The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

Ultrasound B-mode changes in the uterus and ovaries and Doppler changes in the uterus after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in childhood. (1/509)

Internal genitalia and uterine blood flow were assessed by ultrasound in 12 females 4.0-10.9 years after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for childhood leukaemia or lymphoma. Median age of the participants was 12.7 years (range 6.1-17.6) at bone marrow transplantation and 21.5 years (11.6-25.6) at the follow-up study. At follow-up all had entered puberty and 11/12 females had experienced the menarche. Eight females received sex steroid replacement therapy, three had spontaneous pubertal development and one woman experienced symptoms of estrogen deficiency. Median uterine and ovarian volumes were significantly reduced to -2.6 standard deviation scores (SDS) (-6.3 to -0.6), P = 0.002, and -2.6 SDS (-4.8 to -0.5), P = 0.002, respectively, compared with normal controls. Follicles were only detectable in two individuals. Uterine blood flow was impaired, as a systolic blood flow could be measured in 6/9 individuals, and a diastolic blood flow in 1/9 females. Our results indicate that the prescribed dosage of hormone replacement therapy, which was sufficient to induce bleeding and suppress other stigmata of premature menopause, was inadequate to generate normal uterine growth. In order to achieve uterine growth higher doses of hormone replacement therapy may be required. Our results confirm pelvic ultrasound as a reliable tool for investigation of internal female genitalia; however, in an infertility setting further tests are indicated.  (+info)

Isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma of the brain: successful treatment with surgical resection, intrathecal injection, irradiation and prophylactic systemic chemotherapy. (2/509)

We describe a 40-year-old male who developed an isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) of the brain 2 years following successful treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML; M2). Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced tumor mass in the left temporal lobe and massive peritumoral edema. There was no evidence of relapse in the bone marrow. The patient underwent an emergency surgical resection of the tumor. Five courses of injection with cytarabine and prednisolone through an Ommaya reservoir and whole brain irradiation (total 40 Gy) were performed. Furthermore, prophylactic systemic chemotherapy with cytarabine and etoposide was added. He has been in complete remission for 21 months. Our results, together with other reported cases, indicate that a favorable outcome could be obtained by intensive and combined treatment for an isolated recurrence of GS of the brain if the bone marrow remained in complete remission.  (+info)

Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. (3/509)

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation reduces the incidence of brain metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Whether this treatment, when given to patients in complete remission, improves survival is not known. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether prophylactic cranial irradiation prolongs survival. METHODS: We analyzed individual data on 987 patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation. The main end point was survival. RESULTS: The relative risk of death in the treatment group as compared with the control group was 0.84 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.97; P= 0.01), which corresponds to a 5.4 percent increase in the rate of survival at three years (15.3 percent in the control group vs. 20.7 percent in the treatment group). Prophylactic cranial irradiation also increased the rate of disease-free survival (relative risk of recurrence or death, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001) and decreased the cumulative incidence of brain metastasis (relative risk, 0.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.57; P<0.001). Larger doses of radiation led to greater decreases in the risk of brain metastasis, according to an analysis of four total doses (8 Gy, 24 to 25 Gy, 30 Gy, and 36 to 40 Gy) (P for trend=0.02), but the effect on survival did not differ significantly according to the dose. We also identified a trend (P=0.01) toward a decrease in the risk of brain metastasis with earlier administration of cranial irradiation after the initiation of induction chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic cranial irradiation improves both overall survival and disease-free survival among patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission.  (+info)

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after high-dose thiotepa. (4/509)

High-dose thiotepa has been successfully included in a variety of conditioning regimens for stem cell transplantation in hematological and solid neoplasms. Toxicity of high-dose thiotepa mainly manifests as profound myeloablation and some degree of liver damage. We report a case of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in a patient with primary CNS lymphoma who underwent therapy with high-dose thiotepa.  (+info)

Pineoblastoma showing unusual ventricular extension in a young adult--case report. (5/509)

A 19-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of headache. Neurological examination showed bilateral papilledema. Computed tomography revealed a pineal region mass with remarkable obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pineal region tumor continuously invading through the tectum into the cerebral aqueduct and the fourth ventricle with the preservation of the adjacent structures. The tumor appeared an iso- to hypointense mass on T1-weighted images, a heterogeneous iso- to hyperintense mass on T2-weighted images, and a heterogeneously enhanced mass after administration of contrast medium. Histological examination after endoscopic biopsy confirmed that the tumor was a pineoblastoma. Radiotherapy was given to the whole brain and the spinal cord, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete remission of the tumor. Pineoblastomas are highly malignant tumors with seeding potential through the neighboring ventricle or along the meninges, and this type of tumor becomes larger with local extension. We found no previous reports of the continuous extension into the fourth ventricle. The present case showed ventricular extension with minimal mass effect to adjacent structures, and did not disturb ventricular configuration. According to the unusual finding of ventricular extension, this rare case of pineoblastoma requires adjuvant chemotherapy.  (+info)

Treatment of children with medulloblastomas with reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: A Children's Cancer Group Study. (6/509)

PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. After treatment with surgery and radiation therapy, approximately 60% of children with medulloblastoma are alive and free of progressive disease 5 years after diagnosis, but many have significant neurocognitive sequelae. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility and efficacy of treating children with nondisseminated medulloblastoma with reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 3-year period, 65 children between 3 and 10 years of age with nondisseminated medulloblastoma were treated with postoperative, reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy (23.4 Gy) and 55.8 Gy of local radiation therapy. Adjuvant vincristine chemotherapy was administered during radiotherapy, and lomustine, vincristine, and cisplatin chemotherapy was administered during and after radiation. RESULTS: Progression-free survival was 86% +/- 4% at 3 years and 79% +/- 7% at 5 years. Sites of relapse for the 14 patients who developed progressive disease included the local tumor site alone in two patients, local tumor site and disseminated disease in nine, and nonprimary sites in three. Brainstem involvement did not adversely affect outcome. Therapy was relatively well tolerated; however, the dose of cisplatin had to be modified in more than 50% of patients before the completion of treatment. One child died of pneumonitis and sepsis during treatment. CONCLUSION: These overall survival rates compare favorably to those obtained in studies using full-dose radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. The results suggest that reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy during and after radiation is a feasible approach for children with nondisseminated medulloblastoma.  (+info)

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after multimodality treatment: long-term follow-up and investigations of late neuropsychologic effects. (7/509)

PURPOSE: Relapse pattern and late toxicities in long-term survivors were analyzed after the introduction of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) into a phase II trial on trimodality treatment of locally advanced (LAD) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with stage IIIA(N2)/IIIB NSCLC were treated with induction chemotherapy, preoperative radiochemotherapy, and surgery. PCI was routinely offered during the second period of study accrual. Patients were given a total radiation dose of 30 Gy (2 Gy per daily fraction) over a 3-week period starting 1 day after the last chemotherapy cycle. RESULTS: Introduction of PCI reduced the rate of brain metastases as first site of relapse from 30% to 8% at 4 years (P =.005) and that of overall brain relapse from 54% to 13% (P <.0001). The effect of PCI was also observed in the good-prognosis subgroup of 47 patients who had a partial response or complete response to induction chemotherapy, with a reduction of brain relapse as first failure from 23% to 0% at 4 years (P =.01). Neuropsychologic testing revealed impairments in attention and visual memory in long-term survivors who received PCI as well as in those who did not receive PCI. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter abnormalities of higher grades in patients who received PCI than in those who did not. CONCLUSION: PCI at a moderate dose reduced brain metastases in LAD-NSCLC to a clinically significant extent, comparable to that in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer. Late toxicity to normal brain was acceptable. This study supports the use of PCI within intense protocols for LAD-NSCLC, particularly in patients with favorable prognostic factors.  (+info)

Sexually dimorphic and radiation dose dependent effect of cranial irradiation on body mass index. (8/509)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between cranial irradiation received during treatment for childhood leukaemia and obesity at final height. DESIGN: Retrospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric oncology centres at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and the Royal Marsden Hospital. SUBJECTS: Survivors of childhood leukaemia who received cranial irradiation, were in continuous first remission, and had reached final height. An unirradiated group of patients from the United Kingdom acute lymphoblastic leukaemia XI trial was also included; these patients were in continuous first remission and had been followed for at least four years from diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI z score) at final height for irradiated patients and at most recent follow up for unirradiated patients. Regression analysis was used to examine the effect on BMI z score of sex, age at diagnosis, and the dose of radiation received. RESULTS: For cranially irradiated patients, an increase in the BMI z score at final height was associated with female sex and lower radiation dose, but not with age at diagnosis. Severe obesity, defined as a BMI z score of > 3 at final height, was only present in girls who received 18-20 Gy irradiation and had a prevalence of 8%. Both male and female unirradiated patients had raised BMI z scores at latest follow up and there was no association with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data are further evidence for a sexually dimorphic and dose dependent effect of radiation on the human brain.  (+info)

