The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The misuse of phencyclidine with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Sexual activities of humans.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Behavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the constellation of symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or paranoid type of schizophrenia.
Series of ocean waves produced by geologic events or underwater LANDSLIDES. These waves can travel at speeds averaging 450 (and up to 600) miles per hour in the open ocean.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Individuals connecting by family, work or other interests. It also includes connectivity facilitated by computer-based communications.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
Statements of goals for the delivery of health services pertaining to the Health Systems Agency service area, established under PL 93-641, and consistent with national guidelines for health planning.
A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

The epidemic of cocaine-related juxtapyloric perforations: with a comment on the importance of testing for Helicobacter pylori. (1/175)

OBJECTIVE: This is a report of 50 consecutive patients with juxtapyloric perforations after smoking "crack" cocaine (cocaine base) at one urban public hospital. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the exact causal relation between smoking crack cocaine and a subsequent juxtapyloric perforation has not been defined, surgical services in urban public hospitals now treat significant numbers of male addicts with such perforations. This report describes the patient set, presentation, and surgical management and suggests a possible role for Helicobacter pylori in contributing to these perforations. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed, supplemented by data from the patient log in the department of surgery. RESULTS: From 1994 to 1998, 50 consecutive patients (48 men, 2 women) with a mean age of 37 had epigastric pain and signs of peritonitis a median of 2 to 4 hours (but up to 48 hours) after smoking crack cocaine. A history of chronic smoking of crack as well as chronic alcohol abuse was noted in all patients; four had a prior history of presumed ulcer disease in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Free air was present on an upright abdominal x-ray in 84% of patients, and all underwent operative management. A 3- to 5-mm juxtapyloric perforation, usually in the prepyloric area, was found in all patients. Omental patch closure was used in 49 patients and falciform ligament closure in 1. Two patients underwent parietal cell vagotomy as well. In the later period of the review, antral mucosal biopsies were performed through the juxtapyloric perforation in five patients. Urease testing was positive for infection with H. pyonri in four, and these patients were prescribed appropriate antimicrobial drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Juxtapyloric perforations after the smoking of crack cocaine occur in a largely male population of drug addicts who are 8 to 10 years younger than the patient group that historically has perforations in the pyloroduodenal area. These perforations are usually 3 to 5 mm in diameter, and an antral mucosal biopsy for subsequent urease testing should be performed if the location and size of the ulcer allow this to be done safely. Omental patch closure is appropriate therapy for patients without a history of prior ulcer disease; antimicrobial therapy and omeprazole are prescribed when H. pylori is present.  (+info)

The incidence of T2-weighted MR imaging signal abnormalities in the brain of cocaine-dependent patients is age-related and region-specific. (2/175)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cocaine and its metabolites can produce vasospasm, and cocaine-dependent patients are at increased risk for stroke. Based on previous case reports, we hypothesized that the incidence of hyperintense brain lesions observed on T2-weighted MR images would also be increased in asymptomatic cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Sixty-two male "crack" (smoked) cocaine-dependent participants ranging in age from 25 to 66 years were compared with 116 normal male control participants ranging in age from 25 to 80 years. Those with histories of neurologic symptoms or illnesses were excluded. The severity of hyperintense lesions was rated on a 0- to 3-point scale, and ratings of 3 were used in the data analysis as an indicator of a probable pathologic process. Three regions were separately rated: the cerebral white matter, insular subcortex white matter, and subcortical gray matter (basal ganglia and thalamus region). RESULTS: Significantly increased risk of severe lesions was observed in the two white matter regions of the cocaine-dependent group (odds ratio of 16.7 and 20.3) but not in the subcortial gray matter region (odds ratio of 1.4). In the insula subcortex white matter, the risk of lesions increased with age in the cocaine-dependant sample, but remained essentially absent among normal controls through the age of 80 years. In the cerebral white matter, the relationship of age and risk of lesion among normal participants was similar in shape to that in cocaine-dependent participants, but equivalent risk was seen 20 years earlier among cocaine-dependent participants. CONCLUSIONS: Cocaine-dependent participants had a significantly increased age-related risk of white matter damage. The possible clinical implications of this damage are discussed.  (+info)

A staff dialogue on a socially distanced patient: psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and caregivers. (3/175)

Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. The following case of an HIV-positive woman who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during a twin pregnancy was discussed at the May, 1999 Schwartz Center Rounds. The patient was in drug rehabilitation having been dependent on crack cocaine, with a past history of syphilis and gonorrhea. She was single and her other children were in foster care. Initially she was suspicious and non-compliant. A plan was negotiated to biopsy the cervical lesion after cesarean section and with confirmation of malignancy she underwent radical surgery and subsequently radiotherapy. Despite the almost insurmountable social and educational distance between her and her caregivers, they managed to bond and facilitate care. Although there were compromises with which staff were uncomfortable, the relationship was maintained and continues.  (+info)

Crack-cocaine users as victims of physical attack. (4/175)

This study evaluates the correlates of physical attack among people who use crack cocaine in Dayton, Ohio. Using a retrospective and prospective natural history design, data from baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews were used to calculate the prevalence of physical attack and the annual rate of physical attack suffered by 440 not-in-treatment crack-cocaine users. Logistic regression was used to determine the correlates of physical attack. The lifetime prevalence of physical attack was 63.0%; the annual rate was 36.8%. At baseline, daily crack users were more likely to report a previous attack since they began using crack (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.77). Longer duration of crack use was also associated with experiencing an attack (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14). Between baseline and 12-month follow-up, the odds of men being attacked were significantly less than those for women (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99). Physical attack is widespread among crack-cocaine users, and does not vary by ethnicity. Injuries often result in the need for medical care. Over the short term, women are at increased risk. Accessible and effective drug abuse treatment is needed to diminish the harm this population suffers.  (+info)

Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, methylecgonine, and norcocaine in human hair by positive ion chemical ionization (PICI) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (5/175)

A total of 30 human head-hair samples were analyzed for cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE), benzoylecgonine (BE), methylecgonine (EME), and norcocaine (NCOC) using a sensitive positive ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) method. All 30 hair samples had been previously submitted to the laboratory and had confirmed positive for cocaine. Hair samples (20 mg each) were cut into small segments (2-5 mm) and incubated overnight at 45 degrees C in 0.1 N HCl after the addition of 50 microL of an internal standard mix of COC-d3 (1.0 ng/mg), BE-d3 (0.5 ng/mg), EME-d3 (0.25 ng/mg), and NCOC-d3 (0.25 ng/mg). The samples were then extracted with Clean Screen extraction columns from United Chemical Technologies, Inc. The final extract was evaporated to dryness and derivatized with 50 microL of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and 50 microL of trifluoroacetic anhydride at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The derivatized samples were allowed to cool to room temperature, evaporated to dryness, and then reconstituted in 50 microL of ethyl acetate. Parent set masses (unbolded ions) and product ions were m/z 304 and m/z 182 and 82 (COC), m/z 307 and m/z 185 and 85 (COC-d3), m/z 318 and m/z 196 and 82 (CE), m/z 440 and m/z 318 and 105 (BE), m/z 443 and m/z 321 and 105 (BE-d3), m/z 296 and m/z 182, and 82 (EME), m/z 299 and m/z 185 and 85 (EME-d3), m/z 403 and m/z 386 and 105 (NCOC), m/z 406 and m/z 389 and 105 (NCOC-d3). Quantitation was accomplished by calculating the area ratio of the higher mass product ion (underlined ions) of analyte to the respective internal standard based on multilevel calibrations from 0.01 to 10.0 ng/mg. The GC-MS-MS method had a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/mg and a limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng/mg for all five analytes. COC, BE, and EME were detected in all 30 samples, and CE and NCOC were found in 19 and 29 samples, respectively. The average relative percentages of each metabolite normalized to the cocaine concentrations were 12.8%, 15.4%, 1.8%, and 2.5% for BE, CE, EME, and NCOC, respectively.  (+info)

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk factors among populations of drug abusers. (6/175)

A cross-sectional survey was conducted of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risky behaviors among 407 drug abusers in treatment facilities in 1998. Infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis were detected by testing serum antibody levels; chlamydia and gonorrhea were detected by testing nucleic acid levels in urine. Logistic regression analysis was performed to measure associations. Prevalences of antibodies were as follows: to HSV-2, 44.4%; to HCV, 35.1%; to HBV, 29.5%; to HIV, 2.7%. The prevalence of syphilis was 3.4%; of chlamydia, 3.7%; and of gonorrhea, 1.7%. Of the 407 subjects, approximately 62% had markers for 1 of the STDs. HIV infection was associated with African American race, use of smokable freebase (crack) cocaine, and STD history. HBV infection was associated with age >30 years, injecting drugs, needle sharing, a history of treatment for drug abuse, and African American race. HCV infection was associated with an age >30 years, injecting drugs, and needle sharing, and HSV-2 infection with an age >30 years, female sex, and African American race. Syphilis was associated with a history of STDs. High prevalences of STDs among drug abusers indicate the need for integration of STD screening and treatment into drug treatment programs.  (+info)

Hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, risk factors, and prevention opportunities among young injection drug users in Chicago, 1997-1999. (7/175)

The prevalence, risk factors, and prevention opportunities of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied in a large sample of 698 young adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Chicago, 18-30 years old. Participants were recruited between 1997 and 1999 by using street outreach, targeted advertising, and chain-referral methods. HCV infection prevalence was 27% and was strongly associated with both age and duration of injecting (P<.001). In multivariable analysis, sexual behaviors were unrelated to seropositivity. Independent drug-related risk factors included frequent injection, heavy crack smoking, injecting in a shooting gallery, and syringe-mediated sharing. Urban residents were more likely than suburban residents to be infected. Most research on hepatitis C has shown rapid spread of infection among IDUs, but these findings underscore that opportunities to identify IDUs uninfected with HCV may be greater than assumed and emphasize the need to target younger, newer IDUs.  (+info)

Sexually transmitted infections among HIV seropositive men and women. (8/175)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of identified STIs and recognised symptoms of STIs and their association with health status, substance use, and sexual risk behaviour in a sample of HIV seropositive men and women. METHODS: 223 men, 112 women, and five transsexual people living with HIV infection completed confidential surveys. Participants were recruited through community based services, community health clinics, and snowball (chain) recruitment techniques in Atlanta, GA, USA in December 1999. RESULTS: We found that (263) 78% of participants had been sexually active in the previous 3 months. For the entire sample, 42 (12%) participants reported an STI in the past 3 months and 40 (11%) experienced symptoms of an STI without indicating a specific diagnosis in that time. Gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and newly diagnosed herpes simplex virus (HSV) were identified at similar rates among men, whereas trichomonas, gonorrhoea, and newly diagnosed HSV occurred most often in women. STIs were associated with substance use in men and women, with "crack" cocaine users having the greatest likelihood of an STI relative to non-crack users. STIs were also associated with continued practice of sexual risk behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: This sample of people living with HIV-AIDS reported high rates of diagnoses and symptoms of STIs. There were significant associations between STIs, substance use, and continued high risk sexual practices in men and women. These findings support the need for studies that confirm prevalence of STIs using clinical laboratory tests.  (+info)

