Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
The epidemic of cocaine-related juxtapyloric perforations: with a comment on the importance of testing for Helicobacter pylori. (1/175)OBJECTIVE: This is a report of 50 consecutive patients with juxtapyloric perforations after smoking "crack" cocaine (cocaine base) at one urban public hospital. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the exact causal relation between smoking crack cocaine and a subsequent juxtapyloric perforation has not been defined, surgical services in urban public hospitals now treat significant numbers of male addicts with such perforations. This report describes the patient set, presentation, and surgical management and suggests a possible role for Helicobacter pylori in contributing to these perforations. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed, supplemented by data from the patient log in the department of surgery. RESULTS: From 1994 to 1998, 50 consecutive patients (48 men, 2 women) with a mean age of 37 had epigastric pain and signs of peritonitis a median of 2 to 4 hours (but up to 48 hours) after smoking crack cocaine. A history of chronic smoking of crack as well as chronic alcohol abuse was noted in all patients; four had a prior history of presumed ulcer disease in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Free air was present on an upright abdominal x-ray in 84% of patients, and all underwent operative management. A 3- to 5-mm juxtapyloric perforation, usually in the prepyloric area, was found in all patients. Omental patch closure was used in 49 patients and falciform ligament closure in 1. Two patients underwent parietal cell vagotomy as well. In the later period of the review, antral mucosal biopsies were performed through the juxtapyloric perforation in five patients. Urease testing was positive for infection with H. pyonri in four, and these patients were prescribed appropriate antimicrobial drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Juxtapyloric perforations after the smoking of crack cocaine occur in a largely male population of drug addicts who are 8 to 10 years younger than the patient group that historically has perforations in the pyloroduodenal area. These perforations are usually 3 to 5 mm in diameter, and an antral mucosal biopsy for subsequent urease testing should be performed if the location and size of the ulcer allow this to be done safely. Omental patch closure is appropriate therapy for patients without a history of prior ulcer disease; antimicrobial therapy and omeprazole are prescribed when H. pylori is present. (+info)
The incidence of T2-weighted MR imaging signal abnormalities in the brain of cocaine-dependent patients is age-related and region-specific. (2/175)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cocaine and its metabolites can produce vasospasm, and cocaine-dependent patients are at increased risk for stroke. Based on previous case reports, we hypothesized that the incidence of hyperintense brain lesions observed on T2-weighted MR images would also be increased in asymptomatic cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Sixty-two male "crack" (smoked) cocaine-dependent participants ranging in age from 25 to 66 years were compared with 116 normal male control participants ranging in age from 25 to 80 years. Those with histories of neurologic symptoms or illnesses were excluded. The severity of hyperintense lesions was rated on a 0- to 3-point scale, and ratings of 3 were used in the data analysis as an indicator of a probable pathologic process. Three regions were separately rated: the cerebral white matter, insular subcortex white matter, and subcortical gray matter (basal ganglia and thalamus region). RESULTS: Significantly increased risk of severe lesions was observed in the two white matter regions of the cocaine-dependent group (odds ratio of 16.7 and 20.3) but not in the subcortial gray matter region (odds ratio of 1.4). In the insula subcortex white matter, the risk of lesions increased with age in the cocaine-dependant sample, but remained essentially absent among normal controls through the age of 80 years. In the cerebral white matter, the relationship of age and risk of lesion among normal participants was similar in shape to that in cocaine-dependent participants, but equivalent risk was seen 20 years earlier among cocaine-dependent participants. CONCLUSIONS: Cocaine-dependent participants had a significantly increased age-related risk of white matter damage. The possible clinical implications of this damage are discussed. (+info)
A staff dialogue on a socially distanced patient: psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and caregivers. (3/175)Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. The following case of an HIV-positive woman who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during a twin pregnancy was discussed at the May, 1999 Schwartz Center Rounds. The patient was in drug rehabilitation having been dependent on crack cocaine, with a past history of syphilis and gonorrhea. She was single and her other children were in foster care. Initially she was suspicious and non-compliant. A plan was negotiated to biopsy the cervical lesion after cesarean section and with confirmation of malignancy she underwent radical surgery and subsequently radiotherapy. Despite the almost insurmountable social and educational distance between her and her caregivers, they managed to bond and facilitate care. Although there were compromises with which staff were uncomfortable, the relationship was maintained and continues. (+info)