This randomized phase I/II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of RO4929097 (gamma-secretase/Notch signalling pathway inhibitor RO4929097) when given together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery and to see how well it works compared to whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone in treating patients with breast cancer or other cancers (such as lung cancer or melanoma) that have spread to the brain. RO4929097 may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Whole-brain radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays deliver radiation to the entire brain to treat tumors that can and cannot be seen. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be able to deliver x-rays directly to the tumor and cause less damage to normal tissue. It is not yet known whether giving RO4929097 together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery may kill more tumor cells ...
This randomized phase I/II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of RO4929097 (gamma-secretase/Notch signalling pathway inhibitor RO4929097) when given together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery and to see how well it works compared to whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone in treating patients with breast cancer or other cancers (such as lung cancer or melanoma) that have spread to the brain. RO4929097 may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Whole-brain radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays deliver radiation to the entire brain to treat tumors that can and cannot be seen. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be able to deliver x-rays directly to the tumor and cause less damage to normal tissue. It is not yet known whether giving RO4929097 together with whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery may kill more tumor cells ...
Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) delivers radiation treatments to the entire brain over a period of many weeks. WBRT is typically used if there are more than a few areas of cancer in the brain. WBRT helps to shrink the tumors and improve symptoms. WBRT also may be used in place of, or in addition to, stereotactic radiosurgery. The side effects of WBRT include thought and memory problems, so its important to have a conversation with your doctor to weigh the risks and benefits of WBRT in your situation. If you have HER2-positive breast cancer that has moved into the brain, you may be able to delay whole-brain radiation therapy by using the combination of Tykerb (chemical name: lapatinib) and Xeloda (chemical name: capecitabine). For more information, see Targeted Therapies to Treat Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer. ...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of trametinib with or without whole brain radiation therapy in treating patients with brain metastases. Trametinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Radiation therapy uses high energy x rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs, such as trametinib, may make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Giving trametinib with whole brain radiation therapy may be an effective treatment for brain metastases.
Although targeted therapies have produced dramatic advances in our ability to control some types of advanced lung cancer, growth of the disease in the brain remains a major problem. Radiation is often used to treat deposits in the brain, but the best technique to deliver radiation can be controversial. Whole-brain radiation therapy, as its name suggest, treats the entire brain but can be associated with notable cognitive side effects. Another strategy, radiosurgery, directs highly-focused radiation only to the sites of metastasis, largely sparing the normal brain. The challenge has been to define in which circumstances each technique is best. The debate has centered on the number of brain metastases, with the field generally agreeing that with three or fewer deposits, radiosurgery is the preferred approach, and then switching to the use of whole-brain radiation to treat four or more deposits.. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published today in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I study of bendamustine with concurrent whole brain radiation therapy in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. AU - Pan, Edward. AU - Yu, Daohai. AU - Zhao, Xiuhua. AU - Neuger, Anthony. AU - Smith, Pamela. AU - Chinnaiyan, Prakash. AU - Yu, Hsiang Hsuan M.ichael. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)/recommended phase II dose of bendamustine with concurrent whole brain radiation (WBR) in patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors. Four doses of intravenous weekly bendamustine were administered with 3 weeks of WBR at three dose levels (60, 80, and 100 mg/m(2)) according to a standard 3 + 3 phase I design. A total of 12 patients with solid tumor BM were enrolled in the study (six with non-small cell lung cancer, four with melanoma, one with breast cancer, and one with neuroendocrine carcinoma). The first two dose levels had three ...
Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Oct 1;10(19):6411-7. A phase I study of topical Tempol for the prevention of alopecia induced by whole brain radiotherapy. Metz JM¹, Smith D, Mick R, Lustig R, Mitchell J, Cherakuri M, Glatstein E, Hahn SM. ¹Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Abstract PURPOSE: Complete alopecia is a universal complication of whole brain radiation therapy which contributes to patient anxiety over treatment. Tempol, a nitroxide radioprotector, has been shown to protect against radiation-induced alopecia in an animal model. This phase Ib study was designed to evaluate the safety and side effect profile of topical Tempol in patients with brain metastases being treated with whole brain radiotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twelve patients with metastatic cancer to the brain were enrolled in the study between October 2000 and February 2003. Tempol (70 mg/ml concentration solution) was applied topically to the scalp 15 minutes before and washed off immediately
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn whether Tarceva (erlotinib hydrochloride), when given in addition to whole brain radiation therapy,
TY - CHAP. T1 - Simultaneously integrated boost to multiple brain metastases during whole brain radiation therapy-hippocampal avoidance. AU - Gutiérrez, Alonso N.. AU - Tomé, Wolfgang A.. AU - Ghia, Amol. AU - Thomas, Sayana. AU - Cannon, George. AU - Khuntia, Deepak. AU - Kuo, John S.. AU - Mehta, Minesh. PY - 2010/3/19. Y1 - 2010/3/19. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering a radiosurgery-quality integrated boost to visible brain metastases combined with hippocampal sparing whole brain radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ten patients were planned on helical tomotherapy using MR-CT fusion-defined target and normal structure contours. Individually contoured hippocampi were used as conformal avoidance structures and limited to a mean-NTD2 of 6 Gy, where NTD2 denotes the normalized total dose delivered in 2 Gy fractions assuming an α/β-ratio of 2 Gy. A whole brain dose of 32.25 Gy and simultaneous boost doses to brain metastases of either 63.0 Gy (, ...
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a palliative option for patients with brain metastases that alleviates symptoms, decreases the use of corticosteroids needed to control tumor-associated edema, and potentially improves overall survival. It has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive decline. McTyre, E; Scott, J; Chinnaiyan, P (2013). Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis. Surg Neurol Int. 4: S236-44. doi:10.4103/2152-7806.111301. PMC 3656558 . PMID 23717795. Whole-Brain Radiotherapy: Risks Worth Benefit?. Medscape.com. Retrieved August 20, 2015 ...
The purpose of this study is to compare any good and bad effects of avoiding the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation to the usual whole-brain radiation. The hippocampus is part of the brain that is important for memory. Avoiding the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation could decrease the chance of side effects on memory and thinking. It also is possible that avoiding the hippocampus could have no benefit or could cause other side effects. Hippocampal avoidance also could lessen the effectiveness of whole-brain radiation. This study will allow the researchers to know whether this different approach is better, the same, or worse than the usual approach. To be better, the addition of the hippocampal avoidance technique to whole-brain radiation therapy should decrease the chance of side effects on memory or thinking by at least 14.5 ...
The purpose of this study is to compare any good and bad effects of avoiding the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation to the usual whole-brain radiation. The hippocampus is part of the brain that is important for memory. Avoiding the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation could decrease the chance of side effects on memory and thinking. It also is possible that avoiding the hippocampus could have no benefit or could cause other side effects. Hippocampal avoidance also could lessen the effectiveness of whole-brain radiation. This study will allow the researchers to know whether this different approach is better, the same, or worse than the usual approach. To be better, the addition of the hippocampal avoidance technique to whole-brain radiation therapy should decrease the chance of side effects on memory or thinking by at least 14.5 ...
abstractNote = {A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author ...
To retrospectively access outcome and toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with multiple brain metastases (BM) from malignant melanoma (MM). Results of 87 patients (median age 58 years; 35 female, 52 male) treated by WBRT for BM of MM between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Total dose applied was either 30 Gy in 10 fractions (n = 56) or 40 Gy in 20 fractions (n = 31). All but 9 patients suffered from extra-cerebral metastases. Prior surgical resection of BM was performed in 18 patients, salvage stereotactic radiosurgery in 13 patients. Mean follow-up was 8 months (range, 0-57 months), the 6- and 12-months overall-(OS) survival rates were 29.2% and 16.5%, respectively. The median OS was 3.5 months. In cerebral follow-up imaging 6 (11) patients showed a complete (partial) remission, while 11 (17) patients had stable disease (intra-cerebral tumor progression). In comparison of total dose, the group treated with 40 Gy in 20 fractions achieved a significant longer OS (p = 0.003, median 3.1 vs
In patients who had undergone surgery for brain metastases, the rate of recurrence at the resected site was similar between patients who received adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy vs those who underwent adjuvant localized radiotherapy, according to a retrospective study by Hsieh et al in the journal Neurosurgery. However, localized radiotherapy was associated with a higher incidence of distant metastases.. Surgery followed by adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy is a well-established treatment for brain metastases, particularly in patients who have a limited number of brain metastases. Yet discussions continue as to whether these patients require whole-brain radiotherapy or can be treated with localized radiotherapy. Localized radiotherapy is associated with fewer side effects compared with whole-brain radiotherapy, but some studies have documented an association with an increased risk for development of new intracranial metastases.. Thus, the investigators conducted a study to examine the rate of ...
In this randomised study, in patients with 4-10 brain metastases (BM), the standard treatment of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is compared to …
Second thyroid neoplasms after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia | Perel, Yves; Leverger, Guy; Carrere, Anne; Caudry, Michel; Garabedian, Erea Noel; Ansoborlo, Sophie; Vergnes, Pierre | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Patients with brain metastases from lung cancer have poor prognoses and short survival time, and they are often excluded from clinical trials. Whole-cranial irradiation is considered to be the standard treatment, but its efficacy is not satisfactory. The purpose of this phase II clinical trial was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of the treatment of whole-brain irradiation plus three-dimensional conformal boost combined with concurrent topotecan for the patients with brain metastases from lung cancer. Patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer received concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy: conventional fractionated whole-brain irradiation, 2 fields/time, 1 fraction/day, 2 Gy/fraction, 5 times/week, and DT 40 Gy/20 fractions; for the patients with ≤ 3 lesions with diameter ≥ 2 cm, a three-dimensional (3-D) conformal localised boost was given to increase the dosage to 56-60 Gy; and during radiotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy with topotecan was given (the chemoradiotherapy