In this cross-sectional study, the researchers sought to classify a sample of HIV-positive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug ...
The short term effects of crack cocaine can be felt upon users initial hit of crack. The individual begins to feel the effects of crack cocaine immediately; they experience an increase in energy, temperature, mental alertness, heart rate, constricted blood vessels, as well as a decrease in appetite. These temporary effects of crack cocaine are as short lived as the users high. Because crack cocaine is smoked causing it to travel through the blood up to the brain much faster than cocaine which is snorted, the user experiences these short term effects more intensely. The duration and intensity of these short term effects of crack cocaine are based on the amount of crack cocaine that is used.. The long term effects of crack cocaine affect the user physically, mentally, and emotionally. An individuals long term effects from crack cocaine vary from person to person depending on their length and intensity of abuse. In general, the long term effects of crack cocaine include restlessness, mood change, ...
This study will evaluate the efficacy of an integrated Retention Clinic in achieving virologic suppression among HIV-infected cocaine (including crack) users by using a two-group randomized, prospective trial.. Participants will be randomized to one of two groups: 1) Retention Clinic group and 2) Treatment as Usual. The intervention content of these groups is briefly described below:. Retention Clinic (RC) Group: This group will receive comprehensive and integrated services from a Retention Clinic. Services include HIV primary care, substance abuse treatment and mental health services, as needed. Participants in this group will also receive hands-on assistance with navigating through the clinic and accessing these services from a patient navigator.. Treatment as Usual (TAU) Group: This group will receive no protocol directed intervention. They will get the standard retention services from their local clinic.. All participants will provide informed consent and will complete a baseline audio ...
This study will evaluate the efficacy of an integrated Retention Clinic in achieving virologic suppression among HIV-infected cocaine (including crack) users by using a two-group randomized, prospective trial.. Participants will be randomized to one of two groups: 1) Retention Clinic group and 2) Treatment as Usual. The intervention content of these groups is briefly described below:. Retention Clinic (RC) Group: This group will receive comprehensive and integrated services from a Retention Clinic. Services include HIV primary care, substance abuse treatment and mental health services, as needed. Participants in this group will also receive hands-on assistance with navigating through the clinic and accessing these services from a patient navigator.. Treatment as Usual (TAU) Group: This group will receive no protocol directed intervention. They will get the standard retention services from their local clinic.. All participants will provide informed consent and will complete a baseline audio ...
The health risks of crack cocaine smoking in public settings have not been well described. We sought to identify factors associated with public crack smoking, and assess the potential for a supervised inhalation facility to reduce engagement in this behavior, in a setting planning to evaluate a medically supervised crack cocaine smoking facility. Data for this study were derived from a Canadian prospective cohort of injection drug users. Using multivariate logistic regression we identified factors associated with smoking crack cocaine in public areas. Among public crack smokers we then identified factors associated with willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility. Among our sample of 623 people who reported crack smoking, 61% reported recently using in public locations. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with public crack smoking included: daily crack cocaine smoking; daily heroin injection; having encounters with police; and engaging in drug dealing. In sub analysis, 71%
This data collection compares a sample of persons arrested for offenses related to crack cocaine with a sample arrested for offenses related to powdered cocaine. The collection is one of two parts of a study designed to examine the characteristics of crack users and sellers, the impact of large numbers of crack-related offenders on the criminal justice system, and their effects on drug treatment and community programs. Official arrest records and supplementary data bases are used to analyze the official arrest, conviction, and incarceration histories of powdered cocaine and crack defendants. Questions addressed by the collection include: (1) How are defendants charged with crack-related offenses different from defendants charged with offenses related to powdered cocaine? (2) Is there a difference between the ways the criminal justice system handles crack offenders and powdered cocaine offenders in pretrial detention, charges filed, case dispositions, and sentencing? (3) How do the criminal ...
The present analysis compares HIV and HCV prevalence and associated gender-specific risk patterns of dual users (i.e., crack smokers who inject drugs) and never injectors. Two logistic models, one restricted to female and the other to male crack smokers, were constructed to identify gender-specific risk factors associated with dual use (p | 0.05). Of 437 crack smokers, 246 (56%) were dual users while 191 (44%) were never injectors.
On July 31, 2012, Washington sold .69 grams of crack cocaine to a confidential informant working with the Metropolitan Drug Enforcement Network Team (MDENT) in exchange for $100. The illegal transaction took place in Charleston. Also, on August 7, 2012, Washington met an informant at a predetermined location in Charleston and sold the informant 1.01 grams of crack cocaine in exchange for $200. On August 12, 2012, officers conducted a traffic stop of a vehicle that was occupied by Washington and an associate. During the traffic stop, a police dog gave a positive indication of the presence of drugs. Police searched the vehicle and found 241 grams of crack cocaine hidden inside of the center console. Washington had obtained the crack cocaine the previous day and admitted that he intended to sell it. ...
TORONTO (NEWS1130) - Toronto Mayor Rob Ford has admitted he has smoked crack cocaine.. Yes, I have smoked crack cocaine, the mayor told reporters at city hall today.. But am I an addict? No. Have I tried it? Probably in drunken stupors, probably approximately about a year ago, he adds.. I wasnt lying; you (reporters) didnt ask the correct questions. No, Im not an addict, and no, I do not do drugs. Ive made mistakes in the past and all I can do is apologize.. The mayor says he has made mistakes and all he can do now is move on. I can apologize to my family, my friends, my colleagues and the people of this great city.. Ford has been under intense scrutiny for months after two media outlets reported the existence of a video that they said appeared to show the mayor smoking crack.. Until today, Ford had denied he ever smoked crack cocaine and suggested the video did not exist.. Thereve been times when Ive been in a drunken stupor; thats why I want to see the tape. I want everyone in ...
STATESVILLE, N.C. - U.S. District Judge Richard L. Voorhees handed down yesterday lengthy prison terms to three individuals involved in a crack cocaine conspiracy, announced Jill Westmoreland Rose, U.S. Attorney for the Western District of North Carolina. John Fitzgerald Pumpy Michaux, 31, of Hickory, N.C., and Terron Juandre Wordle Michaux, 29, of Lenoir, N.C. were each sentenced to 168 months in prison followed by five years of supervised release. Jeremy Tank Dula, 28, of Lenoir, was sentenced to 80 months in prison and four years of supervised release for his role in the conspiracy. According to court records and yesterdays sentencing proceedings, beginning in 2013 and through September 2015 in Caldwell County and elsewhere, the three defendants engaged in a drug trafficking conspiracy involving more than five kilograms of crack cocaine. Court records show that over the course of the investigation, law enforcement seized approximately 400 grams of crack cocaine, three firearms, and ...
A vulnerable Luton man who was exploited by a friend to store drugs for him was spared jail by a Judge at Luton Crown Court on Friday.. The 41 year old mans solicitor Stephen Halloran said he had felt obligated to let his home be used for storing crack cocaine and some cash because he was in debt to the drug dealer.. Judge Stuart Bridge said he accepted the defendant had only become involved through naivety and exploitation.. The man pleaded guilty to conspiracy to supply crack cocaine and possessing criminal property. He was given an 18 month prison sentence suspended for two years with a twelve month drug rehabilitation requirement.. The drug dealer was jailed for five years.. The court was told that the drug dealer was caught after bragging to undercover police officers about the extent of his drug dealing.. It led police to search the friends safe house where they found some crack cocaine, £1,780 in cash and a mobile phone belonging to the dealer.. Solicitor, Mr Halloran ...
PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] - Women who are clinically depressed at the time they enter drug court have a substantially higher risk of using crack cocaine within four months, according to a new study. Because current but not past depression was associated with a higher risk of use, the study published in the journal Addiction suggests that addressing depression could reduce the number of women who fail to beat crack addiction in drug court.. We found that current major depression increased the risk of crack use, but depression in the past year that had gotten better did not, said Jennifer Johnson, assistant professor (research) of psychiatry and human behavior in the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and lead author of the study. This suggests that if the depression remits, the risk of crack use goes down. Screening for depression and effective depression treatment may be important components of drug court services.. Addiction and depression are closely associated, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999. AU - Santibanez, Scott S.. AU - Garfein, Richard S.. AU - Swartzendruber, Andrea. AU - Kerndt, Peter R.. AU - Morse, Edward. AU - Ompad, Danielle. AU - Strathdee, Steffanie. AU - Williams, Ian T.. AU - Friedman, Samuel R.. AU - Ouellet, Lawrence J.. PY - 2005/3/7. Y1 - 2005/3/7. N2 - Objectives: We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the second Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study (CIDUS II), a 1997-1999 cohort study of 18-30-year-old, street-recruited injection drug users from six US cities. Results: Crack-cocaine injection was reported by 329 (15%) of 2198 participants. Prevalence varied considerably by site (range, 1.5-28.0%). No participants injected only crack-cocaine. At four sites where crack-cocaine injection prevalence was ...
Crack cocaine is a powerful stimulant that often causes hallucinations, erratic behavior and significant urges to repeat use. Crack addiction is a difficult habit to kick.
Winter 1997. Crack Cocaine and Neglect. Experienced and new social workers alike understand the negative effects crack cocaine has on the families of those who use it. Many have seen the desire for this drug grow so powerful that parents think of nothing else, failing to attend to even the basic needs of their children. And yet what do we really know about the relationship between neglect and parental addiction to crack? More importantly, what interventions are effective for helping crack-addicted parents and their families? Crack. Crack is a form of cocaine that provides an intense, short-lived euphoria, or high. This initial high is quickly followed by a crash that involves anxiety, depression, irritability, extreme fatigue, paranoia, and a craving for another high (Pearce, 1997). Although studies show that cocaine and its derivatives are not physically addictive, prolonged exposure to the drug does create a psychological dependence, especially for intravenous users (Nicholi, 1983). Cravings ...
Despite widespread popular accounts linking crack cocaine to inner-city decay systematic research has analyzed the effect of the introduction of crack on urban crime. We study this question using FBI crime rates for 27 metropolitan areas and two sources of information on the date at which crack first appeared in those cities. Using methods designed to control for confounding time trends and unobserved differences among metropolitan areas find that the introduction of crack has substantial effects on violent crime but essentially no effect on property crime. We explain these results by characterizing crack cocaine as a technological innovation in the market for cocaine intoxication and by positing that different types of crimes play different roles in the market for illegal drugs. In a market with incomplete property rights and inelastic demand, a technological innovation increases violence on the part of distributors but decreases property crime on the part of consumers. We also find ...
