Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Asparaginase: A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Mice, Inbred C57BLDexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

Ultrasound B-mode changes in the uterus and ovaries and Doppler changes in the uterus after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in childhood. (1/509)

Internal genitalia and uterine blood flow were assessed by ultrasound in 12 females 4.0-10.9 years after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for childhood leukaemia or lymphoma. Median age of the participants was 12.7 years (range 6.1-17.6) at bone marrow transplantation and 21.5 years (11.6-25.6) at the follow-up study. At follow-up all had entered puberty and 11/12 females had experienced the menarche. Eight females received sex steroid replacement therapy, three had spontaneous pubertal development and one woman experienced symptoms of estrogen deficiency. Median uterine and ovarian volumes were significantly reduced to -2.6 standard deviation scores (SDS) (-6.3 to -0.6), P = 0.002, and -2.6 SDS (-4.8 to -0.5), P = 0.002, respectively, compared with normal controls. Follicles were only detectable in two individuals. Uterine blood flow was impaired, as a systolic blood flow could be measured in 6/9 individuals, and a diastolic blood flow in 1/9 females. Our results indicate that the prescribed dosage of hormone replacement therapy, which was sufficient to induce bleeding and suppress other stigmata of premature menopause, was inadequate to generate normal uterine growth. In order to achieve uterine growth higher doses of hormone replacement therapy may be required. Our results confirm pelvic ultrasound as a reliable tool for investigation of internal female genitalia; however, in an infertility setting further tests are indicated.  (+info)

Isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma of the brain: successful treatment with surgical resection, intrathecal injection, irradiation and prophylactic systemic chemotherapy. (2/509)

We describe a 40-year-old male who developed an isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) of the brain 2 years following successful treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML; M2). Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced tumor mass in the left temporal lobe and massive peritumoral edema. There was no evidence of relapse in the bone marrow. The patient underwent an emergency surgical resection of the tumor. Five courses of injection with cytarabine and prednisolone through an Ommaya reservoir and whole brain irradiation (total 40 Gy) were performed. Furthermore, prophylactic systemic chemotherapy with cytarabine and etoposide was added. He has been in complete remission for 21 months. Our results, together with other reported cases, indicate that a favorable outcome could be obtained by intensive and combined treatment for an isolated recurrence of GS of the brain if the bone marrow remained in complete remission.  (+info)

Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. (3/509)

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation reduces the incidence of brain metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Whether this treatment, when given to patients in complete remission, improves survival is not known. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether prophylactic cranial irradiation prolongs survival. METHODS: We analyzed individual data on 987 patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation. The main end point was survival. RESULTS: The relative risk of death in the treatment group as compared with the control group was 0.84 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.97; P= 0.01), which corresponds to a 5.4 percent increase in the rate of survival at three years (15.3 percent in the control group vs. 20.7 percent in the treatment group). Prophylactic cranial irradiation also increased the rate of disease-free survival (relative risk of recurrence or death, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001) and decreased the cumulative incidence of brain metastasis (relative risk, 0.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.57; P<0.001). Larger doses of radiation led to greater decreases in the risk of brain metastasis, according to an analysis of four total doses (8 Gy, 24 to 25 Gy, 30 Gy, and 36 to 40 Gy) (P for trend=0.02), but the effect on survival did not differ significantly according to the dose. We also identified a trend (P=0.01) toward a decrease in the risk of brain metastasis with earlier administration of cranial irradiation after the initiation of induction chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic cranial irradiation improves both overall survival and disease-free survival among patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission.  (+info)

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after high-dose thiotepa. (4/509)

High-dose thiotepa has been successfully included in a variety of conditioning regimens for stem cell transplantation in hematological and solid neoplasms. Toxicity of high-dose thiotepa mainly manifests as profound myeloablation and some degree of liver damage. We report a case of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in a patient with primary CNS lymphoma who underwent therapy with high-dose thiotepa.  (+info)

Pineoblastoma showing unusual ventricular extension in a young adult--case report. (5/509)

A 19-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of headache. Neurological examination showed bilateral papilledema. Computed tomography revealed a pineal region mass with remarkable obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pineal region tumor continuously invading through the tectum into the cerebral aqueduct and the fourth ventricle with the preservation of the adjacent structures. The tumor appeared an iso- to hypointense mass on T1-weighted images, a heterogeneous iso- to hyperintense mass on T2-weighted images, and a heterogeneously enhanced mass after administration of contrast medium. Histological examination after endoscopic biopsy confirmed that the tumor was a pineoblastoma. Radiotherapy was given to the whole brain and the spinal cord, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete remission of the tumor. Pineoblastomas are highly malignant tumors with seeding potential through the neighboring ventricle or along the meninges, and this type of tumor becomes larger with local extension. We found no previous reports of the continuous extension into the fourth ventricle. The present case showed ventricular extension with minimal mass effect to adjacent structures, and did not disturb ventricular configuration. According to the unusual finding of ventricular extension, this rare case of pineoblastoma requires adjuvant chemotherapy.  (+info)

Treatment of children with medulloblastomas with reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: A Children's Cancer Group Study. (6/509)

PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. After treatment with surgery and radiation therapy, approximately 60% of children with medulloblastoma are alive and free of progressive disease 5 years after diagnosis, but many have significant neurocognitive sequelae. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility and efficacy of treating children with nondisseminated medulloblastoma with reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 3-year period, 65 children between 3 and 10 years of age with nondisseminated medulloblastoma were treated with postoperative, reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy (23.4 Gy) and 55.8 Gy of local radiation therapy. Adjuvant vincristine chemotherapy was administered during radiotherapy, and lomustine, vincristine, and cisplatin chemotherapy was administered during and after radiation. RESULTS: Progression-free survival was 86% +/- 4% at 3 years and 79% +/- 7% at 5 years. Sites of relapse for the 14 patients who developed progressive disease included the local tumor site alone in two patients, local tumor site and disseminated disease in nine, and nonprimary sites in three. Brainstem involvement did not adversely affect outcome. Therapy was relatively well tolerated; however, the dose of cisplatin had to be modified in more than 50% of patients before the completion of treatment. One child died of pneumonitis and sepsis during treatment. CONCLUSION: These overall survival rates compare favorably to those obtained in studies using full-dose radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. The results suggest that reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy during and after radiation is a feasible approach for children with nondisseminated medulloblastoma.  (+info)

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after multimodality treatment: long-term follow-up and investigations of late neuropsychologic effects. (7/509)

PURPOSE: Relapse pattern and late toxicities in long-term survivors were analyzed after the introduction of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) into a phase II trial on trimodality treatment of locally advanced (LAD) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with stage IIIA(N2)/IIIB NSCLC were treated with induction chemotherapy, preoperative radiochemotherapy, and surgery. PCI was routinely offered during the second period of study accrual. Patients were given a total radiation dose of 30 Gy (2 Gy per daily fraction) over a 3-week period starting 1 day after the last chemotherapy cycle. RESULTS: Introduction of PCI reduced the rate of brain metastases as first site of relapse from 30% to 8% at 4 years (P =.005) and that of overall brain relapse from 54% to 13% (P <.0001). The effect of PCI was also observed in the good-prognosis subgroup of 47 patients who had a partial response or complete response to induction chemotherapy, with a reduction of brain relapse as first failure from 23% to 0% at 4 years (P =.01). Neuropsychologic testing revealed impairments in attention and visual memory in long-term survivors who received PCI as well as in those who did not receive PCI. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter abnormalities of higher grades in patients who received PCI than in those who did not. CONCLUSION: PCI at a moderate dose reduced brain metastases in LAD-NSCLC to a clinically significant extent, comparable to that in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer. Late toxicity to normal brain was acceptable. This study supports the use of PCI within intense protocols for LAD-NSCLC, particularly in patients with favorable prognostic factors.  (+info)

Sexually dimorphic and radiation dose dependent effect of cranial irradiation on body mass index. (8/509)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between cranial irradiation received during treatment for childhood leukaemia and obesity at final height. DESIGN: Retrospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric oncology centres at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and the Royal Marsden Hospital. SUBJECTS: Survivors of childhood leukaemia who received cranial irradiation, were in continuous first remission, and had reached final height. An unirradiated group of patients from the United Kingdom acute lymphoblastic leukaemia XI trial was also included; these patients were in continuous first remission and had been followed for at least four years from diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI z score) at final height for irradiated patients and at most recent follow up for unirradiated patients. Regression analysis was used to examine the effect on BMI z score of sex, age at diagnosis, and the dose of radiation received. RESULTS: For cranially irradiated patients, an increase in the BMI z score at final height was associated with female sex and lower radiation dose, but not with age at diagnosis. Severe obesity, defined as a BMI z score of > 3 at final height, was only present in girls who received 18-20 Gy irradiation and had a prevalence of 8%. Both male and female unirradiated patients had raised BMI z scores at latest follow up and there was no association with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data are further evidence for a sexually dimorphic and dose dependent effect of radiation on the human brain.  (+info)

*Prophylactic cranial irradiation

... (PCI) or prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (PCRT) is a technique used to combat the occurrence ... 1999). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... 2007). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". NEJM. 357: 664-672. doi:10.1056/nejmoa071780. ... Lee, JJ (Aug 2006). "Decision analysis for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer". J Clin ...

*Lung cancer

Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a type of radiotherapy to the brain, used to reduce the risk of metastasis. PCI is ... Paumier, A; Cuenca X; Le Péchoux C (June 2011). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 37 ... Experience with radical irradiation of bronchial cancer]. Ceskoslovenská Onkológia (in German). 3 (2): 109-115. PMID 13383622. ...

*Chemotherapy

Al-Mohanna H, Al-Khenaizan S (2010). "Permanent alopecia following cranial irradiation in a child". Journal of Cutaneous ... Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. ... "Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow ...

*St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

"Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation". NEJM. 360 (26): 2730-41. doi:10.1056/ ...