Surgical resection plus WBRT versus surgical resection alone Level 1 Surgical resection followed by WBRT represents a superior treatment modality, in terms of improving tumor control at the original site of the metastasis and in the brain overall, when compared to surgical resection alone. Surgical …
Although targeted therapies have produced dramatic advances in our ability to control some types of advanced lung cancer, growth of the disease in the brain remains a major problem. Radiation is often used to treat deposits ...
SAPPORO, Japan - Adding whole-brain irradiation to stereotactic radiosurgery does not improve survival of patients with metastatic brain cancer, but it may reduce recurrence of the metastases, r
The results of a recently reported clinical study at the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) in San Francisco demonstrate that thoracic radiation improves survival and reduces cancer recurrence when added to prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extended-stage small cell lung cancer.(1) Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing […]. ...
Results from a randomized Phase III study indicate that whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) following removal of one to three brain metastases with surgery or radiosurgery does not improve overall survival... Continue Reading ...
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No refunds, extensions, or substitutions will be made for those participants who, for any reason, have not completed the course by the end of the qualification date. The qualification date for each course is listed in the course catalog on the ASTRO website under availability.. Participants using ASTROs online courses to satisfy the requirement of a Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program should verify the number, type and availability dates of any course before making a purchase. No refunds, extensions, or substitutions will be made for participants who have purchased courses that do not align with their MOC requirement.. The course and its materials will only be available on the ASTRO website for that 2 year period regardless of purchase date. At the expiration of the qualification, participants will no longer have access to the course or its materials. ASTRO reserves the right to remove a course before the end of its qualification period.. ...
My husand has been diagnosed with brain, liver, lung, colon,& right adrenal gland melanoma cancer. They have said 6-8 weeks to survive if treatment didnt work and only maybe 6 months if it does. We are Christians and believe in miracles.. It all started from a mole on his back. He had it removed in 2007 and a few lymph nodes under his arm. All was well, we thought, until my husband started feeling bad about a month ago. He was gagging in the morning like he had post nasal drip. He felt crummy overall. He then got a pain in is lower right belly. We thought a appendicitis. We went to the Dr. and they did a series of CAT/PET/MRI scans. I cant remember in what order when.. Anyways, they then told use that he had all this extensive cancer throughout the body. They thought the brain should be addressed first. He had 10 treatments of WBRT (whole brain radiation therapy. He was sent for concult with renowned cancer specialist Dr. Thompson from SCCA, UofW, and Fred Hutchinson. He does clinical trial ...
Treating brain tumors with whole brain radiation therapy can damage healthy brain tissue, but a new study in mice reveals that limiting the oxygen supply, or hypoxia, can alleviate some of the cognitive impairment caused ...
Whole brain radiation therapy costs mice some of their cognitive abilities, but treatment with low-oxygen air revives their reasoning skills.
Whole brain radiation therapy costs mice some of their cognitive abilities, but treatment with low-oxygen air revives their reasoning skills.
Exercise can help improve both memory and mood after whole-brain radiation treatment, thats the conclusion of a new study in rodents.
If the study is suitable for you, you will commence treatment with chemotherapy and thoracic (chest) radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI/ brain) radiotherapy which are the standard of care treatment for SCLC. Following completion of the chemotherapy and radiotherapy part of your treatment you will have a CT scan to see if your cancer is shrinking or growing. If your cancer has grown your consulting doctor will discuss the most suitable treatment for you at that time ...
Bennette,. Every person handles things differently so I dont think anyone can say exactly how your mom will do with the WBRT. My husband did 2 weeks of daily but he is also taking 2 chemo treatments at the same time. He was just tired at first but then all of a sudden he got deathly ill, throwing up, diarrhea, not knowing he was even going, then didnt know me either. He ended up in the hospital for a week too week to move. His head was very scaly and irritated even with prescription oil, sween cream, his hand was grabbing at it all the time and rubbing it, then his ears were affected, behind the ear became very raw, his ears were swollen almost completely shut. He lost his hearing for about 2 weeks. I am not trying to scare you just letting you know what could happen...After about a month, his skin is like baby soft skin all the burns and scaliness is gone, his hearing is back. He walks with a cane. The doctors opinion is that the combination of chemo we were using coupled with the radiation ...
This past Friday Anna went in for an unplanned MRI. She was having some symptoms that concerned her doctor. The breast cancer in Annas brain has grown exponentially. The three most recent tumours that had shrunk initially after whole brain radiation have grown again, along with the initial tumour from last January when she had…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stereotactic Radiosurgery Versus Whole Brain Radiation Therapy. T2 - A Propensity Score Analysis and Predictors of Care for Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer. AU - Mainwaring, Walker. AU - Bowers, John. AU - Pham, Ngoc. AU - Pezzi, Todd. AU - Shukla, Mihir. AU - Bonnen, Mark. AU - Ludwig, Michelle. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - Background: Metastases to the brain occur in 10%-16% of patients with breast cancer, with incidence reportedly increasing. Historically, brain metastases (BM) have been treated with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), but stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an increasingly favored treatment option. In this study we used a population-level database to compare patterns of care and survival between WBRT and SRS for BM from breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The National Cancer Database was used to select patients treated with radiation for BM from primary breast cancer. Groups were classified on the basis of the modality of radiation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Weekly Cisplatin during cranial irradiation for malignant melanoma metastatic to brain. AU - Stewart, David J.. AU - Feun, Lynn G.. AU - Maor, Moshe. AU - Leavens, Milam. AU - Burgess, M. Andrew. AU - Benjamin, Robert S.. AU - Bodey, Gerald P.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983/3. Y1 - 1983/3. N2 - Because Cisplatin potentiates the effect of radiotherapy in animal tumor systems and because Cisplatin is capable of causing regressions of human malignant melanomas, a study was initiated in patients with malignant melanoma metastatic to brain to investigate the feasibility of administering Cisplatin once a week during cranial irradiation. Cisplatin 40 mg/m2/week (three doses) was given LV. to 18 patients during whole brain irradiation, 3 000 rads in 12 fractions over 2 1/2 weeks. Eleven patients also received Cisplatin 120 mg/m2 every three weeks, starting three weeks after cranial irradiation. Median survival was ten weeks, and only one of ...
Leptomeningeal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer: Survival and the impact of whole brain radiotherapy Academic Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An instrument for estimating the 6-month survival probability after whole-brain irradiation alone for cerebral metastases from gynecological cancer. AU - Janssen, Stefan. AU - Hansen, Heinke C.. AU - Schild, Steven E.. AU - Rades, Dirk. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Background/Aim: Patients with cerebral metastases from gynecological cancer who receive whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone require personalized therapy. This study contributes to personalized care by creating an instrument to predict 6-month survival probability. Patients and Methods: In 49 patients, six pre-treatment variables, namely age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG-PS), primary tumor type, number of cerebral metastases, metastasis outside the brain, and interval between diagnosis of gynecological cancer and WBI, were analyzed for survival. Results: Of the six pre-treatment variables, ECOG-PS was significantly associated with survival (p=0.014) and metastasis outside the brain ...
Munich, February 3, 2017-In support of World Cancer Day 2017, which aims to bring global attention to cancer, Brainlab, a leader in cancer-fighting technologies, raises awareness about metastatic brain cancer and the revolutionary new methods being used to treat the disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 14 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed every year, with that number expected to rise by 70% over the next two decades. Cancers of the lung, breast, skin, colon and kidney present the highest risk of metastasizing to the brain.. As treatments improve, in combination with early detection, cancer patients are living longer, resulting in higher incidence of brain metastases, according to the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA). One of the most prevalent procedures for treating multiple brain metastases is whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) despite increasing evidence that WBRT can lead to significant cognitive side effects and the existence of alternative, less severe ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preservation of memory with conformal avoidance of the hippocampal neural stem-cell compartment during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (RTOG 0933). T2 - A phase II multi-institutional trial. AU - Gondi, Vinai. AU - Pugh, Stephanie L.. AU - Tome, Wolfgang A.. AU - Caine, Chip. AU - Corn, Ben. AU - Kanner, Andrew. AU - Rowley, Howard. AU - Kundapur, Vijayananda. AU - DeNittis, Albert. AU - Greenspoon, Jeffrey N.. AU - Konski, Andre A.. AU - Bauman, Glenn S.. AU - Shah, Sunjay. AU - Shi, Wenyin. AU - Wendland, Merideth. AU - Kachnic, Lisa. AU - Mehta, Minesh P.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Purpose: Hippocampal neural stem-cell injury during whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) may play a role in memory decline. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be used to avoid conformally the hippocampal neural stem-cell compartment during ...
To assess the role of leukapheresis and cranial irradiation in reducing the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and early death in patients with hyperleukocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the impact of such treatment on survival. This study retrospectively analyzed the records of 75 patients with hyperleukocytic AML who had a white cell count over 100,000/microL. All patients had de novo AML except for two with therapy-related AML. Various factors were assessed for their impact on morbidity and mortality, particularly the role of pre-induction leukapharesis and cranial irradiation. The most significant risk factors for ICH were the presence of two or more symptoms of leukostasis (odds ratios [OR] 10.6, 95% CI: 2.67-42.02; P = 0.001) and respiratory distress (OR 5.41, 95% CI: 1.44-20.32, P = 0.012). The most significant risk factors for early death were age ,or= 65 (OR 4.21, 95% CI: 1.45-12.21, P = 0.008), respiratory failure (OR 3.34, 95% CI: 1.24-9.50, P = 0.018), and two or more ...
OBJECTIVE This is the final report of a phase III randomized study to evaluate whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in primary therapy of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) after a median follow-up of 81.2 months. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL were randomized to high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based chemotherapy alone or followed by WBRT. We hypothesized that the omission of WBRT would not compromise overall survival (OS; primary endpoint), using a noninferiority design with a margin of 0.9. RESULTS In the per-protocol population (n = 320), WBRT nonsignificantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) (median 18.2 vs 11.9 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.06], p = 0.14) and significantly PFS from last HDMTX (25.5 vs 12.0 months, HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.5-0.83], p = 0.001), but without OS prolongation (35.6 vs 37.1 months, HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.79-1.35], p = 0.82). In the intent-to-treat population (n = 410), there was a prolongation by WBRT of both PFS (15.4 vs 9.9 ...