Illinois Senator Dick Durbins Fairness in Sentencing Act 2009 is anything but fair to the thousands of inmates serving time for drug crimes in federal prisons. The Durbin bill, and the companion bill the House Judiciary Committee passed in July, will scrap the blatant racially biased sentencing for first time crack cocaine possession. The law currently requires that judges slap a minimum mandatory sentence of five years on anyone caught with crack cocaine. More than 80 percent of those sentenced for crack use are poor, ill-educated blacks. Those caught with the same amount of powdered cocaine, mostly whites, often middle-class and suburban, get probation and referrals to drug diversion programs ...
Toronto Mayor Rob Fords confessed criminal conduct including smoking crack cocaine should be front and centre in mayoral debates.
Ground. BARACK OBAMA - SUCH ATTORNEYS FAILED TO RESPOND - CRACK!. CONTINUED VIOLATIONS OF LAWS - CRACK!. HOMOSEXUAL BITCH - CRACK!. INVASION OF PRIVACY OF DHAVED KAPEL - CRACK!. BARACK OBAMA GIVING DAUGHTERS SASHA SUCH MELIA TO HAVE SEX WITH JUDGES SUCH JUSTICES - CRACK!. BARACK OBAMA GIVING WIFE MICHELLE OBAMA TO JUDGES SUCH JUSTICES FOR SEX - CRACK!. GUNSHOTS NEAR RESIDENCE OF DHAVED KAPEL - CRACK!. AIRPORT BOMB ATTEMPT TO CIRCLE, ASSASSINATE DHAVED KAPEL - CRACK!. TRUCK ATTEMPT TO RUN OVER DHAVED KAPEL - CRACK!. MARTA TRAIN PLOT TO CIRCLE, ASSASSINATE DHAVED KAPEL - CRACK!. HARASSMENT OF DHAVED KAPEL FOR WRITING SUCH BOOKS - CRACK!. ELECTRONIC INVASION OF DHAVED KAPEL SUCH RELATIVES SUCH FRIENDS - CRACK!. BARACK OBAMAS FALSE IMAGE TO SUCH RACE OF COLOR - CRACK!. ILLEGALLY RUNNING AMERICA - CRACK!. IN CONTEMPT OF COURT WITH INCREASED VIOLATIONS OF LAWS - CRACK!. YOUTUBE THREATS TO DHAVED KAPELS LIFE - CRACK!. SATELLITE TELEVISION THREATS TO DHAVED KAPEL - CRACK!. PERSONAL LAPTOP INVASION IN ...
Its not always easy to tell if someone is using a drug like crack cocaine; however, there are symptoms for which you might look. Cocaine, in particular, may be subtle, so if a person is only using occasionally or only using a small amount, the use might not be readily detectable. However, as the use of the drug grows, so do the signs of usage, and these symptoms can range from very slight, such as a nosebleed, to extreme, such as a heart attack.. Both cocaine and crack cocaine produce immediate and short-lived euphoria, which will make the user feel more energetic. In that sense, theres some similarity to caffeine, where the cocaine will cause alertness and reduce hunger. The psychological effects may be feelings of well-being, an increased, even grandiose, sense of power and ability, although this may be mixed in with restlessness and anxiety. When the drug wears off, the user might experience deep depression, and then a crash, wherein the user becomes lethargic, and, depending on the ...
CONCORD - Darrius Weekly, 25, of Manchester, pleaded guilty in federal court to distributing cocaine base, United States Attorney Scott W. Murray announced today.. According to court documents and statements made in court, between September 17, 2018 and November 7, 2018, law enforcement officers made five separate controlled purchases of cocaine base (also known as crack cocaine) from Weekly in and around Manchester.. Weekly is scheduled to be sentenced on January 10, 2020.. Crack cocaine endangers the health and safety of our citizens, said U.S. Attorney Murray. We are committed to working closely with our law enforcement partners to stop the distribution of this dangerous substance in the Granite State.. This matter was investigated by the Manchester Police Department and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. The case is being prosecuted by Assistant U.S. Attorney Charles L. Rombeau.. ###. ...
Crack cocaine addiction rehab is the first step to sobriety for those struggling with a crack cocaine addiction. Click to learn more about treatment options
Crack Cocaine research papers examine the sociological issues involved in drug addiction. Your research paper will want to focus on use, abuse and statistics of crack cocaine in America.
According to McLeods plea agreement, on September 13, 2013, Baltimore City police officers executed a search warrant at McLeods home. McLeod was in the home when officers arrived. Officers recovered: a baggie containing 12 red top vials of crack cocaine packaged for distribution; a loaded .357 revolver; two clear baggies, each containing 20 red top vials of crack cocaine; drug paraphernalia, including digital scales; and $756 in cash, organized in several stacks. McLeod told officers that the firearm, drugs and drug paraphernalia were all his and that he had recently purchased the gun on the street ...
On 8/1/2017 at approximately 2030 hours, while attempting to serve a Trespass Order at a residence on Canal Street, Officers observed Tasha Fuquay smoking Crack Cocaine and found her to be in the possession of Crack Cocaine. She was issued a Citation and is scheduled to appear in Windham County Superior Court to answer to the charges on 9/12/2017. ...
PROVIDENCE, R.I. - Jose Gomez, 26, of Pawtucket, has been ordered detained in federal custody following an investigation into Gomezs alleged trafficking of crack cocaine, including the alleged trading of firearms for crack cocaine, announced United States Attorney Peter F. Neronha and Daniel J. Kumor, Special Agent in Charge of the Boston Field Division of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF).. The investigation included three undercover purchases of crack cocaine allegedly from Gomez and a court authorized search of Gomezs residence. Inside Gomezs residence, law enforcement located a one-year-old child and a two-year-old child unattended in a bedroom where they also allegedly discovered approximately four grams of crack cocaine on a window sill.. Gomez is detained on a criminal complaint charging him with three counts of distribution of crack cocaine, one count of possession with the intent to distribute crack cocaine, one count of being a felon in possession of a ...
Our client was charged with possession of crack cocaine a schedule II drug as a class 4 felony and faced up to 6 years in prison as well as a mandatory revocation of his driver license (Mandatory in Colorado on many drug related charges). Our client was contacted during a routine traffic stop and allowed the police to search his vehicle. During the search the police found a baggie containing several grams of crack cocaine. Our attorneys contacted the deputy district attorney pointing out our clients lack of prior criminal history and his cooperation with the police on this occasion. They were able to negotiate a plea to a misdemeanor drug paraphernalia charge, $150 in court costs, 36 hours of public service and no loss of drivers license.. ...
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Claire Elizabeth Sterk is a Dutch scientist and President of Emory University. Sterk has been Charles Howard Candler Professor of Public Health at Emory since 2000. Sterk is a leading figure in both public health and anthropology studying addiction, mental health, and HIV/AIDS. She was the first person to identify the risk of HIV infection due to unprotected sex among crack cocaine users. Sterk is the author of two books-Fast Lives: Women Who Use Crack Cocaine and Tricking and Tripping: Prostitution in the Era of AIDS. She has also published more than 100 articles and book chapters. Sterk received a PhD in sociology from Erasmus University in Rotterdam in 1989 on her dissertation Living the life: prostitutes and their health and a doctoral degree in medical anthropology from the University of Utrecht. She became President of Emory on September 1, 2016. Prior to that time, she had served as provost and executive vice president for academic affairs. Internationally acclaimed public health ...
Ecgonidine (anhydroecgonine) is an alkaloid related to ecgonine and cocaine. It has a structure with a cycloheptene ring, with a nitrogen bridge, and a carboxylic acid side chain. Methylecgonidine is produced by pyrolysis in the process of smoking crack cocaine, and then subsequently metabolised to ecgonidine, and so these two compounds can be tested for as a specific biomarker for crack cocaine use. Ecgonidine is formed as a metabolite of methylecgonidine, and so the relative concentrations of the two compounds can be used to gauge how recently crack cocaine was smoked. If levels of methylecgonidine are higher, then the drug was smoked recently; however after a longer time period mainly ecgonidine will be present. Ecgonidine has a half-life in the body of around 94-137 minutes, and so can be used to detect use of crack cocaine up to 8-10 hours after the drug is consumed. Coca alkaloids Scheidweiler KB, Shojaie J, Plessinger MA, Wood RW, Kwong TC. Stability of methylecgonidine and ecgonidine in ...
Pubdate: Wed, 12 Mar 2003 Source: Vancouver Courier (CN BC) Copyright: 2003 Vancouver Courier Contact: http://www.vancourier.com/ Details: http://www.mapinc.org/media/474 Author: Mike Howell NEEDLE EXCHANGE NUMBERS DROP DRASTICALLY An increase in crack cocaine smokers, a sparse heroin supply and police enforcement could be reasons why the citys largest needle exchange distributed about 700,000 fewer needles to addicts last year than in 2000. Judy McGuire, manager of health outreach programs for the Downtown Eastside Youth Activities Society, said distribution of needles from the societys vans and centres dropped from 3.4 million in 2000 to 2.7 million last year. Its the biggest drop weve seen in years, said McGuire, noting her staff have told her more people are smoking crack cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and some heroin. Police, health workers and drug addicts acknowledge the increase in crack smokers in the Downtown Eastside, but note injection heroin use is still prevalent, despite ...
In the case, defendant Maxwell was arrested after he sold crack cocaine, powder cocaine and ecstasy to a confidential information. During the arrest, officers discovered about 13 grams of suspected cocaine concealed on his person. The defendant was charged with possessing crack cocaine with the intent to distribute. An analyst who had tested and identified the seized substance as crack cocaine retired before trial. One of his co-workers reviewed the data results from the first analysts tests. She also concluded that the substance was crack cocaine. The defendant, who had fired his court-appointed counsel, represented himself at trial with the assistance of standby counsel. The second analyst, Gee, testified that she determined the seized substance was crack cocaine. While she did not perform the primary analysis of the substance, but rather reviewed the raw data generated from gas chromatography and mass spectrometry tests performed by the first analyst. In particular, the second analyst ...
Objective: To define the relationship between crack cocaine use and human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection while controlling for other HIV risk factors. Methods: We performed a case-control study among inner-city pregnant women who were followed at a large urban hospital in Atlanta, Georgia; 79 of the women were HIV-1-infected and 525 were...
In one of the first studies to clearly link violent behavior and crack cocaine use, a new survey reports that nearly 50% of the callers to a nationwide cocaine hot line acknowledged committing violent crimes or aggressive acts, ranging from murder and robbery to rape, child abuse and physical assaults.
Both pure cocaine and crack cocaine are extremely dangerous, highly addictive, and cause overdose easily. Crack cocaine, due to the rapid onset of euphoria and extreme differences in dose, is slightly more dangerous. While powdered cocaine can be measured in specific doses, crack cocaine rocks have no uniform percentage of cocaine to other chemicals, so it is very easy to overdose accidentally. However, cocaine is often cut with other drugs, most recently fentanyl, which induces a much different high and can also quickly lead to overdose.. Both pure and crack cocaine are highly addictive and very dangerous, so it is important to get help overcoming addiction to these drugs as soon as possible. ...
Empire Deluxe Enhanced Edition Crack Cocaine -- http://tinyurl.com/ycfcnhuz. b84ad54a27 Within..a..few..short..years..in..the..early..and..mid-1980s,..crack..-..a..highly..addictive,.. smokable..and,..most..importantly,..cheap..form..of..cocaine..-..had ... Review:..FXs..Snowfall..Dramatizes..an..Origin..Story..for..Crack..Cocaine....Jul..3,..2017....on....July....4,....2017,.... on....Page....C1....of....the....New....York....edition....with....the....headline:....A....Drug ... Jan....16,....2011......Bad,... marijuana...in...Weeds,...bootleg...hooch...in...Boardwalk...Empire.......This....series....from....the....director....of....Boyz....N....the....Hood....is....about....the....drugs....impact....in....the.... ... ...
The same drug crime is being committed whether a person snorts powder cocaine in the suburbs or smokes crack cocaine in the hood. One form of cocaine should not be sentenced harsher than another. A federal law took effect this month that finally eliminates much of the disparity in prison sentences thats resulted in blacks disproportionately doing harder time. Punishment for breaking the law should be tough but fair. The new guidelines are a strong step in the right direction - but fairer isnt the same as fair. Congress should seek parity. Crack is the cheaper form of cocaine, and it is used predominantly by low-income people in urban areas. Blacks represent roughly 80 percent of those sentenced to longer prison terms for crack cocaine crimes.... Last year, Lanny Breuer, assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division of the Justice Department, testified before a Senate Committee that we cannot ignore the mounting evidence that the current cocaine sentencing disparity is difficult to ...