Crack-cocaine users as victims of physical attack. (4/175)This study evaluates the correlates of physical attack among people who use crack cocaine in Dayton, Ohio. Using a retrospective and prospective natural history design, data from baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews were used to calculate the prevalence of physical attack and the annual rate of physical attack suffered by 440 not-in-treatment crack-cocaine users. Logistic regression was used to determine the correlates of physical attack. The lifetime prevalence of physical attack was 63.0%; the annual rate was 36.8%. At baseline, daily crack users were more likely to report a previous attack since they began using crack (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.77). Longer duration of crack use was also associated with experiencing an attack (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14). Between baseline and 12-month follow-up, the odds of men being attacked were significantly less than those for women (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99). Physical attack is widespread among crack-cocaine users, and does not vary by ethnicity. Injuries often result in the need for medical care. Over the short term, women are at increased risk. Accessible and effective drug abuse treatment is needed to diminish the harm this population suffers. (+info)
Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, methylecgonine, and norcocaine in human hair by positive ion chemical ionization (PICI) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (5/175)A total of 30 human head-hair samples were analyzed for cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE), benzoylecgonine (BE), methylecgonine (EME), and norcocaine (NCOC) using a sensitive positive ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) method. All 30 hair samples had been previously submitted to the laboratory and had confirmed positive for cocaine. Hair samples (20 mg each) were cut into small segments (2-5 mm) and incubated overnight at 45 degrees C in 0.1 N HCl after the addition of 50 microL of an internal standard mix of COC-d3 (1.0 ng/mg), BE-d3 (0.5 ng/mg), EME-d3 (0.25 ng/mg), and NCOC-d3 (0.25 ng/mg). The samples were then extracted with Clean Screen extraction columns from United Chemical Technologies, Inc. The final extract was evaporated to dryness and derivatized with 50 microL of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and 50 microL of trifluoroacetic anhydride at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The derivatized samples were allowed to cool to room temperature, evaporated to dryness, and then reconstituted in 50 microL of ethyl acetate. Parent set masses (unbolded ions) and product ions were m/z 304 and m/z 182 and 82 (COC), m/z 307 and m/z 185 and 85 (COC-d3), m/z 318 and m/z 196 and 82 (CE), m/z 440 and m/z 318 and 105 (BE), m/z 443 and m/z 321 and 105 (BE-d3), m/z 296 and m/z 182, and 82 (EME), m/z 299 and m/z 185 and 85 (EME-d3), m/z 403 and m/z 386 and 105 (NCOC), m/z 406 and m/z 389 and 105 (NCOC-d3). Quantitation was accomplished by calculating the area ratio of the higher mass product ion (underlined ions) of analyte to the respective internal standard based on multilevel calibrations from 0.01 to 10.0 ng/mg. The GC-MS-MS method had a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/mg and a limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng/mg for all five analytes. COC, BE, and EME were detected in all 30 samples, and CE and NCOC were found in 19 and 29 samples, respectively. The average relative percentages of each metabolite normalized to the cocaine concentrations were 12.8%, 15.4%, 1.8%, and 2.5% for BE, CE, EME, and NCOC, respectively. (+info)
Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk factors among populations of drug abusers. (6/175)A cross-sectional survey was conducted of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risky behaviors among 407 drug abusers in treatment facilities in 1998. Infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis were detected by testing serum antibody levels; chlamydia and gonorrhea were detected by testing nucleic acid levels in urine. Logistic regression analysis was performed to measure associations. Prevalences of antibodies were as follows: to HSV-2, 44.4%; to HCV, 35.1%; to HBV, 29.5%; to HIV, 2.7%. The prevalence of syphilis was 3.4%; of chlamydia, 3.7%; and of gonorrhea, 1.7%. Of the 407 subjects, approximately 62% had markers for 1 of the STDs. HIV infection was associated with African American race, use of smokable freebase (crack) cocaine, and STD history. HBV infection was associated with age >30 years, injecting drugs, needle sharing, a history of treatment for drug abuse, and African American race. HCV infection was associated with an age >30 years, injecting drugs, and needle sharing, and HSV-2 infection with an age >30 years, female sex, and African American race. Syphilis was associated with a history of STDs. High prevalences of STDs among drug abusers indicate the need for integration of STD screening and treatment into drug treatment programs. (+info)
Hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, risk factors, and prevention opportunities among young injection drug users in Chicago, 1997-1999. (7/175)The prevalence, risk factors, and prevention opportunities of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied in a large sample of 698 young adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Chicago, 18-30 years old. Participants were recruited between 1997 and 1999 by using street outreach, targeted advertising, and chain-referral methods. HCV infection prevalence was 27% and was strongly associated with both age and duration of injecting (P<.001). In multivariable analysis, sexual behaviors were unrelated to seropositivity. Independent drug-related risk factors included frequent injection, heavy crack smoking, injecting in a shooting gallery, and syringe-mediated sharing. Urban residents were more likely than suburban residents to be infected. Most research on hepatitis C has shown rapid spread of infection among IDUs, but these findings underscore that opportunities to identify IDUs uninfected with HCV may be greater than assumed and emphasize the need to target younger, newer IDUs. (+info)
Sexually transmitted infections among HIV seropositive men and women. (8/175)OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of identified STIs and recognised symptoms of STIs and their association with health status, substance use, and sexual risk behaviour in a sample of HIV seropositive men and women. METHODS: 223 men, 112 women, and five transsexual people living with HIV infection completed confidential surveys. Participants were recruited through community based services, community health clinics, and snowball (chain) recruitment techniques in Atlanta, GA, USA in December 1999. RESULTS: We found that (263) 78% of participants had been sexually active in the previous 3 months. For the entire sample, 42 (12%) participants reported an STI in the past 3 months and 40 (11%) experienced symptoms of an STI without indicating a specific diagnosis in that time. Gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and newly diagnosed herpes simplex virus (HSV) were identified at similar rates among men, whereas trichomonas, gonorrhoea, and newly diagnosed HSV occurred most often in women. STIs were associated with substance use in men and women, with "crack" cocaine users having the greatest likelihood of an STI relative to non-crack users. STIs were also associated with continued practice of sexual risk behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: This sample of people living with HIV-AIDS reported high rates of diagnoses and symptoms of STIs. There were significant associations between STIs, substance use, and continued high risk sexual practices in men and women. These findings support the need for studies that confirm prevalence of STIs using clinical laboratory tests. (+info)
1. Cocaine dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes psychologically and physiologically dependent on cocaine, and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug.
2. Cocaine intoxication: This is a state of altered consciousness that can occur when an individual takes too much cocaine, and can cause symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and hallucinations.
3. Cocaine-induced psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a break from reality, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cocaine-associated cardiovascular problems: Cocaine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.
5. Cocaine-associated respiratory problems: Cocaine use can constrict the airways and make breathing more difficult, which can lead to respiratory failure.
6. Cocaine-associated neurological problems: Cocaine use can cause nerve damage and seizures, particularly in individuals who use the drug frequently or in large quantities.
7. Cocaine withdrawal syndrome: This is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using cocaine, including depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
8. Cocaine-related anxiety disorders: Cocaine use can exacerbate anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
9. Cocaine-related mood disorders: Cocaine use can also exacerbate mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.
10. Cocaine-related cognitive impairment: Chronic cocaine use can impair cognitive function, particularly in areas such as attention, memory, and decision-making.
It is important to note that the effects of cocaine can vary depending on the individual, the dose and frequency of use, and other factors such as the method of administration and any underlying medical conditions. If you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.
Phencyclidine abuse is the use of the drug in excessive or compulsive quantities, without a valid prescription, or for non-medical reasons. This type of abuse can lead to addiction, long-term cognitive impairment, and other negative consequences.