The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of postoperative whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone in patients with resected brain metastases (BM). We reviewe
Radiation therapyRadiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is used on painful bony areas, in high disease burdens, or as part of the preparations for a bone marrow transplant (total body irradiation). Radiation in the form of whole-brain radiation is also used for central nervous system prophylaxis, to prevent recurrence of leukemia in the brain. Whole-brain prophylaxis radiation used to be a common method in treatment of childrens ALL. Recent studies showed that CNS chemotherapy provided results as favorable but with less developmental side-effects. As a result, the use of whole-brain radiation has been more limited. Most specialists in adult leukemia have abandoned the use of radiation therapy for CNS prophylaxis, instead using intrathecal chemotherapy. Biological therapyFor some subtypes of relapsed ALL, aiming at biological targets such as the proteasome, in combination with chemotherapy, has given promising results in clinical trials. Selection of biological targets on the basis of their ...
The single-arm, phase II study was a multi-institutional, international clinical trial in the U.S. and Canada, conducted through the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Researchers compared the study group to a historical control group of patients who had received WBRT without hippocampal avoidance in the PCI-P-120-9801 phase III trial (Li 2007). This study enrolled 113 adult patients from 2011 through 2013 who had a measurable brain metastasis outside a 5-mm margin around the hippocampus. Of those patients, 100 were analyzable and 76 percent were categorized as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II. All patients received hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) to 30 Gy in 10 fractions. In all analyzable patients, the dose received by the entirety of the hippocampus did not exceed 10 Gy, and the maximum dose did not exceed 17 Gy. Patients were assessed using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Delayed Recall (HVLT-DR), the HVLT - Recall (HVLT-R) and the HVLT - ...
Twelve patients who had brain metastases and received fractionated whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) (30 or 37.5G) were included in the study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired pre RT, end of RT, and 1-month post-RT. The fornix, cingulum and corpus callosum were extracted from diffusion weighted images by combining fiber tracking and segmentation methods based upon characteristics of the fiber bundles. The ingulum was segmented by a seed-based tractography, the fornix by an ROI-based tractography, and the corpus callosum by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The radiation-induced longitudinal changes in diffusion indices of the structures were evaluated ...
The majority (40-60%) of patients with metastatic her2 positive breast cancer develop brain metastases at some point in their disease course. One should maintain a low threshold for imaging the brain if a patient reports any neurologic symptoms, even if subtle. Oligometastases should be considered for surgical excision or radiotactic surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy. Retreatment of progressive brain metastases with further radiation is sometimes feasible and beneficial, if the disease was controlled for an extended period (generally at least ten months) after initial radiotherapy. Several systemic drugs have some penetration into the blood brain barrier and may enhance control of brain metastases from breast cancer. These include capecitabine, lapatinib, anthracyclines, and cisplatin. While some other drugs have been used to treat primary brain tumors, their ability to control brain metastases of breast cancer origin has been disappointing ...
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Inclusion Criteria: Part A • With advanced solid malignancies who are not eligible for standard therapy or for whom standard therapy has failed Part B • With histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC of stage IIIB or IV (per 7th International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification) that has progressed after one line of platinum containing doublet chemotherapy Part A and B - Willingness and feasibility to provide a tumor biopsy sample both at screening and during treatment (If archived tumor material not older than 1 year is available, then the screening biopsy will not be performed). - Participants with prior radiation therapy must have measurable disease in non-irradiated sites or documented evidence of progression within the radiation field. - With known central nervous system (CNS) must have completed primary brain therapy (such as whole brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, or complete surgical resection) and must have remained clinically stable, ...
HOUSTON--Controversy continues to shroud the issue of how single and multiple brain metastases should be treated, Moshe H. Maor, MD, said at a symposium on CNS cancer, sponsored by The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, where he is a radiation oncologist. 1
Vanna Dest, MSN, APRN-BC, AOCN, Oncology Nurse Practitioner/Manager, Oncology APP, Yale-New Haven Hospital, discusses the side effects of treatment with brain radiation.
CARR-13c]R. Soffietti, Kocher, M., Abacioglu, M., Villa, S., Fauchon, F., Baumert, G., Fariselli, L., Tzuk-Shina, T., Kortmann, R., Carrie, C., Benhassel, M., Kouri, M., Valeinis, E., van den Berge, D., Mueller, R., Tridello, G., Collette, L., and Bottomley, A., A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial of adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy versus observation in patients with one to three brain metastases from solid tumors after surgical resection or radiosurgery, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 65-72, 2013. ...
Purpose Hippocampal neural stem-cell injury during whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) may play a role in memory decline. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be ...
keď chodím do školy alebo niekde ráno, tak sa snažím medzi 23:00 až 00:00 a keď nie, tak medzi 00:00 až 1:00 ale väčšinou keď mam na ďalší deň skúšku a musím sa učiť a nestíham tak potiahnem aj do druhej a vstávam o piatej káva a ideme sa učiť :D ...
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a type of radiotherapy to the brain, used to reduce the risk of metastasis. PCI is ... Paumier A, Cuenca X, Le Péchoux C (June 2011). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 37 ... Lester JF, Coles B, Macbeth FR (April 2005). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases in patients ... Kabela M (1956). "[Experience with radical irradiation of bronchial cancer]" [Experience with radical irradiation of bronchial ...
Al-Mohanna H, Al-Khenaizan S (2010). "Permanent alopecia following cranial irradiation in a child". Journal of Cutaneous ... Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. ... "Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow ...
"Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation". NEJM. 360 (26): 2730-41. doi:10.1056/ ...
Radiation-induced meningiomas are an uncommon complication of cranial irradiation. Some people, such as those with nevoid basal ...
"Environmental enrichment enhances neurogenesis and improves functional outcome after cranial irradiation". Eur. J. Neurosci. 25 ...
Low dose cranial irradiation-induced cerebrovascular damage is reversible in mice.. ... "Environmental enrichment enhances neurogenesis and improves functional outcome after cranial irradiation". European Journal of ... The 10 Gy radiation dosage is comparable to that used in irradiation therapy in humans. One month after the reception of the ... This decrease in neurogenesis is due to apoptosis of the neurons which usually occurs after irradiation. However it has not ...
Prophylactic cranial irradiation, a management option for certain types of aggressive cancers ...
It has also been presumed that the tumor can arise from cranial irradiation. Most children that develop primitive ... Physical examinations showing papilledema, visual field defects, cranial nerves palsy, dysphasia, and focal neurological ...
June). „Tolerability of accelerated chest irradiation and impact on survival of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients ... August). „Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". New England Journal of Medicine 357 (7), 664- ...
... without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Administration of prophylactic cranial irradiation increased 3-year survival from ... thoracic irradiation, and prophylactic cranial irradiation. Up until the late 1960s, surgical resection remained as the ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation is found to be beneficial in decrease central nervous system recurrence and increase disease- ... February 2019). "Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Secondary Findings From ...
Prior cranial irradiation is the only risk factor that definitely predisposes to brain tumor formation. Some of the risk ... Metastases to the skull base quickly become symptomatic because of their proximity to cranial nerves and vascular structures. ... anorexia and weight loss brain tumors in women of childbearing age central nervous system infections constipation cranial nerve ...
јун 2011). „Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 37 (4): 261-265. PMID 20934256. doi: ... Kabela, M (1956). „Erfahrungen mit der radikalen Röntgenbestrahlung des Bronchienkrebses" [Experience with radical irradiation ...
Prior cranial irradiation is the only risk factor that definitely predisposes to brain tumor formation. Some of the risk ... Metastases to the skull base quickly become symptomatic because of their proximity to cranial nerves and vascular structures.[1 ...
预防性颅脑照射(英语:Prophylactic cranial irradiation)(PCI)是脑部的一种放疗手段,用于降低肿瘤转移风险,对小细胞肺癌最有用。PCI使局限期肺癌的三年生存率從15%提升至20%,使广泛期肺癌的一年生存率從13%增加至 ... Paumier A, Cuenca X, Le Péchoux C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in
Paumier, A; Cuenca X, Le Péchoux C (June 2011). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer". Cancer Treatment Reviews 37 ... Kabela, M (1956). "Erfahrungen mit der radikalen Röntgenbestrahlung des Bronchienkrebses" [Experience with radical irradiation ...
... cranial radiation therapy techniques to alleviate hippocampal-dependent neurocognitive impairment following cranial irradiation ...
Outcome of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation and Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation in Disseminated Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A ... Simultaneous Chemotherapy-Radiotherapy With Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Inoperable Adeno and Large Cell Lung Carcinoma ...
... the impact of radiation on the cochlear and cardiovascular areas and reduces the cognitive late effects of cranial irradiation ... Soon after, the child will develop a stumbling gait, truncal ataxia, frequent falls, diplopia, papilledema, and sixth cranial ... Some evidence indicates that proton beam irradiation reduces ... the promising results with carboplatin during irradiation in ...
... and adult-onset GHD is commonly due to pituitary tumours and their treatment or to cranial irradiation. A more complete list of ...
The older aggressive treatment regimens with cranial irradiation and higher doses of anthracyclines (such as doxorubicin) ...
If complete response to chemotherapy occurs in a subject with SCLC, then prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is often used ... "patients who received chest radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation along with a mean of five chemotherapy cycles could ... Another type of radiation, prophylactic cranial radiation, prevents central nervous system recurrence and can improve survival ...
... for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, ...
... if no adjuvant chemotherapy or craniospinal irradiation is used. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic ... and most experts agree that cranial irradiation decreases risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse in ALL and possibly ... and adjuvant intrathecal methotrexate and hydrocortisone may be just as effective as cranial irradiation, without severe late ... In completely resected medulloblastoma, 5-year survival rate is 85% if adjuvant chemotherapy and/or craniospinal irradiation is ...
For complete responders (patients in whom all evidence of disease disappears), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is also ...