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The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of an HIV and drug addiction intervention on reported sexual transmission HIV risk and drug use among homeless persons in two treatments for cocaine addiction. The ARA-C study (n=104) included 74 (71.2%) men and 30 (28.8%) women with an average age of 37.8 (SD=6.9) years. Most participants were African American (90, 86.5%) and the remainder were Caucasian (14, 13.5%). All participants met criteria for homelessness, nonpsychotic mental distress, and admitted to smoking crack cocaine within the 2 weeks prior to treatment.
The state Senate on Wednesday approved a measure that would reduce the penalty for possession of crack cocaine for sale to the same as that for powder cocaine and make it easier to get probation for both. Sen. Holly Mitchell (D-Los Angeles) said her bill is necessary to address racial discrimination...
Crack, or crack cocaine, might harm or might even kill a person. An individual could become addicted to cocaine, but there are treatments that may help.
Crack is an extremely addictive substance, and must be treated as such. Those who are struggling with a crack addiction must recognize the strength of their problem, and be willing to seek help, as most cannot quit on their own. The first step of crack addiction treatment for most is a detox procedure. Withdrawal from crack results in severe psychological distress, usually including insomnia, anxiety, depression, and irritability. A detox facility may prescribe sedatives or painkillers in order to ease the discomfort. Withdrawing in a detox program is far more comfortable than withdrawing at home, and the cravings to use crack and ease the pain are lifted significantly.. After detox, the next step is attending a crack drug rehab center. At crack rehab the individual goes through therapy to take a closer look at the root cause of their addiction, as well as participates in counseling that aims to help them learn to live a healthier lifestyle. Inpatient treatment centers provide an environment ...
The doc focuses on the early days of hip-hop, examining how the culture became inexorably intertwined with the crack cocaine epidemic in the mid-'80s.. Based primarily on the first-person accounts of four famous dealers-turned-rappers, the film also widens its lens at points to show how crack changed America culturally, socially and politically, reveals a press release. Using rare footage, photos, and animation, all set to the beats and rhymes of the iconic hip hop tracks of the day, the documentary explores how media hysteria, racism and political reaction produced policies and laws that have left us with the largest -and most disproportionately African-American- prison population in the world.. 'Planet Rock' is executive produced and narrated by former gangsta rapper-pimp Ice-T. The two-hour special airs Sept. 18 at 10PM EST on VH1. ...
Following several characters whose lives will intersect in the violent world of the drug trade, Snowfall traces the beginnings of the crack cocaine epidemic in 1983 Los Angeles. Its a convincing representation of the 1980s with careful attention paid to the soundtrack and the style of the decade. With minimal reference to the politics of the era, the series instead focuses on the characters motivations. Making the story of cracks development a character driven
Crack cocaine is a substance that affects the brain chemistry of the user: causing euphoria,[6] supreme confidence,[7] loss of appetite,[6] insomnia,[6] alertness,[6] increased energy,[6] a craving for more cocaine,[7] and potential paranoia (ending after use).[6][8] Its initial effect is to release a large amount of dopamine,[2] a brain chemical inducing feelings of euphoria. The high usually lasts from 5-10 minutes,[2][6] after which time dopamine levels in the brain plummet, leaving the user feeling depressed and low.[2] When cocaine is dissolved and injected, the absorption into the bloodstream is at least as rapid as the absorption of the drug which occurs when crack cocaine is smoked,[6] and similar euphoria may be experienced.. A typical response among users is to have another hit of the drug; however, the levels of dopamine in the brain take a long time to replenish themselves, and each hit taken in rapid succession leads to increasingly less intense highs.[2] However, a person might ...
11/17/2010. Meghan King. This term, the Supreme Court will hear arguments on DePierre v. United States, a case determining whether the phrase cocaine base is limited to crack cocaine, or whether the phrase encompasses every form of cocaine that is classified chemically as a base. Mr. DePierre was convicted of distributing more than 50 grams of cocaine base under 21 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1) (2006) which created the sentencing minimums for punishing drug-related offenses. The statute provides a mandatory minimum 10-year sentence for offenses involving 50 grams or more of a mixture or substance…that contains cocaine base. The meaning of the phrase cocaine base has created a deep division between the circuit courts with four courts of appeals holding the phrase is limited to crack cocaine, while six courts of appeals have interpreted the phrase to mean all chemically basic forms of cocaine. If cocaine base is read to include any chemically basic forms of cocaine, those individuals who are ...
Crack & Cocaine Addiction Treatment Centers In Micronesia . List of all crack and cocaine addiction treatment facilities - ratings ,address, treatment models, maps, websites, and more.
This study was designed to address the practical and policy implications of various drug market participation patterns. In 1995, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) collaborated on a project called the Procurement Study. This study was executed as an addendum to NIJs Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program (DRUG USE FORECASTING IN 24 CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1987-1997 [ICPSR 9477]) with the goal of extending previous research in which heroin users were interviewed on various aspects of drug market activity. The present study sought to explore additional features of drug market participation and use, both within and across drug types and cities, and included two additional drugs -- powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Data were collected from recently arrested users of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and heroin in six DUF cities (Chicago, New York, Portland, San Diego, San Antonio, and Washington, DC). Each of the three files in this ...
By Kurt OrzeckLOS ANGELES (TheWrap.com) - Move over, Whitney and Bobby.Sinead OConnor is wasting no time elaborating on the reasons why she broke up with her husband after 16 days of marriage. One of them? Crack cocaine.The Irish songstress previously revealed she and fourth husband Barry Herridge went on a search for marijuana on the night of their wedding in Las Vegas.It seems the singers decision to bring her new husband, a drug-abuse counselor, along for a marijuana search in a seedy portion of Las Vegas on the night of their wedding wasnt such a great call.In fact, the way OConnor tells it, the newlyweds ended up with a drug somewhat harder than pot.Elaborating on the wild ride, she told British tabloid The Sun: We ended up in a cab in some place that was quite dangerous. I wasnt scared -- but a drugs counselor. What was I thinking?Then I was handed a load of crack, she added. Barry was very frightened -- that kind of messed everything up a bit, really.Crack aside, it doesnt sound like
Powdered cocaine is readily available in Indiana; crack cocaine is primarily available in the urban areas of the state, particularly in Bloomington, Gary, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, and Terre Haute. Prices for powdered and crack cocaine are stable. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Indianapolis District Office, powdered cocaine sold for $24,000 to $26,000 per kilogram, $900 to $1,000 per ounce, and $85 to $100 per gram in Indianapolis in the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2002. Crack cocaine sold for $700 to $900 per ounce and $10 to $20 per rock. The DEA Merrillville Resident Office reported that powdered cocaine sold for $18,000 to $24,000 per kilogram, $750 to $1,000 per ounce, and $70 to $100 per gram in northwestern Indiana in the first quarter of FY2002. Crack cocaine sold for $800 to $1,000 per ounce and $10 to $20 per rock.. Mexican criminal groups, street gangs, and local independent dealers are the primary transporters of powdered cocaine into Indiana. Mexican ...
PORTSMOUTH - A city woman is under arrest, accused of selling crack cocaine in and around Portsmouth Housing Authority (PHA) properties.
According to the Darlington County Sheriffs Office (DCSO) Special Enforcement Unit Willis Dorsey, a 29-year-old black male of Marion, was charged with trafficking crack cocaine and unlawful posses...
Ambridge police say Frank Lee Turner, 56, was mumbling with a fat lower lip after a vehicle he was a passenger in was stopped on Feb. 5.. While speaking with the driver of the vehicle, Turner got out of the truck, according to the police report and was asked to return just before a struggle ensued.. Not complying to the officers orders, Turner was hit with a stun gun causing a single piece of wrapped crack cocaine to come out of his mouth.. Police said they could see more white beneath his tongue.. After then hitting an officer over the head, knocking off his hat and sunglasses in the process, police say they used the Taser on Turner once more.. The action caused him to spit two more pieces of the drug from his mouth before he attempted to swallow the rest.. Tasering him a third time, 19 more pieces came out. Police in all collected 23 wrapped pieces ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crack-cocaine use accelerates HIV disease progression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users. AU - Baum, Marianna K.. AU - Rafie, Carlin. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Sales, Sabrina. AU - Page, Bryan. AU - Campa, Adriana. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: HIV infection is prevalent among substance abusers. The effects of specific illicit drugs on HIV disease progression have not been established. We evaluated the relationship between substances of abuse and HIV disease progression in a cohort of HIV-1-positive active drug users. METHODS: A prospective, 30-month, longitudinal study was conducted on 222 HIV-1 seropositive drug users in Miami, FL. History of illicit drug, alcohol, and medication use, CD4 cell count, and viral load were performed every 6 months. RESULTS: Crack-cocaine users were 2.14 times [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 4.25, P = 0.029] more likely to present a decline of CD4 to ...
Syphilis reemerged in Martinique in 2004 and initially affected 3 HIV-infected patients. By March 2008, syphilis was diagnosed for 37 men and 18 women. As of October 31, 2009, this outbreak had not yet been brought under control. It initially affected mainly men who had sex with men before it spread to heterosexual persons, minority group members, and crack cocaine users.
Reports on the latest research findings regarding a potential new treatment for heroin abuse; brain responses to drug abuse prevention ads; crack cocaine use and HIV/AIDS; a school-centered program to reduce drug abuse; brain adaptation responses to cocaine use; and more.
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Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term crack refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
The Court of Appeals affirms defendants conviction of possession of crack cocaine with intent to distribute, based on his possession of a 9.5-ounce, golf-ball-sized rock of crack cocaine. A police sergeant testified that the cocaine in question would have a .... Read More » ...
The heavy consumption of diet soda can be as damaging to the teeth as the chronic abuse of methamphetamines or crack cocaine, a case study recently published in the journal General Dentistry claims. The study compared the mouths of three adults: a woman in her early-thirties who drank 2 liters of diet soda every day for the past three to five years; A 29-year-old who had been addicted to methamphetamine for at least three years; and a 51-year-old who had previously abused crack cocaine for 18 years. Lead author Mohamed Bassiouny of Philadelphias Temple University found that each patient experienced nearly identical, severe tooth erosion due the high levels of acid in each drug. The American Beverage Association, which represents the soft drink industry, believes that likening carbonated beverages to illegal drugs is an unfair comparison.
39 Registered Nurse (RN) Raleigh, NC, USA Two years of experience as an RN in public health, hospital or long term care nursing. 3. Have a criminal background check. 4. Must be able to lift 40 pounds. 5. Requires a valid drivers license and ...... Apply Now>> ...