Signs of phencyclidine abuse may include:
* Increased desire to use the drug despite negative consequences
* Difficulty cutting down or controlling use
* Continued use despite physical or mental health problems
* Spending excessive time using or obtaining the drug
* Neglect of responsibilities and activities due to use
* Increased risk-taking behavior
* Delusions, hallucinations, or a loss of touch with reality
If you suspect that someone you know is abusing phencyclidine, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. A medical professional can assess the individual's symptoms and determine the appropriate course of treatment.
Treatment for phencyclidine abuse may include:
* Cognitive-behavioral therapy to address negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Medication to manage withdrawal symptoms or co-occurring disorders
* Support groups to provide a safe and supportive environment for individuals struggling with addiction.
It is important to note that phencyclidine abuse can have serious consequences, including long-term cognitive impairment, memory loss, and an increased risk of psychotic episodes. If you or someone you know is struggling with phencyclidine abuse, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. With the right treatment and support, individuals can overcome addiction and achieve a healthier, happier life.
Types of Substance-Related Disorders:
1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.
1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.
1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.
1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.
HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test called an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test detects the presence of antibodies against HIV in the blood by using specific proteins on the surface of the virus. If the test is positive, it means that the individual has been infected with HIV.
HIV seropositivity is an important diagnostic criterion for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which is a condition that develops when the immune system is severely damaged by HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests, including HIV seropositivity.
HIV seropositivity can be either primary (acute) or chronic. Primary HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual is first infected with HIV and their immune system produces antibodies against the virus. Chronic HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual has been living with HIV for a long time and their immune system has produced antibodies that remain in their bloodstream.
HIV seropositivity can have significant implications for an individual's health and quality of life, as well as their social and economic well-being. It is important for individuals who are HIV seropositive to receive appropriate medical care and support to manage their condition and prevent the transmission of HIV to others.
IV drug use can cause a range of short-term and long-term health problems, including infections, abscesses, blood-borne illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis, and overdose. In addition to physical health issues, IV substance abuse can also lead to mental health problems, financial and legal problems, and social isolation.
Treatment for IV substance abuse typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy and medication. Behavioral therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management can help individuals modify their drug-seeking behaviors and develop coping skills to maintain sobriety. Medications such as methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone can also be used to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings for drugs.
Prevention strategies for IV substance abuse include education and awareness campaigns, community-based outreach programs, and harm reduction services such as needle exchange programs. These strategies aim to reduce the initiation of IV drug use, particularly among young people and other vulnerable populations.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
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- We used univariate analyses to compare the characteristics of crack cocaine users, other hard-drug users (predominantly heroin users but excluding those who used only alcohol and marijuana), and those not known to use drugs. (cdc.gov)
- 2 3 Some users combine cocaine with heroin. (nih.gov)
- * Ms Carina Ferreira-Borges as cannabis, cocaine or heroin, is a crucial public health issue. (who.int)
- a mixture with cocaine, crack cocaine or heroin. (who.int)
- It consists of eight questions drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or that can be answered by most patients in a very short time. (who.int)
- In Chicago, between 70 and 80 percent of heroin addicts are also addicted to crack cocaine. (nih.gov)
- Psychosis is a combination of hallucinations and paranoia and is common in crack cocaine and heavy methamphetamine users. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Question: Did you use cocaine, crack or methamphetamine (crystal meth)? (nih.gov)
- Home » Instruments » TAPS Tool » TAPS Tool Part 2 - Interviewer Version » Did you use cocaine, crack or methamphetamine (crystal meth)? (nih.gov)