... prophylactic cranial irradiation - prophylactic mastectomy - prophylactic oophorectomy - prophylactic surgery - prophylaxis - ... total nodal irradiation - total parenteral nutrition - total-body irradiation - TP-38 immunotoxin - tPA - TPA - trabecular ... fifth cranial nerve - filgrastim - filgrastim-SD/01 - finasteride - fine-needle aspiration - first-line therapy - FK463 - ... irradiation - irreversible toxicity - iseganan hydrochloride - ISIS 2503 - ISIS 3521 - ISIS 5132 - islet cell - islet cell ...
In rare cases, metastases have been reported to spread to the abdomen and extra-cranial sites. Treatment of choroid plexus ... In the event of subtotal resection or widespread leptomeningeal disease, craniospinal irradiation is often used. Choroid plexus ...
1999). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a technique used to combat the occurrence of metastasis to the brain in highly ... 2007). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". NEJM. 357 (7): 664-672. doi:10.1056/nejmoa071780 ... Lee, JJ (Aug 2006). "Decision analysis for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer". J Clin ...
... the extent of the extra-cranial metastatic disease, and the treatment applied). The mean 1-year survival is estimated at 20%. ... compared with surgery followed by whole brain-irradiation. Surgery tends to reduce symptoms quickly and prolong life, with an ... those with a controlled extra-cranial tumor, age less than 65 years and a favorable general performance (Karnofsky performance ... cognition and behavior ataxia cranial neuropathy, which may cause diplopia and Bell's palsy vomiting and nausea deficits in ...
"Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation". NEJM. 360 (26): 2730-41. doi:10.1056/ ...
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiation therapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. ... In the CNS for example, cranial nerve injury typically presents as a visual acuity loss 1-14 years post treatment.[25] In the ... Mahmood SS (2016). "Cardiovascular Complications of Cranial and Neck Radiation". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular ... This means that the irradiation only affects a very localized area - exposure to radiation of healthy tissues further away from ...
Ingram LC, Fairclough DL, Furman WL, Sandlund JT, Kun LE, Rivera GK, Pui CH (May 1991). "Cranial nerve palsy in childhood acute ... total body irradiation). In the past, physicians commonly utilized radiation in the form of whole-brain radiation for central ... Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such as cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10 ... Headache, vomiting, lethargy, neck stiffness,[18] or cranial nerve palsies[19] (CNS involvement) ...
Al-Mohanna H, Al-Khenaizan S (2010). "Permanent alopecia following cranial irradiation in a child". Journal of Cutaneous ... Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. ... "Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow ...
Treatment with irradiation and corticosteroids often only produces a partial response and tumour recurs in more than 90% of ... A primary CNS lymphoma usually presents with seizure, headache, cranial nerve findings, altered mental status, or other focal ...
... and adult-onset GHD is commonly due to pituitary tumours and their treatment or to cranial irradiation.[7] A more complete list ...
Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU), while air is −1000 HU, cancellous bone is typically +400 HU, cranial bone ... people reported that the increased incidence of cancer after CT scan exposure in this cohort was mostly due to irradiation. In ... Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU), while air is −1000 HU, cancellous bone is typically +400 HU, cranial bone ... Saleh, H; Kassas, B (2015). "Developing Stereotactic Frames for Cranial Treatment". In Benedict, SH; Schlesinger, DJ; Goetsch, ...
jun 2011). „Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 37 (4): 261-265. PMID 20934256. doi: ... Kabela, M (1956). „Erfahrungen mit der radikalen Röntgenbestrahlung des Bronchienkrebses" [Experience with radical irradiation ...
Cranial nerve(s) Cerebral cortex Primary associated perception(s) Name Light Eyes Photoreceptor Visual system Optic (II) Visual ... which allows incoming IR radiation to quickly and precisely warm a given ion channel and trigger a nerve impulse, as well as ... Via cranial and spinal nerves, the different types of sensory receptor cells (mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors ... Neurotransmitters from the gustatory cells can activate sensory neurons in the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus cranial ...
... irradiation of a tumor). ... Cranial and peripheral nerves. *Nerve block. *Vagotomy. ...
June 2007). "Tolerability of accelerated chest irradiation and impact on survival of prophylactic cranial irradiation in ... "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". New England Journal of Medicine 357 (7): 664-672. doi: ... prophylactic cranial irradiation) (பி.சி.ஐ) பொதுவாக தரப்படுகிறது. இது புற்றுநோய் உடலில் பரவும் இடர்பாட்டைக் குறைப்பதற்காக ... Kabela, M (1956). "[Experience with radical irradiation of bronchial cancer]" (in German). Ceskoslovenská Onkológia 3 (2): 109- ...
1994). "Postoperative irradiation for subtotally resected meningiomas. A retrospective analysis of 140 patients treated from ... Cranial and paraspinal nerves: Neurofibroma *Neurofibromatosis. *Neurilemmoma/Schwannoma *Acoustic neuroma. *Malignant ...
Saleh, H; Kassas, B (2015). "Developing Stereotactic Frames for Cranial Treatment". In Benedict, SH; Schlesinger, DJ; Goetsch, ... people reported that the increased incidence of cancer after CT scan exposure in this cohort was mostly due to irradiation. In ... posterior cranial fossa lesions, cervicomedullary lesions, or intracranial pressure disorders.[23] It also does not carry the ... and cranial bone can reach 2,000 HU or more (os temporale) and can cause artifacts. The attenuation of metallic implants ...
Betti, O.O. (1984). "Hyperselective Encephalic Irradiation with Linear Accelerator". Hyperselective encephalic irradiation with ... The principle of this instrument was to hit the intra-cranial target with narrow beams of radiation from multiple directions. ... The highly precise irradiation of targets within the brain and spine is planned using information from medical images that are ... They are then released toward the region to be treated in the patient's body, the irradiation target. In some machines, which ...
Ingram LC, Fairclough DL, Furman WL, Sandlund JT, Kun LE, Rivera GK, Pui CH (May 1991). "Cranial nerve palsy in childhood acute ... total body irradiation). In the past, physicians commonly utilized radiation in the form of whole-brain radiation for central ... symptoms such as cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10% of adults and less than 5% ... or cranial nerve palsies (CNS involvement) Frequent or unexplained fever and infection Weight loss and/or loss of appetite ...
Cancers requiring craniospinal irradiation, for example, benefit from the absence of exit dose with proton therapy: dose to the ... "Fractionated Proton Radiation Therapy of Cranial and Intracrainial Tumors" Am. J. of Clinical Oncology 13(4):327-330 (1990). " ... Re-irradiation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with locally recurrent head and neck cancer. In ... "Phase II Protocol of Proton Therapy for Partial Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Breast Cancer". ClinicalTrials.gov. August ...
... s most often occur in the posterior cranial fossa, in contrast with adult ependymomas which usually occur ... anaplastic ependymomas are the most aggressive ependymoma and neither total excision nor postoperative irradiation was found to ...
In addition, LCMV can also be inactivated by heat, ultraviolet light or gamma irradiation. Studies have indicated that human ... Under reported complications include myelitis, Guillain-Barré-type syndrome, cranial nerve palsies, transient or permanent ...
Cranial Irradiation Induces Hypothalamic Injury and Late-Onset Metabolic Disturbances in Juvenile Female Rats.. Artikel i ... We found that irradiation led to a significantly increased body weight from 15 weeks (p < 0.05) along with white adipose tissue ... Cranial radiotherapy is one of the most effective tools for treating children with brain tumors. However, radiotherapy-induced ... Female Wistar rats were subjected to a single dose of 6-Gy whole-brain irradiation on postnatal day 11. The animals were ...
Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Small Cell Lung Cancer Prophylactic Cranial ... Irradiation PCI Long Term Effects Studies on the Effects of the Prophylactic Radiation Fatigue After Lung Cancer Treatment ...
Two-drug vs four-drug chemotherapy and loco-regional irradiation with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Acta Oncol ... Le Péchoux C for the Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI99) International Trial Group (2000) Why a new Prophylactic Cranial ... Ball DL, Matthews JP (1995) Prophylactic cranial irradiation: more questions than answers. Semin Radiat Oncol 5:61-68PubMed ... Wolfson AH, Bains Y, Lu J, Etuk B, Sridhar K, Raub W, Markoe A (2001) Twice-daily prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients ...
1999). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a technique used to combat the occurrence of metastasis to the brain in highly ... 2007). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". NEJM. 357 (7): 664-672. doi:10.1056/nejmoa071780 ... Lee, JJ (Aug 2006). "Decision analysis for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer". J Clin ...
Treating childhood leukemia without cranial irradiation. [N Engl J Med. 2009]. *Treating childhood leukemia without cranial ... Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation.. Pui CH1, Campana D, Pei D, Bowman WP, Sandlund JT ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a standard treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are at ... We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted from treatment in all children ...
Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Childhood. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia: Neuropsychological and Educational Implications ...
However, despite recognized therapeutic success, significant negative consequences are associated with cranial irradiation (CR ... though it is thought that endothelial injury plays a pivotal role in triggering cranial injury. We therefore explored the ...
ETDEWEB / Search Results / High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute ... A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39 ... The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable ... The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable ...
... discusses utilizing prophylactic cranial irradiation in limited-stage and extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. ... Lawrence E. Feldman, MD, discusses utilizing prophylactic cranial irradiation in limited-stage and extensive-stage small cell ... discusses the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage (LS) and extensive-stage (ES) small ... Feldman on Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in SCLC. @media screen and (max-width: 468px) { .video-detail .doc-group-container ...
prophylactic cranial irradiation answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... "Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Tabers Online, www.tabers. ... com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/734483/all/prophylactic_cranial_irradiation. Prophylactic cranial irradiation. In: ... prophylactic cranial irradiation is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please log in ...
Preventing the development of BM through prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may improve the outcome of these patients. ... Preventing the development of BM through prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may improve the outcome of these patients. ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial ... The following keywords were used as search terms: "Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung," "NSCLC," "Cranial Irradiation," "Cranial ...
Title: Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A ... Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety ... 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CLINICAL TRIALS; DIAGNOSIS; DISEASE INCIDENCE; HAZARDS; HIPPOCAMPUS; IRRADIATION; LUNGS; ... Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation ...
After cranial irradiation, cognitive decline is observed in both children ( 1, 2) and adults ( 3, 4) and is a result of ... Neurobehavioral sequelae of cranial irradiation in adults: a review of radiation-induced encephalopathy. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12 ... Cranial irradiation, however, results in memory and learning deficits in children ( 37). Age dependence of radiation-induced ... The long-term effect of cranial irradiation on 2-week-old mouse pups is most analogous to the response in the pediatric brain. ...