*Radiation-induced cognitive decline

"Environmental enrichment enhances neurogenesis and improves functional outcome after cranial irradiation". European Journal of ... The 10 Gy radiation dosage is comparable to that used in irradiation therapy in humans. One month after the reception of the ... This decrease in neurogenesis is due to apoptosis of the neurons which usually occurs after irradiation. However it has not ... Therefore, a complete ablation of the precursor cell pool by irradiation does not occur. Precursor cells may be damaged by ...

*Environmental enrichment

"Environmental enrichment enhances neurogenesis and improves functional outcome after cranial irradiation". Eur. J. Neurosci. 25 ...

*Neurooncology

Prior cranial irradiation is the only risk factor that definitely predisposes to brain tumor formation. Some of the risk ... Metastases to the skull base quickly become symptomatic because of their proximity to cranial nerves and vascular structures. ... Anorexia and Weight Loss Brain Tumors in Women of Childbearing Age Central Nervous System Infections Constipation Cranial Nerve ...

*Joaquín Gómez Mira

Outcome of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation and Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation in Disseminated Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A ... Simultaneous Chemotherapy-Radiotherapy With Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Inoperable Adeno and Large Cell Lung Carcinoma ...

*Childhood leukemia

The older aggressive treatments of cranial irradiation and anthracyclines (such as doxorubicin) caused increased risk of solid ...

*Small-cell carcinoma

If complete response to chemotherapy occurs in a subject with SCLC, then prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is often used ...

*Adjuvant therapy

... if no adjuvant chemotherapy or craniospinal irradiation is used. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic ... and most experts agree that cranial irradiation decreases risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse in ALL and possibly ... and adjuvant intrathecal methotrexate and hydrocortisone may be just as effective as cranial irradiation, without severe late ... In completely resected medulloblastoma, 5-year survival rate is 85% if adjuvant chemotherapy and/or craniospinal irradiation is ...

*Combined small-cell lung carcinoma

For complete responders (patients in whom all evidence of disease disappears), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is also ...

*Index of oncology articles

... prophylactic cranial irradiation - prophylactic mastectomy - prophylactic oophorectomy - prophylactic surgery - prophylaxis - ... total nodal irradiation - total parenteral nutrition - total-body irradiation - TP-38 immunotoxin - tPA - TPA - trabecular ... fifth cranial nerve - filgrastim - filgrastim-SD/01 - finasteride - fine-needle aspiration - first-line therapy - FK463 - ... irradiation - irreversible toxicity - iseganan hydrochloride - ISIS 2503 - ISIS 3521 - ISIS 5132 - islet cell - islet cell ...

*Growth hormone deficiency

... and adult-onset GHD is commonly due to pituitary tumours and their treatment or to cranial irradiation. A more complete list of ...

*PCI

... a natural peptide usable for thrombolytic and cancer therapy Prophylactic cranial irradiation, a management option for certain ...

*Choroid plexus carcinoma

In rare cases, metastases have been reported to spread to the abdomen and extra-cranial sites. Treatment of choroid plexus ... In the event of subtotal resection or widespread leptomeningeal disease, craniospinal irradiation is often used. Choroid plexus ...

*Metastatic breast cancer

... the extent of the extra-cranial metastatic disease, and the treatment applied). The mean 1-year survival is estimated at 20%. ... compared with surgery followed by whole brain-irradiation. Surgery tends to reduce symptoms quickly and prolong life, with an ... those with a controlled extra-cranial tumor, age less than 65 years and a favorable general performance (Karnofsky performance ... cognition and behavior ataxia cranial neuropathy, which may cause diplopia and Bell's palsy vomiting and nausea deficits in ...

*Primary central nervous system lymphoma

Treatment with irradiation and corticosteroids often only produces a partial response and tumour recurs in more than 90% of ... A primary CNS lymphoma usually presents with seizure, headache, cranial nerve findings, altered mental status, or other focal ...

*Radiosurgery

The highly precise irradiation of targets within the brain and spine is planned using information from medical images that are ... The principle of this instrument was to hit the intra-cranial target with narrow beams of radiation from multiple directions. ... They are then released toward the region to be treated in the patient's body, the irradiation target. In some machines, which ... Saleh, H; Kassas, B (2015). "Developing Stereotactic Frames for Cranial Treatment". In Benedict, SH; Schlesinger, DJ; Goetsch, ...

*Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

In addition, LCMV can also be inactivated by heat, ultraviolet light or gamma irradiation. LCMV infection manifests itself in a ... Under reported complications include myelitis, Guillain-Barré-type syndrome, cranial nerve palsies, transient or permanent ...

*Treatment of cancer

Children who had received cranial radiotherapy are deemed at a high risk for academic failure and cognitive delay. Study by ... Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy, X-ray therapy, or irradiation) is the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer ... The treatment of some leukaemias and lymphomas requires the use of high-dose chemotherapy, and total body irradiation (TBI). ...

*Cerebellopontine angle syndrome

... including cranial nerve V (trigeminal), cranial nerve VII (facial), and cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear). The most common ... The objective of irradiation is to halt the growth of the acoustic neuroma tumour, it does not excise it from the body, as the ... Delays of one side relative to the other suggest a lesion in cranial nerve VIII between the ear and brainstem or in the ... Lesions in the area of cerebellopontine angle cause signs and symptoms secondary to compression of nearby cranial nerves, ...

*Cancer and nausea

... half body irradiation and upper body irradiation Low risk: radiation of the cranium, spine, head and neck, lower thorax region ... These include fear, anticipation, brain trauma and increased intra-cranial pressure. Of particular relevance to cancer patients ... low and minimal risk depending on the site of irradiation: High risk: total body irradiation (TBI) is associated with a high ... 50 to 80% of people undergoing radiotherapy experience nausea and/or vomiting, depending on the site of irradiation. ...

*Pediatric ependymoma

... s most often occur in the posterior cranial fossa, in contrast with adult ependymomas which usually occur ... anaplastic ependymomas are the most aggressive ependymoma and neither total excision nor postoperative irradiation was found to ...

*Tonsil carcinoma

The additional symptoms include a painful throat, dysphagia, otalgia (due to cranial nerve involvement), foreign body sensation ... Early radio-sensitive tumors are treated by radiotherapy along with irradiation of cervical nodes. The radiation uses high- ...

*Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10% ... total body irradiation). In the past, physicians commonly utilized radiation in the form of whole-brain radiation for central ... or cranial nerve palsies (CNS involvement) Frequent or unexplained fever and infection Weight loss and/or loss of appetite ... "Cranial nerve palsy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma". Cancer. 67 (9): 2262-2268. doi: ...
This randomized phase I/II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of RO4929097 (gamma-secretase/Notch signalling pathway inhibitor RO4929097) when given together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery and to see how well it works compared to whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone in treating patients with breast cancer or other cancers (such as lung cancer or melanoma) that have spread to the brain. RO4929097 may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Whole-brain radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays deliver radiation to the entire brain to treat tumors that can and cannot be seen. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be able to deliver x-rays directly to the tumor and cause less damage to normal tissue. It is not yet known whether giving RO4929097 together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery may kill more tumor cells ...
This randomized phase I/II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of RO4929097 (gamma-secretase/Notch signalling pathway inhibitor RO4929097) when given together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery and to see how well it works compared to whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone in treating patients with breast cancer or other cancers (such as lung cancer or melanoma) that have spread to the brain. RO4929097 may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Whole-brain radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays deliver radiation to the entire brain to treat tumors that can and cannot be seen. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be able to deliver x-rays directly to the tumor and cause less damage to normal tissue. It is not yet known whether giving RO4929097 together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery may kill more tumor cells ...
Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) delivers radiation treatments to the entire brain over a period of many weeks. WBRT is typically used if there are more than a few areas of cancer in the brain. WBRT helps to shrink the tumors and improve symptoms. WBRT also may be used in place of, or in addition to, stereotactic radiosurgery. The side effects of WBRT include thought and memory problems, so its important to have a conversation with your doctor to weigh the risks and benefits of WBRT in your situation. If you have HER2-positive breast cancer that has moved into the brain, you may be able to delay whole-brain radiation therapy by using the combination of Tykerb (chemical name: lapatinib) and Xeloda (chemical name: capecitabine). For more information, see Targeted Therapies to Treat Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer. ...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of trametinib with or without whole brain radiation therapy in treating patients with brain metastases. Trametinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Radiation therapy uses high energy x rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs, such as trametinib, may make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Giving trametinib with whole brain radiation therapy may be an effective treatment for brain metastases.
Although targeted therapies have produced dramatic advances in our ability to control some types of advanced lung cancer, growth of the disease in the brain remains a major problem. Radiation is often used to treat deposits in the brain, but the best technique to deliver radiation can be controversial. Whole-brain radiation therapy, as its name suggest, treats the entire brain but can be associated with notable cognitive side effects. Another strategy, radiosurgery, directs highly-focused radiation only to the sites of metastasis, largely sparing the normal brain. The challenge has been to define in which circumstances each technique is best. The debate has centered on the number of brain metastases, with the field generally agreeing that with three or fewer deposits, radiosurgery is the preferred approach, and then switching to the use of whole-brain radiation to treat four or more deposits.. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published today in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology ...
Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Oct 1;10(19):6411-7. A phase I study of topical Tempol for the prevention of alopecia induced by whole brain radiotherapy. Metz JM¹, Smith D, Mick R, Lustig R, Mitchell J, Cherakuri M, Glatstein E, Hahn SM. ¹Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Abstract PURPOSE: Complete alopecia is a universal complication of whole brain radiation therapy which contributes to patient anxiety over treatment. Tempol, a nitroxide radioprotector, has been shown to protect against radiation-induced alopecia in an animal model. This phase Ib study was designed to evaluate the safety and side effect profile of topical Tempol in patients with brain metastases being treated with whole brain radiotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twelve patients with metastatic cancer to the brain were enrolled in the study between October 2000 and February 2003. Tempol (70 mg/ml concentration solution) was applied topically to the scalp 15 minutes before and washed off immediately
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn whether Tarceva (erlotinib hydrochloride), when given in addition to whole brain radiation therapy,
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a palliative option for patients with brain metastases that alleviates symptoms, decreases the use of corticosteroids needed to control tumor-associated edema, and potentially improves overall survival. It has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive decline. McTyre, E; Scott, J; Chinnaiyan, P (2013). "Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis". Surg Neurol Int. 4: S236-44. doi:10.4103/2152-7806.111301. PMC 3656558 . PMID 23717795. "Whole-Brain Radiotherapy: Risks Worth Benefit?". Medscape.com. Retrieved August 20, 2015 ...
In patients who had undergone surgery for brain metastases, the rate of recurrence at the resected site was similar between patients who received adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy vs those who underwent adjuvant localized radiotherapy, according to a retrospective study by Hsieh et al in the journal Neurosurgery. However, localized radiotherapy was associated with a higher incidence of distant metastases.. Surgery followed by adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy is a well-established treatment for brain metastases, particularly in patients who have a limited number of brain metastases. Yet discussions continue as to whether these patients require whole-brain radiotherapy or can be treated with localized radiotherapy. Localized radiotherapy is associated with fewer side effects compared with whole-brain radiotherapy, but some studies have documented an association with an increased risk for development of new intracranial metastases.. Thus, the investigators conducted a study to examine the rate of ...
Second thyroid neoplasms after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia | Perel, Yves; Leverger, Guy; Carrere, Anne; Caudry, Michel; Garabedian, Erea Noel; Ansoborlo, Sophie; Vergnes, Pierre | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Patients with brain metastases from lung cancer have poor prognoses and short survival time, and they are often excluded from clinical trials. Whole-cranial irradiation is considered to be the standard treatment, but its efficacy is not satisfactory. The purpose of this phase II clinical trial was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of the treatment of whole-brain irradiation plus three-dimensional conformal boost combined with concurrent topotecan for the patients with brain metastases from lung cancer. Patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer received concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy: conventional fractionated whole-brain irradiation, 2 fields/time, 1 fraction/day, 2 Gy/fraction, 5 times/week, and DT 40 Gy/20 fractions; for the patients with ≤ 3 lesions with diameter ≥ 2 cm, a three-dimensional (3-D) conformal localised boost was given to increase the dosage to 56-60 Gy; and during radiotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy with topotecan was given (the chemoradiotherapy
Although targeted therapies have produced dramatic advances in our ability to control some types of advanced lung cancer, growth of the disease in the brain remains a major problem. Radiation is often used to treat deposits ...
SAPPORO, Japan - Adding whole-brain irradiation to stereotactic radiosurgery does not improve survival of patients with metastatic brain cancer, but it may reduce recurrence of the metastases, r
The results of a recently reported clinical study at the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) in San Francisco demonstrate that thoracic radiation improves survival and reduces cancer recurrence when added to prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extended-stage small cell lung cancer.(1) Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing […]. ...
Brain irradiation has proven useful in the treatment of BM from breast cancer [3]. Some oncologists have been reluctant to consider repeat BRT due to uncertainty about the degree of benefit and concern about the risk of severe toxicities. In recent years, many studies have reported a higher risk of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in HER2 positive patients with metastatic breast cancer [9]. The better control of extracranial disease reported in HER2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab was likely the cause of the longer survival of these CNS metastatic patients, and more cases with indications for repeat BRT. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study describing the patterns of repeat BRT in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the current era. The results of population-based studies, such as this one, are more generalizable than results of randomized trials, or from single institution, tertiary referral centres.. Historically, the MS of patients with ...
Results from a randomized Phase III study indicate that whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) following removal of one to three brain metastases with surgery or radiosurgery does not improve overall survival... Continue Reading ...
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My husand has been diagnosed with brain, liver, lung, colon,& right adrenal gland melanoma cancer. They have said 6-8 weeks to survive if treatment didnt work and only maybe 6 months if it does. We are Christians and believe in miracles.. It all started from a mole on his back. He had it removed in 2007 and a few lymph nodes under his arm. All was well, we thought, until my husband started feeling bad about a month ago. He was gagging in the morning like he had post nasal drip. He felt crummy overall. He then got a pain in is lower right belly. We thought a appendicitis. We went to the Dr. and they did a series of CAT/PET/MRI scans. I cant remember in what order when.. Anyways, they then told use that he had all this extensive cancer throughout the body. They thought the brain should be addressed first. He had 10 treatments of WBRT (whole brain radiation therapy. He was sent for concult with renowned cancer specialist Dr. Thompson from SCCA, UofW, and Fred Hutchinson. He does clinical trial ...
Treating brain tumors with whole brain radiation therapy can damage healthy brain tissue, but a new study in mice reveals that limiting the oxygen supply, or hypoxia, can alleviate some of the cognitive impairment caused ...
Whole brain radiation therapy costs mice some of their cognitive abilities, but treatment with low-oxygen air revives their reasoning skills.
Whole brain radiation therapy costs mice some of their cognitive abilities, but treatment with low-oxygen air revives their reasoning skills.
Exercise can help improve both memory and mood after whole-brain radiation treatment, thats the conclusion of a new study in rodents.
Side Effects of Whole Brain Radiation. The initial approach to using radiation postoperatively to treat brain metastases, used to be whole brain radiation, but this was abandoned because of the substantial neurological deficits that resulted, sometimes appearing a considerable time after treatment. Whole brain radiation was routinely administered to patients after craniotomy for excision of a cerebral metastasis in an attempt to destroy any residual cancer cells at the surgical site. However, the deleterious effects of whole brain radiation, such as dementia and other irreversible neurotoxicities, became evident. This raised the question as to whether elective postoperative whole brain radiation should be administered to patients after excision of a solitary brain metastasis. Current clinical practice, at most leading cancer centers, use a more focused radiation field that includes only 2-3cm beyond the periphery of the tumor site. This may involve therapy once a day for about six weeks and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An instrument for estimating the 6-month survival probability after whole-brain irradiation alone for cerebral metastases from gynecological cancer. AU - Janssen, Stefan. AU - Hansen, Heinke C.. AU - Schild, Steven E.. AU - Rades, Dirk. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Background/Aim: Patients with cerebral metastases from gynecological cancer who receive whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone require personalized therapy. This study contributes to personalized care by creating an instrument to predict 6-month survival probability. Patients and Methods: In 49 patients, six pre-treatment variables, namely age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG-PS), primary tumor type, number of cerebral metastases, metastasis outside the brain, and interval between diagnosis of gynecological cancer and WBI, were analyzed for survival. Results: Of the six pre-treatment variables, ECOG-PS was significantly associated with survival (p=0.014) and metastasis outside the brain ...
Munich, February 3, 2017-In support of World Cancer Day 2017, which aims to bring global attention to cancer, Brainlab, a leader in cancer-fighting technologies, raises awareness about metastatic brain cancer and the revolutionary new methods being used to treat the disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 14 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed every year, with that number expected to rise by 70% over the next two decades. Cancers of the lung, breast, skin, colon and kidney present the highest risk of metastasizing to the brain.. As treatments improve, in combination with early detection, cancer patients are living longer, resulting in higher incidence of brain metastases, according to the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA). One of the most prevalent procedures for treating multiple brain metastases is whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) despite increasing evidence that WBRT can lead to significant cognitive side effects and the existence of alternative, less severe ...
OBJECTIVE This is the final report of a phase III randomized study to evaluate whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in primary therapy of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) after a median follow-up of 81.2 months. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL were randomized to high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based chemotherapy alone or followed by WBRT. We hypothesized that the omission of WBRT would not compromise overall survival (OS; primary endpoint), using a noninferiority design with a margin of 0.9. RESULTS In the per-protocol population (n = 320), WBRT nonsignificantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) (median 18.2 vs 11.9 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.06], p = 0.14) and significantly PFS from last HDMTX (25.5 vs 12.0 months, HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.5-0.83], p = 0.001), but without OS prolongation (35.6 vs 37.1 months, HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.79-1.35], p = 0.82). In the intent-to-treat population (n = 410), there was a prolongation by WBRT of both PFS (15.4 vs 9.9 ...
