The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)
Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.
A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.
A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Rare, benign, chronic, progressive metaplasia in which cartilage is formed in the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. Some of the metaplastic foci can become detached producing loose bodies. When the loose bodies undergo secondary calcification, the condition is called synovial osteochondromatosis.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE over the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.
A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.
A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)

The supraorbital keyhole approach with eyebrow incisions for treating lesions in the anterior fossa and sellar region. (1/28)

BACKGROUND: Keyhole surgery has developed since the 1990s as a less invasive therapeutic strategy for intracranial lesions, initially for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of lesions in the anterior fossa and sellar region via a supraorbital keyhole approach using eyebrow incisions. METHODS: Between April 1994 and July 2003, 54 patients with lesions in the anterior fossa and sellar region were operated on via the supraorbital keyhole approach. The surgical results were studied retrospectively and compared with that of patients with lesions at the same locations but treated via a conventional subfrontal approach. RESULTS: No significant difference in curative effect was found between the conventional subfrontal approach and the supraorbital keyhole approach. However, the supraorbital approach required a much smaller skin incision, causing less surgical trauma, while achieving excellent surgical exposure and good recovery. CONCLUSION: The supraorbital keyhole approach using an eyebrow incision is safe, effective, and both suitable and convenient for treating lesions in the anterior fossa and sellar region, with almost no adverse consequences on the facial features of patients.  (+info)

Detection of enlarged cortical vein by magnetic resonance imaging contributes to early diagnosis and better outcome for patients with anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula. (2/28)

Twelve patients (10 men, 2 women) with anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) were treated at our institute between January 1976 and March 2002. Intracranial hemorrhage was the presenting symptom in six patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings identified abnormal cortical veins as flow voids in four of five patients. Angiography was the basis of the diagnosis in all patients. Surgery was the primary treatment in nine patients. The other three patients refused intervention and managed conservatively. Surgical morbidity was negligible and the treatment outcome was highly dependent on the clinical status at presentation. In contrast to the reported high incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with dural AVF in the anterior cranial fossa, only half of our study population presented with hemorrhage. Enlarged cortical veins in the frontobasal area could be detected as flow voids on MR images. This finding contributed to the early diagnosis and treatment of patients treated at our institution for dural AVF in the anterior cranial fossa, and to the better outcomes we obtained in these patients.  (+info)

Craniofacial resection for cranial base malignancies involving the infratemporal fossa. (3/28)

OBJECTIVE: Cranial base malignancies involving the infratemporal fossa have been considered unresectable. Advanced operative techniques have made tumor resection feasible in an en bloc fashion with negative histological margins, but there are limited data regarding outcome analysis in patients who have undergone resection of malignant tumors in this area. METHODS: At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 25 patients underwent anterolateral cranial base resections for tumors that involved the infratemporal fossa during a 7-year period. The most common tumors were sarcoma (n = 9), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 6), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3). The median size of the tumors was 6 cm, and 12 tumors involved the anterior cranial base and/or orbit. Tumor resections were divided into three types. Twelve patients underwent Type 1 dissection for tumors involving only the infratemporal fossa and maxillary sinus; 2 patients underwent Type 2 dissections involving the infratemporal fossa and anterior cranial base; and 11 patients underwent Type 3 dissection, which included the infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base, and orbit. All patients required free flap reconstruction, 22 of which were rectus abdominis free flaps. RESULTS: Complications occurred in seven patients, including a single mortality resulting from a myocardial infarction. The 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 69, 63, and 56%, respectively. The relapse-free survival rates were 47% at 2 and 3 years and 41% at 5 years. Recurrences were local in nine patients and distant in four patients. CONCLUSION: Despite the extensive nature of many infratemporal fossa tumors, they can be resected with acceptable morbidity. Survival rates approach those of anterior cranial base malignancies without infratemporal fossa involvement.  (+info)

Anterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm and intracerebral hemorrhage. (4/28)

The association between the formation of intracranial aneurysms and situations of increased blood flow in certain areas of the brain is well accepted today. It has been seen in association with arteriovenous malformations of the brain, carotid occlusion, and Moyamoya disease. The occurrence of aneurysms in small arteries of the skull base, with the exception of the intracavernous carotid artery, however, is rare. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with an intracerebral hemorrhage caused by a ruptured anterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of documented intracranial bleeding from such a lesion.  (+info)

Venous aneurysm development associated with a dural arteriovenous fistula of the anterior cranial fossa with devastating hemorrhage--case report. (5/28)

A 67-year-old man presented with devastating intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from an anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). Four years earlier, digital subtraction angiography had disclosed a DAVF at the right anterior cranial fossa fed mainly by the ethmoidal branches of the bilateral sphenopalatine arteries and slightly by the ethmoidal arteries of the bilateral ophthalmic arteries, and drained primarily by the sphenoparietal and cavernous sinuses via two dilated cortical veins and slightly by the superior sagittal sinus via a frontal ascending vein. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed the development of a venous aneurysm on the main draining vein over a 4-year period, but no other changes. Venous aneurysm development may be part of the natural history of DAVF with cortical venous drainage and may contribute to the occurrence of ICH.  (+info)

Usefulness of T2*-weighted MR sequence for the diagnosis of subfrontal schwannoma. (6/28)

Subfrontal schwannomas are rare tumors that are usually diagnosed during surgery. They are often misdiagnosed as meningioma or esthesioneuroblastoma because of their similar clinical and radiological features. We report a case of schwannoma arising from the floor of the anterior cranial fossa that had radiological features similar to that of meningioma. However, T2*-weighted MR imaging revealed multiple foci of low signal intensities within the tumor related to microbleeds, which suggested a diagnosis of schwannoma that was confirmed by histopathology. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of T2*-weighted sequence in distinguishing meningioma from schwannoma, especially in cases where the tumor has an unusual location.  (+info)

Osteoma of anterior cranial fossa complicated by intracranial mucocele with emphasis on its radiological diagnosis. (7/28)

We present a 43-year-old female patient who had recurrent headache for one year. An intracranial bony lesion surrounded by a cyst in the anterior cranial fossa was found on imaging. Postoperative histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoma and mucocele.  (+info)

Intracranial aspergilloma in immunocompetent patients successfully treated with radical surgical intervention and antifungal therapy: case series. (8/28)

INTRODUCTION: Aspergillosis of the central nervous system is an uncommon infection, mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients with a high mortality. Surgical excision of the intracranial lesion combined with oral voriconazole has been proposed to improve the outcome in immunocompromised patients. Itraconazole has been considered not to be effective because of poor penetration into the brain tissue. We report the long-term outcome of 3 cases of intracranial aspergilloma in immunocompetent patients who were successfully treated with radical surgery combined with oral itraconazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which chronic invasive intracranial aspergilloma was successfully treated in 3 apparently immunocompetent patients and followed-up for more than 5 years. RESULTS: Near complete or radical surgical removal of this localised chronic invasive intracranial aspergilloma whenever possible is the definitive treatment. When combined with the oral antifungal drug itraconazole, the management regimen is effective in achieving near complete long-term cure of more than 5 years. Oral itraconazole 200 mg twice daily should be given for a prolonged period of at least 6 months. CONCLUSION: In chronic invasive intracranial aspergilloma in an immunocompetent patient, it was suggested that radical excision of the intracranial aspergilloma combined with oral antifungal drug belonging to triazole group that can be either itraconazole or voriconazole given for a period of 6 months was likely to improve the long-term outcome.  (+info)

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

The anterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the upper part of the orbits (eye sockets) and the roof of the nasal cavity. It is located at the front of the skull, and is formed by several bones including the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone.