Cranial irradiation for the treatment of brain tumors causes a delayed and progressive cognitive decline that is pronounced in ... Absence of CCL2 is sufficient to restore hippocampal neurogenesis following cranial irradiation.. Absence of CCL2 is sufficient ... Some childhood brain tumors can be cured with aggressive cancer therapy but children who receive cranial radiation as part of ... Here we show that irradiation induces a transient non-classical cytokine response with selective upregulation of CCL2/monocyte ...
Tags: cranial irradiation, extended, Extensive Lung Cancer - Small Cell, Lung Cancer - Small Cell, News, radiation, sclc, small ... that thoracic radiation improves survival and reduces cancer recurrence when added to prophylactic cranial irradiation in ...
Cognitive Sequelae of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age: ... No prior cranial irradiation.sufficient proficiency in Dutch language. - sufficient proficiency in Dutch language. - MRI (and ... Cognitive Sequelae of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients ...
Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ... Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ... Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ... Cranial Irradiation Alters the Behaviorally Induced Immediate-Early Gene Arc (Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated ...
Memantine Provides Modest Improvement in Cognition after Cranial Irradiation. By Alice Goodman. December 15, 2012. ...
Background/Aim: The general pattern of care regarding the application of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell ... Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer in Germany: Pattern of Care Survey. In: Anticancer ...
Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation vs Observation in Extensive-Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer. By Matthew Stenger. July 25, 2017 ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation is therefore not essential for patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer with any ... The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events at 3 months were anorexia (6% in the prophylactic cranial irradiation group vs 2% in ... In the final analysis, median overall survival was 11.6 months in the prophylactic cranial irradiation group and 13.7 months in ...
Prophylactic cranial irradiation was not associated with significantly improved overall survival.. *Prophylactic cranial ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation was also associated with reduced risk for brain metastases (HR = 0.43, P = .003); rates of ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with significantly improved disease-free survival (HR = 0.76, P = .03); disease ... Long-Term Outcomes for Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation vs Observation in Locally Advanced NSCLC By Matthew Stenger. Posted: 4/ ...
Phase I study of weekly topotecan combined to concurrent external cranial irradiation in adults with glioblastoma multiforme of ... Phase I study of weekly topotecan combined to concurrent external cranial irradiation in adults with glioblastoma multiforme of ... Phase I study of weekly topotecan combined to concurrent external cranial irradiation in adults with glioblastoma multiforme of ... Phase I study of weekly topotecan combined to concurrent external cranial irradiation in adults with glioblastoma multiforme of ...
Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: A single-center experience. Objective: Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC ... Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) is performed, when the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents to brain is insufficient. ... Cranial Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed from all patients to exclude metastasis ...
By adjusting the model inputs of radiation dose and time of irradiation, a time course of the incidence of brain metastasis and ... A mouse model of metastatic, HER2+ inflammatory breast cancer was used to evaluate the effect of 4-Gy whole-brain irradiation ... but unaffected when the whole-brain irradiation was delayed. To expand on the experimental findings, a computational model of ... is a preventative whole-brain irradiation technique used to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and improve overall ...
... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ... remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation ...
Keywords: Adult, Aged, Cognition Disorders, Cranial irradiation therapy, Female, Human Growth Hormone, Humans, Insulin-Like ... Reduced growth hormone secretion after cranial irradiation contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction. DSpace/Manakin Repository ...
"Cranial Irradiation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cranial Irradiation" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Cranial Irradiation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cranial Irradiation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cranial Irradiation". ...
title = "Cranial irradiation and platelet monoamine oxidase in ALL",. abstract = "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute ... Cranial irradiation and platelet monoamine oxidase in ALL. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Cranial Irradiation ... Cranial irradiation and platelet monoamine oxidase in ALL. / Minniti, C. P.; Caruso, M.; Di Bella, D.; Russo, A.; Schilirò, G. ... Minniti CP, Caruso M, Di Bella D, Russo A, Schilirò G. Cranial irradiation and platelet monoamine oxidase in ALL. Acta ...
T1 - Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer. T2 - Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ... Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer : Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled ...
The deleterious effects of cranial irradiation on GH secretion are an unfortunate and common morbidity for individuals with a ... Cranial Irradiation. Tue, 23 Jul 2019 , Growth Hormone The deleterious effects of cranial irradiation on GH secretion are an ... Subsequently, cranial irradiation at lower doses (24 Gray [Gy]) has been associated with growth retardation and diminished ... 2. GH secretory pattern over 24 h in two primates treated with cranial irradiation (4000 rads; top panel) and two normal ...
  • Cranial radiotherapy is one of the most effective tools for treating children with brain tumors. (gu.se)
  • This study demonstrates that ionizing radiation to the juvenile female brain induces hypothalamic damage that is likely to be associated with delayed metabolic abnormalities, and this critical vulnerability of the hypothalamus to irradiation should be taken into consideration in the development of future protective strategies for radiotherapy. (gu.se)
  • Improved outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia despite reduced use of anthracyclines and cranial radiotherapy: results of trial ALL-BFM 90. (wikipedia.org)
  • A better understanding of the cellular and molecular factors associated with the development of cognitive injury is essential to the management of this serious complication of cranial radiotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because Cisplatin potentiates the effect of radiotherapy in animal tumor systems and because Cisplatin is capable of causing regressions of human malignant melanomas, a study was initiated in patients with malignant melanoma metastatic to brain to investigate the feasibility of administering Cisplatin once a week during cranial irradiation. (elsevier.com)
  • The use of reduced irradiation dose and different fractionation schemes has been investigated in different studies to avoid the increased toxicity of high-dose whole-brain radiotherapy. (intechopen.com)
  • Background:After exposure to cranial radiotherapy (cRT), hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) disorders are frequently observed in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). (vumc.nl)
  • In limited-stage SCLC, the overall survival rate has been significantly improved by adding dose-hyperfractionated thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation to systemic chemotherapy. (ersjournals.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (PCR) is a treatment used to prevent or delay the spread of a cancer to the brain (secondary brain cancer). (macmillan.org.uk)
  • What is prophylactic cranial radiotherapy? (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Catane R, Schwade JG, Yarr I, Lichter AS, Tepper JE, Dunnick NR, Brody L, Brereton HD, Cohen M, Glatstein E (1981) Follow-up and neurological evaluation in patients with small cell lung carcinoma treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Craig J, Jackson D, Moody D, Cruz JM, Pope EK, Powell BL, Spurr CL, Capizzi RL (1984) Prospective evaluation of changes in computerized cranial tomography (CCT) in patients with small cell carcinoma (SCLC) treated with chemotherapy and cranial irradiation. (springer.com)
  • With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted from the treatment of childhood ALL. (nih.gov)
  • The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. (osti.gov)
  • A Japanese phase III trial has shown no survival benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation vs observation in patients with extensive-disease small cell lung cancer who had any response to platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and no brain metastases at baseline. (ascopost.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation is therefore not essential for patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer with any response to initial chemotherapy and a confirmed absence of brain metastases when patients receive periodic MRI examination during follow-up. (ascopost.com)
  • We also identified a trend (P=0.01) toward a decrease in the risk of brain metastasis with earlier administration of cranial irradiation after the initiation of induction chemotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: This pooled analysis evaluated the outcomes of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 739 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC patients with stable disease (SD) or better following chemotherapy ± thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to examine the potential advantage of PCI in a wider spectrum of patients than generally participate in PCI trials. (elsevier.com)
  • Between 1983 and 1990, 128 patients with limited disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC) received consolidative thoracic irradiation after reaching a complete (CR) or partial response (PR) to combination chemotherapy. (vumc.nl)
  • Cranial radiation therapy (RT) and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are essential to treating many pediatric cancers but cause significant ototoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The PCNS lymphomas are known to be very sensitive to irradiation and chemotherapy treatments. (intechopen.com)
  • All children with GH deficiency received cranial irradiation and chemotherapy. (aappublications.org)
  • We conclude that GH deficiency and primary hypothyroidism are common after cranial irradiation and chemotherapy for nonpituitary-related brain tumors. (aappublications.org)
  • These findings reflect the need for prospective growth monitoring of children with nonpituitary-related brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation and chemotherapy. (aappublications.org)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may improve survival among patients that respond to chemotherapy. (amegroups.com)
  • Patients achieving a complete or partial response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation within 6 weeks following the last cycle of chemotherapy. (oncolink.org)
  • Nonverbal skills such as abstract reasoning, visual-spatial skills and mathematics are especially vulnerable to cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Female Wistar rats were subjected to a single dose of 6-Gy whole-brain irradiation on postnatal day 11. (gu.se)
  • Cox JD, Komaki R, Byhardt RW, Kun LE (1980) Results of whole brain irradiation for metastases from small cell carcinoma of the lung. (springer.com)
  • Young adult C57BL/6J mice received whole-brain irradiation with 0 or 10 Gy, and 1 week or 2 months later, exploration of a novel environment was used to induce Arc expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the United States, a large number of patients (200,000-300,000/y) with primary or metastatic tumors in the brain will require large volume or whole-brain irradiation ( 2 ), and in at least some of these patients, there is a strong likelihood of developing adverse reactions in terms of cognitive decline ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a preventative whole-brain irradiation technique used to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and improve overall survival in select patients with small cell lung cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (tmc.edu)
  • A mouse model of metastatic, HER2+ inflammatory breast cancer was used to evaluate the effect of 4-Gy whole-brain irradiation on the incidence of brain metastasis. (tmc.edu)