The Levy County Sheriffs Office made the following arrests: Eddie Lee Strong, 30, of Bronson, conservation animals, causing cruel death, tormenting/mutiliating to death. Bond $15,000. Karon Creal, 39, of Bronson, two counts domestic battery. Bond $7,000. John Theodore Creel, 42, of Bronson, aggravated assault with a firearm. Bond $2,500. Theresa Peterson, 44, of Inglis, disorderly intoxication. Bond $1,000. Sandra Kay Vecchio, 46, of Lake Worth, DUI. Bond $2,500. Leonard Anthony Johnson, 38, of Williston, possession of a controlled substance and possession of a controlled substance within 1,000 feet of a school. Bond $40,000. Tristan Stokes, 24, of Chiefland, burglary of an occupied dwelling and criminal mischief. Bond $7,500. Jimel Adams, assault, battery, resisting without violence, possession of crack cocaine, sale of crack cocaine, possession of ammo by a felon, DWLSR. Bond $57,500. Harold E. Carol, 54, of Trenton, aggravated assault with a deadly weapon. Bond $5,000. Ozzie L. King, 46, of
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It would be best if you could just stop, but you know thats not going to happen today anyway. Maybe harm reduction techniques make sense in the meantime? You may want to stop someday, you may never want to stop (At least thats how you feel...
The sad thing about this situation is they have been released to a bad economy, Jones said. Its hard enough for the average individual to find a job, but now its going to be hard for these inmates to survive, and Im just worried that if inmates get in trouble, society will say they shouldnt have been let out in the first place. Im glad it happened, I just dont like the timing of it. If they had done this a while back, when the economy was good, this would have given the inmates a chance to have a good shake. Today, some inmates wont be able to survive. Some inmates will commit crimes just to get back in there. I hate to say that, but it will happen ...
Image: Flickr/TMAB2003 Does anyone else think that it is highly sketch that Magic Shell ice cream topping is touted as a substance that freezes when it hits
A Steubenville drug bust resulted in drugs, including fentanyl, being removed from a home. The bust took place at 519 Grandview Avenue on Thursday night. Law enforcement from Steubenville, Weirton, Brooke County and Jefferson County were on scene.According
Chad Staton of Defiance County, Ohio, is charged with filling out 124 fictitious voter registration forms, some using the names of celebrities and fictitious characters, including Michael Jackson (the pop singer), Jeffrey Dahmer (the famous serial killer), and Disney character Mary Poppins. Staton was hired by Toledo resident Georgianne Pitts to collect legitimate voter registration forms from unregistered voters. Instead, he filled the forms out himself, according to Sheriff David Westrick. Deputies also allege that Staton was paid in crack cocaine instead of in cash, after a search of his house turned up drug paraphernalia and blank voter registration forms; Westrick says Pitts admitted paying Staton in crack cocaine. Staton is charged with a felony, false registration. Pitts says she was recruited by Thaddeus Jackson, the assistant Ohio director of the NAACP National Voter Fund (NVF). Greg Moore, the executive director of the NVF, says the organization is shocked by the allegations and ...
A year long joint investigation between the Orange Police Department Narcotics Division and the U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration has resulted in the arrest of a known drug dealer in the City Of Orange, TX.
Bail was set at $75,000 cash/surety Thursday in Circuit Court-Manchester District Division for Ayodeji Olorunfemi, 19, of Manchester, charged with felony possession of a narcotic with intent to sell.
A defendant who received a 16-percent reduction in his original 2005 sentence for distributing crack cocaine is entitled to a 16-percent reduction when the Alexandria U.S. District Court resentences him in 2008 under the revised sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine. .... Read More » ...
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The nonhomogeneity of concrete leads to randomness in the development and extension of cracks. Scholars have proposed different models to analyze the development of cracks. Different from existing works on crack development, in this paper, we establish a crack spacing model on the basis of the mechanical equilibrium relation of differential elements. We also establish a mechanical equilibrium model considering that the shrinkage of concrete is constrained by the bonding force of reinforced concrete. Then, on the basis of the equilibrium condition, we propose an analytical model of spacing between the first crack and the second crack at the interface of steel and concrete due to corrosion expansion. This calculation model has only three variables: tensile strength, effective constraint length of the reinforcement, and bond force. In addition, the parameters are clearly defined. We verified the development of cracks at the interface between steel bar and concrete under chloride corrosion at different
SOUTH HACKENSACK, N.J. -- This might land the big guy on the naughty list. A volunteer Santa Claus in New Jersey is facing drug charges after police found a crack pipe in his vehicle during a traffic stop, according to NorthJersey.com.
Gas permeability through damage networks in composite laminates is the key issue for the applicability of high-performance composites to the cryogenic propellant tanks of space launch vehicles. A simple model for the gas permeability induced by multilayer matrix cracks in composite laminates is proposed based on the leak conductance at crack intersections, which is an extension of the model by Kumazawa et al (AIAA J. 41, 2037-2044, 2003). Experimental evidence on the gas permeability mechanisms is summarized and reflected in the present model. In order to include the effects of applied loadings and damage sizes on the gas permeability, the leak conductance is assumed to be a function of the average crack opening displacements of the matrix cracks and the crack intersection angles. The leak conductance factor was empirically obtained as a function of the crack intersection angle, and the comparison of the gas permeability between the predictions based on the developed model and the experimental results
Looking for online definition of check cracks in the Medical Dictionary? check cracks explanation free. What is check cracks? Meaning of check cracks medical term. What does check cracks mean?
Horses hooves are susceptible to a variety of kinds of cracks including grass cracks, sand cracks, and horizontal cracks also known as blow-outs. A crack is a separation or break in the hoof wall and are identified according to their location as toe, quarter or heel cracks. Grass cracks begin at the ground surface and extend upward, while sand cracks begin at the coronet and extend down. Grass cracks often occur in unshod hooves when the hoof wall is not trimmed regularly and becomes too long when it cracks because of percussive force. Sand cracks usually occur as a result of cuts and injuries to the coronet. Too much moisture or repeated wet-to-dry circumstance that cause expansion and contraction of the hoof wall also lead to hoof wall cracks. In addition vitamin or essential amino acid deficiencies may be a contributing factor. Hoof cracks do not unite from side to side, but rather new horn starts at the coronary band and grows down much like the growth of a finger nail from the nail ...
Theres a plan circulating in San Francisco to make using crack cocaine safer: give away free crack pipes. It might sound farfetched, but its supported by science.. ...
A newspaper investigation suggesting that a CIA-supported drug ring introduced crack cocaine to Los Angeles is leading to calls for congressional hearings and a growing sense of outrage from African-Americans across the country. The director of the Central Intelligence Agency, John Deutch, ordered the agencys inspector general to look into the allegations - but he also has said he does not believe they are true.
Of all substance of abuse, the kind of cocaine abuse destructions in human life is very painful. Cocaine abuse effects on human health are growing very fast among the middle-class communities. According to a report released by a Police Foundation recently, it was stated that there are 120,000 regular users and 360,000 occasional users of cocaine, with 180,000 taking crack cocaine the report concludes. This drug is no respecter of anyone and social status is not a factor when it comes to drug addiction. Everyone is vulnerable and we must face the problem boldly without fear. Doctor Akoury MD, is a veteran addiction expert who is taking the initiative to help you get the best of your life in this article by focusing on the discussion topic which is destructions cocaine abuse cause on human health. The chilling revelations doctor Akoury is about to share with us are just but a very small fraction of what this drug is capable of doing in your life. It would be appropriate that even as you go ...
Crack cocaine is a form of ready-to-use freebase, so-called because of the cracking noise it makes when heated. It is produced by heating a mixture of cocaine powder with baking powder (sodium bicarbonate) or ammonia and water. Upon cooling, this cocaine takes the form of hard pellets or small rocks of a creamy white through to a beige colour according to purity and method of preparation. It is often sold in plastic bags or little vials, each one containing enough for two or three inhalations. Freebase and crack is usually smoked through a pipe made from a glass tube with a mesh or steel / copper wool at the bottom or even an empty soft drinks can with a perforated base. A flame held close to the rock produces a vapour which is then inhaled by the user. It can also be placed in silver foil ...
Crack wastes veins. Large poster 660 mm x 460 mm. Crack injecting is more dangerous to the veins and local tissues than injecting heroin because people inject it more often, it has a local anaesthetic effect and because the solution is often very acidic (because too much has been added to get the drug to dissolve) and therefore causes significant additional vein damage. The crack wastes veins poster that conveys this risk, and encourages crack and speedball users towards stopping, or using less dangerous routes of administration.. For free pdf download of this publication, click here ...
An experimental study has been conducted to study the crack growth phenomenon that occurs while drilling fiber-reinforced composite materials (FRCM), specifically unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber/epoxy resin. It uses an experimental setup that exploits the technology of video to understand the complete crack growth phenomenon as the drill emerges from the exit side of the workpiece. Significant damage mechanisms are observed and defined, and correlations between the average exit drill forces and the crack tip position are shown. Instantaneous forces as they vary along the orientation of the cutting edges are identified in terms of their contribution to the crack propagation.. ...
My LO will be 7 months this week, and Im happy to say that I am still bfing. We had a rough time early on but I was/am committed to bfing. He had a tongue tie that was corrected at 1 week, but not before giving me terrible pain along with a crack and mastitis (both on the R side). After 2 months, the crack healed up. But then I used gentian violet to treat for yeast and developed a crack on the L. That was about 4 months ago and the crack still wont heal! Ive been using the Jack Newman
... cocaine and crack cocaine use doubled in the city between 1986 and 1987. A private study estimated that one in six African ... Haley, John (2009). "Crack Cocaine". In Golden, Robert N.; Peterson, Fred L. (eds.). The Truth About Drugs. New York: Facts on ... By this time, Washington, D.C., was suffering from an epidemic of crack cocaine use. The drug made an appearance in the United ... By 1990, the District of Columbia had the nation's highest rate of drug addiction (32.9 per 1,000 residents). The crack cocaine ...
"CIA-Contra-Crack Cocaine Controversy". Retrieved 10 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Reagan Says Saudi ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Contras, Cocaine, and Covert Operations". Retrieved 10 April 2015. CS1 maint: ...
It contains crack cocaine and cash. Steve finds it in their place and steals it. When J.T. shows up looking for it, it's ...
Rose and Jay-Z talked about how the rapper used to sell crack cocaine. Rose asked "You never used it?" Jay-Z responded "No. ... Crack cocaine? No. [laughter] Come on, man. [more laughter] That's hardcore, man. A little weed. Ballantine Ale. Guinness Stout ...
"Rob Ford Admits to Smoking Crack Cocaine". Global News. Casey, Liam (November 5, 2013). "One bad day in the life of the Ford ... asked the question that resulted in Ford's admission of crack cocaine use while mayor. During an investigation he uncovered ...
Fryer, Roland (April 2006). "Measuring Crack Cocaine and Its Impact" (PDF). Harvard University Society of Fellows: 3, 66. ... The crack epidemic had a destabilizing impact on families with an increase in the number of children in foster care. In 1986, ... and crack addiction impacted communities and families. Between 1984 and 1989, the homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 ... Gen Xers came of age or were children during the 1980s crack epidemic, which disproportionately impacted urban areas as well as ...