The anterior cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the olfactory bulbs (which are responsible for our sense of smell), as well as the optic nerves and parts of the pituitary gland. This region of the skull also provides protection for the brain, particularly the frontal lobes, which are involved in higher cognitive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and emotional regulation.

Abnormalities or injuries to the anterior cranial fossa can have serious consequences, including damage to the olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, and pituitary gland, as well as potential injury to the frontal lobes of the brain.

The posterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the lower, back part of the cranial cavity. It is located between the occipital bone and the temporal bones, and it contains several important structures including the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and the lower cranial nerves (IX-XII). The posterior fossa also contains the foramen magnum, which is a large opening through which the spinal cord connects to the brainstem. This region of the skull is protected by the occipital bone, which forms the base of the skull and provides attachment for several neck muscles.

The skull base is the lower part of the skull that forms the floor of the cranial cavity and the roof of the facial skeleton. It is a complex anatomical region composed of several bones, including the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, occipital, and ethmoid bones. The skull base supports the brain and contains openings for blood vessels and nerves that travel between the brain and the face or neck. The skull base can be divided into three regions: the anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa, which house different parts of the brain.

An Arachnoid cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac that develops between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, which is one of the three layers that cover and protect the central nervous system. These cysts are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the same fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord.

Arachnoid cysts can vary in size and may be present at birth or develop later in life due to trauma, infection, or other factors. While many arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic and do not cause any problems, larger cysts or those that grow or shift over time can put pressure on the brain or spinal cord, leading to a range of neurological symptoms such as headaches, seizures, hearing or vision changes, balance or coordination difficulties, and cognitive impairments.

Treatment for arachnoid cysts depends on their size, location, and associated symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be sufficient, while in others, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the cyst or create a connection between it and the surrounding CSF space to relieve pressure.

Otologic surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the ear or its related structures. These procedures are typically conducted by otologists, who are specialists trained in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the ears, balance system, and related nerves. The goal of otologic surgery can vary from repairing damaged bones in the middle ear to managing hearing loss, tumors, or chronic infections. Some common otologic surgical procedures include:

1. Stapedectomy/Stapedotomy: These are procedures used to treat otosclerosis, a condition where the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and causes conductive hearing loss. The surgeon creates an opening in the stapes footplate (stapedotomy) or removes the entire stapes bone (stapedectomy) and replaces it with a prosthetic device to improve sound conduction.
2. Myringoplasty/Tympanoplasty: These are surgeries aimed at repairing damaged eardrums (tympanic membrane). A myringoplasty involves grafting a piece of tissue over the perforation in the eardrum, while a tympanoplasty includes both eardrum repair and reconstruction of the middle ear bones if necessary.
3. Mastoidectomy: This procedure involves removing the mastoid air cells, which are located in the bony prominence behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is often performed to treat chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, or complications from middle ear infections.
4. Ossiculoplasty: This procedure aims to reconstruct and improve the function of the ossicles (middle ear bones) when they are damaged due to various reasons such as infection, trauma, or congenital conditions. The surgeon uses prosthetic devices made from plastic, metal, or even bone to replace or support the damaged ossicles.
5. Cochlear implantation: This is a surgical procedure that involves placing an electronic device inside the inner ear to help individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external processor and internal components that directly stimulate the auditory nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the cochlea.
6. Labyrinthectomy: This procedure involves removing the balance-sensing structures (vestibular system) inside the inner ear to treat severe vertigo or dizziness caused by conditions like Meniere's disease when other treatments have failed.
7. Acoustic neuroma removal: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain. Surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to prevent hearing loss, balance problems, and potential neurological complications.

These are just a few examples of the various surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) to treat conditions affecting the ear and surrounding structures. Each procedure has its specific indications, benefits, risks, and postoperative care requirements. Patients should consult with their healthcare providers to discuss the most appropriate treatment options for their individual needs.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

Skull base neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the skull base, which is the region where the skull meets the spine and where the brain connects with the blood vessels and nerves that supply the head and neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells in this area, including bone, nerve, glandular, and vascular tissue.

Skull base neoplasms can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Some common symptoms include headaches, vision changes, hearing loss, facial numbness or weakness, difficulty swallowing, and balance problems. Treatment options for skull base neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a narrow space located at the junction of the brainstem and the cerebellum, where the pons and cerebellum meet. This region is filled with several important nerves, blood vessels, and membranous coverings called meninges. The CPA is a common site for various neurological disorders because it contains critical structures such as:

1. Cerebellum: A part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
2. Pons: A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in several vital functions, including facial movements, taste sensation, sleep regulation, and respiration.
3. Cranial nerves: The CPA is home to the following cranial nerves:
* Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This nerve has two components - cochlear and vestibular. The cochlear part is responsible for hearing, while the vestibular part contributes to balance and eye movement.
* Facial nerve (CN VII): This nerve controls facial expressions, taste sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, salivary gland function, and lacrimation (tear production).
4. Blood vessels: The CPA contains critical blood vessels like the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), which supplies blood to various parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cranial nerves.
5. Meninges: These are protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In the CPA, the meninges include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

Disorders that can affect the structures in the cerebellopontine angle include acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas), meningiomas, epidermoids, and arteriovenous malformations. These conditions may cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), facial weakness or numbness, difficulty swallowing, and imbalance.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Central nervous system (CNS) vascular malformations are abnormal tangles or masses of blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord. These malformations can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They can vary in size, location, and symptoms, which may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems.

There are several types of CNS vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are tangles of arteries and veins with a direct connection between them, bypassing the capillary network. AVMs can cause bleeding in the brain or spinal cord, leading to stroke or neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that form a sac-like structure. They can rupture and bleed, causing symptoms such as seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits.
3. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs): These are benign vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal pattern of veins that drain blood from the brain. DVAs are usually asymptomatic but can be associated with other vascular malformations.
4. Capillary telangiectasias: These are small clusters of dilated capillaries in the brain or spinal cord. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging studies.
5. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid arteries and their branches. This can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and strokes.

The diagnosis of CNS vascular malformations typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes angiography. Treatment options may include observation, medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures, depending on the type, location, and severity of the malformation.

Arnold-Chiari malformation is a structural abnormality of the brain and skull base, specifically the cerebellum and brainstem. It is characterized by the descent of the cerebellar tonsils and sometimes parts of the brainstem through the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull) into the upper spinal canal. This can cause pressure on the brainstem and cerebellum, potentially leading to a range of symptoms such as headaches, neck pain, unsteady gait, swallowing difficulties, hearing or balance problems, and in severe cases, neurological deficits. There are four types of Arnold-Chiari malformations, with type I being the most common and least severe form. Types II, III, and IV are progressively more severe and involve varying degrees of hindbrain herniation and associated neural tissue damage. Surgical intervention is often required to alleviate symptoms and prevent further neurological deterioration.

The ethmoid bone is a paired, thin, and lightweight bone that forms part of the skull's anterior cranial fossa and contributes to the formation of the orbit and nasal cavity. It is located between the frontal bone above and the maxilla and palatine bones below. The ethmoid bone has several important features:

1. Cribriform plate: This is the horizontal, sieve-like portion that forms part of the anterior cranial fossa and serves as the roof of the nasal cavity. It contains small openings (foramina) through which olfactory nerves pass.
2. Perpendicular plate: The perpendicular plate is a vertical structure that projects downward from the cribriform plate, forming part of the nasal septum and separating the left and right nasal cavities.
3. Superior and middle nasal conchae: These are curved bony projections within the lateral walls of the nasal cavity that help to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air.
4. Lacrimal bone: The ethmoid bone articulates with the lacrimal bone, forming part of the medial wall of the orbit.
5. Frontal process: This is a thin, vertical plate that articulates with the frontal bone above the orbit.
6. Sphenoidal process: The sphenoidal process connects the ethmoid bone to the sphenoid bone posteriorly.

The ethmoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting the brain and providing structural support for the eyes, as well as facilitating respiration by warming, humidifying, and filtering incoming air.

Ear diseases are medical conditions that affect the ear and its various components, including the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), ear pain, and discharge. Some common ear diseases include:

1. Otitis externa (swimmer's ear) - an infection or inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal.
2. Otitis media - an infection or inflammation of the middle ear, often caused by a cold or flu.
3. Cholesteatoma - a skin growth that develops in the middle ear behind the eardrum.
4. Meniere's disease - a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
5. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders - problems with the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, which can cause ear pain and other symptoms.
6. Acoustic neuroma - a noncancerous tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss.

Treatment for ear diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, surgery, or other therapies. If you are experiencing symptoms of an ear disease, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist).

Osteoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that is made up of mature bone tissue. It usually grows slowly over a period of years and is most commonly found in the skull or jaw, although it can occur in other bones of the body as well. Osteomas are typically small, but they can grow to be several centimeters in size. They may cause symptoms if they press on nearby tissues or structures, such as nerves or blood vessels. In some cases, osteomas may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered during routine imaging studies. Treatment for osteoma is typically not necessary unless it is causing problems or growing rapidly. If treatment is needed, it may involve surgical removal of the tumor.

The ethmoid sinuses are a pair of air-filled spaces located in the ethmoid bone, which is a part of the skull that forms the upper portion of the nasal cavity and the inner eye socket. These sinuses are divided into anterior and posterior groups and are present in adults, but not at birth. They continue to grow and develop until early adulthood.

The ethmoid sinuses are lined with mucous membrane, which helps to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe. They are surrounded by a network of blood vessels and nerves, making them susceptible to inflammation and infection. Inflammation of the ethmoid sinuses can lead to conditions such as sinusitis, which can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, headache, and facial pain.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

The petrous bone is a part of the temporal bone, one of the 22 bones in the human skull. It is a thick and irregularly shaped bone located at the base of the skull and forms part of the ear and the cranial cavity. The petrous bone contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for hearing and balance. It also helps protect the brain from injury by forming part of the bony structure surrounding the brain.

The term "petrous" comes from the Latin word "petrosus," meaning "stony" or "rock-like," which describes the hard and dense nature of this bone. The petrous bone is one of the densest bones in the human body, making it highly resistant to fractures and other forms of damage.

In medical terminology, the term "petrous" may also be used to describe any structure that resembles a rock or is hard and dense, such as the petrous apex, which refers to the portion of the petrous bone that points towards the sphenoid bone.

A mucocele is a mucus-containing cystic lesion that results from the accumulation of mucin within a damaged minor salivary gland duct or mucous gland. It is typically caused by trauma, injury, or blockage of the duct. Mucocele appears as a round, dome-shaped, fluid-filled swelling, which may be bluish or clear in color. They are most commonly found on the lower lip but can also occur on other areas of the oral cavity. Mucocele is generally painless unless it becomes secondarily infected; however, it can cause discomfort during speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and may affect aesthetics. Treatment usually involves surgical excision of the mucocele to prevent recurrence.

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

The zygoma is the scientific name for the cheekbone. It is a part of the facial skeleton that forms the prominence of the cheek and houses the maxillary sinus, one of the pairs of paranasal sinuses. The zygomatic bone, also known as the malar bone, contributes to the formation of the zygoma.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Infratentorial neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the region of the brain called the posterior fossa, which is located below the tentorium cerebelli (a membranous structure that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum). This area contains several important structures such as the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and fourth ventricle. Infratentorial neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can arise from various cell types including nerve cells, glial cells, or supportive tissues. They can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their location and size, such as headache, vomiting, unsteady gait, weakness, numbness, vision changes, hearing loss, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition that affects the synovial membrane, which is the lining of joints, bursae (fluid-filled sacs that cushion bones), and tendon sheaths. In this condition, nodules made up of cartilage form in the synovial membrane. These nodules can detach from the synovial membrane and float freely in the synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint. If they become numerous, they can cause joint pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. In some cases, the loose bodies may also cause locking or catching sensations in the joint. Surgery is typically required to remove the cartilaginous nodules and relieve symptoms. If left untreated, synovial chondromatosis can lead to osteoarthritis and other joint problems.

A subdural hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which means it involves bleeding within the skull. More specifically, a subdural hematoma occurs between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain) and the brain itself. This condition is usually caused by trauma or injury to the head, which results in the rupture of blood vessels in the brain. The bleeding then forms a collection of blood in the subdural space, which can compress the brain and lead to various neurological symptoms.

Subdural hematomas can be acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the time course of symptom onset and the rate of blood accumulation. Acute subdural hematomas typically result from severe head trauma and require immediate medical attention due to their rapid progression and potential for causing significant brain damage or even death. Chronic subdural hematomas, on the other hand, may develop more slowly over time and can sometimes be asymptomatic, although they still have the potential to cause long-term neurological problems if left untreated.

Treatment options for subdural hematomas depend on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health status, the severity of symptoms, and the size and location of the hematoma. In some cases, conservative management with close monitoring may be appropriate, while in other situations, surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate pressure on the brain and prevent further damage.

The occipital bone is the single, posterior cranial bone that forms the base of the skull and encloses the brain. It articulates with the parietal bones anteriorly and the temporal bones laterally. The occipital bone also contains several important structures such as the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord connects to the brain, and the external and internal occipital protuberances, which serve as attachment points for neck muscles.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

A frontal sinus is a paired, air-filled paranasal sinus located in the frontal bone of the skull, above the eyes and behind the forehead. It is one of the four pairs of sinuses found in the human head. The frontal sinuses are lined with mucous membrane and are interconnected with the nasal cavity through small openings called ostia. They help to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe, and contribute to the resonance of our voice. Variations in size, shape, and asymmetry of frontal sinuses are common among individuals.

The arachnoid is one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord, known as the meninges. It is located between the dura mater (the outermost layer) and the pia mater (the innermost layer). The arachnoid is a thin, delicate membrane that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which provides protection and nutrition to the central nervous system.

The arachnoid has a spider-web like appearance, hence its name, and it is composed of several layers of collagen fibers and elastic tissue. It is highly vascularized, meaning that it contains many blood vessels, and it plays an important role in regulating the flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

In some cases, the arachnoid can become inflamed or irritated, leading to a condition called arachnoiditis. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, muscle weakness, and sensory changes, and it may require medical treatment to manage.

Skull neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the skull. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can originate from various types of cells, such as bone cells, nerve cells, or soft tissues. Skull neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their size and location, including headaches, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, and neurological deficits. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It is important to note that a neoplasm in the skull can also refer to metastatic cancer, which has spread from another part of the body to the skull.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Meningeal neoplasms, also known as malignant meningitis or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, refer to cancerous tumors that originate in the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can arise primarily from the meningeal cells themselves, although they more commonly result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung, or melanoma.

Meningeal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as MRI) and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained through a spinal tap. Treatment options may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. The prognosis for patients with meningeal neoplasms is generally poor, with a median survival time of several months to a year.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Paranasal sinus neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located inside the skull near the nasal cavity. These tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of tissue within the sinuses, such as the lining of the sinuses (mucosa), bone, or other soft tissues.

