition, progression of disease and delay in treatment can result in cranial nerve deficits, intracranial and life- ...
... cranial nerve palsies causing ptosis, diplopia, blurred vision, dysarthria, and dysphagia; increased salivation; muscle ... The earliest symptom is pain out of proportion to the severity of injury. Diagnosis... read more ) is rarely indicated and ... The earliest symptom is pain out of proportion to the severity of injury. Diagnosis... read more (defined as compartment ... Nonvenomous snakebites cause only local injury, usually pain and 2 to 4 rows of scratches from the snakes upper jaw at the ...
  • TN is characterized by recurrent short episodes of sharp, electrical shock like pain, typically abrupt in onset and termination, along the distribution of one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. (asra.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve supplies the sensory innervation to the face as well as the sensory and motor innervation to the mastication muscles. (asra.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a severe facial pain associated with injury to a cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve). (portifisio.pt)
  • The syndrome is characterised by retro-orbital paralysis of extraocular muscles impairment of the branches of the 1st division of the trigeminal nerve and frequently extension to involve the optic nerve. (medicosnotes.com)
  • Some experts in the field of trauma assert that physical examination alone is sufficient to assess zone II for injury, while others believe that diagnostic testing is mandatory. (medscape.com)
  • A single examination is not sufficient, because the onset of signs of injury may be delayed and progressive with neck trauma. (medscape.com)
  • About 50% of cases of penetrating neck trauma in which the platysma is violated have no further injury. (medscape.com)
  • Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve . (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Recognition of trauma necessitates a careful physical and neurologic evaluation of the infant to establish whether additional injuries are present. (medscape.com)
  • Facial and skull fractures, airway crush or obstruction, penetrating neck trauma, and cranial nerve injuries can all be extremely dangerous. (munley.com)
  • Other causes of hearing loss can include a head or traumatic brain injury, medical error, medication side effects, and other injuries or trauma to the ear. (munley.com)
  • DI most commonly is associated with severe TBI and basilar skull fractures with cranial nerve involvement, craniofacial trauma, and postcardiopulmonary arrest. (medscape.com)
  • But when birth injuries or trauma occur due to careless medical attention or negligence, it's critical that whoever caused the injuries is held accountable for his or her actions. (marksalomone.com)
  • The key to the management of these facial nerve injuries depends on (i) the timing of facial paralysis after onset (immediate vs. delayed), (ii) the extent of paralysis (complete vs. incomplete), (iii) the type of trauma (blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic), (iv) the condition of the nerve, the duration of facial paralysis, and (v) the status of the motor end plates of the facial muscles. (oaepublish.com)
  • Essentially, Acquired Brain Injury is an insult to the brain and can come in many forms, including: Traumatic Brain Injury, Closed Head Injury, Cervical Trauma Syndrome, and/or Stroke This can produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, and may result in impairment of cognitive abilities, sensory processing and /or physical function. (susanfisherod.com)
  • Visual Neglect - Visual Imperception º Cerebral injury from stroke or other trauma may cause visual imperception. (susanfisherod.com)
  • Pituitary adenomas often invade the medial wall of the cavernous sinus, but this structure is generally not surgically removed because of the risk of vascular and cranial nerve injury. (stanford.edu)
  • There are several important structures that reside in the vicinity of the ganglion: the cavernous sinus, the optic and trochlear nerves medially, the inferior surface of the temporal lobe of the brain superiorly, and the brain stem posteriorly. (asra.com)
  • This anatomic location is uniquely difficult to approach surgically because it is very closely surrounded by multiple neurovascular structures, including the brainstem, basilar artery, cranial nerves (CNs) III-VIII, the cavernous sinus, and the sella. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • They most commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve (1) . (ajnr.org)
  • Skull radiography has been supplanted by CT in characterizing skull fractures in the setting of acute traumatic brain injury, though it may be useful in limited circumstances, such as radiopaque foreign bodies. (medscape.com)
  • Traumatic facial nerve injury refers to a broad gamut of etiologies, ranging from temporal bone fractures and facial lacerations to iatrogenic injuries due to surgery. (oaepublish.com)