- A person's stated observation of whether or not they used cocaine or methamphetamine in the past three months. (nih.gov)
- Query patients about the use of cocaine , methamphetamine , and ecstasy. (medscape.com)
- Crack cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant that can be smoked or snorted. (rehabcenter.net)
- This intense craving, coupled with the stimulant properties of crack cocaine, can cause a person to exhibit paranoia and violent behavior. (rehabcenter.net)
- Cocaine is a stimulant that can be used by snorting, rubbing on gums, or injection. (natick180.org)
- Cocaine is a stimulant derived from leaves of the coca plant. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Cocaine may be a stimulant, but what's depressing is the number of psychological symptoms associated with the withdrawal process. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Crack cocaine is a stimulant that is made from regular powdered cocaine and is even more powerful. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. (nih.gov)
- For thousands of years, people in South America have chewed and ingested coca leaves ( Erythroxylon coca ), the source of cocaine, for their stimulant effects. (nih.gov)
- We offer support, safer use supplies and other services to help you prevent overdose, prevent burns and avoid infections if you're using cocaine, crack or other stimulants. (sfaf.org)
- Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after cocaine overdose: report of one case]. (nih.gov)
- Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis after cocaine overdose: case report and literature review]. (nih.gov)
- Any amount of crack cocaine use can also result in fatal and nonfatal overdose. (rehabcenter.net)
- It is possible to overdose on cocaine, which can lead to a heart attack, stroke, seizures or death. (natick180.org)
- Injecting cocaine is perhaps the most dangerous method of administering the drug-because of the increased risk of overdose as well as the various complications and infectious diseases associated with needle drug use. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Cocaine use also carries the immediate risk of overdose. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- An overdose of cocaine can result in a seizure, heart attack, cardiac arrest, or stroke-and may be deadly. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- In 2018 alone, 14,666 people died of a cocaine-involved overdose. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- How many people die from cocaine overdose? (nih.gov)
- In 2020, approximately 19,447 people died from an overdose involving cocaine. (nih.gov)
Strong cravings for the drug2
Forms of cocaine1
- People abuse two chemical forms of cocaine: the water-soluble hydrochloride salt and the water- insoluble cocaine base (or freebase). (nih.gov)
Form of cocaine1
- But this drug, whether smoked or snorted, is the riskiest form of cocaine and can cause long-term damage to the body and mind. (rehabcenter.net)
- The United Kingdom has seen a substantial increase in the prevalence of drug use in the past decade, particularly crack cocaine use ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- This study describes the prevalence and profile of men and women, which are crack cocaine users, attended in three Therapeutic Communities in Zona da Mata, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
- To evaluate the prevalence, we initially interviewed all 34 individuals who entered the TCs in a two-month period, of whom, 82.4 % was for crack cocaine use. (bvsalud.org)
- Several pulmonary complications are associated with the inhalation of crack cocaine (e.g., intensive cough, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, chest pain, acute bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, thermal airway injury, pneumothorax and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, production of carbonaceous sputum, and exacerbation of asthma) ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
- We hypothesize that crack cocaine use increases the risk for smear-positive pulmonary TB and that a component of this risk relates to lung damage caused by crack cocaine inhalation. (cdc.gov)
- Users primarily administer cocaine orally, intranasally, Photo by DEA/ Cocaine intravenously, or by inhalation. (nih.gov)
- When people smoke cocaine (inhalation), they inhale its vapor or smoke into the lungs, where absorption into the bloodstream is almost as rapid as by injection. (nih.gov)
- Tony Phillips, 36, of Rowan Avenue, Harraton, Washington, has also been charged conspiring to supply crack cocaine, as well as possessing amphetamine with intent to supply, and will appear at Sunderland Magistrates Court on July, 12. (shieldsgazette.com)
- Cocaine triggers your brain to release dopamine and creates a euphoric feeling. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Cocaine is considered highly addictive, largely because the substance impedes the brain from discarding dopamine-the chemical associated with reward, motivation, and emotion. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- When crack cocaine reaches the brain excess amounts of dopamine are produced causing intense pleasure. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- From January 1, 1987, through June 30, 1990, 44 cases of tuberculosis (TB) occurred among residents of Contra Costa County, California, who were known to use crack cocaine. (cdc.gov)