Paranasal sinus neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including nasal congestion, nosebleeds, facial pain or numbness, and visual disturbances. The diagnosis of these tumors typically involves a combination of imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans) and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the specific type and stage of the neoplasm.

An epidural cranial hematoma is a specific type of hematoma, which is defined as an abnormal accumulation of blood in a restricted space, occurring between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull in the cranial region. This condition is often caused by trauma or head injury, which results in the rupture of blood vessels, allowing blood to collect in the epidural space. The accumulation of blood can compress the brain tissue and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The pterygopalatine fossa is a small, irregularly shaped space located in the skull, lateral to the nasal cavity and inferior to the orbit. It serves as a critical communications center for several important nerves, arteries, and veins that provide sensory innervation, vasomotor control, and blood supply to various structures in the head and neck region.

The following are some key components of the pterygopalatine fossa:

1. Nerves: The pterygopalatine ganglion is a major component of this fossa, which contains postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers, and sensory fibers from various nerves, including the maxillary nerve (V2), greater petrosal nerve, deep petrosal nerve, and nerve of the pterygoid canal.

2. Arteries: The maxillary artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, enters the fossa through the foramen rotundum and divides into several branches that supply various structures in the head and neck region, such as the sphenopalatine artery, posterior superior alveolar artery, infraorbital artery, and greater palatine artery.

3. Veins: The pterygoid venous plexus is a complex network of veins located in and around the fossa that communicates with various venous systems, including the facial vein, cavernous sinus, and inferior ophthalmic vein.

The pterygopalatine fossa plays an essential role in several physiological functions, such as lacrimation, salivation, and vasodilation of blood vessels in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Additionally, it is a potential site for the spread of infection or neoplasm from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, or paranasal sinuses to other regions of the head and neck.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

Orbital diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony cavity in the skull that contains the eye, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as eyelid swelling, protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, pain, and limited extraocular muscle movement.

Orbital diseases can be broadly classified into inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic (benign or malignant), vascular, traumatic, and congenital categories. Some examples of orbital diseases include:

* Orbital cellulitis: a bacterial or fungal infection that causes swelling and inflammation in the orbit
* Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland and can cause protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos)
* Orbital tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the orbit, such as optic nerve gliomas, lacrimal gland tumors, and lymphomas
* Carotid-cavernous fistulas: abnormal connections between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus, leading to pulsatile proptosis and other symptoms
* Orbital fractures: breaks in the bones surrounding the orbit, often caused by trauma
* Congenital anomalies: structural abnormalities present at birth, such as craniofacial syndromes or dermoid cysts.

Proper diagnosis and management of orbital diseases require a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other specialists.

The middle ear is the middle of the three parts of the ear, located between the outer ear and inner ear. It contains three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The middle ear also contains the Eustachian tube, which helps regulate air pressure in the middle ear and protects against infection by allowing fluid to drain from the middle ear into the back of the throat.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Orbital neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the orbit, which is the bony cavity that contains the eyeball, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells within the orbit.

Orbital neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, limited eye movement, pain, swelling, and numbness in the face. In some cases, orbital neoplasms may not cause any noticeable symptoms, especially if they are small and slow-growing.

There are many different types of orbital neoplasms, including:

1. Optic nerve glioma: a rare tumor that arises from the optic nerve's supportive tissue.
2. Orbital meningioma: a tumor that originates from the membranes covering the brain and extends into the orbit.
3. Lacrimal gland tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the lacrimal gland, which produces tears.
4. Orbital lymphangioma: a non-cancerous tumor that arises from the lymphatic vessels in the orbit.
5. Rhabdomyosarcoma: a malignant tumor that develops from the skeletal muscle cells in the orbit.
6. Metastatic tumors: cancerous growths that spread to the orbit from other parts of the body, such as the breast, lung, or prostate.

The diagnosis and treatment of orbital neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor. Imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI, are often used to visualize the tumor and determine its extent. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the tumor's type and grade. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Dandy-Walker Syndrome is a congenital brain malformation characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis (the part of the brain that helps coordinate movement) and an enlarged fluid-filled space (fourth ventricle) surrounding it. This condition can also be associated with an upward bulging of the back of the skull (occipital bone), and in some cases, hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). The syndrome can vary in severity, and symptoms may include problems with balance, coordination, developmental delays, and increased intracranial pressure. It is usually diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and addressing complications, which may include surgical procedures to relieve hydrocephalus if present.

Cerebellar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells within the cerebellum.

The most common type of cerebellar neoplasm is a medulloblastoma, which arises from primitive nerve cells in the cerebellum. Other types of cerebellar neoplasms include astrocytomas, ependymomas, and brain stem gliomas. Symptoms of cerebellar neoplasms may include headaches, vomiting, unsteady gait, coordination problems, and visual disturbances. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