The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of postoperative whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone in patients with resected brain metastases (BM). We reviewe
The single-arm, phase II study was a multi-institutional, international clinical trial in the U.S. and Canada, conducted through the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Researchers compared the study group to a historical control group of patients who had received WBRT without hippocampal avoidance in the PCI-P-120-9801 phase III trial (Li 2007). This study enrolled 113 adult patients from 2011 through 2013 who had a measurable brain metastasis outside a 5-mm margin around the hippocampus. Of those patients, 100 were analyzable and 76 percent were categorized as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II. All patients received hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) to 30 Gy in 10 fractions. In all analyzable patients, the dose received by the entirety of the hippocampus did not exceed 10 Gy, and the maximum dose did not exceed 17 Gy. Patients were assessed using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Delayed Recall (HVLT-DR), the HVLT - Recall (HVLT-R) and the HVLT - ...
Twelve patients who had brain metastases and received fractionated whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) (30 or 37.5G) were included in the study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired pre RT, end of RT, and 1-month post-RT. The fornix, cingulum and corpus callosum were extracted from diffusion weighted images by combining fiber tracking and segmentation methods based upon characteristics of the fiber bundles. The ingulum was segmented by a seed-based tractography, the fornix by an ROI-based tractography, and the corpus callosum by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The radiation-induced longitudinal changes in diffusion indices of the structures were evaluated ...
The majority (40-60%) of patients with metastatic her2 positive breast cancer develop brain metastases at some point in their disease course. One should maintain a low threshold for imaging the brain if a patient reports any neurologic symptoms, even if subtle. Oligometastases should be considered for surgical excision or radiotactic surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy. Retreatment of progressive brain metastases with further radiation is sometimes feasible and beneficial, if the disease was controlled for an extended period (generally at least ten months) after initial radiotherapy. Several systemic drugs have some penetration into the blood brain barrier and may enhance control of brain metastases from breast cancer. These include capecitabine, lapatinib, anthracyclines, and cisplatin. While some other drugs have been used to treat primary brain tumors, their ability to control brain metastases of breast cancer origin has been disappointing ...
HOUSTON--Controversy continues to shroud the issue of how single and multiple brain metastases should be treated, Moshe H. Maor, MD, said at a symposium on CNS cancer, sponsored by The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, where he is a radiation oncologist. 1
Vanna Dest, MSN, APRN-BC, AOCN, Oncology Nurse Practitioner/Manager, Oncology APP, Yale-New Haven Hospital, discusses the side effects of treatment with brain radiation.
keď chodím do školy alebo niekde ráno, tak sa snažím medzi 23:00 až 00:00 a keď nie, tak medzi 00:00 až 1:00 ale väčšinou keď mam na ďalší deň skúšku a musím sa učiť a nestíham tak potiahnem aj do druhej a vstávam o piatej káva a ideme sa učiť :D ...
The researchers found that there was less cognitive deterioration at 3 months after stereotactic radiosurgery alone (40/63 patients, 64%) than when combined with whole brain radiotherapy (44/48 patients, 92%). Quality of life was higher at three months with stereotactic radiosurgery alone, including overall quality of life. There was no significant difference in functional independence at three months between the treatment groups. Median overall survival was 10.4 months for stereotactic radiosurgery alone and 7.4 months for stereotactic radiosurgery plus whole brain radiotherapy. For long-term survivors, the incidence of cognitive deterioration was less after stereotactic radiosurgery alone at three months and at 12 months.. "In the absence of a difference in overall survival, these findings suggest that for patients with one to three brain metastases amenable to radiosurgery, stereotactic radiosurgery alone may be a preferred strategy," the authors write.. "The debate between whole brain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple brain metastases. T2 - a case-matched study comparing treatment results for patients with 2-9 versus 10 or more tumors. AU - Yamamoto, Masaaki. AU - Kawabe, Takuya. AU - Sato, Yasunori. AU - Higuchi, Yoshinori. AU - Nariai, Tadashi. AU - Watanabe, Shinya. AU - Kasuya, Hidetoshi. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - OBJECT: Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone is not a standard treatment for patients with 4-5 tumors or more, a recent trend has been for patients with 5 or more, or even 10 or more, tumors to undergo SRS alone. The aim of this study was to reappraise whether the treatment results for SRS alone for patients with 10 or more tumors differ from those for patients with 2-9 tumors.METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study that gathered data from the Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse prospectively accumulated database. Data were collected for 2553 patients who ...
Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a condition in which malignant cells are present in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord. Treatment for CNS lymphoma generally does not include surgery. Instead, nonsurgical treatments, namely corticosteroids, chemotherapy and/or whole-brain radiation therapy, are used to treat CNS lymphoma.. Lymphoma designates a group of cancers that arise from white blood cells called lymphocytes. Because lymphocytes travel in the blood and lymph tissue and pass in and out of the CNS, lymphoma too can develop in various places in the body, including the CNS. CNS lymphoma is an aggressive type of lymphoma.. CNS lymphoma comes in two forms, depending on the origin of the tumor, and can produce single or multiple growths. ...
The aim of this study is to estimate the degree of residual hypoxia after whole brain radiation therapy in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer as quantified by F18 EF5 PET/CT imaging. There has been great difficulty in accruing patient to this study due to the nature of the brain metastases resulting in cognitive decline, decline in performance status, and/or inability to complete the imaging study. We have amended the study to enhance accrual by opening to our satellite hospitals as well as those receiving stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases.
SAJAMA, Carlos; LORENZONI, José y TAGLE, Patricio. Diagnosis and treatment of brain metastasis. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2008, vol.136, n.10, pp.1321-1326. ISSN 0034-9887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872008001000014.. Cerebral metastasis occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients with systemic cancer and are the most common type of intracranial tumor. The median survival of untreated patients is one month with a slightly longer survival in those treated with steroids. Patients treated with whole brain radiation therapy survive between 3 to 6 months. In selected cases survival can increase to 10 to 12 months with combination of surgery and radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone or associated to radiotherapy. Most brain metástasis arise from lung, breast and melanomas. The most important criteria for selecting patients who will benefit from surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery are a Karnofsky score of 70 or more, systemic control of the cancer and absence of leptomeningeal ...
Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients constitute a significant proportion of the lung cancer population. The prognosis of these patients
Long-term survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and synchronous brain metastasis treated with whole-brain radiotherapy and thoracic chemoradiation : Brain metastases occur in 30-50% of Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and confer a worse prognosis and quality of life. These patients are usually treated with Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by systemic therapy. Few studies have evaluated the role of chemoradiotherapy to the primary tumor after WBRT as definitive treatment in the management of these patients. Methods We
Central nervous system imaging is needed during programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy to monitor incidence, patterns of progression, and outcomes of melanoma brain metastases, according to research presented at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting (June 2-6, 2017; Chicago, IL).. -----. Related Content. Ipilimumab Combination Significantly Improves Melanoma Outcomes. Skip whole-brain radiation in patients with limited brain metastases. -----. Metastases in the brain is a common occurrence for patients with metastatic melanoma. Currently available therapies are often unable to treat metastatic melanoma tumors in the brain. Limited data exists concerning the incidence, patterns of progression, and outcomes of patients with melanoma brain metastasis treated with PD-1 inhibitors, particularly in conjunction with central nervous system-focused therapy.. Gustavo Schvartsman, MD, MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX), and colleagues retrospectively reviewed the survival outcomes of patients with ...
memberonly folders="Members,Vendors,Sponsored"] Childrens Hair Loss There are many known forms of hair loss in children, and it is important to identify each of them properly to choose the best possible solution. Trichology offers many treatment options for most types of hair loss. In certain cases, the loss is reversible and temporary; while in others, it may be permanent. A complete capillary analysis and assessment is essential for all cases of hair loss or capillary issues. It is important to inform both the child and the parents about treatment options and upcoming steps. Chemotherapy and Cranial Radiation Unfortunately, cancer sometimes affects young children and they are not immune to treatment-related side effects. In young children with cancer who are receiving chemotherapy or cranial radiation therapy, hair loss is often unavoidable. During treatment, cell division of the hair follicle is interrupted. As treatments are not always localized, the effects can reach the scalp. Hair will ...
A071401: Phase II Trial of SMO/AKT/NF2 Inhibitors in Progressive Meningiomas with SMO/AKT/NF2 Mutations. N0577: CODEL: Phase III Intergroup Study of Temozolomide Alone versus Radiotherapy with Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide versus Radiotherapy with Adjuvant PCV Chemotherapy in Patients with 1p/19q Co-deleted Anaplastic Glioma or Low Grade Glioma. RTOG 1119: Phase II Randomized Study of Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Combination with Concurrent Lapatinib in Patients with Brain Metastasis from HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. ...
In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial, adults with newly diagnosed ES-SCLC, ECOG PS ≤ 1, and no previous systemic therapy for SCLC are randomized 1:1 to receive either EP plus a 200-mg fixed dose of pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) once every 3 weeks (Q3W) or EP plus pbo IV Q3W. Randomization is stratified by the chosen platinum therapy (carboplatin vs cisplatin), ECOG PS (0 vs 1), and baseline lactate dehydrogenase concentration (≤ upper limit of normal [ULN] vs > ULN). Study treatment includes a total of 4 cycles of EP and 2 y of pembrolizumab/pbo and continues until documented PD, intolerable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Pts with a response after 4 cycles of EP plus pbo or pembrolizumab may receive prophylactic cranial irradiation. Pts who complete 2 y of pembrolizumab treatment or stop pembrolizumab for reasons other than PD/intolerability, but subsequently have documented PD, may receive an additional 1 y of pembrolizumab. Tumor response is assessed every 6 wk for 48 ...
Stereotactic radiosurgery provided better local control than observation in patients with resected brain metastases, according to randomized study results presented at the ASTRO Annual Meeting.However, OS and rate of distant brain metastases did not differ between groups.
Home » Randomized phase II trial of high-dose melatonin and radiation therapy for RPA class 2 patients with brain metastases (RTOG ...
This phase II trial studies how well reduced doses of radiation therapy to the brain and spine (craniospinal) and chemotherapy work in treating patients with newly diagnosed type of brain tumor called WNT)/Wingless (WNT)-driven medulloblastoma. Recent studies using chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been shown to be effective in treating patients with WNT-driven medulloblastoma. However, there is a concern about the late side effects of treatment, such as learning difficulties, lower amounts of hormones, or other problems in performing daily activities. Giving reduced craniospinal radiation therapy and chemotherapy may kill tumor cells and may also reduce the late side effects of treatment.. Learn more at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02724579. ...
The primary goal of treatment is to induce and maintain a complete remission (CR). A CR can be induced in 96% to 99% of children and 78% to 93% of adults. Treatment of pediatric ALL is divided into induction, consolidation, interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance. Adult ALL is divided into induction, consolidation, and maintenance. CNS treatment is performed throughout all phases of therapy. Intrathecal therapy consists of methotrexate and cytarabine which can be given alone or in combination. Patients with T-cell ALL have an increased incidence of CNS disease and should receive systemic high-dose methotrexate to penetrate the CNS. Multiple intensive chemotherapy regimens have been shown to provide benefit in adult ALL. Specific agents used in the treatment of ALL are summarized in Table 18-1. ...
Childhood cancer survivors - especially those whose treatment included brain irradiation or chemotherapy with glucocorticoids - are 14 percent more likely to be obese than their healthy peers.
I did not have the best summer. With the brain tumor diagnosis in June, followed by whole brain radiation, steroids, then new chemo meds, I have been reeling from the side effects. The last three weeks have been the worst - with nausea, upset stomach and general exhaustion dominating my life. I am not myself at all, and I am totally sick of it. I am sick of feeling sick. I drag myself up in the morning for work, and collapse on the couch at the end of the day. I can barely function at night. I am sick of not being able to drive. But even if I could drive, the amount of energy it takes to navigate the northern Virginia streets is overwhelming ...
Mild diffuse cerebral atrophy is a symptomatic brain condition generally involving the loss, or deterioration of, neurons and the connections between them, usually indicating the presence of other...
Children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) face an increased risk of obesity and growth impairment from the disease and during ALL treatment, regardless of exposure to cranial irradiation, according to a recent study.|br /|  
While stem cells have shown promise for treating brain regions damaged by cancer radiation treatments, University of California, Irvine researchers have found that microscopic vesicles isolated from these cells provide similar benefits without some of the risks associated with stem cells. In rese