... the rise of the crack cocaine epidemic; the rapid growth of development in Emeryville; the passage of the anti-immigration ...
... starting thinking about the crack cocaine epidemic...started thinking about all the injustices and atrocities that my people go ... "possession of cocaine with intent to distribute, possession of a firearm for drug trafficking and possession of a firearm by a ...
"The crack cocaine of online auction websites", and stated that "in essence, what your 60¢ bidding fee gets you at Swoopo is a ... The crack cocaine of auction sites". Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009. Oswald, Ed (17 ...
"Cops: Hershey's Mints Are Crack Cocaine-y". Gothamist. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-03. KXAS-TV ...
Nicholas Mormando became hooked on crack cocaine. Sammy later said about Nicholas: He became like a renegade. He went berserk. ...
"Crack cocaine teacher allowed to keep job". The Telegraph. Sugden, Joanna (10 April 2009). "Michael Swann, teacher arrested for ... was arrested and cautioned by police for possession of crack cocaine. The General Teaching Council for England subsequently ... Vaughan, Richard (10 April 2009). "Teacher in nightclub crack arrest goes unpunished by GTC". Times Educational Supplement. " ... Academy Former grammar school New academy in May 2009 Academy plans in May 2009 27 year old science teacher possessing cocaine ...
These include crack cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and PCP. A small number of psychedelic drugs are also smoked, including ... "crack" - a solid, smokable form of cocaine that could be sold in smaller quantities to more people. This trend abated in the ... DoJ-DEA-History-1985-1990 Archived 25 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine "Cracked up". salon.com. Archived from the original ... In the early 1980s, organized international trafficking of cocaine grew. However, overproduction and tighter legal enforcement ...
From 1998 until 2005, he used crack cocaine. In the Summer of 2005, Sheptock hiked from Gainesville, Florida-where he had been ... where he stayed in Logan Circle Park-was his last night using crack cocaine. In 2006, around the time the future of Franklin ...
... to smoking crack cocaine. On June 11, 2013, Toronto City Council passed a motion asking the Government of Ontario to give ... "Rob Ford : 'Yes, I have smoked crack cocaine.' , Toronto Star". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 5, 2013. http://app.toronto.ca ... "How the Rob Ford crack scandal could save Toronto , Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-09-22. Anderson, Mitchell (2013- ... 11-11). "While the Crack Pipe's Hot, De-Amalgamate Toronto , The Tyee". Retrieved 2016-09-22. "Local issues a priority for ...
Marco Vernaschi (30 June 2009). "Guinea Bissau: Crack and prostitution, cocaine's other face". Pulitzer. Retrieved 13 April ... Poverty leads many women to be tempted into prostitution and cocaine addiction. Many of the prostitutes in Bissau and other ...
ISBN 0-312-14436-9. "Wow! After Smoking Crack Cocaine, Vanity Says Jesus Came To Her And Said..." I Love Old School Music. ... Due to kidney problems from her 10-year crack cocaine addiction, Matthews had to undergo peritoneal dialysis five times a day ( ... Matthews was addicted to crack cocaine at the time. On her first anniversary of sobriety, Matthews married football player ...
She became addicted to crack cocaine while living in Watts, Los Angeles. She eventually was arrested and jailed for crack ... cocaine. She went in and out of prison six times during the 1980s and the 1990s, each time she was released with limited money ...
The series examined the origins of the crack cocaine trade in Los Angeles and claimed that members of the anti-communist Contra ... It was published in 1998 as Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion. A revised version was ... When Ross discovered the market for crack in Los Angeles, he began buying cocaine from Blandón. Blandón and Meneses' high- ... ISBN 1-57392-972-7. Webb, Gary (1998). Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion. Seven Stories ...
Greene struggled with heroin and cocaine addiction in the 1990s. In 2007, Greene was arrested for possessing crack cocaine. ...
She struggled financially, and became addicted to crack cocaine. Cruz then began working at the Cobble Hill Nursing Home in ...
It outlined a 100-1 discrepancy in prison terms for crack versus powder cocaine. An individual caught with 5 g of crack cocaine ... Time termed crack "the issue of the year." Stories written about crack featured terms like "welfare queen," "crack babies" and ... Crack cocaine hit the streets of the United States in 1985. A decline in legitimate inner-city employment opportunities led ... "ACLU Releases Crack Cocaine Report, Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Deepened Racial Inequity in Sentencing". American Civil ...
He died of a crack cocaine overdose in 2008. Her first novel, Good in Bed, is loosely based on her young-adult life: like the ...
For example, up until 2012, crack cocaine carried penalties one hundred times more severe than cocaine despite the fact that ... Especially in urban black communities, convictions were nearly exclusively for crack, while cocaine use is statistically much ... Coyle, Michael (2002-11-22). "Race and class penalties in crack cocaine sentencing" (PDF). Sentencing Project. Archived from ... of selling crack cocaine receive equal sentences to those convicted of selling 100 times the same amount of powder cocaine. ...
... had become hooked on crack cocaine and cocaine. Sammy Gravano suspected that Mormando also got his friend ...
Jeng, Jonah (May 11, 2017). "FX Crack Cocaine Drama Snowfall Receives Two Exuberant New Promos". Paste. Retrieved June 21, 2017 ...
Taite had previously overcome his own addiction to crack cocaine. According to former CEO Richard Taite, Cliffside Malibu has ...
Steinberg departed and returned several times, sometimes freebasing crack cocaine. According to initial police reports, ...
Singer, Merrill 2011 The Infectious Disease Syndemics of Crack Cocaine. Journal of Equity in Health (in press). Singer Merrill ... "Depressive Symptoms and Food Insufficiency Among HIV-Infected Crack Users in Atlanta and Miami". AIDS and Behavior. 15 (7): ...
... followed by cocaine and crack. From the study; 74% had used marijuana, 36% had snorted cocaine, and 21% had used crack. Youth ... involved in trafficking reported it to be very easy to obtain cocaine. Criminal penalties for youths, who make up a significant ...
... crack cocaine was associated with violent crime; youth were more likely to be drawn to crack cocaine; crack cocaine was ... Smith claimed that the severe sentences for crack cocaine were justified by a high correlation between crack cocaine arrests ... Dvorak, Richard (1999-2000), Cracking the Code: De-Coding Colorblind Slurs during the Congressional Crack Cocaine Debates, 5, ... for powder cocaine. The organization also stated that the enhanced penalties for crack cocaine "have proven useful, and a ...
"Joining the police crack-down on banned drug khat". Channel 4 News. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2015.. ... Coca, a herb used for elaboration of cocaine and traditional chewing.. *Phenylpropanolamine ...
... has a half-life in the body of around 94-137 minutes, and so can be used to detect use of crack cocaine up to 8-10 ... Methylecgonidine is produced by pyrolysis in the process of smoking crack cocaine, and then subsequently metabolised to ... and so these two compounds can be tested for as a specific biomarker for crack cocaine use. Ecgonidine is formed as a ... and so the relative concentrations of the two compounds can be used to gauge how recently crack cocaine was smoked. If levels ...
Teresa Banks is a 17-year-old drifter and cocaine addict. Her murder in Deer Meadow, Washington, precedes that of Laura Palmer ... Gordon Cole mentions that he cracked the Whitman case. He is portrayed as being somewhat stiff and inflexible, in contrast to ... She was a cocaine addict, a victim of incest, and a teenage prostitute. It is also revealed that she was manipulative and ... Howard was supplying Bobby with cocaine to be sold in Twin Peaks; when an inebriated Laura yanked the drugs out of his hands, ...
Furthermore, for sex workers at 16 to 19 years of age, over 70% of them have experienced cannabis, cocaine, and crack cocaine. ... There are also trapping factors: injecting any kind of substance into their body, using hard drugs such as crack cocaine or ... of women that are involved with street prostitution in the UK are heroin or crack cocaine users. Prostitutes who reported a ... Cocaine and other stimulants have also been reported to increase the confidence of streetwalkers' ability to talk to strangers ...
While many CA members have been addicted to cocaine, crack, speed or similar substances, identifying specifically as a cocaine ... Cocaine Anonymous (January 1993). Hope, Faith and Courage: Stories from the Fellowship of Cocaine Anonymous. Los Angeles, ... "Superior efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for urban crack cocaine abusers: Main and matching effects". Journal of ... Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a twelve-step program for people who seek recovery from drug addiction. CA is patterned very closely ...
On May 2, 2008, he won an appeal for a re-sentencing due to changes in sentencing guidelines regarding crack cocaine. 1995: One ... "Cocaine Rap"". SOHH. February 20, 2007. "20080502_0001304.C05 - United States v. Burns, IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS ...
"Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 20, 2010 ... was made by Mueller that the profit margin on adulterated olive oil was three times that on the illegal narcotic drug cocaine. ...
Pen Lucy has been crippled by an infestation of drugs, including Crack Cocaine and Heroin. Crack and Heroin have been reported ...
Cocaine analogues[edit]. Main article: List of cocaine analogues. Hundreds of cocaine analogues have been created, all of them ... Main article: Cocaine. Cocaine is an SNDRI. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the mountain ... In Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is a white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a ... Trozak D, Gould W (1984). "Cocaine abuse and connective tissue disease". J Am Acad Dermatol. 10 (3): 525. doi:10.1016/S0190- ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure. * Neonatal withdrawal syndrome. *Parental child abduction. * Parental rights. *Parenting plan ...
... and in the mid-1980s he began using crack cocaine. He continued its use for more than a decade, but insisted he was not ...
... methamphetamine crack cocaine black tar heroin phencyclidine (PCP) synthetic cannabinoids (see also: synthetic cannabis) ...
Cocaine and crack cocaine. *Methamphetamine. *Heroin. Sometimes, people also dissolve prescription medications in water and ...
In August 1995, voodoo practitioners held a ritual in Bywater to try to drive away crack cocaine abuse, burglaries, ...
Mayor Marion Barry smoking crack cocaine was made public), which made it difficult to get word about the raffle out to the ... Weeds grew throughout the Hemicycle, and the sidewalk was cracked and broken in numerous places. The Hemicycle also leaked, and ...
Such myths included ideas such as cocaine induced Black men to rape White women, cocaine improved Black marksmanship, and ... According to U.S. Sentencing Commission figures, no class of drug is as racially skewed as crack in terms of numbers of ... "Nigella Lawson stopped from boarding flight to US after cocaine confession". The Guardian. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2015-07-05. ... from 1988 to 1995 not a single white person was charged with crack-related crimes in 17 states, including major cities such as ...
Considering that nicotine and other psychoactive substances such as cocaine activate similar psycho-pharmacological pathways,[ ... cocaine, heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to confront substance dependence, if present, and ...
"Furanyl-Fentanyl Overdose Events Caused by Smoking Contaminated Crack Cocaine - British Columbia, Canada, July 15-18, 2016". ...
He cites the criminalization of crack cocaine (which is typically associated with black communities) and lack of similar ... One such example is the difference in sentencing between crack and cocaine, which are essentially the same drug. Hart is ... but cocaine addiction has had notably less success.[22] Hart argues that the varied results across cocaine users needs to serve ... "Developing Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis and Cocaine Use Disorders"[edit]. In this review, Hart and Lynch discuss a variety of ...
... disparities in sentences associated with convictions for possessing or trafficking in crack cocaine compared to powder cocaine ... 2015 FEDERAL CRACK COCAINE SENTENCING The Sentencing Project: A 30-Year March Toward Justice To Build a Better Criminal Justice ...
Cocaine legality *Cocaine use. *Methamphetamine legality. *Opiates use. *Psilocybin mushrooms legality. *Salvia legality ...