"Anterior cranial fossa". www.anatomynext.com. Retrieved 2018-03-06. "Anterior cranial fossa". www.anatomynext.com. Retrieved ... The paired anterior ethmoidal foramen connects the anterior cranial fossa with each orbit and transmits the anterior ethmoidal ... which connect the anterior cranial fossa with the nasal cavity and transmit the olfactory nerves. Animation. Anterior cranial ... The anterior cranial fossa is a depression in the floor of the cranial base which houses the projecting frontal lobes of the ...
It is located in the anterior cranial fossa. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 190 of the 20th ... The sphenoethmoidal suture is the cranial suture between the sphenoid bone and the ethmoid bone. ... Cranial sutures, Human head and neck, Joints, Joints of the head and neck, Skeletal system, Skull, All stub articles, ...
It is located in the anterior cranial fossa. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 190 of the 20th ... Cranial sutures, Human head and neck, Joints, Joints of the head and neck, Skeletal system, Skull, All stub articles, ...
Superior surface forming floor of anterior cranial fossa. Inferior surface forming upper boundary of superior orbital fissure. ... This forms the floor of the middle cranial fossa. It presents (starting from the front): foramen rotundum foramen ovale ... pterygoid notch pterygoid fossa scaphoid fossa pterygoid hamulus pterygoid canal pterygospinous process sella turcica The ... a fibrous process joining the anterior to the posterior clinoid process; and the caroticoclinoid, connecting the anterior to ...
Demonstrationg how cerebellum sits in the posterior cranial fossa. Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Rea, Paul (2016 ... cranial fossa at human fetus Base of skull Posterior cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa A tumor of the posterior fossa ... Lies in the anterior wall of the posterior cranial fossa. It transmits the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial ... The posterior cranial fossa is the part of the cranial cavity located between the foramen magnum, and tentorium cerebelli. It ...
... absence of astragalar fossa; restricted anterior hollow on the cranial surface of the astragalus; lateral tubercle at the ... The thick anterior and medial rims of the supratemporal fenestrae are a diagnostic feature of Pissarrachampsa. At the back of ... Pissarrachampsa is known from its holotype, a nearly complete skull and skeleton, as well as other referred cranial and ... They are found in a depressed region called the circumnarial fossa. Thick palpebral bones overly the eyes. The supratemporal ...
... the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae changes rapidly. The anterior cranial fossa changes especially during the ... "Clinical anatomy of the human anterior cranial fossa during the prenatal period". Folia Morphologica. 62 (3): 271-3. PMID ... These cranial measurements are the basis of what is known as craniology. These cranial measurements were also used to draw a ... forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem. The upper areas of the cranial bones ...
They are most often associated with fractures of the anterior cranial fossa. Raccoon eyes may also be a sign of disseminated ... time of a facial fracture tears the meninges and causes the venous sinuses to bleed into the arachnoid villi and the cranial ...
509 It connects the middle cranial fossa (superiorly), and infratemporal fossa (inferiorly). The foramen transmits the middle ... ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. Kawase, Takeshi (2010). "38 - Petroclival Meningiomas: Middle Fossa Anterior Transpetrosal Approach". ... The foramen is rarely absent, usually unilaterally, in which case the middle meningeal artery enters the cranial cavity through ... As a landmark, the foramen spinosum reveals the positions of other cranial foramina, the mandibular nerve and trigeminal ...
The contents of the fissure include communications of cranial nerve VII to the infratemporal fossa. A branch of cranial nerve ... It lodges the anterior process and anterior ligament of the malleus, and gives passage to the anterior tympanic branch of the ... The mandibular fossa is bounded, in front, by the articular tubercle; behind, by the tympanic part of the bone, which separates ... Anterior tympanic artery and tympanic veins also pass through the structure. Petrotympanic fissure contains some of the fibers ...
Within the anterior cranial fossa, it issues a branch to which innervates part of the dura mater. It gives branches to the ... It also supplies sensation to part of the dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa. The posterior ethmoidal nerve is present in ... and part of the dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa. The posterior ethmoidal nerve is a branch of the nasociliary nerve. ... Barral, Jean-Pierre; Croibier, Alain (2009). "15 - Ophthalmic nerve". Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves. Churchill ...
The main factor of the metopic suture is to increase the volume of the anterior cranial fossa. The frontal bone includes the ...
... supplies some dura mater of anterior cranial fossa, has been called the anterior falx/falcine artery) nasal branches (travel ... Following which, it enters the anterior cranial fossa where it bifurcates into a meningeal branch and nasal branch.[citation ... The anterior ethmoidal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery in the orbit. It exits the orbit through the anterior ... It travels with the anterior ethmoidal nerve to exit the medial wall of the orbit at the anterior ethmoidal foramen. It then ...
The larger anterior space includes the anterior and middle cranial fossas and lodges the cerebrum; the small posterior space- ... the posterior cranial fossa contains the cerebellum, the pons, and the medulla. Clinical Anatomical Terminology, American ... The tentorium cerebelli divides the cranial cavity into two closed spaces which communicate with each other through the ...
Extremely elongated external nares, with posterior margins posterior to the anterior margin of the antorbital fossa and ... 2013) : A sagittal cranial crest formed by the nasals starting at the junction of the premaxilla and nasals. ... A convex tubercule on the anterior margin of the pubis just ventral to contact with the ilium. A short and shallow concave step ... The depth of the antorbital fossa ventral to the antorbital fenestra being much greater than that of the maxilla below the ...
Anterior cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 190 of the 20th ... Animation Middle cranial fossa at human foetus Base of skull Middle cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa ... It is deeper than the anterior cranial fossa, is narrow medially and widens laterally to the sides of the skull. It is ... The middle cranial fossa is formed by the sphenoid bones, and the temporal bones. It lodges the temporal lobes, and the ...
Due to the less-pronounced cheekbones, the anterior cranial fossa-depressions on the skull-are smaller than in modern Kogia. ...
... s are divided into anterior fossa, middle fossa and posterior fossa fractures. Facial fractures often ... Surgery may be performed to seal a CSF leak that does not stop, to relieve pressure on a cranial nerve or repair injury to a ... Due to the proximity of the cranial nerves, injury to those nerves may occur. This can cause loss of function of the facial ... Serious cases usually result in death Basilar skull fractures include breaks in the posterior skull base or anterior skull base ...
The cranial fossa is pear-shaped and separated from the cerebellum by the cerebellar tentorium. The parietal bones appear to ... The sella turcica, which in anatomy hosts the pituitary gland, is shallow while the clinoid processes (anterior and posterior) ... Similar to camels (Camelus), the supraspinous fossa is broader than the infraspinous fossa, but camels have narrower scapulae, ... The trochanteric fossa, a hollow at the surface of the greater trochanter, is wide in depth and narrow in shape, deepening by ...
Some brain structures are poorly visualised, notably posterior fossa structures such as the cerebellum if only the anterior ... It is not usual for this technique to be referred to simply as "cranial ultrasound". Additionally, cranial ultrasound can be ... While the anterior fontanelle is the most commonly used acoustic window for cranial ultrasounds, more advanced operators may ... Cranial ultrasound is a technique for scanning the brain using high-frequency sound waves. It is used almost exclusively in ...
Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea is the most common acquired defect in the skull base bones (anterior cranial fossa) causing ... Makhmurian, Meri S. (23 September 2020). "MIN - Spontaneous cranial cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF liquorrhea)". www.minclinic. ...
566 to emerge in anterior cranial fossa through the anterior ethmoidal foramen: 1464.e13 (at the junction of the cribiform ... 1464.e13 Within the anterior cranial fossa, it gives sensory fibers to the meninges to provide sensory innervation to part of ... It passes through the anterior ethmoidal canal alongside the anterior ethmoidal artery: 780 and vein: ... The anterior ethmoidal nerve is a nerve of the head. It is a branch of the nasociliary nerve (itself a branch of the ophthalmic ...