- We hypothesize that crack cocaine is independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). (cdc.gov)
- Chest radiograph of a tuberculosis patient addicted to crack cocaine. (cdc.gov)
- Crack cocaine can be identified as a white or off-white "rock" of powder, that makes a crackling noise when smoked. (rehabcenter.net)
- When powder cocaine is processed with other chemicals, it results in freebase or crack cocaine. (rehabcenter.net)
- It's usually sold in a white powder or synthesized into crystals or rocks as "crack. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Cocaine is a white powder. (medlineplus.gov)
- When people snort the Cocaine drug (intranasal use), they inhale cocaine powder through the nostrils, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. (nih.gov)
- Sometimes they seize upon a rock of crack hidden in front gardens, and scarper to feed their addiction. (shroomery.org)
- A separate category was included for hard-drug users not known to use crack cocaine to have a group with comparable levels of social deprivation, addiction related problems, and difficulty in accessing health services. (cdc.gov)
- Precisely why Can be Slot gaming Models Playing Regarded 'Typically the Crack Cocaine' connected with Playing Addiction? (ecoflex-experience.com)
- Slot machine addiction is considered to be the "crack cocaine" of gambling for a new few different good reasons. (ecoflex-experience.com)
- From this article you can see, it is pretty easy to compare slot machine addiction to crack crack habit. (ecoflex-experience.com)
- Individuals abusing crack cocaine may swiftly find themselves in the cycle of dependence and addiction. (rehabcenter.net)
- This is what leads to a crack addiction. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Crack cocaine addiction and smoking crack will destroy your life and those that love you most. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- How is cocaine addiction treated? (nih.gov)
- Snorting crack cocaine, or using this drug in any form, can lead to cardiovascular and mental health issues. (rehabcenter.net)
- Snorting any drug can result in sores and infection inside the nose, and crack cocaine can cause holes (perforation) in a person's septum. (rehabcenter.net)
- Snorting crack cocaine causes side effects similar to cocaine, including extreme energy, increased body temperature, and dilated pupils. (rehabcenter.net)
- Crack impacts and changes the brain's reward system, and snorting this drug can lead a person to think and behave in unpredictable ways. (rehabcenter.net)
- When this happens, a person craving a hit of crack cocaine may resort to snorting the drug instead of smoking it. (rehabcenter.net)
- Some people may wrongly assume that snorting crack cocaine is safer than smoking it. (rehabcenter.net)
- There are serious health risks associated with snorting crack cocaine. (rehabcenter.net)
- Repeatedly snorting cocaine damages the nasal cavity, causing nosebleeds, chronic runny nose, and loss of sense of smell. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Many people think that snorting cocaine is better than smoking crack even though the drugs are chemically identical. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Long-term health effects depend on how a person uses cocaine, and may result in damage to the heart, malnourishment, and risk of movement disorders, like Parkinson's disease. (natick180.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the putative association between the serotonin 2B receptor gene (HTR2B), crack use disorders and impulsivity . (bvsalud.org)
- A French Afro- Caribbean male population of patients with crack use disorders (n = 80) was compared to healthy Afro- Caribbean male controls (n = 60). (bvsalud.org)
- We have observed a positive association between the rs6736017 polymorphism and crack use disorders in a French Afro- Caribbean male population . (bvsalud.org)
- In our population , the risk effect of HTR2B rs6736017 appeared to be specific to individuals with crack use disorders rather than being driven by impulsivity or ADHD alone. (bvsalud.org)
- Cocaine is mixed with baking soda or ammonia and cooked down to form a solid substance that is smokable once it has dried. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Sometimes called an "upper," crack cocaine can result in feelings that range from excitement to paranoia. (rehabcenter.net)
- Paranoia occurs in 68% to 84% of patients using cocaine. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- One of the effects of smoking crack or crack cocaine use is paranoia. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Paranoia is one of the most common side effects of cocaine use. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Some of the signs and symptoms of cocaine paranoia include distrusting strangers, fear of close friends or family for no reason, suspicion of other people's actions, thinking others are looking at you when they aren't, feeling everyone is out to get you, and seeing or hearing things that aren't there. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Crack lung"-the term that describes the type of damage frequently afflicted onto the lung sacks by smoking cocaine-can cause labored breathing, fever, coughing up blood, and even respiratory failure. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- We offer non-shaming and sex positive counseling for gay, bisexual, queer, and trans men interesting in changing their relationship to drugs and alcohol including cocaine, crack, meth and opiates. (sfaf.org)