  • My healing method takes into consideration disc injuries, reoccurring muscle spasm, sciatic nerve injury, and the cranial sacral system. (massagefinder.com)
  • Schwannomas of the jugular foramen, usually with origin from the ninth nerve, are rare, but the presenting symptoms may be similar to those of a vestibular schwannoma owing to mass effect by tumor growth in the posterior cranial fossa (2-4) . (ajnr.org)
  • These tumors arise along the upper two-thirds of the clivus, superior to the jugular foramen and medial to the cranial nerves' foramina at the petroclival junction. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • The rehabilitation program at Providence specializes in providing outstanding care and service to meet the needs of individuals - of all ages - with stroke, spinal cord injury, brain injury, amputation, post-polio, vestibular and balance dysfunction, diabetic neuropathy and other medical conditions. (providence.org)
  • Haemodilution and head-down tilting induce functional injury in the rat optic nerve: A model for peri-operative ischemic optic neuropathy. (uchicago.edu)
  • Our special programs focus on treating brain tumors, as well as tumors in the head and neck, epilepsy, movement disorders, cranial nerve dysfunction syndromes, peripheral nerve injuries, pain, and more. (providence.org)
  • Overall, esketamine mitigates propofol-induced cognitive dysfunction and brain injury in rats by activating mBDNF/TrkB/PI3K signaling. (degruyter.com)
  • The clinical course is insidious, with subtle onset of cranial nerve, cerebellar, and brainstem dysfunction. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Financial costs of ocular injuries and visual dysfunction resulting from traumatic brain injury have been recently reported and are significant. (health.mil)
  • A very large vestibular schwannoma may cause ninth cranial nerve palsy. (ajnr.org)
  • Presenting symptoms are usually a result of cranial nerve compression with CN V most frequently involved. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Examination shows ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, decreased corneal sensation, and occasionally visual loss caused by mechanical optic nerve compression. (medicosnotes.com)
  • See Pediatric Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the signs and symptoms of TBI, determine the type and severity of injury, and initiate appropriate treatment. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 , 4 ] In addition to perioperative stroke, serious complications that may develop after CEA include myocardial ischemia and infarction , hemodynamic instability, cranial nerve (CN) injuries, and bleeding resulting in neck hematomas and airway compromise. (medscape.com)
  • With nearly 50 subspecialties represented, we offer complex and minimally invasive surgery as well as ongoing care for pituitary and skull base tumors, stroke, peripheral nerve disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS), epilepsy and more. (providence.org)
  • Although there are many visual problems that arise from brain injury and stroke, three are more devastating and impairing than the rest. (susanfisherod.com)
  • Double vision (diplopia) is a serious and intolerable condition that can be seen in patients with brain injury, stroke and other neurologically compromising conditions. (susanfisherod.com)
  • It divides into the supraorbital, supratrochlear, and nasociliary nerves to supply the forehead and nose. (asra.com)
  • Traumatic injuries to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE . (nih.gov)
  • In addition, in some patients, 9th, 5th, 10th, 6th cranial and cervical nerve involvement can be seen in the order of frequency. (org.pk)
  • Patients that are ideal for CAS include patients that have a high surgical risk, such as patients with prior neck irradiation, aberrant neck anatomy, contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, prior ipsilateral CEA, significant coronary artery disease, high cervical stenotic lesion location, and tracheostomy. (radiologykey.com)
  • These are custom-fitted earplugs, originally made for musicians, but they now have been adapted for individuals with traumatic brain injuries. (brainline.org)
  • A carotid body tumor may not cause any symptoms, but as the mass grows, it may press on nearby nerves and blood vessels. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Surgical findings showed schwannomas of the glossopharyngeal nerve in seven patients and tumor involvement of both the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves in one patient. (ajnr.org)
  • The lateral aspect of the tumor is often draped by thinly splayed cranial nerves lying between the surgeon and the tumor. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Symmetry of structure and function should be assessed, the cranial nerves should be examined, and specifics such as individual joint range of motion and scalp/skull integrity should be evaluated. (medscape.com)