Imaging with a molecular imaging tracer can help distinguish radiation-induced lesions from new tumor growth in patients who have been treated for brain metastases.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new paradigm in treatment of brain metastases. AU - McDonald, Mark W.. AU - McMullen, Kevin P.. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84929954335&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84929954335&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2015.03.001. DO - 10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2015.03.001. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84929954335. VL - 39. SP - 70. EP - 88. JO - Current Problems in Cancer. JF - Current Problems in Cancer. SN - 0147-0272. IS - 2. ER - ...
Care guide for Brain Metastasis (Ambulatory Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Cancer Therapy Advisor provides imaging specialists with the latest information to correctly diagnose medical images based upon conditions, procedures and guides. Visit often for updates and new information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary central nervous system lymphoma. T2 - Phase I evaluation of infusional bromodeoxyuridine with whole brain accelerated fractionation radiation therapy after chemotherapy. AU - Dabaja, Bouthaina S.. AU - McLaughlin, Peter. AU - Ha, Chul S.. AU - Pro, Barbara. AU - Meyers, Christina A.. AU - Seabrooke, Lee F.. AU - Wilder, Richard B.. AU - Kyritsis, Athanassios P.. AU - Preti, H. Alejandro. AU - Yung, W. K.Alfred. AU - Levin, Victor. AU - Cabanillas, Fernando. AU - Cox, James D.. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. The current study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity, and outcome of infusional 5 bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (bromodeoxyuridine; BUdR) given with accelerated fractionation whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) after chemotherapy for the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). METHODS. Twelve patients with untreated and histologically confirmed PCNSL were entered on the study between 1994 and 1996. ...
Brain metastases (BM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are extremely rare and are associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to define clinical outcome and prognostic determinants in patients with BM from HCC. Between January 1994 and December 2009, all patients with HCC and BM treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to identify possible prognostic factors. Forty-one patients were diagnosed with BM from HCC, an incidence of 0.47%. The median age at diagnosis of BM was 48.5 years. Thirty-three patients (80.5%) developed extracranial metastases at diagnosis of BM, and 30 patients (73.2%) had hepatitis B. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 19 patients (46.3%). BM were treated primarily either with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT; 5 patients), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS; 7 patients), or surgical resection (6 patients). The cause of death was systemic disease in 17 patients and
Brain metastases (BM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are extremely rare and are associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to define clinical outcome and prognostic determinants in patients with BM from HCC. Between January 1994 and December 2009, all patients with HCC and BM treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to identify possible prognostic factors. Forty-one patients were diagnosed with BM from HCC, an incidence of 0.47%. The median age at diagnosis of BM was 48.5 years. Thirty-three patients (80.5%) developed extracranial metastases at diagnosis of BM, and 30 patients (73.2%) had hepatitis B. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 19 patients (46.3%). BM were treated primarily either with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT; 5 patients), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS; 7 patients), or surgical resection (6 patients). The cause of death was systemic disease in 17 patients and
Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were ...
Douglas Kondziolka, MD, a researcher and neurosurgeon at the NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City, who has performed many thousands of Gamma Knife procedures, said: "Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an excellent example of how evolving cancer care technologies are addressing growing demand for precision medicine, where treatments can be precisely tailored to an individuals unique anatomy and biologic makeup while simultaneously helping to reduce the risk of damaging healthy tissue. As one of the most comprehensively studied tools in the neurosurgery armamentarium, we can confidently offer this treatment option as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional brain surgery or whole brain radiation therapy for properly selected patients.". Using up to 192 precisely focused sources of radiation, Gamma Knife can be used to control both malignant and nonmalignant tumors, as well as for treating arteriovenous malformations, essential tremor and trigeminal neuralgia while limiting damage to ...
The seven year study observed 58 patients presenting with one to three newly diagnosed brain metastases who were randomized to receive SRS followed by WBRT or SRS alone. Approximately four months after treatment, 49 percent of patients who received WBRT experienced a decline in learning and memory function compared to 23 percent in those patients who received SRS alone. An independent data monitoring committee halted the trial after interim results showed the high statistical probability (96.4 percent) that patients randomized to SRS alone would continue to perform better.. M. D. Anderson researchers measured participants neurocognitive function using a short battery of neuropsychological tests, with the primary endpoint being memory function as tested by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Revised. Patient performance that decreased more than a predefined criteria relative to their baseline were considered to exhibit a marked decline. "This is a case where the risks of learning dysfunction ...
Physicians from Carolinas HealthCare Systems Neurosciences Institute and Levine Cancer Institute are among the authors of a study published by Brown et al in JAMA. The study showed how among patients with one to three brain metastases, the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone, compared with SRS combined with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), resulted in less cognitive deterioration at 3 months. These results will allow tens of thousands of patients to experience a better quality of life while maintaining the same length of life.. Anthony L. Asher, MD, FACS, Medical Director at Carolinas HealthCare Systems Neurosciences Institute and the senior author on the report, and as well as Stuart H. Burri, MD, Chairman of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Levine Cancer Institute, began their research on this subject over 10 years ago. Along with Paul Brown, MD, at Mayo Clinic, they spearheaded an international, multi-institutional, randomized trial.. Typical therapies for brain metastases ...
Our observed effect may have a correlation to the initial size of the lesion, as those with complete response had median initial size of 0.8 cm, while partial responders and stable responders had median initial sizes of 1.0 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively. In our descriptive comparison to patients treated with SRS and concurrent ipilimumab or with SRS without immunotherapy, the responses to SRS and pembrolizumab appeared favorable. Past studies have suggested that concurrent checkpoint blockade with CTLA-4 inhibition and SRS to brain metastases has durable local control of treated lesions [4, 5, 7], though not all reports have shown an enhanced benefit to SRS with concurrent ipilimumab [6]. In this study, we found that 93% of treated lesions were controlled at the time of death after SRS and concurrent pembrolizumab, similar to the prior reports of durable control.. Overall, pembrolizumab and brain radiation therapy appeared to have acceptable acute toxicity. Specific acute toxicities that were ...
Radiotherapy is a type of treatment that uses pulses of radiation to destroy cancer cells. There are a number of ways it can be used to treat people with lung cancer.. An intensive course of radiotherapy, known as radical radiotherapy, can be used to try to cure non-small-cell lung cancer if the person isnt healthy enough for surgery. For very small tumours, a special type of radiotherapy called stereotactic radiotherapy may be used instead of surgery.. Radiotherapy can also be used to control the symptoms and slow the spread of cancer when a cure isnt possible (this is known as palliative radiotherapy).. A type of radiotherapy known as prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is also sometimes used during the treatment of small-cell lung cancer. PCI involves treating the whole brain with a low dose of radiation. Its used as a preventative measure because theres a risk that small-cell lung cancer will spread to your brain.. The three main ways that radiotherapy can be given are described ...
Dr. Cuis research uses integrated systems biology approaches to discover new strategies for treating malignant tumors, especially primary (glioblastoma) and secondary (metastatic) brain tumors. He is applying multidisciplinary approaches, including assay development, high-throughput and high-content screening, as well as computational modeling to discover new compounds and explore new treatment combinations. He developed a screening platform for glioma growth and invasion using bioluminescence imaging and uses it to screen potential drugs that inhibit tumor cell migration for better management of malignant glioblastoma. He has investigated a new cocktail strategy for treating brain tumors by combining whole brain radiotherapy, a neuroprotection compound, and an angiogenesis inhibitor. He has also obtained pilot project funding from the NCI to conduct his studies. His new drug combination study on brain tumors is under study in a new clinical trial in collaboration with Dr. Pamela New at the HMH ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gliosarcomas. T2 - Analysis of 11 cases do two subtypes exist?. AU - Salvati, Maurizio. AU - Caroli, Emanuela. AU - Raco, Antonino. AU - Giangaspero, Felice. AU - Delfini, Roberto. AU - Ferrante, Luigi. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - There are conflicting reports regarding gliosarcomas. The goal of this study is to examine clinical, radiological, surgical and therapeutic aspects of 11 patients with gliosarcoma. Between 1993 and 2001, 11 patients with cerebral gliosarcoma were treated at our Institute. Ten patients underwent surgery and one patient had stereotactic biopsy. Four patients received whole brain radiotherapy with 60Co, five underwent radiotherapy with LINAC extended 2 cm beyond the edema margins. One patient refused any additional treatment after surgery and one patient was not treated postoperatively for poor clinical conditions (KPS 40). Chemotherapy (temozolomide) was administered to four patients. Four patients had a prevalence of sarcomatous component that ...
Therapeutic irradiation can induce cognitive impairments without necessarily causing the gross histologic disruption classically associated with exposure to high radiation doses ( 1). Given that postmitotic neurons are generally considered to be relatively radioresistant, new approaches/techniques have been used to identify other "targets" that may ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury. Data now exist regarding neurogenesis ( 14, 15), specific genetic factors ( 33) or receptor expression ( 34), and show that changes in these end points can be associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Still, there is considerable uncertainty regarding how molecular and cellular events within specific neuronal populations are translated into changes that affect behavioral performance. Understanding such changes will be critical to the development of strategies or approaches necessary to prevent or treat the cognitive changes induced by therapeutic irradiation of ...
Im Judy, welcome to my blog! I was diagnosed with Triple Negative Breast Cancer (stage II) in April 09 If you would like to know more about TNBC, then please click on the link above. I am not sure where this new journey will take me, but I am ready for the challenge. As of May 28, 2010 I had about a 6cm Met to brain, had emergency surgery, 3 Gamma Knifes and now under going Whole Brain Radiation Recent update as of July 2011 ...ended up in hosp on a vent lost seven days, they have no idea what happened, looks like another gamma but will know more later today. Update as of Sept. 25 Another tumor, 2 hosp. stays,thought they were going to loose me on the 1st "summer visit" ummmm.... blood clots in my leg. So yeah, fun stuff. Thank you for taking the time to read and visit. *****Any 3negs. out there that need support, info, someone to make them laugh, or just listen, let me know. Gotten pretty good at this part ...
Standard risk: Radiation treatment for standard-risk disease in children consists of craniospinal radiation of 2340 cGy plus a boost of 5400 cGy to the primary site of the tumor. Initially this boost was to the whole posterior fossa, but, more recently, conformal fields around the primary site of the tumor at diagnosis with a margin have been recommended. ...
The DBTRG-O5MG (Denver Brain Tumor Research Group 05) cell line was established from tissue from a patient with glioblastoma multiforme who had been treated with local brain irradiation and multidrug chemotherapy.
Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma (St Jude Medulloblastoma-96): long-term results from a prospective, multicentre trial., The Lancet Oncology, vol.7,(10),2006,pp 813-820 ...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of simvastatin in combination with radiotherapy on the clinical outcomes of patients with brain metastases.
The prognosis of brain metastases is very poor. Surgery and radiotherapy provides the first line treatment, while systemic therapy has limited value. Nevertheless, our knowledge is increasing: normal cells contribute signifi cantly to the homing and growth of tumor cells; the molecular profi le of the primary tumor and its metastases could be different, which infl uences the therapeutic strategies; the type of blood supply can change during the tumor growth. It would be very important to optimize the cooperation of the different therapeutic modalities, and to fi nd markers which could predict the risk of metastatization.. ...
Contents: The Fundamentals.- The History of Stereotactic Radiosurgery.- Neuroimaging in Radiosurgery Treatment Planning and Follow-up Evaluation.- Techniques of Stereotactic Radiosurgery.- Radiation Biology and Physics.- The Physics of Stereotactic Radiosurgery.- Radiobiological Principles Underlying Stereotactic Radiation Therapy.- Experimental Radiosurgery Models.- Treatment Planning for Stereotactic Radiosurgery.- Designing, Building and Installing a Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit.- Stereotactic Radiosurgery Techniques.- Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.- Linear Accelerator Radiosurgery.- Proton Beam Radiosurgery: Physical Bases and Clinical Experience.- Robotics and Radiosurgery.- CyberKnife Radiosurgery.- Treatment of Disease Types.- Brain Metastases.- Metastatic Brain Tumors: Surgery Perspective.- Brain Metastases: Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy Perspective.- High-Grade Gliomas.- Malignant Glioma: Chemotherapy Perspective.- Meningioma.- Meningioma: Surgery Perspective.- Intracranial Meningioma: ...
Methods: 24 patients undergoing treatment for metastases had perfusion (DCE) and diffusion MRI scans. Tumor subvolumes with high regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and high Gd-DTAP transfer constant (Ktrans) were extracted. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histograms of the tumor volume were categorized into low, normal and high ADC subvolumes. Changes in different tumor subvolumes and their combination from pre-RT to week 2 after start of radiation were evaluated in differentiation of responsive, stable and progressive tumors for patients treated by either whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT, 28 lesions) alone or combined with Bortezomib as a radiation sensitizer (39 lesions). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis compared a combined perfusion/diffusion prediction model with changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) within the same time interval ...