- Crack cocaine users and other drug users were significantly more likely than non-drug users to have been born in the United Kingdom, of white or black Caribbean ethnic origin, homeless, alcohol abusers, or have a history of imprisonment. (cdc.gov)
- Cocaine is more dangerous when combined with other drugs or alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
- Why are cocaine users at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS and hepatitis? (nih.gov)
- Any route of administration can potentially lead to absorption of toxic amounts of cocaine, causing heart attacks, strokes, or seizures--all of which can result , in sudden death. (nih.gov)
- however, cocaine detox brings mostly psychological withdrawal symptoms. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- The use of cocaine in the "crack" form is often associated with more frequent and intense symptoms. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Cocaine-related violent behaviors occur in as many as 55% of patients with cocaine-induced psychiatric symptoms. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Many patients with cocaine dependence have also been found to have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Studies do show that smoking crack leads to a greater risk of dependence and more severe consequences, and after entering treatment those that had snorted cocaine had better outcomes than smokers. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Cocaine dependence has a strong heritability component. (bvsalud.org)
- Even one instance of crack cocaine use can result in a person suffering from hallucinations, delirium, and severe mood disturbances. (rehabcenter.net)
- When a person abuses crack cocaine through insufflation, they are ingesting large amounts of unknown substances along with high doses of the drug. (rehabcenter.net)
- Fifteen of the 44 cases occurred among crack users who frequented one or more of three specific crack houses (i.e., a setting where crack cocaine is sold and/or used) in the county. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, of the 33 crack users for whom HIV serostatus was known, 13 (39%) were HIV seropositive. (cdc.gov)
- Of 36 crack users with culture-proven pulmonary TB and for whom sputum smear and radiographic findings were known, 26 (72%) had positive acid-fast bacillus smears. (cdc.gov)
- Treatment outcomes for TB were characterized for 42 of the 44 crack users (two patients refused treatment and were lost to follow-up). (cdc.gov)
- Twenty-three secondary TB cases, including five cases among children, were identified among contacts of crack users, compared with 21 secondary cases among contacts of nonusers. (cdc.gov)
- Editorial Note: This report documents the first outbreak of TB recognized among users of crack cocaine. (cdc.gov)
- In a case-control study of TB in London, 19 (86%) of 22 crack cocaine users with pulmonary TB were smear positive compared with 302 (36%) of 833 non-drug users. (cdc.gov)
- Respiratory damage caused by crack cocaine may predispose drug users to infectivity. (cdc.gov)
- Numbers of crack cocaine users assessed while in police custody in London increased 3-fold from 1993 through 2003 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Comorbidities associated with crack-cocaine use are one of the major challenges for those who provide psychiatric services to this population, however, there are few studies examining these comorbidities fees on users of crack-cocaine. (bvsalud.org)
- To compare users of crack-cocaine with the general population in relation in antisocial behavior. (bvsalud.org)
- Cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study, with a sample of 971 adults 18-59 years, chosen for convenience, divided into two groups - users of crack-cocaine and general population. (bvsalud.org)
- The results found emphasize the importance of early detection of antisocial behavior associated with crack-cocaine users, which might improve the treatment and get better prognosis. (bvsalud.org)
- Cocaine speeds up your whole body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Habitually smoking crack cocaine causes pulmonary damage (crack lung) ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
- Research shows that cocaine abuse increases stress levels in individuals, suggesting that the drug also interferes with the ventral tegmental area of the brain. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Clinical manifestations of the resulting cocaine intoxication were rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and transient liver failure. (nih.gov)
- The binary logistic regression analysis by the backward conditional method has generated conditional adjusted variables for the gravity model for crack-cocaine use: male, adults in their 30s and 39 years, with low education and being in the clinical classification for problems with antisocial personality (OR = 14.466). (bvsalud.org)