  • In children, radiographs of the skull are known to have a low predictive value in determining intracranial injury. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, trigeminal ganglion interventions have also been used to palliate cancer pain involving cranial or base of the skull structures. (asra.com)
  • Physical examination often reveals one or more cranial neuropathies and long tract signs and cerebellar ataxia. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Following a thorough patient history and physical examination with particular attention to the cranial nerves, cerebellar, and long tract function, MR imaging with and without gadolinium enhancement is in order. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Neuro-ophthalmic diagnoses (conditions of the optic nerve, visual tract, and cranial nerves responsible for eye movements) accounted for the most hospital bed days. (health.mil)
  • Optic Nerve Injuries" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Optic Nerve Injuries" by people in this website by year, and whether "Optic Nerve Injuries" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Optic Nerve Injuries" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • The maxillary division exits the middle cranial fossa from foramen rotundum and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure. (asra.com)
  • Other cranial nerve involvement although uncommon, can be found in some cases. (org.pk)
  • Other cranial nerves are also frequently involved, especially, eighth nerve involvement may cause hearing loss and vertigo. (org.pk)
  • 3,4 In the literature, the number of patients with RHS who have multiple cranial nerve involvement are rare. (org.pk)
  • 5 We aim to present a case due to its distinctive presentation with multiple cranial nerve involvement following several differential diagnosis and treatments. (org.pk)
  • Cranial nerve involvement of nerve 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th was observed in this patient. (org.pk)
  • In addition to herpes zoster infection in any region of the head or neck, the development of facial paralysis is the second most common cause of the disease and the addition of the 8th nerve involvement symptoms is the third form of the disease. (org.pk)
  • In this study, a 74-year-old female patient had ipsilateral 8th, 9th and 10th cranial nerves injury. (org.pk)
  • The presence of a pulse does not exclude a vascular injury, and absence of a pulse is not diagnostic of vascular damage. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral palsy is a permanent type of birth injury caused by the lack of oxygen to the brain. (marksalomone.com)
  • however, there is a decreased incidence of myocardial infarction, infection, and cranial nerve injury. (radiologykey.com)
  • For patients with injuries due to hanging, try to determine the suspension time (when the patient was last seen), drop height, ligature used, history of alcohol or drug abuse, and history of suicide attempts. (medscape.com)
  • Consider an arterial injury of the neck in patients manifesting any degree of gross bleeding or presence of a hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • Virtually all patients with hard signs of an arterial injury require operative repair. (medscape.com)
  • Guo Y, Pattavana F, Siangco C, Ngo-Huang A, Fu J, Hui D, Bruera E . Overall Survival Among Patients with Cancer and Pressure Injury and its Association with Braden Scale Score. (mdanderson.org)
  • Physiotherapists or physical therapists are licensed healthcare professionals who help patients to recover from physical injuries and muscular pain. (theservicebazaar.com)
  • Approximately 30-50% of patients who survive post-traumatic brain injury (post-TBI) demonstrate endocrine complications. (medscape.com)
  • A literature review by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology found that although TBI-induced hypopituitarism seems to occur most frequently in relation to severe TBI, hypopituitarism is also a risk for patients with mild TBI and for those who have suffered repeated TBIs or whose brain injury is sports or blast related. (medscape.com)
  • Physical examination findings may be obscured by the altered cognitive status of patients who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI). (medscape.com)
  • The management of traumatic facial nerve injuries can be a variable and dynamic process, but having a clear understanding of the diagnostic and treatment algorithms can help maximize the chances of a meaningful recovery for these patients. (oaepublish.com)
  • This Special Issue will discuss the assessment of these facial nerve injuries, describe the subsequent management of facial nerve injury in this cohort of patients, and importantly, present a paradigm shift in the approach to these injuries with a better outcome in mind. (oaepublish.com)
  • Well, you know, there is definitely a higher heart attack risk, and we first saw that when we first started doing the carotid stent trials with SAFFIRE carotid stent trial, and we know patients do have cranial nerve injuries. (inspiremd.com)