In humans, the pituitary gland rests upon the hypophyseal fossa of the sphenoid bone, in the center of the middle cranial fossa ... The anterior pituitary is typically divided into two regions, a more anterior rostral portion and a posterior proximal portion ... 2011). "Cranial Fossae". Gray's Clinical Anatomy. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-4377-3580-2. Ganapathy MK, Tadi ... The anterior lobe of the pituitary can be divided into the pars tuberalis (pars infundibularis) and pars distalis (pars ...
... the ilium has a well developed cuppedicus fossa; (b) the femur possesses an anterior trochanter that is proximally projected, ... and are provided with a pair of cavities at their cranial surfaces the neural canal is wide cranial caudals feature a ventral ... According to Martínez and Novas (2006), Aniksosaurus can be distinguished based on the following characteristics: cranial ... the femoral head is rectangular-shaped in cranial aspect; (e) and the fibular shaft is craniocaudally narrow. However, research ...
Eta Carinae Fossa (disambiguation) Skeleton Foraminifera OED 2nd edition, 1989. Entry "foramen" in Merriam-Webster Online ... "Cranial Foramina - Foramen Ovale - Skull - TeachMeAnatomy". teachmeanatomy.info. Retrieved 2023-05-27. This article includes a ... Vertebral foramen, the foramen formed by the anterior segment (the body), and the posterior part, the vertebral arch. Foramen ... The human skull has many formania, collectively referred to as the cranial formania. Within the vertebral column (spine) of ...
... the middle cranial fossa of) the cranial cavity. The carotid canal is located within the middle cranial fossa, at the petrous ... Both internal and external openings of the carotid canal lies anterior to the jugular foramen, where the latter is located ... inside the posterior cranial fossa. The carotid canal is separated from middle ear and inner ear by a thin plate of bone. The ...
The temporal pole is located between the frontal and occipital poles, and sits in the anterior part of middle cranial fossa in ... Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure and the fornix, also join the hemispheres and ...
1] forms part of the middle cranial fossa; it is deeply concave, and presents depressions for the convolutions of the temporal ... Medial to the anterior extremity of the infratemporal crest is a triangular process that serves to increase the attachment of ... Left infratemporal fossa. The skull from the front. Articulation of the mandible. Medial aspect. Muscles of the right orbit. ... It has a number of foramina (holes) in it: The foramen rotundum is a circular aperture at its anterior and medial part; it ...
... or anterior cranial fossa). Zimmer also contributed "Radiologic Imaging of the Cervical Spine" as a chapter to a core clinical ...
This artery supplies the posterior ethmoidal air sinuses, the dura mater of the anterior cranial fossa, and the upper part of ... It is smaller than the anterior ethmoidal artery. The posterior ethmoidal artery is an orbital branch of the ophthalmic artery ...
"Anterior cranial fossa". www.anatomynext.com. Retrieved 2018-03-06. "Anterior cranial fossa". www.anatomynext.com. Retrieved ... The paired anterior ethmoidal foramen connects the anterior cranial fossa with each orbit and transmits the anterior ethmoidal ... which connect the anterior cranial fossa with the nasal cavity and transmit the olfactory nerves. Animation. Anterior cranial ... The anterior cranial fossa is a depression in the floor of the cranial base which houses the projecting frontal lobes of the ...
"Cranial Fossa, Anterior" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cranial Fossa, Anterior" was a major or minor topic of ... "Cranial Fossa, Anterior" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Discolo CM, Akst LM, Schlossberg L, Greene D. Anterior cranial fossa glioblastoma with sleep apnea as the initial manifestation ... Cranial Fossa, Anterior*Cranial Fossa, Anterior. *Fossa, Anterior Cranial. *Anterior Cranial Fossa ...
If the ethmoid sinuses are involved, the roof often is expanded superiorly into the anterior cranial fossa, and the lateral ... View just inside the nasal vestibule showing diffused polyposis extending into the anterior nasal cavity and vestibule; the ... View just inside the nasal vestibule showing diffused polyposis extending into the anterior nasal cavity and vestibule; the ... Outcomes of pressure-induced cranial neuropathies from allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Mar. ...
Expansion of the anterior cranial fossa and supraorbital area with insertion of bone grafts into the latter. View Media Gallery ... The anterior cranial fossa enlarges as the frontal lobes enlarge with growth. They are 47% of adult size at 11 months and 93% ... The anterior cranial fossa enlargement is a result of frontal lobe growth; at 11 months, the frontal lobes are almost 50% of ... This enlarges the anterior cranial fossa. The head is widened anteriorly. [64] See the images below. ...
Due to the vertical limitation of the ETOA, some lesions of the anterior cranial fossa are difficult to access. The ETOA with ... In the 3 cases of anterior clinoidal meningioma, anterior clinoidectomy was performed easily and safely, and manipulation of ... Anterior clinoidectomy could be achieved successfully using ETOA with SLOR osteotomy.. The authors performed ETOA with SLOR ... The view range of the endoscope for anterior skull base lesions was increased through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy. After SLOR ...
Anterior or middle cranial fossa or cavernous sinus, tumour or vascular lesion, removal or radical excision of, including ... The surgical management of lesions involving the skull base (base of anterior, middle and posterior fossae) often requires the ...
Inside the skull are three distinct areas: anterior fossa, middle fossa, and posterior fossa (Fig. 9). Doctors sometimes refer ... Cranial nerves. The brain communicates with the body through the spinal cord and twelve pairs of cranial nerves (Fig. 9). Ten ... The base of the skull is divided into 3 regions: anterior, middle and posterior fossae.. Similar to cables coming out the back ... Figure 9. A view of the cranial nerves at the base of the skull with the brain removed. Cranial nerves originate from the ...
Open brain surgery approaches used by neurosurgeons at the University of Pittsburgh UPMC Cranial for Base Center. ... It serves as a standard approach to the middle cranial fossa, anterior cranial fossa, suprasellar and parasellar structures, ... The RMC is a minimally invasive approach to the posterior cranial fossa, pontocerebellar angle (PCA) for removal of skull base ... Cranial Base Center Contact Information. Phone:. 412-647-3685. Directors:. Paul Gardner, MD. Georgios A. Zenonos, MD. Carl H. ...
middle cranial salsa middle cranial fossa castle of salsa castle of fossa ...
A cranial fossa, can also be traversed through both sides of the skull base or longitudinal through the anterior, middle ... Anterior cranial fossa fracture. 1) bruises around the eyes were purple-blue, commonly known as "Panda eyes.". 2) unilateral or ... 2. Central cranial fossa fracture. (1) Temporal muscle swelling or ear type delayed stasis class.. (2) hearing impaired and ... posterior fossa, fracture line and often near the nose, rock or milk. Suddenly the same room, and the formation of hidden open ...
ACF: Anterior Cranial Fossa. 52. ACG: Angle Closure Glaucoma. 53. ACHE: Acetylcholinesterase ...
Expansion of the anterior cranial fossa and supraorbital area with insertion of bone grafts into the latter. View Media Gallery ... The anterior cranial fossa enlarges as the frontal lobes enlarge with growth. They are 47% of adult size at 11 months and 93% ... The anterior cranial fossa enlargement is a result of frontal lobe growth; at 11 months, the frontal lobes are almost 50% of ... This enlarges the anterior cranial fossa. The head is widened anteriorly. [56] See the images below. ...
How to Assess the Cranial Nerves - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... is usually evaluated only after head trauma or when lesions of the anterior fossa (eg, meningioma) are suspected or patients ... 2nd Cranial nerve For the 2nd (optic) cranial nerve, visual acuity is tested using a Snellen chart Visual acuity The eye can be ... 12th Cranial nerve The 12th (hypoglossal) cranial nerve is evaluated by asking the patient to extend the tongue and inspecting ...
The von Mises stress of the anterior cranial fossa was observed. RESULTS: When the osteotomy line length was 0.5 cm, the angle ...
Extracranial approaches are limited to the anterior cranial fossa and paranasal sinuses. Endoscopic techniques have broadened ... Fractures through the floor of the anterior cranial fossa may extend directly into the paranasal sinuses. If the dura and ... In the middle fossa, leakage can occur through air cells in the lesser sphenoid wing or floor of the temporal fossa. In the ... Kaufman et al.[48] have emphasized the importance of pneumatization of the middle cranial fossa floor in the etiology of ...
... and cuts the cranial vault about half an inch in front of the bregma. The floor of the anterior cranial fossa is seen to be ... The anterior cranial fossa is deepest in its centre, where its floor is formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid; this ... forming the anterior wall of the 3. Crista galli of ethmoid. pterygo-palatine fossa the space Opening of sphenoidal which lies ... Surface of maxilla which forms the anterior wall of the pterygo-palatine fossa. ...
A microscopic robotic fibreoptic device for sinus surgery, transsphenoidal pituitary and anterior cranial fossa surgery. ...