... is set in Los Angeles in the 1980s and covers the early days of the crack-cocaine epidemic. The show is slated for a summer ...
... after Rowell thought he had paid too much for some crack cocaine. Wright, Mata and his girlfriend, Angie Perez, were in the ... He was convicted of the May 10, 1993 murder of Raymond Davey Mata in a Houston, Texas crack house. Rowell had gone to the house ... dead link] "Killer in Houston crack house shooting executed". Associated Press. November 15, 2005. [dead link] "Killer ...
117,000 worth of crack cocaine, he denied the charges. The exact charge was 'attempting to possess 1.17 kg (2.5 lb) of crack ... "Footballer denies cocaine charge". BBC Sport. 3 August 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2009. "Soccer star denies cocaine charge". BBC ... "Cheltenham crack Diamonds". BBC Sport. 6 May 2002. Retrieved 2 March 2012. "Lowe and Hall seal moves". BBC Sport. 25 March 2004 ... cocaine with intent to supply'. The Prosecution claimed he signed for the package under the fake name of "Kevin Brown" and ...
... selling crack cocaine to a European American informant planted by the police.[34] ...
... heroin is correlated with cocaine (r,0.4), and methadone (r,0.45) is strongly correlated with crack (r,0.5)[11] ... cocaine, caffeine, crack, ecstasy, heroin, ketamine, legal highs, LSD, methadone, magic mushrooms (MMushrooms), nicotine and ... Stimulants like cocaine increase alertness and cause feelings of euphoria, and can therefore make the performer feel as though ... Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, ...
en:Crack cocaine (34). *en:Cryptosporidiosis (22). *en:Cystic fibrosis (56) → 낭포성 섬유증 ...
For smoking crack cocaine, see Crack cocaine § Health issues.. Smoking can damage many parts of the body. ... However, due to the stronger withdrawal effects of ethanol, cocaine and heroin, nicotine may have a lower potential for somatic ... According to studies by Henningfield and Benowitz, nicotine is more addictive than cannabis, caffeine, ethanol, cocaine, and ... the same neuro-reward circuit activated by drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine. This suggests nicotine use has a ...
... the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine.[71] Since then, Coca-Cola uses a cocaine-free ... "Coca-Cola denies 'cracking' North Korea". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved August 11, 2013 ... Coca - cocaine. Although Coca-Cola denies usage of cocaine,[68] Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of ... "Cocaine Facts - How to Tell Use of Cocaine - Questions, Myths, Truth". thegooddrugsguide.com.. ...
Is crack cocaine illegal?. Yes, crack cocaine is illegal. Crack cocaine is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled ... What is crack cocaine?. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and powerful stimulant that is derived from powdered cocaine using ... Crack Cocaine. Fast Facts. Questions and Answers - What is crack cocaine?. - How is it produced?. - What does it look like?. - ... How is crack abused?. - Who uses crack?. - What are the risks?. - What is it called?. - Is crack cocaine illegal? Other ...
Mix - Eek A Mouse - Crack Cocaine & MarijuanaYouTube. * Eek a mouse - police in helicopter - Duration: 3:34. Richie garnica ...
Crack Cocaine - Verbatim Play Development on Indiegogo. ...
The powdered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street ... cocaine users. Crack cocaine use, which has been steadily declining since 1990, showed a significant decrease among 12th- ... Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, ... An estimated 2.1 million Americans were current (past-month) users of cocaine; 610,000 were current users of crack. There were ...
crack cocaine. Under the Dome: "Blue on Blue" Grady Hendrix Tue Jul 23, 2013 12:30pm ...
Crack cocaine is being injected - not just smoked - by a significant number of US drug users, reveals the first large survey of ... And health officials say the reason people turn to crack over powdered cocaine is largely down to cost. "Its a cheaper high," ... A slab "rock" of crack in Bridgeport sells for just $5, while a bag of powdered cocaine goes for $20. ... "But regardless, a crack injection is going to burn your veins.". Journal reference: Drug and Alcohol Dependence (vol 77, ...
Crack: Cocaine, Corruption & Conspiracy examines not only the personal devastation caused by the drug, but also the shadowy ... the crack epidemic tore through Americas inner cities like a tsunami, ravaging all in its wake. Decades later, the destructive ... Critic Reviews for Crack: Cocaine, Corruption & Conspiracy. All Critics (6) , Top Critics (3) , Fresh (4) , Rotten (2) ... Crack: Cocaine, Corruption & Conspiracy examines not only the personal devastation caused by the drug, but also the shadowy ...
Crack cocaine is a form of the drug that gives a very quick, intense high. Crack is made by cooking cocaine powder with baking ... Crack cocaine looks like white or tan pellets (sort of like gerbil or dry cat food). Both cocaine and crack are very addictive ... Cocaine & Crack: What Parents Need to Know. What It Is:. Cocaine is a white powder that comes from the dried leaves of the coca ... Crack is smoked in a pipe.. What It Does:. Cocaine is a stimulant, which means that it produces a fast, intense feeling of ...
For Cocaine Sale 5/14/13. Lesson for the day -- DONT SELL COCAINE OUT OF YOUR HOUSE ... OR AT ALL.Former "Days of our Lives" ... Cocaine Possession 6/10/11. UPDATE 10:03 AM PT: Sly did not make it to court this morning -- but his attorney did ... and told ... I Spent $5 Mil on Cocaine 2/22/13. Steven Tyler says he "snorted half of Peru" over the course of his drug-addled rock career ... 10:38 AM PST -- Storch tried to hide a baggie of cocaine in a trash can at the Cosmopolitan Hotel in Vegas before cops arrived ...
My Crack Cocaine. Psych Central. Retrieved on February 27, 2020, from https://psychcentral.com/blog/comfort-food-my-crack- ... Home » Blog » Comfort Food, My Crack Cocaine. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important}.time-read{color:#777;font-size:90 ...
Learn what crack cocaine is and how it affects the body and brain. ... Crack cocaine targets poor urban areas and carries incredibly high addiction rates. ... The new drug was called crack cocaine (crack), a powerful mind-altering substance that comes loaded with a sinister mystique ... Stories of crack babies, crack prostitutes and crack-addicted criminals filled the airwaves. Nearly 6 million citizens ...
One of them? Crack cocaine.The Irish songstress previously revealed she and fourth husband Barry Herridge went on a search for ... What was I thinking?Then I was handed a load of crack, she added. Barry was very frightened -- that kind of messed ... everything up a bit, really.Crack aside, it doesnt sound like the marriage was meant to last anyway.It felt like I was ... One of them? Crack cocaine. The Irish songstress previously revealed she and fourth husband Barry Herridge went on a search for ...
Critics say the sentencing disparity has had a huge impact on people of color, partly because crack cocaine is much cheaper. A ... The current law punishes crack users 100 times more heavily than powder cocaine users. ... Bill Eases Penalty For Crack Cocaine Possession The current law punishes crack users 100 times more heavily than powder cocaine ... "The reality is that crack cocaine and powder cocaine are the same chemical substance." ...
A man described by federal prosecutors as a onetime major crack cocaine dealer in Hempstead, supplying street gangs and others ... Prosecutors: Onetime major crack cocaine dealer sentenced. By ROBERT E. KESSLER [email protected] Updated January 27, ... Durham said Watson would buy cocaine from dealers in Atlanta and Washington Heights, and convert it into crack. Many of his ... A man described by federal prosecutors as a onetime major crack cocaine dealer in Hempstead, supplying street gangs and others ...
The powerful drug Fentanyl is showing up in crack cocaine and causing overdoses in people who did not know they were taking the ... 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Fentanyl, a powerful and dangerous synthetic opioid, is now showing up in crack cocaine and ... Fentanyl has been making its way into both crack and powder cocaine, Feinstein said. ... a Philadelphia hospital treated 18 patients for an apparent opioid overdose even though theyd only been smoking crack cocaine ...
Facebook: Crack Cocaine Of The Internet Nov 22, 2010 • 7:52 am , (0) by Barry Schwartz , Filed Under Social Search Engines & ... Its the crack cocaine of the internet.. Moderator, skibum, added a nice note comparing the value of a Google page view to a ... Home , Other Search Topics , Social Search , Facebook: "Crack Cocaine Of The Internet" ...
A video that appears to show Torontos mayor smoking crack is being shopped around by a group of Somali men involved in the ... The broker said he represented two Somali men who had supplied crack cocaine to the mayor in the Dixon Rd. area. The Star was ... A cellphone video that appears to show Mayor Rob Ford smoking crack cocaine is being shopped around Toronto by a group of ... The video was taken on a smartphone by a person who said he has supplied crack cocaine to the mayor. ...
Crowdfund the Alleged Rob Ford Crack Cocaine Video is under review. It is not accepting contributions. ...
And check out the audio of a conversation between Mama June and the tow truck driver after she was released -- she was trying to get her car out of impound. June sounds manic as she described what she says went down.
4-year-old tested positive for drugs after bringing home crack cocaine from daycare. October 11, 2018 ... Video of late Toronto mayor smoking crack now public. August 12, 2016 ...
More than 1,800 prisoners are eligible for release under new sentencing rules for cocaine-related crimes that came into effect ... Flood, like tens of thousands of other prisoners, had received a far tougher sentence for a crime involving crack cocaine than ... Flood, who has served 10 years in prison over crimes involving crack cocaine, had been scheduled for release in 2013. Under new ... Federal Panel Revises Policy to Ease Crack Cocaine Sentences JUNE 30, 2011. ...
... and animals given components of cannabis are more likely to overcome a crack addiction ... Crack users find it easier to give up when they take cannabis, ... Could cannabis help crack cocaine addicts kick the habit?. ... COMPONENTS of cannabis might help those addicted to crack cocaine to quit. Such people may find it easier to curb their usage ... Some of the first hints that cannabis might help curb crack cravings were anecdotal, says Curtis, who studied crack dealers in ...
... effects of cocaine, available treatments, how to help an addict and where to get help. ... Learn about the dangers of cocaine, how addiction starts, signs of addiction, ... Whats so bad about cocaine and crack?. Cocaine and crack are dangerous for many reasons. Cocaine and crack use can lead to ... Cocaine (Crack) Addiction Cocaine and crack are dangerous, addictive drugs that can lead to serious side effects including ...
Toronto Mayor Rob Ford says allegations he was caught on tape smoking crack are ridiculous, following reports that someone ... Toronto Mayor Rob Ford denies crack cocaine allegations. Toronto Mayor Rob Ford says allegations he was caught on tape smoking ... Toronto Mayor Rob Ford says allegations he was caught on tape smoking crack are ridiculous, following reports that someone ... which they say shows the mayor smoking from what appears to be a crack pipe. ...
Crack cocaine is an easier-to-manufacture form of freebase cocaine - the only difference between cocaine and crack is that the ... Recipes for crack cocaine are readily available online, and its a relatively simple task to convert cocaine into crack. You ... Crack is made by adding baking soda and water to cocaine and cooking the whole thing, usually in a spoon. ermingut/Getty Images ... According to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), crack rocks contain between 80 percent and 100 percent pure cocaine [ ...
"Chemically, therefore, there is no difference between the cocaine in coca paste, crack cocaine, and freebase - all are cocaine ... "Given crack cocaines sudden emergence and the similarities it shared with other forms of cocaine, this lack of clarity is ... cocaine base means crack cocaine could not have changed the outcome of todays opinion." (Parentheses and emphasis in original ... encompasses all types of cocaine in their chemically basic form, as well as crack cocaine, the Supreme Court ruled Thursday.. ...
A Missouri measure that would reduce the disparity in prison sentences between people convicted of crack and powder cocaine ... Lawmakers Equate Crack, Cocaine Sentences. Crack Possession Had Called For More Prison Time. Share ... Those with at least 24 grams of crack would face the same penalties as those with at least 450 grams of powder cocaine.Changes ... Those with at least 24 grams of crack would face the same penalties as those with at least 450 grams of powder cocaine. ...
Crack Cocaine - By: Kyli & Keely by Keely Nelson-Gray , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating ... What is crack cocaine? Crack cocaine is the crystal form of cocaine. ... History on crack cocaine. *People believe reports of crack cocaine abuse are commonly restricted in large cities with high ... How is crack cocaine used? Crack cocaine is smoked out of a glass pipe. ...