  • Major clinical symptoms include 7th nerve paralysis or cranial nerve paralysis and vesicles along the nerve with cocomitant ear pain. (org.pk)
  • Falls, trucking accidents, car accidents, and sports injuries are all major causes of TBI. (munley.com)
  • Dry mouth can be a result of damage to the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve) from an injury or surgery on the head and neck area. (intelligentdental.com)
  • However, there's still cranial nerve injury, it's still an incision, and you can cause damage to the common carotid artery. (inspiremd.com)
  • You can't have a big diseased common carotid artery, you can cause some dissections of the common carotid, you still need an incision, and you still have cranial nerve injury. (inspiremd.com)
  • Eardrums can be replaced, but observational studies over the years have shown a high rate of spontaneous healing of ruptured eardrums following blast injuries. (brainline.org)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • CSF plays a major role in coup and countercoup injuries to the brain. (medscape.com)
  • A blow to a stationary but moveable head causes acceleration, and the brain floating in CSF lags behind, sustaining an injury directly underneath the point of impact (coup injury). (medscape.com)
  • When a moving head hits the floor, sudden deceleration results in an injury to the brain on the opposite side (countercoup injury). (medscape.com)
  • Brain injuries are among the most devastating types of catastrophic injuries. (munley.com)
  • This glossary provides information and definitions of medical terms associated with brain injury and rehabilitation to help you or your family. (brainline.org)
  • acquired brain injury - the implication of this term is that the individual experienced normal growth and development from conception through birth, until sustaining an insult to the brain at some later time which resulted in impairment of brain function. (brainline.org)
  • Herein, we investigated the role of esketamine in propofol-induced brain injury. (degruyter.com)
  • A rat model of propofol-induced brain injury was established with or without the treatment of esketamine. (degruyter.com)
  • However, whether esketamine has an effect on propofol-induced brain injury has not been investigated. (degruyter.com)
  • As mentioned above, a common symptom of traumatic brain injury is hypersensitivity to sound. (brainline.org)
  • You may notice that your eyes don't seem to be working in the same way that they did before your brain injury. (brainline.org)
  • Some eye doctors specialize in vision problems resulting from an acquired brain injury. (brainline.org)
  • The most common complaints related to visual problems associated with brain injuries include light sensitivity, headaches, double vision, fatigue, dizziness, difficulty reading, or loss of peripheral visual fields. (brainline.org)
  • This nerve is responsible for transmitting sensitive information from the face to the brain and controls the muscles involved in chewing. (portifisio.pt)
  • Tumors of the cranial nerve sheath constitute 5% to 10% of all intracranial neoplasms, yet few articles have described their CT and MR characteristics. (ajnr.org)
  • Cranial nerve sheath tumors constitute 5% to 10% of all intracranial neoplasms. (ajnr.org)
  • When the origin could be identified, almost all these tumors were histologically proved to be schwannomas of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (ajnr.org)
  • Separating the effects of a hypoxic-ischemic insult from those of traumatic birth injury is difficult. (medscape.com)
  • Under certain conditions, cesarean delivery can be an acceptable alternative but does not guarantee an injury-free birth. (medscape.com)
  • Birth injuries account for fewer than 2% of neonatal deaths. (medscape.com)
  • Why Let Willens & Baez handle your DeKalb Birth Injury Malpractice Case? (willenslaw.com)
  • The parents of children suffering from birth injuries are sometimes hesitant to seek the help of a DeKalb birth injury malpractice attorney because they are under the impression that their child's injury was their fault. (willenslaw.com)
  • If your child suffered a birth injury due to medical malpractice, the chances are high that your child may require lifelong care. (willenslaw.com)
  • As an Illiniois lawyer handling medical malpractice for 25 plus years now, I have seen many types of birth injury cases. (willenslaw.com)
  • Birth injury cases fall under medical malpractice. (willenslaw.com)
  • Some lawyers may claim to be birth injury lawyers, but the truth probably is that the lawyer is a medical malpractice lawyer or even a personal injury lawyer who happens to have experience with handling birth injury matters. (willenslaw.com)
  • At Willens & Baez, we recognize that families face an insurmountable amount of challenges when dealing with a birth injury and its aftereffects. (willenslaw.com)