Small, spindle shaped, limited to anterior middle cranial fossa, usually with free communication of CT cisternography.. Type II ... Large, fills the whole middle cranial fossa, with displacement of not only the temporal lobe but also the frontal and parietal ...
The anterior route involves removal of the bone between the temporomandibular joint and the middle cranial fossa. The surgical ... For the reconstruction of meatal atresia and the middle ear space, an anterior incision is used with elevation of soft tissue ... The surgical approach for the repair of atresia can be transmastoid or anterior. In the mastoid approach, the sinodural angle ...
The cranial cavity is the anterior portion of the dorsal cavity consisting of the space inside the skull. This cavity contains ... The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone separates the anterior and middle cranial fossae. ... What organs are in the cranial cavity?. Cranial. The cranial cavity is the anterior portion of the dorsal cavity consisting of ... What is the cranial nerve?. What are cranial nerves? Your cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect your brain to ...
anterior cranial fossa *anterior ethmoidal foramen. *posterior ethmoidal foramen. *foramen cecum. *cribriform plate ... Some authorities divide the visceral space into an anterior "pretracheal space" and a posterior "retrovisceral space" 3, the ...
Exploration of the coelom anterior to the ventriculus. (Scott Echols). In order to achieve adequate exposure to the cranial ... This is the paralumbar fossa. (Scott Echols). Figure 35.22e. The incision is made in the middle of the paralumbar fossa. (Scott ... It is recommended to apply the first clip in a caudal- cranial direction and the second clip in a cranial-caudal direction to ... This will expose the cranial portion of the lung. The cranial portion of the lung is gently dissected and reflected from its ...
Tytu angielski: Bony defects of the anterior and middle cranial fossa observed during operations performed in patients with ... Tytu angielski: Congenital bone defects in the middle and posterior cranial fossa observed during otosurgery.. Tytu ca o ci: W ... Tytu angielski: Skull base defects in the middle and posterior cranial fossa with unchanged mucous lining middle ear spaces.. ... Tytu angielski: Bony defects of the middle and posterior cranial fossa in patients operated for chronic otitis media.. ...
Cranial Fossa, Posterior / anatomy & histology* * Cranial Fossa, Posterior / blood supply* * Cranial Fossa, Posterior / ... Its anterior limit was the vertical plane containing the posterior petroclinoid fold, and its posterior limit was the inner ... The posterior petroclinoid fold and the axial plane below the dural foramen of the abducent nerve (sixth cranial nerve) limited ...
High-resolution 3T MRI of the patients brain revealed a well-circumscribed avidly-enhancing extraaxial anterior cranial fossa ... The cranium was exposed and a burr hole was drilled 1 mm anterior of bregma and 1 mm lateral from midline using a #3 ball mill ...
... shaped patchy T2 hyperintensities involving frontal lobes with diffusion restriction at the floor of anterior cranial fossa. ... Lytic destruction of adjacent anterior corner of tibia on MRI and x-ray. Associated tibio talar joint effusion. Multifocal ...
... minimal access endoscope-assisted surgical approaches for meningiomas in the anterior and middle cranial fossae.. J Neurosurg. ... Anterior spinal artery syndrome caused by thoracic disc herniation.. J Clin Neurosci. 77:211-212. ... Transorbital CME: Minimally Invasive Cranial Neurosurgery. *NYC-MISS: Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery and Navigation Hands-on ...
Tumor menginvasi isi orbita anterior, kulit pipi atau hidung, ekstensi minimal ke fossa cranii anterior, pterygoid plates, ... Pada fossa cranialis medial, saraf cranial V3 dan invasi pada otot pterygoideus dapat terlibat. Pada kondisi ini, ditemukan ... Pada fossa cranialis anterior, massa dapat mencapai palatum cribiformis atau area orbita. Pada kondisi ini, dapat ... Ekstensi massa ke fossa cranialis anterior dan medial dapat diperkirakan dengan pemeriksaan fisik. ...
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Rhotons Cranial Anatomy and Surgical Approaches Albert L. Rhoton, Jr., Congress of ... Rhotons Cranial Anatomy and Surgical Approaches by Albert L. Rhoton, Jr., ... Anatomy and approaches to the posterior cranial fossa and posterior cranial base, including chapters on the fourth ventricle, ... Microsurgical anatomy and approaches to the supratentorial area and anterior cranial base, including chapters on aneurysms, the ...
  • Due to the vertical limitation of the ETOA, some lesions of the anterior cranial fossa are difficult to access. (thejns.org)
  • Skull base defects in the middle and posterior cranial fossa with unchanged mucous lining middle ear spaces. (krakow.pl)
  • The pertinent anatomy and mechanisms of formation of cranial and spinal CSF leaks must be understood to diagnose and treat these lesions properly. (barrowneuro.org)
  • THE DEFINING WORK IN NEUROSURGERY, REISSUED FOR A NEW GENERATION OF TECHNICAL EXCELLENCE Cranial Anatomy and Surgical Approaches is the master work of the legendary neurosurgeon Albert L. Rhoton, Jr. -- a distillation of 40 years of work to improve safety, accuracy, and gentleness in the medical specialty the author helped shape. (hateblo.jp)
  • Across three sections, Cranial Anatomy and Surgical Approaches details the safest approaches to brain surgery, including: · Micro-operative techniques and instrument selection · Microsurgical anatomy and approaches to the supratentorial area and anterior cranial base, including chapters on aneurysms, the lateral and third ventricles, cavernous sinus and sella. (hateblo.jp)
  • The cribriform foramina are the openings in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, which connect the anterior cranial fossa with the nasal cavity and transmit the olfactory nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of spinal nerves that branch from the spinal cord and cranial nerves that branch from the brain. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • With minimal or no brain retraction and the use of both microscope and endoscope, the skull base lesion, cranial nerves and vessels are seen and the problem can be repaired with efficiency and safety. (pitt.edu)
  • Paul Gardner, MD, has been using the RMC for many years with excellent results that have been advanced by the introduction of the endoscope to better visualize and approach the tumors and the cranial nerves. (pitt.edu)
  • The cranial nerves originate in the brain stem. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For the 3rd (ocolomotor), 4th (trochlear), and 6th (abducens) cranial nerves, eyes are observed for symmetry of movement, globe position, asymmetry or droop of the eyelids (ptosis), and twitches or flutters of globes or lids. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What are cranial nerves? (studybuff.com)
  • Your cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect your brain to different parts of your head, neck, and trunk. (studybuff.com)
  • Cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII, the sympathetic trunk, the internal jugular vein, and the internal carotid artery are localized in the medial of the SP (Hettiarachchi et al. (eurjanat.com)
  • Large, fills the whole middle cranial fossa, with displacement of not only the temporal lobe but also the frontal and parietal lobes.Little communication with subarachnoid space on CT cisternography. (webneurosurg.com)
  • b) The complex floor of the cranial cavity is formed by the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, temporal, and occipital bones. (studybuff.com)
  • The styloid process (SP) is a thin needle-like protrusion located in the anterior part of the stylomastoid foramen, emerging from the lower surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone, extending downward and anteriorly, and extending between the external and internal carotid arteries toward the tonsillar fossa (Kosar et al. (eurjanat.com)
  • He is one of the few surgeons in the country who routinely operates anywhere within the cranial base (posterior fossa, temporal bone, infratemporal fossa, endonasal, trans-orbital, and anterior cranial base). (bssny.com)
  • Access levels of ETOA with SLOR osteotomy were comfortable, including anterior skull base lesion and superior orbital area. (thejns.org)
  • A microscopic robotic fibreoptic device for sinus surgery, transsphenoidal pituitary and anterior cranial fossa surgery. (ericlevi.com)
  • On lateral radiographs the sella turcica or pituitary fossa is a radiodense saddle-shaped outline of the fossa extending between the anterior and posterior clinoid processes 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Osseous Repair in Minimally Invasive Reconstruction of Anterior Skull Base Defects. (ucdenver.edu)
  • He specializes in both endoscopic (minimally invasive) and open cranial base surgery. (bssny.com)
  • The anterior cranial fossa contains the following parts of the brain: frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, orbital gyri. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smell, a function of the 1st (olfactory) cranial nerve, is usually evaluated only after head trauma or when lesions of the anterior fossa (eg, meningioma) are suspected or patients report abnormal smell or taste. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Methods The authors conducted a retrospective review of 23 patients undergoing a combined mastoidectomy and middle cranial fossa craniotomy for the treatment of a tegmen defect. (medscape.com)