- Babies born from mothers that abused cocaine during their pregnancy have increased risk of heart defects, problems with the central nervous system, and death. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- In the 2018 MetroWest Adolescent Survey, 1.6% of Natick High School students reported ever using cocaine. (natick180.org)
- Continued cocaine abuse in all its forms carries many dire health risks and adverse long-term side effects to practically every one of the body's major functions, particularly the body's cardiovascular system. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Describes the latest research findings on cocaine, exploring the scope of abuse in the U.S., its potential long- and short-term health effects, maternal cocaine use, and treatment approaches. (nih.gov)
- Squirrels in south London could have become addicted to crack cocaine, say residents of Brixton, who suggest the rodents have dug up drugs buried by dealers or nibbled residues of crack on pipes and vials discarded by addicts. (shroomery.org)
- Break cocaine is one connected with the nearly all highly obsessive drugs the fact that exists nowadays. (ecoflex-experience.com)
- These days buying drugs online like cocaine, powdered cocaine online. (highpuritycoke.com)
- Just heard a news report on TV that they're finding squirrels high on crack in London. (shroomery.org)
- The high from crack cocaine is intense but short-lived. (rehabcenter.net)
- Very high quality, premium crack cocaine. (buddha-blend.com)
- The high a single dose of cocaine produces lasts only a few minutes to an hour, encouraging repeated use. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Despite its high potential for abuse, the drug remains popular: In 2019, 2 million Americans over the age of 12 admitted to using cocaine within the past month. (ahwatukeehealthcare.org)
- Smoking crack gives the user an immediate high because the drug is delivered straight to the lungs and brain once it is inhaled. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- In suicide, cocaine is present in as high as 18% to 22% of cases. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- After the "high" of the cocaine wears off, you can "crash" and feel tired and sad for days. (medlineplus.gov)
- Today, cocaine is a Schedule II drug, which means that it has high potential for abuse but can be administered by a doctor for legitimate medical uses, such as local anesthesia for some eye, ear, and throat surgeries. (nih.gov)
- Crack cocaine affects the reward centers in the brain, so as stated above, one can very easily become addicted to the drug after just one use. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Evidence to directly link risk for TB with crack cocaine use is lacking, although an association with tuberculin positivity has been shown. (cdc.gov)
- Crack cocaine is a processed and less expensive form of the illegal street drug, cocaine. (rehabcenter.net)
- When a person becomes dependent on crack, their body requires regular doses of the drug in order to function. (rehabcenter.net)
- Smoking crack cocaine is a fast way to become easily and seriously addicted to the drug. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- One of the long-term effects of abusing cocaine and chronically smoking crack is drug-induced psychosis. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- Cocaine was a breakthrough medical drug because of its application as a local anesthetic. (nih.gov)
- Perhaps taking advantage of the popularity of the drug, Lloyd Manufacturing did advertise the cocaine in their toothache drops. (nih.gov)
- In the late 19th century, the typical cocaine user was a professional man who had been prescribed the drug or a physician administering his own doses. (nih.gov)
- Dissolving cocaine in water and injecting it (intravenous use) releases the drug directly into the bloodstream and heightens the intensity of its effects. (nih.gov)
- Bronchospasm and wheezing can occur in patients who smoke crack cocaine. (medscape.com)
- The characteristics of the 44 persons who reported using crack were compared with those of the 239 persons who were not known to use crack (nonusers) (Table 1). (cdc.gov)
- Those who donate over $200 will get a hand drawn print of mayor Ford smoking crack-cocaine drawn by the Gawker's art director. (j-source.ca)
- Collectively, these complications have been reported as crack syndrome ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
- In 1860, the alkaloid cocaine was isolated from coca leaves. (nih.gov)
- In addition, six persons who used crack and one nonuser were known to be seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but had not been diagnosed with AIDS. (cdc.gov)
- TB patients who used crack cocaine were predominantly 20-49 years of age. (cdc.gov)
- The effects of cocaine, depending on how it's used, can be felt almost immediately and wear off in about an hour. (natick180.org)
- The NIH produced an article with some statistics on the short-term effects of smoking crack cocaine. (recreatelifecounseling.com)
- How does cocaine produce its effects? (nih.gov)
- What are the short-term effects of cocaine use? (nih.gov)