  • Our DeKalb birth injury lawyers will work with you to prepare a case that aims to obtain full and fair compensation for the harm your child suffered. (willenslaw.com)
  • Need an Experienced Birth Injury Malpractice Attorney? (willenslaw.com)
  • If the birth results in injuries or even the loss of life, however, this picture-perfect day can quickly turn into a nightmare. (willenslaw.com)
  • When a baby is harmed or suffers injuries due to any action or oversight made by a medical professional at any point of a pregnancy, birth, or the infant's care after birth, this harm may be classified as a birth injury. (willenslaw.com)
  • Other times, however, a birth injury may result from a poor decision made by a health care provider during delivery. (willenslaw.com)
  • Often, birth injuries cause mental or physical life-long disabilities, and can greatly affect the families who must care for the child. (willenslaw.com)
  • This is why families should consult with an experienced DeKalb birth injury lawyer to get the help they need. (willenslaw.com)
  • In almost all cases, families are not aware of birth injuries until after the baby's birth. (willenslaw.com)
  • Why Let Willens & Baez handle your Peoria Birth Injury Malpractice Case? (willenslaw.com)
  • That's why our birth injury lawyers want to meet with you. (marksalomone.com)
  • What are common types of birth injuries? (marksalomone.com)
  • Birth injuries refer to various incidences that occur to an infant or mother before, during or directly after delivery. (marksalomone.com)
  • Birth injuries can cover a wide range. (marksalomone.com)
  • A significant number of birth injury cases result from negligence on the part of medical professionals. (marksalomone.com)
  • If your child sustained a birth injury, you may be entitled to compensatory damages. (marksalomone.com)
  • Birth injuries to the mother may result from any number of events. (marksalomone.com)
  • Mothers may sustain birth injuries from infections and complications from anesthetics, which can be the result of too much or too little medication. (marksalomone.com)
  • Birth injuries to a mother can have life-altering, even fatal, consequences. (marksalomone.com)
  • Location of injury in soft tissue planes on the scalp and head. (medscape.com)
  • Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt Syndrome) is characterized by facial nerve paralysis, ear pain and auricular skin rash. (org.pk)
  • Cranial nerve paralysis accompanied with injury has been repor ted in R amsay Hunt Syndrome. (org.pk)
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a cranial polyneuropathy caused by reactivation of varicella zoster viruses. (org.pk)
  • Hard signs of an arterial injury include a large expanding hematoma, severe active or pulsatile bleeding, shock unresponsive to fluids, signs of cerebral infarction, presence of a bruit or thrill, and diminished distal pulses. (medscape.com)
  • Work-related burn injuries can include thermal, chemical, and electrical burns. (munley.com)
  • Depending on the type of injury the child suffered, this can include future and past medical expenses, pain and suffering, disability and disfigurement, loss of a normal life and loss of future earnings. (marksalomone.com)
  • It occurs as a result of reactivation oflatent varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. (org.pk)
  • If a serious injury disrupts those signals, it can cause major problems for an injury victim, ranging from chronic pain to difficulty breathing, change in mood, varying degrees of paralysis, and more. (munley.com)
  • It is a paradoxic pain in the region of sensory loss following an injury to a cranial nerve or a nerve root. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • A catastrophic injury is considered a physical injury or illness that has a life-altering impact on the accident victim. (munley.com)
  • The expert physiotherapy doctors associated with us offer world-class physiotherapy treatments for various types of physical pains and injuries. (theservicebazaar.com)
  • They can help you maintain, restore, and improve your body function after any sort of disease or physical injury. (theservicebazaar.com)
  • These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • Burn injuries can occur at work, at home, in an apartment, or on a dangerous premise. (munley.com)
  • Unique patterns of injury occur with bombs and explosions that are seldom seen outside of combat. (brainline.org)
  • TBI is a main cause of disability and can leave an injury victim with life-long consequences. (munley.com)
  • Part II covers the medical aspects of electrical injuries, including the consequences of electrical injury on the body, EKGs and pacemakers, accident reconstruction in electrical injury cases, common sources of electrical injury, and relevant medical literature. (lawyersandjudges.com)
  • Tragically, hearing loss is a common workplace injury. (munley.com)
  • Two types of hearing loss are associated with blast-induced injuries. (brainline.org)