  • The principal endpoints of incidence of brain metastasis, the number of brain metastases per mouse, and the metastatic burden were all significantly decreased in the PCI arm, but unaffected when the whole-brain irradiation was delayed. (tmc.edu)
  • to 18 patients during whole brain irradiation, 3 000 rads in 12 fractions over 2 1/2 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • Patients were randomized to receive whole-brain irradiation (2,000 rads in two weeks) or no brain treatment, and to receive one of two regimens of thoracic irradiation. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The deleterious effects of cranial irradiation on GH secretion are an unfortunate and common morbidity for individuals with a variety of neoplastic and hematologic diseases. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The initial studies detailing the hypothalamic-pituitary effects of cranial irradiation exposure were performed with male rhesus monkeys (40 Gray), demonstrating a blunted GH secretory response to insulin hypoglycemia and a decrease in GH pulse frequency and amplitude. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Memantine may be preventing cognitive decline in brain metastasis patients, but it remains to be determined whether this benefit is specific to the effects of cranial irradiation. (ascopost.com)
  • Baglan RJ, Marks JE (1981) Comparison of symptomatic and prophylactic irradiation of brain metastases from oat cell carcinoma of the lung. (springer.com)
  • In the open-label trial, 224 patients from 47 sites who had no brain metastases on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were randomized between April 2009 and July 2013 to receive prophylactic cranial irradiation at 25 Gy in 10 daily fractions of 2.5 Gy (n = 113) or observation (n =111). (ascopost.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with improved disease-free survival and reduced incidence of brain metastases. (ascopost.com)
  • As reported in JAMA Oncology by Sun et al, a long-term update of the phase III NRG Oncology/RTOG 0214 trial has shown that prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a reduced incidence of brain metastases and improved disease-free survival-but not overall survival-compared with observation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (ascopost.com)
  • Outcomes were similar on multivariate analysis in the entire population-in multivariate analysis among 225 patients who did not initially undergo surgery, prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with significantly improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.73, P = .04), disease-free survival (HR = 0.70, P = .01), and development of brain metastases (HR = 0.34, P = .002). (ascopost.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation, a technique used to prevent the clinical development of brain metastases, is established as a standard approach for many patients with small cell lung cancer after initial therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • On multivariate linear regression analysis , age ≤65 years, Karnofsky performance score (KPS) ≥70 and lack of extra-cranial metastases were significantly associated with improved survival at the end of 12 months post WBRT. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Veterans Administration Lung Group conducted a prospective study of irradiation for subclinical brain metastases in patients with inoperable carcinoma of the lung between 1975 and 1978. (tripdatabase.com)
  • A meta-analysis has demonstrated that prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is effective in decreasing brain metastases, with a modest increase in disease-free and overall survival among patients with limited SCLC in complete remission following initial chemoradiation. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Lawrence E. Feldman, MD, professor of clinical medicine, University of Illinois Cancer Center, discusses the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage (LS) and extensive-stage (ES) small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (onclive.com)
  • Background/Aim: The general pattern of care regarding the application of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients in Germany has not been previously evaluated. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Consequently, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has become an important adjuvant therapy to be considered for SCLC patients ( 2 , 3 ). (amegroups.com)
  • A recent Japanese study suggested prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) failed to improve survival of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with good responses to initial treatment is recommended based on the survival benefit shown in previous clinical trials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), and most have shown significant reductions in the occurrence of BM and survival improvement in patients with limited-stage SCLC (LS-SCLC) and good responses to initial treatment [ 1 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reported that cranial MRI immediately before PCI detected BM in 32.5 % of patients with LS-SCLC who had been assessed with complete response (CR) [ 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, little progress has been made in the treatment of extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC), apart from the recently documented survival gain by the addition of prophylactic cranial irradiation. (ersjournals.com)
  • Recently, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been shown to improve outcome in patients with ES-SCLC 4 , but only small advances have been made otherwise. (ersjournals.com)
  • Review the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation. (coursera.org)
  • The results of a recently reported clinical study at the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) in San Francisco demonstrate that thoracic radiation improves survival and reduces cancer recurrence when added to prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extended-stage small cell lung cancer. (unm.edu)
  • Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat known tumor occurrence in the brain, either with highly precise stereotactic radiation or therapeutic cranial irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carmichael J, Crane JM, Bunn PA, Glatstein E, Ihde DC (1988) Results of therapeutic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. (springer.com)
  • The development of neurocognitive late effects due to therapeutic cranial irradiation in children has been linked to a reduction in white matter volume many years following treatment. (ismrm.org)
  • Additionally, with access to a precise animal irradiator, the mouse may be used as an experimental model for a fractionated irradiation dosage of 10 Gy, simulating stereotactic therapeutic cranial irradiation. (wustl.edu)
  • abstract = "Objectives: Assess postcranial irradiation: (1) short-term threshold shift, (2) short-term peripheral auditory histopathology, and (3) the mouse as an experimental model. (wustl.edu)
  • Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation? (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation? (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, it has been recently reported that after irradiation, neurocognitive function changes correlate with alterations in quality of life that in turn correlate with median survival ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the final analysis, median overall survival was 11.6 months in the prophylactic cranial irradiation group and 13.7 months in the observation group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, P = .094). (ascopost.com)
  • The investigators concluded: "In this Japanese trial, prophylactic cranial irradiation did not result in longer overall survival compared with observation in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. (ascopost.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation was not associated with significantly improved overall survival. (ascopost.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation was not associated with a significant overall survival benefit vs observation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, P = .12). (ascopost.com)
  • We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether prophylactic cranial irradiation prolongs survival. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Prophylactic cranial irradiation improves both overall survival and disease-free survival among patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. (elsevier.com)
  • To assess the role of leukapheresis and cranial irradiation in reducing the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and early death in patients with hyperleukocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the impact of such treatment on survival. (qxmd.com)
  • Leukapheresis and cranial irradiation do not improve survival or decrease the incidence of ICH in adults with hyperleukocytic AML. (qxmd.com)
  • Thus, a strict selection of patients receiving PCI, which excludes those who have BM after the initial treatment using cranial MRI, may affect BM occurrence, survival times, and PCI benefits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infratentorial craniospinal irradiation for von Hippel-Lindau: a retrospective study supporting a new treatment for patients with CNS hemangioblastomas. (jefferson.edu)
  • The relationship between peak growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-3 protease activity was studied in 28 children and adolescents undergoing investigation of pituitary function 0.4-14.2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation for the treatment of CNS tumours distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (n = 16) or prophylaxis against CNS leukaemia (n = 12). (openrepository.com)
  • All but one had received cranial or craniospinal irradiation. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When the entire cohort was stratified by cranial or craniospinal irradiation treatment, those who had received it were significantly more likely to have certain tumor types than the general population, based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. (medpagetoday.com)
  • 1999). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arriagada R, Le Chevalier T, Riviere A, Chomy P, Monnet I, Bardet E et al (2002) Patterns of failure after prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: analysis of 505 randomized patients. (springer.com)
  • Aupérin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP, Le Péchoux C, Gregor A, Stephens RJ et al (1999) Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission. (springer.com)
  • Cox JD, Petrovich Z, Paig C, Stanley K (1978) Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with inoperable carcinoma of the lung. (springer.com)
  • The duration of continuous complete remission in the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation was compared with that of 56 historical controls who received it. (nih.gov)
  • Preventing the development of BM through prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may improve the outcome of these patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cranial irradiation for the treatment of brain tumors causes a delayed and progressive cognitive decline that is pronounced in young patients. (ca.gov)
  • The proposed study will investigate the cognitive sequelae of PCI in NSCLC patients in the context of a phase III randomized trial (Nederlandse vereniging van artsen voor longziekten en tuberculose: NVALT-11) on the efficacy of PCI in decreasing the proportion of NSCLC patients developing brain metastasis, and the impact of PCI on neurological symptoms and health-related quality of life. (knowcancer.com)
  • In the international trial, 340 patients with stage III NSCLC and no disease progression after therapy were randomly assigned to prophylactic cranial irradiation (n = 163) or observation (n = 177). (ascopost.com)
  • After surgery or stereotactic biopsy, patients received conventional external cranial RT (59.4 Gy/33 fractions in 6.6 weeks). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cranial Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed from all patients to exclude metastasis before PCI. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Background: Prophylactic cranial irradiation reduces the incidence of brain metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: We analyzed individual data on 987 patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission who took part in seven trials that compared prophylactic cranial irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Gore EM, Bae K, Wong SJ, Sun A, Bonner JA, Schild SE, Gaspar LE, Bogart JA, Werner-Wasik M, Choy H. Phase III comparison of prophylactic cranial irradiation versus observation in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: primary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group study RTOG 0214. (jefferson.edu)
  • Wolfson AH, Bae K, Komaki R, Meyers C, Movsas B, Le Pechoux C, Werner-Wasik M, Videtic GM, Garces YI, Choy H. Primary analysis of a phase II randomized trial Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0212: impact of different total doses and schedules of prophylactic cranial irradiation on chronic neurotoxicity and quality of life for patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer. (jefferson.edu)