The small cell lung cancer is characterized as a rapidly proliferating systemic neoplasm, where the basic treatment modality is the chemotherapy . Even in the surgically treated cases the platina based chemotherapy combination is obligatory before and after the surgical resection, combined with preventiv cranial irradiation to minimize the risk of the cranial metastases. The platina based chemo-radiotherapy is the gold standard in the locally advanced cases. Palliativ local irradiation could be useful for pain relief or decompression in the metastatic cases. Prophylactic cranial irradiation strongly recommended in any cases. There are no newly developed drugs for the treatment of SCLC, however it is a chemosensitive carcinoma. Topotecan could be effective in second or third line therapy , especially in brain metastasis.. ...
For patients with Stage III non-small cell lung cancer, prophylactic (preventive) radiation therapy to the brain reduces the risk of brain metastases but carries a risk of memory problems and doesnt appear to improve overall survival. These results were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.. Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancers.. One of the sites to which NSCLC can spread (metastasize) is the brain. Brain metastases can have a profound effect on survival and quality of life.. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) refers to the administration of radiation to the brain before brain metastases become apparent. The goal of PCI is the prevention of brain metastases. Previous studies have suggested that PCI can reduce the occurrence of brain metastases, but PCI has not become a part of routine NSCLC care because of concern about side effects and lack of evidence that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival after surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple intracranial metastases. T2 - Results of a single-center retrospective study. AU - Smith, Timothy R.. AU - Lall, Rohan R.. AU - Lall, Rishi Rajiv. AU - Abecassis, Isaac Josh. AU - Arnaout, Omar M.. AU - Marymont, Mary Anne H.. AU - Swanson, Kristin R.. AU - Chandler, James P.. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Object. Patients with systemic cancer and a single brain metastasis who undergo treatment with resection plus radiotherapy live longer and have a better quality of life than those treated with radiotherapy alone. Historically, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the mainstay of radiation therapy; however, it is associated with significant delayed neurocognitive sequelae. In this study, the authors looked at survival in patients with single and multiple intracranial metastases who had undergone surgery and adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the tumor bed and synchronous ...
Induction chemotherapy. High dose Methotrexate: The efficacy of Methotrexate in the treatment of Primary CNS lymphoma was first demonstrated by Ervin & Canellos in 1980 [17]. The primary CNS lymphoma cells inside brain are more sensitive to MTX and thus HD-MTX forms the backbone of PCNL therapy. HD-MTX is also shown a treatment related prognostic marker for survival in these patients [18]. There is no firm definition of HD-MTX and doses from 1g/m2 to 8 g/m2 has been reported in clinical trials [19]. Importantly Lippens and colleagues [20] demonstrated that intravenous administration of Methotrexate over 3 hours (3g/m2) leads to superior concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than infusion over 24 hours. Despite detectable meningeal disease in up to 15 % patients at diagnosis, intrathecal therapy has failed to achieve significantly better outcome [21]. Glantz et al demonstrated higher CSF levels after intravenous Methotrexate (8g/m2) than intrathecal injection with 12g/m2 Methotrexate [16]. ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) neural structures may have the inability to cope up with natural radiation [Momcilović B et al]. There exist DNA repair defects in familial AD, but not in sporadic AD [Boerrigter ME et al.]. Cranial radiation is a risk factor for A-β amyloid deposition and amyloid angiopathy in Brain. Radiation injures endothelial cells, breaks the blood-brain barrier and could be an enhancing factor of A-β deposition, although further study is necessary [Sugihara S et al.]. Changes typical of AD such as the formation of neuritic or diffuse plaques and tangles were not identified as a consequence of cranial irradiation. Although the neurodegenerative changes of radiation therapy are different from that of AD [Riudavets et al.], both have similar effect on cognitive function of neuronal structures [Shaw EG et al.]. Further studies with larger case sample that includes longer post-treatment intervals are needed to improve the understanding of the consequences and mechanisms leading to ...
Twelve patients with primary non-Hodgkins lymphomas of the CNS are described. Out of 5 CSF cytologies performed, 4 were positive. Radiotherapy was given to the tumour area in 3 patients, or to the whole brain in 5 patients. Four cases received radiotherapy to the spinal cord as well. Patients receiving ... read more whole CNS irradiation, including the spinal cord, seem to have a longer survival than patients with brain irradiation only. Out of the 5 patients with total brain irradiation, 2 showed a relapse in the spinal cord. It is suggested that therapy should be given not only to the tumour bearing areas, but should comprise the entire CNS. show less ...
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor. The metastasis typically shares a cancer cell type with the original site of the cancer. Metastasis is the most common cause of brain cancer, with tumors originating in the brain being less common. The most common sites of primary cancer which metastasize to the brain are lung, breast, colon, kidney, and skin cancer. Brain metastases can occur in patients months or even years after their original cancer is treated. Brain metastases have a poor prognosis for cure, but modern treatments are allowing patients to live months and sometimes years after the diagnosis. Because different parts of the brain are responsible for different functions, symptoms vary depending on the site of metastasis within the brain. However, brain metastases should be considered in any cancer patient who presents with neurological or behavioral changes. Brain ...
Background: For patients with brain metastases, systemic disease burden has historically been accepted as a major determinant of overall survival (OS). However, less research has focused on specific history and physical findings made by clinicians and how such findings pertain to patient outcomes at a given time point. The aim of this study is to determine how the initial clinical assessment of patients with brain metastases, as part of the history and physical at the time of consultation, correlates with patient prognosis.Methods: We evaluated a prospective, multi-institutional database of 1523 brain metastases in 507 patients who were treated with radiosurgery (Gamma Knife or CyberKnife) from 2001-2014. Relevant history of present illness (HPI) and past medical history (PMH) variables included comorbidities, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and seizure history. Physical exam findings included a sensory exam, motor exam, and cognitive function. Univariate and multivariate
Study details: All participants in this study will receive a new treatment called Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy. This is highly focused radiation given in one or a few (5-6) treatments. Robotic targeting is used to avoid important parts of the normal brain. Where previous treatment for multiple sites of cancer within the brain has involved giving radiation to the whole brain, this treatment will allow us to treat multiple areas at the same time. The aim is to avoid the use of whole brain radiation that can affect the memory structures within the brain such as the hippocampus, thus preserving brain (memory and cognitive) function. The trial will use software called BrainLab Elements (Trademark). This software will help the radiation oncologist to plan and deliver the radiotherapy treatment. All participants will be monitored throughout treatment for safety. They will also be asked to undergo MRI scans and complete some questionnaires at the start of the study and at 3 and 6 months ...
Korfel, A; Thiel, E; Martus, P; Möhle, R; Griesinger, F; Rauch, Mi; Röth, A; Hertenstein, B; Fischer, T; Hundsberger, T; Mergenthaler, H G; Junghanß, C; Birnbaum, T; Fischer, L; Jahnke, K; Herrlinger, U; Roth, P; Bamberg, M; Pietsch, T; Weller, M (2015). Randomized phase III study of whole-brain radiotherapy for primary CNS lymphoma. Neurology, 84(12):1242-1248.. Sandrock-Lang, K; Oldenburg, J; Wiegering, V; Halimeh, S; Santoso, S; Kurnik, K; Fischer, L; Tsakiris, D A; Sigl-Kraetzig, M; Brand, B; Bührlen, M; Kraetzer, K; Deeg, N; Hund, M; Busse, E; Kahle, A; Zieger, B (2015). Characterisation of patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia and identification of 17 novel mutations. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 113(4):782-791.. Huggel, C; Allen, S; Deline, P; Fischer, L; Noetzli, J; Ravanel, L (2012). Ice thawing, mountains falling-are alpine rock slope failures increasing? Geology Today, 28(3):98-104.. Benz, K; Stippich, C; Fischer, L; Möhl, K; Weber, K; Lang, J; Steffen, F; Beintner, B; ...
What I dont want to consider is neurosurgery or radiotherapy. I find it very hard to contemplate allowing this irrespective of cost. This kind of surgery is still very new in cats and though recent research and outcomes are promising it has nowhere near the safety margin that this type of surgery has in humans. On top of this no-one ever returns from neurosurgery or cranial radiotherapy unchanged and right now I consider the risks to Magic far outweigh the benefits. I have 8yrs experience of caring for a relative with an acquired brain injury post neurosurgery and it is this which drives my concern. Magic is an amazingly wise little cat and I feel I owe her a great deal as during some dreadful life disasters it was her coat I cried on. However, to risk her life and fundamental personality is a decision which would need a great deal of consideration which is why I would much rather we manage her medically rather than surgically or radiologically. I really hope I dont have to face the dilemma of ...
Brain metastasis is cancer that started in another part of the body and spread to the brain. Learn about brain metastases, including treatment options.
Cancer type: Brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (Phase 3 pivotal). Protocol number: NCT02831959. About brain metastases: Metastatic cancer is cancer that has spread from the place where it first started to another place in the body. In metastasis, cancer cells break away from the primary cancer, travel through the blood or lymph system, and form new, metastatic tumors in other parts of the body. The exact incidence of brain metastases is unknown, but it has been estimated that 98,000 to 170,000 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. Brain metastases occur in roughly 15% of all cancer patients, and we believe that approximately 40% of brain metastases are a result of NSCLC.. Learn more about METIS.. Read More ...
In December, 2012, the USFDA granted Diffusion Pharmaceuticals an Orphan Designation for the use of TSC in brain metastases. Planning for a clinical trial testing TSC in this indication is on-going, with enrollment expected to begin subsequent to initiation of the clinical trials in GBM and acute stroke.. Because of the safety history of TSC to date, Diffusion should be able to move directly into Phase 2 trials for this indication.. ...
Has anyone taken the chemo temodar? I am specifically taking it via infusion for 5 days ( but I kno you can also take it orally) with a regular dose of ipi and 10 days of full brain radiation. Apparently temodar can get to the brain so they decided to add it to my treatment because of my situation.
Has anyone taken the chemo temodar? I am specifically taking it via infusion for 5 days ( but I kno you can also take it orally) with a regular dose of ipi and 10 days of full brain radiation. Apparently temodar can get to the brain so they decided to add it to my treatment because of my situation.
Juliana is a brain tumor survivor. She talks about the complications through the years and how she has used art and family to help her through tough times.What is a Brain Tumor?A tumor is any
A study looking at reduced-dose AZT showed no difference in overall rate of anaemia but demonstrated improved safety and similar efficacy compared to ...
Patil P, Ljubimov AV, Gangalum PR, Ding H, Portilla-Arias J, Wagner S, Inoue S, Konda B, Rekechenetskiy A, Chesnokova A, Markman JL, Ljubimov VA, Li D, Prasad RS, Black KL, Holler E, Ljubimova JY. MRI Virtual Biopsy and Treatment of Brain Metastatic Tumors with Targeted Nanobioconjugates. ACS Nano. 2015;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b01872. ...
Comparison of median survival in 2 studies using the basic score for brain metastases (BSBM) (treatment was WBRT with or without local measures, studies not lim
Ako chcem vedieť hlavne ten systém :D Ako je to napr. tak že len chodím na prednášky učiteľ niečo vysvetluje a z toho všetkého vlastne ja potom na kocni semestra robím tú skúšku ? Či on sa ma aj niečo pýta počas prednášok alebo ako to je ?:D Dalej v čom som úplne mimo sú tie kredity :D...Mohol by mi to prosím niekto vysvetliť lebo ja som úplne mimo v tom :D Dík ...
The long-term effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are becoming increasingly recognized as the cure rates of certain childhood malignancies improve. The endocrine system is particularly sensitive to cancer therapies. Long-term survivors of childhood cancer who received cranial irradiation have been shown to have lower than predicted height, an increased prevalence of obesity and reductions in strength, exercise tolerance, bone mineral density, quality of life and academic achievement. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the most frequent endocrine deficiency observed following cranial irradiation. Adults with GHD resulting from primary hypothalamic-pituitary disease during childhood have been shown to exhibit a clinical picture similar to that described in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: increased fat mass and reduced lean mass, strength, exercise tolerance, bone mineral density and quality of life. This review considers the possible contribution of GHD to the adverse sequelae ...
It is well known that the prognosis for patients with brain metastases from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is very poor, with median survivals in the range of 3 to 14 months.[1-3] As pointed out by Quan et al, brain metastasis is an important issue, given that approximately 60% of SCLC patients will develop brain metastases sometime in the course of their disease. Quan et al set out to write an article on the treatment of brain metastases from SCLC, but they often have to refer to the results of studies of brain metastases from other sites. Unfortunately, many studies specifically exclude SCLC-related brain metastases, and therefore, advances in their treatment have been few. 1
Doctors at NYU Langone use blood testing, a neurological exam, and imaging tests to diagnose primary central nervous system lymphoma. Learn more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - LMO2 and BCL6 are associated with improved survival in primary central nervous system lymphoma. AU - Lossos, Chen. AU - Bayraktar, Soley. AU - Weinzierl, Elizabeth. AU - Younes, Sheren F.. AU - Hosein, Peter. AU - Tibshirani, Robert J.. AU - Sutton Posthumus, Jocelyn. AU - Deangelis, Lisa M.. AU - Raizer, Jeffrey. AU - Schiff, David. AU - Abrey, Lauren. AU - Natkunam, Yasodha. AU - Lossos, Izidore. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive sub-variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with morphological similarities to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While methotrexate (MTX)-based therapies have improved patient survival, the disease remains incurable in most cases and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. We evaluated 69 cases of PCNSL for the expression of HGAL (also known as GCSAM), LMO2 and BCL6 - genes associated with DLBCL prognosis and pathobiology, and analysed their correlation to survival in 49 PCNSL patients ...