  • Alcohol, ammonia, and other irritants, which test the nociceptive receptors of the 5th (trigeminal) cranial nerve, are used only when malingering is suspected. (msdmanuals.com)
  • it is limited behind by the posterior borders of the small wings of the sphenoid and by the anterior margin of the chiasmatic groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lesser wings of the sphenoid separate the anterior and middle fossae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orbits are shallow with resulting exorbitism, which is due to anterior positioning of the greater wing of the sphenoid. (medscape.com)
  • These air-spaces are completed by the articulation of the ethmoid with the maxilla, lacrimal, frontal, sphenoid, and palate bones, and are divided into three groups-an anterior, middle, and posterior. (co.ma)
  • The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone separates the anterior and middle cranial fossae. (studybuff.com)
  • Selanjutnya penyebaran pada area lateral, yaitu area zygomatic dan sphenoid sampai sinus cavernosus dapat ditemukan neuropati saraf cranial III, IV, VI, V1, dan V2 karena jarasnya yang melewati sinus cavernosus. (alomedika.com)
  • Behind this is the anterior margin of the chiasmatic groove, running laterally on either side to the upper margin of the optic foramen. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several openings connecting the anterior cranial fossa with other parts of the skull, and these are the following: anterior ethmoidal foramen, cribriform foramina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paired anterior ethmoidal foramen connects the anterior cranial fossa with each orbit and transmits the anterior ethmoidal artery, nerve and vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Near its posterior extremity the spheno - palatine foramen pierces its lateral wall, and brings it in relation with the pterygopalatine fossa. (co.ma)
  • The posterior petroclinoid fold and the axial plane below the dural foramen of the abducent nerve (sixth cranial nerve) limited the PVC at the top and bottom, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Gejala yang berkaitan dengan defisit saraf kranialis, seringkali ditemukan pada stadium lebih lanjut, di mana sudah terdapat perluasan massa ke fossa cranialis anterior dan medial. (alomedika.com)
  • Ekstensi massa ke fossa cranialis anterior dan medial dapat diperkirakan dengan pemeriksaan fisik. (alomedika.com)
  • Pada fossa cranialis medial, saraf cranial V3 dan invasi pada otot pterygoideus dapat terlibat. (alomedika.com)
  • This study's goal was to obtain the length, medial-anterior angulation, and basis-apex coordinates of the styloid process (SP) on 3D-CT images of asymptomatic individuals. (eurjanat.com)
  • In this study, the anterior and lateral lengths, anterior and medial angulation, and coordinate values on the x, y, and z-axes of the basis-apex of the SP in 259 cases (132 males, 127 females) were investigated. (eurjanat.com)
  • The mean medial angulation of the SP was measured to be 64.37° on the right side and 64.42° on the left side, and the mean anterior angulation was measured to be 30.16° and 33.69° on the right and left sides, respectively. (eurjanat.com)
  • 2024. Endonasal, supraorbital, and transorbital approaches: minimal access endoscope-assisted surgical approaches for meningiomas in the anterior and middle cranial fossae. . (cornell.edu)
  • In the 3 cases of anterior clinoidal meningioma, anterior clinoidectomy was performed easily and safely, and manipulation of the extended dural margin and origin dura mater was possible. (thejns.org)
  • 30 kg/m 2 , preoperative imaging demonstrating additional cranial base cortical defects (that is, contralateral tegmen or anterior cranial base) and/or an empty sella turcica, and any history of an event that leads to inflammation of the arachnoid granulations and impairment of CSF absorption (that is, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, significant closed head injury, and so forth). (medscape.com)
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Other Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases are characterized by steady, relentless, progressive degeneration of corticospinal tracts, anterior horn cells, bulbar motor nuclei. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The mean anterior SP lengths were detected to be 23.65 mm on the right side and 23.35 mm on the left side, and the mean lateral SP lengths were detected to be 21.77 mm and 21.64 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. (eurjanat.com)
  • Since the introduction of lateral cephalometric radiography by Broadbent4 in 1931, this radiographic technique has been widely used in orthodontics to evaluate cranial and dentofacial growth. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to cranial base surgery, he also specializes in adult craniofacial reconstruction and has performed over 500 cranioplasties primarily using implants that he designed. (bssny.com)
  • However, the presence of an abnormal cranial nerve sign strongly suggests that the observed weakness results from a problem in the brain stem. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Specific combinations of cranial nerve signs may suggest pathology at specific locations around the base of the skull. (msdmanuals.com)
  • thus, they can be considered cranial nerve disorders, neuro-ophthalmologic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What is the cranial nerve? (studybuff.com)
  • Cranial Fossa, Anterior" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • it slopes from above downwards and backwards, and is overhung by the free curved edge of the middle conchæ, beneath which there is a passage called the infundibulum, leading upwards and forwards to open superiorly into the frontal sinus, as well as into some of the anterior ethmoidal cells. (co.ma)
  • The cranial cavity houses the Brain, Meninges, and the Cerebrospinal Fluid. (studybuff.com)
  • The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The view range of the endoscope for anterior skull base lesions was increased through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy. (thejns.org)
  • Discolo CM, Akst LM, Schlossberg L, Greene D. Anterior cranial fossa glioblastoma with sleep apnea as the initial manifestation. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The most common clinical manifestation of cranial CSF leaks is rhinorrhea or otorrhea. (barrowneuro.org)
  • Anterior clinoidectomy could be achieved successfully using ETOA with SLOR osteotomy. (thejns.org)
  • All of the cranial neurosurgeons at the University of Pittsburgh use the pterional approach routinely for many different kinds of pathologies. (pitt.edu)
  • The cranium is made up of cranial bones (bones that surround and protect the brain) and facial bones (bones that form the eye sockets, nose, cheeks, jaw, and other parts of the face). (studybuff.com)
  • The anterior cranial fossa is a depression in the floor of the cranial base which houses the projecting frontal lobes of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormalities in their function suggest pathology in specific parts of the brain stem or along the cranial nerve's path outside the brain stem. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The space where the brain is located in the skull is called the cranial cavity. (studybuff.com)
  • The surgical management of lesions involving the skull base (base of anterior, middle and posterior fossae) often requires the skills of several surgeons or a number of surgeons from different surgical specialties working together or in tandem during the operative session. (health.gov.au)
  • MRI shows bilateral geographic shaped patchy T2 hyperintensities involving frontal lobes with diffusion restriction at the floor of anterior cranial fossa. (neuroradiologycases.com)
  • Small, spindle shaped, limited to anterior middle cranial fossa, usually with free communication of CT cisternography. (webneurosurg.com)
  • [ 9 ] The maxilla is hypoplastic with a high-arched palate, class III malocclusion with an anterior open bite, and, frequently, a cleft of the soft palate. (medscape.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cranial Fossa, Anterior" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cranial Fossa, Anterior" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • this produces an anterior open bite. (medscape.com)
  • the anterior and middle open either independently or in conjunction with the infundibulum into the middle meatus. (co.ma)
  • The details of the senior authors' approach to the evaluation and treatment of cranial and spinal CSF leaks are reviewed. (barrowneuro.org)
  • Pada fossa cranialis anterior, massa dapat mencapai palatum cribiformis atau area orbita. (alomedika.com)
  • The cranial cavity is the anterior portion of the dorsal cavity consisting of the space inside the skull. (studybuff.com)
  • Some authorities divide the visceral space into an anterior " pretracheal space " and a posterior " retrovisceral space " 3 , the latter of which is synonymous with the retropharyngeal space superiorly and retroesophageal space inferiorly. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Its anterior limit was the vertical plane containing the posterior petroclinoid fold, and its posterior limit was the inner layer of the dura. (nih.gov)

No images available that match "cranial fossa anterior"