  • Patients who achieve a complete or partial response should be offered prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). (medscape.com)
  • Eleven patients also received Cisplatin 120 mg/m 2 every three weeks, starting three weeks after cranial irradiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Until 1989, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was given to patients in CR. (vumc.nl)
  • This retrospective study of cisplatin-treated pediatric patients examined ototoxicity from cranial RT. (cdc.gov)
  • The frequency of brain metastasis in the non-small-cell patients was reduced from 13% to 6% by irradiation. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Low serum IGF-I but normal IGFBP-3 concentrations and in the majority normal IGFBP-3 protease activity was found in patients in the years after CNS irradiation. (openrepository.com)
  • Medical Xpress)-Cranial irradiation saves the lives of brain cancer patients. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Patients were grouped by treatment with or without cranial radiation within 8 months of resection. (amegroups.com)
  • 5 , 13 Although studies have consistently shown that BMD is reduced in patients after the cure of ALL using cranial irradiation during childhood, 14 - 22 few studies have investigated whether these abnormalities persist after completion of therapy in patients who are treated for ALL without the use of cranial irradiation. (aappublications.org)
  • This work relies on a collection of data from patients in the hospitals, so that analyze them, give the conclusions and, propose an optimal practical method to decrease the irradiation doses. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, other cognitive protection strategies for patients receiving cranial irradiation are under investigation. (ascopost.com)
  • Clinical improvement (in vision, trigeminal pain, or other cranial nerve symptoms) occurred in 15 patients. (thejns.org)
  • All six patients received prophylactic cranial irradiation with a dosage of 18 or 24 Gy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation should be used cautiously in ALL patients who can be cured by other CNS-directed therapies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we hypothesized whether inflammatory reaction in the CNS could be a mediator of HPA axis response to cranial irradiation (CI). (ac.rs)
  • A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). (osti.gov)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables a more sensitive detection of brain metastasis and stereotactic irradiation (SRI) efficiently controls brain metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that irradiation led to a significantly increased body weight from 15 weeks (p (gu.se)
  • Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related proteins and effector proteins was significantly different in the irradiation group. (gu.se)
  • Inhibition of GSK-3β either by small molecules (SB216763 or SB415286) or by ectopic expression of kinase-inactive GSK-3β before irradiation significantly attenuated radiation-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neither leukapheresis nor cranial irradiation were significantly associated with a decreased incidence of ICH (P = 0.349 and 0.378, respectively). (qxmd.com)
  • importantly, some cognitive domains highly impacted by cranial irradiation were not significantly affected by memantine," Dr. Gondi explained. (ascopost.com)
  • Among several clinical characteristics, use of cranial irradiation was the only factor that appeared to be significantly related to the development of MoS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cranial irradiation led to rapid induction of both GR and NF kappa B mRNA and protein in the hippocampus at 1 h. (ac.rs)
  • Then, we evaluated the expression of p75NTR in the hippocampus after cranial irradiation and explored its potential role in radiation-induced synaptic dysfunction and memory deficits. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates cranial irradiation-induced hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction Cognitive deficits, characterized by progressive problems with hippocampus-dependent learning, memory and spatial processing, are the most serious complication of cranial irradiation. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Cranial irradiation is essential for the management of brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The brain is exposed to ionizing irradiation during the management of brain tumors, and the dose that can be administered safely is largely dictated by the tolerance of normal tissues surrounding the tumor ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a technique used to combat the occurrence of metastasis to the brain in highly aggressive cancers that commonly metastasize to brain, most notably small-cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Einhorn LH (1995) The case against prophylactic cranial irradiation in limited small cell lung cancer. (springer.com)
  • Lawrence E. Feldman, MD, discusses utilizing prophylactic cranial irradiation in limited-stage and extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. (onclive.com)
  • Brussels, 2001 (Belgium) PMID 11432756 -- "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. (wikibooks.org)
  • PMID 19047288 -- "Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Extensive Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Short-Term Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient Reported Symptoms--Results of an International Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial by the EORTC Radiation Oncology and Lung Cancer Groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Subsequently, cranial irradiation at lower doses (24 Gray [Gy]) has been associated with growth retardation and diminished spontaneous GH secretion in subjects with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (47). (guwsmedical.info)
  • In this paper, we based on the irradiation doses delivered from the current protocols to find a practical method of their optimization during the pediatric cranial scan. (scirp.org)
  • We also examined 24-h studies of spontaneous GH secretion in a group of children following central nervous system or total body irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a variety of other central nervous system (CNS) tumors not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Recent studies reported that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stability, leading to its activation along with radiation-induced inflammation. (ac.rs)
  • Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Childhood. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Some childhood brain tumors can be cured with aggressive cancer therapy but children who receive cranial radiation as part of their treatment often suffer a progressive and debilitating decline in cognitive function. (ca.gov)
  • After cranial irradiation, cognitive decline is observed in both children ( 1 , 2 ) and adults ( 3 , 4 ) and is a result of hippocampal dysfunction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, our efforts to prevent cognitive decline from cranial irradiation should not stop with memantine," Dr. Gondi added. (ascopost.com)
  • Aroney RS, Aisner J, Wesley MN, Whitacre MY, van Echo DA, Slaeson RG, Wiernik PH (1983) Value of prophylactic cranial irradiation given at complete remission in small cell lung carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Beiler DD, Kane RC, Bernath AM, Cashdollar MR (1979) Low dose elective brain irradiation in small cell carcinoma of the lung. (springer.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation can decrease morbidity from non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung. (tripdatabase.com)
  • By adjusting the model inputs of radiation dose and time of irradiation, a time course of the incidence of brain metastasis and related endpoints was mapped. (tmc.edu)
  • Randomised dose of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) to standard (25 Gy in 10#) vs. higher dose (36 Gy in 18# or 36 Gy in 24# given BD). (nature.com)
  • This study demonstrates that the mouse is a viable model for study of short-term peripheral auditory effects using single-dose cranial irradiation. (wustl.edu)
  • Crossen JR, Garwood D, Glatstein E, Neuwelt EA (1994) Neurobehavioral sequelae of cranial irradiation in adults: a review of radiation-induced encephalopathy. (springer.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been held responsible for long-term neuropsychological sequelae. (elsevier.com)
  • A 'normal' GH secretory response to provocation in subjects with a history of cranial irradiation associated with an abnormal 24-h GH study suggests the presence of selective defects in neurotransmitter control of GH secretion (47). (guwsmedical.info)
  • Similarly, the issue of prophylactic cranial irradiation was investigated in EORTC and the Japanese study, respectively, bringing somewhat conflicting results and calling for additional research in this setting. (frontiersin.org)
  • Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). (elsevier.com)
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a standard treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are at high risk for central nervous system (CNS) relapse. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted from treatment in all children with newly diagnosed ALL. (nih.gov)
  • With improvements in the treatment of thoracic and systemic disease, there is renewed interest in prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). (umn.edu)
  • 9 Spinal irradiation also may contribute to poor growth by decreasing spinal growth, and the younger the child is at treatment, the greater the loss in final height. (aappublications.org)
  • Moreover, contrary to the studies in which treatment included cranial irradiation, 26 - 28 no long-term side effects on lean and fat body mass were found in these studies. (aappublications.org)
  • Treatment of cranial base meningiomas with linear accelerator radiosurgery. (thejns.org)
  • 1019 - 1027 , 1997 Chang SD, Adler JR Jr: Treatment of cranial base meningiomas with linear accelerator radiosurgery. (thejns.org)
  • Children who have had cranial irradiation treatment may benefit from neuropsychological evaluation. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • To gain some mechanistic insight into how irradiation may affect hippocampal neurons known to be associated with cognitive function, we quantitatively assessed the molecular distribution of the behaviorally induced immediate-early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) at the level of mRNA and the protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results showed that there was a significant reduction in the percentage of neurons expressing Arc protein 1 week after irradiation, whereas 2 months after irradiation, there was a reduction in the percentage of neurons expressing both Arc mRNA and Arc protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings are the first to show that local brain irradiation initiates changes in hippocampal neurons that disrupt the activity patterns ( Arc expression) associated with neuroplasticity and memory. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Annexin A6 controls neuronal membrane dynamics throughout chick cranial sensory gangliogenesis Cranial sensory ganglia are components of the peripheral nervous system that possess a significant somatosensory role and include neurons within the trigeminal and epibranchial nerve bundles. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Annexin A6 is expressed in chick trigeminal and epibranchial placode cell-derived neuroblasts and neurons, but its function in cranial ganglia formation has not been elucidated. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Recommended prophylactic cranial irradiation (on RTOG 02-14). (wikibooks.org)
  • This identifies CCL2 signaling as a potential clinical target for moderating the long-term defects in neural stem cell function following cranial radiation in children. (ca.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to assess growth prospectively from brain tumor diagnosis in children treated with cranial irradiation for nonpituitary-related brain tumors. (aappublications.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: MoS occurs with increased frequency in children treated for ALL, and might be associated with cranial irradiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prophylactic means preventative and cranial refers to the head. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Overall, 13.6 (95% CI 10.5 to 17.1) with irradiation and 13.3 (95% CI 7.9 to 21.0) without. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Various factors were assessed for their impact on morbidity and mortality, particularly the role of pre-induction leukapharesis and cranial irradiation. (qxmd.com)