Prophylactic cranial irradiation - WikipediaProphylactic cranial irradiation - Wikipedia

Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) or prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (PCRT) is a technique used to combat the occurrence ... 1999). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... 2007). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". NEJM. 357: 664-672. doi:10.1056/nejmoa071780. ... Lee, JJ (Aug 2006). "Decision analysis for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer". J Clin ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prophylactic_cranial_irradiation

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) | OncoLinkProphylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) | OncoLink

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Small Cell Lung Cancer Prophylactic Cranial ... Irradiation PCI Long Term Effects Studies on the Effects of the Prophylactic Radiation Fatigue After Lung Cancer Treatment ...
more infohttps://www.oncolink.org/frequently-asked-questions/cancers/lung/general-concerns/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-pci

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Small Cell Lung Cancer | SpringerLinkProphylactic Cranial Irradiation in Small Cell Lung Cancer | SpringerLink

Two-drug vs four-drug chemotherapy and loco-regional irradiation with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Acta Oncol ... Le Péchoux C for the Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI99) International Trial Group (2000) Why a new Prophylactic Cranial ... Ball DL, Matthews JP (1995) Prophylactic cranial irradiation: more questions than answers. Semin Radiat Oncol 5:61-68PubMed ... Wolfson AH, Bains Y, Lu J, Etuk B, Sridhar K, Raub W, Markoe A (2001) Twice-daily prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/3-540-26632-1_22

Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation.  - PubMed - NCBITreating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation. - PubMed - NCBI

Treating childhood leukemia without cranial irradiation. [N Engl J Med. 2009]. *Treating childhood leukemia without cranial ... Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation.. Pui CH1, Campana D, Pei D, Bowman WP, Sandlund JT ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a standard treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are at ... We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted from treatment in all children ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19553647?dopt=Abstract

High-Resolution In-Vivo Analysis of Normal Brain Response to Cranial IrradiationHigh-Resolution In-Vivo Analysis of Normal Brain Response to Cranial Irradiation

However, despite recognized therapeutic success, significant negative consequences are associated with cranial irradiation (CR ... though it is thought that endothelial injury plays a pivotal role in triggering cranial injury. We therefore explored the ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0038366

cranial irradiationcranial irradiation

Tags: cranial irradiation, extended, Extensive Lung Cancer - Small Cell, Lung Cancer - Small Cell, News, radiation, sclc, small ... that thoracic radiation improves survival and reduces cancer recurrence when added to prophylactic cranial irradiation in ...
more infohttp://cancer.unm.edu/tag/cranial-irradiation/

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) Cognitive Tests in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) PatientsProphylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) Cognitive Tests in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients

Cognitive Sequelae of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age: ... No prior cranial irradiation.sufficient proficiency in Dutch language. - sufficient proficiency in Dutch language. - MRI (and ... Cognitive Sequelae of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT01290809/

Frontiers | The Prevention of Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation | OncologyFrontiers | The Prevention of Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation | Oncology

Preventing the development of BM through prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may improve the outcome of these patients. ... Preventing the development of BM through prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may improve the outcome of these patients. ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... The following keywords were used as search terms: "Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung," "NSCLC," "Cranial Irradiation," "Cranial ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2018.00241/full

Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Attenuates Neurocognitive Dysfunction Resulting from Cranial Irradiation | Cancer...Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Attenuates Neurocognitive Dysfunction Resulting from Cranial Irradiation | Cancer...

After cranial irradiation, cognitive decline is observed in both children ( 1, 2) and adults ( 3, 4) and is a result of ... Neurobehavioral sequelae of cranial irradiation in adults: a review of radiation-induced encephalopathy. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12 ... Cranial irradiation, however, results in memory and learning deficits in children ( 37). Age dependence of radiation-induced ... The long-term effect of cranial irradiation on 2-week-old mouse pups is most analogous to the response in the pediatric brain. ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/14/5859.long

Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated...Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated...

Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ... Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ... Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ... Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/23/9763.long

Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety...Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety...

Title: Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A ... Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety ... 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CLINICAL TRIALS; DIAGNOSIS; DISEASE INCIDENCE; HAZARDS; HIPPOCAMPUS; IRRADIATION; LUNGS; ... Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22458651-risk-hippocampal-metastases-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-presentation-after-cranial-irradiation-safety-profile-study-hippocampal-sparing-during-prophylactic-therapeutic-cranial-irradiation

Long-Term Outcomes for Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation vs Observation in Locally Advanced NSCLC  - The ASCO PostLong-Term Outcomes for Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation vs Observation in Locally Advanced NSCLC - The ASCO Post

Prophylactic cranial irradiation was not associated with significantly improved overall survival.. *Prophylactic cranial ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation was also associated with reduced risk for brain metastases (HR = 0.43, P = .003); rates of ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with significantly improved disease-free survival (HR = 0.76, P = .03); disease ... Long-Term Outcomes for Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation vs Observation in Locally Advanced NSCLC By Matthew Stenger. Posted: 4/ ...
more infohttps://ascopost.com/News/59901

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: A single-center experience | AbstractProphylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: A single-center experience | Abstract

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: A single-center experience. Objective: Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC ... Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) is performed, when the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents to brain is insufficient. ... Cranial Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed from all patients to exclude metastasis ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/abstract/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-singlecenter-experience-8225.html

Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission<...Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission<...

... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-patients-with-small-cell-lun-3

Cranial Irradiation - Growth Hormone - GUWS MedicalCranial Irradiation - Growth Hormone - GUWS Medical

The deleterious effects of cranial irradiation on GH secretion are an unfortunate and common morbidity for individuals with a ... Cranial Irradiation. Tue, 23 Jul 2019 , Growth Hormone The deleterious effects of cranial irradiation on GH secretion are an ... Subsequently, cranial irradiation at lower doses (24 Gray [Gy]) has been associated with growth retardation and diminished ... 2. GH secretory pattern over 24 h in two primates treated with cranial irradiation (4000 rads; top panel) and two normal ...
more infohttps://www.guwsmedical.info/growth-hormone-2/cranial-irradiation.html

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled...Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled...

T1 - Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer. T2 - Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer : Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-findin

ISMRM 2013) Magnetization
  Transfer Ratio Differences in the Adult Mouse Brain Due to Cranial
  Irradiation in InfancyISMRM 2013) Magnetization Transfer Ratio Differences in the Adult Mouse Brain Due to Cranial Irradiation in Infancy

Magnetization Transfer Ratio Differences in the Adult Mouse Brain Due to Cranial Irradiation in Infancy. A. Elizabeth de Guzman ... The development of neurocognitive late effects due to therapeutic cranial irradiation in children has been linked to a ... mice that were treated with cranial irradiation during infancy. Voxel based analysis was able to identify differences in both ... cerebral children clinicians complete consensus content control controls coronal corpus corrected correction cortex cranial ...
more infohttp://archive.ismrm.org/2013/1070.html

Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding protein-3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity after cranial irradiation.Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding protein-3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity after cranial irradiation.

... ... Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding protein-3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity after cranial irradiation. 1998, 50 (2 ... and adolescents undergoing investigation of pituitary function 0.4-14.2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation for the ... concentrations and in the majority normal IGFBP-3 protease activity was found in patients in the years after CNS irradiation. ...
more infohttps://christie.openrepository.com/handle/10541/91674

Second thyroid neoplasms after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia | Perel, Yves; Leverger, Guy;...Second thyroid neoplasms after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia | Perel, Yves; Leverger, Guy;...

Second thyroid neoplasms after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia , Perel, Yves; Leverger, Guy; ... Second thyroid neoplasms after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Perel, Yves; Leverger, Guy; ...
more infohttp://booksc.org/book/4360/766fb6/?_ir=1

The effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation versus control on survival of patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung...The effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation versus control on survival of patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung...

A recent Japanese study suggested prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) failed to improve survival of extensive-stage small- ... Usage of prophylactic cranial irradiation in elderly patients with small-cell lung Cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2018;19(2):e263-7. ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in resected small cell lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Cancer. 2018;9(2 ... Effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation on overall survival in metastatic small-cell lung Cancer: a propensity score-matched ...
more infohttps://ro-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-018-1101-3

Prophylactic cranial irradiation is associated with improved survival following resection for limited stage small cell lung...Prophylactic cranial irradiation is associated with improved survival following resection for limited stage small cell lung...

Prophylactic cranial irradiation is associated with improved survival following resection for limited stage small cell lung ... Le Pechoux C. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation or No Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Resected ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Small Cell Lung Cancer: New Insights. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017;99:3-5. [Crossref ...
more infohttp://jtd.amegroups.com/article/view/27035/html

Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Combination Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy Dose Intensity...Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Combination Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy Dose Intensity...

Prophylactic cranial irradiation. As with limited-stage disease, offer prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) to all responding ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 16. 357(7):664-72. [Medline]. ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation. The ACCP and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend PCI in ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/280104-treatment

Concurrent PCI | definition of Concurrent PCI by Medical dictionaryConcurrent PCI | definition of Concurrent PCI by Medical dictionary

prophylactic cranial irradiation. Abbreviation: PCI. Radiation therapy used to prevent cancers, e.g., small cell carcinoma of ... prophylactic cranial irradiation. Abbreviation: PCI. Radiation therapy used to prevent cancers, e.g., small cell carcinoma of ... interstitial irradiation. Therapeutic irradiation by insertion into the tissues of capillary tubes or beads containing radon (a ... irradiation. (i-rād″ē-ā′shŏn) 1. The diagnostic or therapeutic application of x-ray photons, nuclear particles, high-speed ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Concurrent+PCI

Hyposomatotropism (Growth Hormone Deficiency): Practice Essentials, Background, PathophysiologyHyposomatotropism (Growth Hormone Deficiency): Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Trauma, infections, tumors, and cranial irradiation. Trauma, infections, sarcoidosis, tumors, and cranial irradiation of the ... Irradiation-induced hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction is dose related. Low-dose irradiation usually results in isolated GHD, ... A prospective study of the development of growth hormone deficiency in children given cranial irradiation, and its relation to ... Hypothalamic irradiation also damages the growth plate cartilage and is associated with an increased incidence of precocious ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/922543-overview
  • Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation. (nih.gov)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a standard treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are at high risk for central nervous system (CNS) relapse. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, cranial irradiation at lower doses (24 Gray [Gy]) has been associated with growth retardation and diminished spontaneous GH secretion in subjects with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (47). (guwsmedical.info)
  • We also examined 24-h studies of spontaneous GH secretion in a group of children following central nervous system or total body irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a variety of other central nervous system (CNS) tumors not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Young adult C57BL/6J mice received whole-brain irradiation with 0 or 10 Gy, and 1 week or 2 months later, exploration of a novel environment was used to induce Arc expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the United States, a large number of patients (200,000-300,000/y) with primary or metastatic tumors in the brain will require large volume or whole-brain irradiation ( 2 ), and in at least some of these patients, there is a strong likelihood of developing adverse reactions in terms of cognitive decline ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of GSK-3β either by small molecules (SB216763 or SB415286) or by ectopic expression of kinase-inactive GSK-3β before irradiation significantly attenuated radiation-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To gain some mechanistic insight into how irradiation may affect hippocampal neurons known to be associated with cognitive function, we quantitatively assessed the molecular distribution of the behaviorally induced immediate-early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) at the level of mRNA and the protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings are the first to show that local brain irradiation initiates changes in hippocampal neurons that disrupt the activity patterns ( Arc expression) associated with neuroplasticity and memory. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study used magnetization transfer imaging as a method to detect differences in white matter pathology of adult mice that were treated with cranial irradiation during infancy. (ismrm.org)
  • We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted from treatment in all children with newly diagnosed ALL. (nih.gov)
  • The relationship between peak growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-3 protease activity was studied in 28 children and adolescents undergoing investigation of pituitary function 0.4-14.2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation for the treatment of CNS tumours distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (n = 16) or prophylaxis against CNS leukaemia (n = 12). (openrepository.com)
  • A 'normal' GH secretory response to provocation in subjects with a history of cranial irradiation associated with an abnormal 24-h GH study suggests the presence of selective defects in neurotransmitter control of GH secretion (47). (guwsmedical.info)
  • After cranial irradiation, cognitive decline is observed in both children ( 1 , 2 ) and adults ( 3 , 4 ) and is a result of hippocampal dysfunction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The initial studies detailing the hypothalamic-pituitary effects of cranial irradiation exposure were performed with male rhesus monkeys (40 Gray), demonstrating a blunted GH secretory response to insulin hypoglycemia and a decrease in GH pulse frequency and amplitude. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The deleterious effects of cranial irradiation on GH secretion are an unfortunate and common morbidity for individuals with a variety of neoplastic and hematologic diseases. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding protein-3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity after cranial irradiation. (openrepository.com)
  • Our results showed that there was a significant reduction in the percentage of neurons expressing Arc protein 1 week after irradiation, whereas 2 months after irradiation, there was a reduction in the percentage of neurons expressing both Arc mRNA and Arc protein. (aacrjournals.org)