HollywoodNews.com , Crack cocaine Tag Archives: Crack cocaine. Brooke Mueller reportedly smoking pot, not doing cocaine. Wed, ... Mueller has recently been accused of using cocaine again as she allegedly seemed to be in possession of a makeshift crack pipe ... Also tagged: Awards Movies News Award, breaking news, brooke mueller, Chemistry, Cocaine, Dopamine reuptake inhibitors, Drug ... While she just finished a rehab stay, she was spotted holding what may have been a makeshift crack pipe, states TMZ. Mueller, ...
The FSA increased the amounts of crack cocaine that trigger mandatory minimum sentences for federal crack cocaine crimes, ... which reduced the differences in federal sentencing for crack cocaine compared to those for powder cocaine offenses. Prior to ... The FSA also directed the US Sentencing Commission to change the current drug weights for crack cocaine sentences in the US ... But, according to federal drug use surveys, 27 percent of crack cocaine users were African American and 65 percent were white. ...
  • The powdered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. (thebody.com)
  • Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. (thebody.com)
  • Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack or rock, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The base form of cocaine can be chemically processed to produce forms of cocaine that can be smoked. (camh.ca)
  • Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a freebased form of cocaine and can provide many of the same effects in a lower concentration. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • KISSIMMEE - ''Attack Crack'' week -- a state and local effort to heighten awareness about the highly addictive form of cocaine -- ends Saturday with three protest marches. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Narcotics investigators say the potent form of cocaine provides a quick, more powerful high. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • This form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal that is heated to produce vapors, which are smoked. (medicinenet.com)
  • Crack (also known as rock and freebase) is the smokable form of cocaine. (canada.ca)
  • Crack is a solid, smokeable form of cocaine powder. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • Initially a cheaper and more pure form of cocaine, crack enabled a more diverse group of people to access cocaine. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • Critics say the sentencing disparity has had a huge impact on people of color, partly because crack cocaine is much cheaper. (npr.org)
  • In a statement , Mr. Obama said that each of the eight men and women had been sentenced under what is now recognized as an "unfair system," including a 100-to-1 sentencing disparity between crack and powder cocaine offenses that was significantly reduced by the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 . (nytimes.com)
  • The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 reduced the sentencing disparity between defendants convicted of crack cocaine-related crimes and those convicted of crimes involving the powder version of the drug. (wislawjournal.com)
  • The Sentencing Project said in its report that the disparity is unfair to black drug users, who are more likely to be charged with crack cocaine offenses, and can lead to costly prison terms for nonviolent offenders. (kmbc.com)
  • In 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Fair Sentencing Act (FSA), which reduced the differences in federal sentencing for crack cocaine compared to those for powder cocaine offenses. (hrw.org)
  • Because of existing patterns of drug law enforcement, African Americans in the United States have disproportionately borne the burden of the far harsher sentences for crack offenses. (hrw.org)
  • In 2008, 80 percent of federal defendants sentenced for crack cocaine offenses were African American. (hrw.org)
  • The disproportionate number of African American drug offenders sentenced for crack cocaine offenses helps explain the far longer average sentence lengths for all African American federal drug offenders. (hrw.org)
  • WASHINGTON - President Obama, expanding his push to curtail severe penalties in drug cases, on Thursday commuted the sentences of eight federal inmates who were convicted of crack cocaine offenses . (nytimes.com)
  • They also carried a racial charge: Offenses involving crack, which was disproportionately prevalent in impoverished black communities, carried far more severe penalties than those for powder cocaine, favored by affluent white users. (nytimes.com)
  • According to Families Against Mandatory Minimums , about 8,800 federal inmates are serving time for crack offenses committed before Congress reduced mandatory minimum sentences, going forward, in the 2010 law. (nytimes.com)
  • The U.S. Sentencing Commission voted unanimously Tuesday to apply reduced sentences for crack cocaine offenses to 19,500 people behind bars, a move that could have a dramatic effect on Virginia. (dailypress.com)
  • CN) - A "cocaine base," as mentioned in sentencing guidelines for drug offenses, encompasses all types of cocaine in their chemically basic form, as well as crack cocaine, the Supreme Court ruled Thursday. (courthousenews.com)
  • In the absence of any indication in the statutory text that Congress intended only to subject crack cocaine offenses to enhanced penalties, we cannot adopt DePierre's narrow construction. (courthousenews.com)
  • It begins its discussion of the legislative history by saying that DePierre's position 'is not supported by the statutory text,' and ends the discussion by saying that "[i]n the absence of any indication in the statutory text that Congress intended only to subject crack cocaine offenses to enhanced penalties, we cannot adopt DePierre's narrow construction. (courthousenews.com)
  • The Supreme Court seemed split Tuesday on whether criminals who were arrested but not yet sentenced for crack cocaine offenses should be able to take advantage of newly reduced sentences. (wislawjournal.com)
  • They would wean themselves off crack by smoking it with marijuana. (newscientist.com)
  • Crack is usually smoked by heating it in a glass pipe, but it can also be mixed into a marijuana "joint" or a tobacco cigarette. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • An Arendtsville man was arrested Sept. 14 for allegedly intending to sell crack cocaine and being in possession of marijuana, according to an affidavit filed with District Judge Mark Beauchat. (eveningsun.com)
  • Arrested on Sept. 12, the teen faces charges of selling cocaine within 1,000 feet of a place of worship, robbery by sudden snatching, and possession of marijuana. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The Monroe County Sheriff's Office says three people were arrested Thursday evening after the agency's SWAT team carried out a search warrant at a suspected crack cocaine lab and turned up liquid cocaine, crack cocaine, marijuana and almost $3,000 in suspected drug proceeds. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • According to the sheriff's office, detectives found a ceramic cup full of crack cocaine weighing almost 90 grams inside a microwave oven, 23 crack cocaine rocks, a small amount of marijuana and $2,715 in cash. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Marijuana - A great number of those who smoke too much crack will attempt to "come down" with pot . (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • If the user has been smoking crack for several days and has not slept or eaten properly, marijuana is possibly going to cause hallucinations and/or paranoid reactions for the user. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Authorities found marijuana, crack cocaine, cash and powder cocaine on the driver fleeing officers when he slammed his car into a pickup, killing the 27-year-old driver of the truck, records show. (knoxnews.com)
  • According to Sheriff Fred Abdalla, $10,000 in cash, marijuana, crack cocaine and fentanyl were all seized at the home. (wtov9.com)
  • State lawmakers Wednesday gave initial approval to proposals that would reduce penalties for selling crack cocaine, require medical marijuana dispensaries to get state licenses and allow people in the country illegally to get student loans for college. (ctnow.com)
  • A search of the house revealed approximately 3 ½ cookies of crack cocaine and a small amount of marijuana. (kplctv.com)
  • Crack emerged as a drug of abuse in the mid-1980s. (justice.gov)
  • But in the 1980s, people began using baking soda to strip away the hydrochloride, forming a rock crystal, or crack, that can be smoked. (newscientist.com)
  • In the early 1980s, the crack epidemic tore through America's inner cities like a tsunami, ravaging all in its wake. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • In the 1980s, the so-called crack epidemic gripped America, garnering frantic headlines around the country and the Western world. (howstuffworks.com)
  • At the time the law was passed in the 1980s, cocaine use and crime associated with it were skyrocketing. (nytimes.com)
  • Some of the first hints that cannabis might help curb crack cravings were anecdotal, says Curtis, who studied crack dealers in the 1980s. (newscientist.com)
  • It was developed during the cocaine boom of the 1970s and its use spread in the mid 1980s. (smore.com)
  • We propose the rise of crack cocaine markets as an explanation for the end to the convergence in black-white educational outcomes beginning in the mid-1980s. (freakonomics.com)
  • Back in 1996, Gary Webb of the San Jose Mercury News broke a story stating not only that the Nicaraguan Contras - supported by the United States in a rebellion against their left-leaning government - were involved in the US crack cocaine epidemic of the 1980s, but also that the CIA knew and turned a blind eye to the operation. (rt.com)
  • A new study suggests that the emergence of the crack cocaine market in the 1980s fueled this downward trend. (americanradioworks.org)
  • Cheaper "crack" cocaine became available in the 1980s. (camh.ca)
  • In the 1980s, crack cocaine flourished and has long been a mainstay in the inner city but now things have changed. (thefix.com)
  • But just like crack in the 1980s, crystal meth now has the urban communities of LA in a chokehold. (thefix.com)
  • Mitchell cited a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Assn. that said the two forms of cocaine have essentially identical effects on the human body. (latimes.com)
  • Like other forms of cocaine, smoking crack can increase heart rate and blood pressure, leading to long-term cardiovascular problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his unsuccessful appeal to the 1st Circuit, DePierre argued that the minimum sentence applies only to crimes involving crack, and that the drugs he sold could not be properly established as crack since it had the same ingredients as other forms of cocaine base. (courthousenews.com)
  • Given crack cocaine's sudden emergence and the similarities it shared with other forms of cocaine, this lack of clarity is understandable, as is Congress' desire to adopt a statutory term that would encompass all forms. (courthousenews.com)
  • In 2010, Congress and the Obama administration amended the law to reduce the sentencing disparities between the two forms of cocaine to 18-to-1, and in 2018, lawmakers and the Trump administration made the change retroactive, affecting those still serving time under the original statute. (kunc.org)
  • Crack cocaine is an easier-to-manufacture form of freebase cocaine - the only difference between cocaine and crack is that the latter has its hydrochloride removed, increasing the melting point and making the drug smokable. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Once mixed and heated, the bicarbonate reacts with the hydrochloride of the powder cocaine, forming free base cocaine and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in a reversible acid-base reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of CO2 prevents the reaction from reversing back to cocaine hydrochloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crack vaporizes near temperature 90 °C (194 °F), much lower than the cocaine hydrochloride melting point of 190 °C (374 °F). Whereas cocaine hydrochloride cannot be smoked (burns with no effect), crack cocaine when smoked allows for quick absorption into the blood stream, and reaches the brain in eight seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, cocaine in its base form and in its salt form ( i.e. , cocaine hydrochloride) are chemically different, though they have the same active ingredient and produce the same physiological and psychotropic effects. (courthousenews.com)
  • Cocaine hydrochloride-the form in which cocaine is snorted or injected-is a white crystalline powder. (camh.ca)
  • Crack is cocaine base that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. (medicinenet.com)
  • It can be consumed as cocaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble salt, either sniffed or injected. (scielo.br)
  • and one count of having a firearm while in possession of cocaine. (dailypress.com)
  • In 1911, Canada passed laws restricting the importation, manufacture, sale and possession of cocaine. (camh.ca)
  • U.S. District Judge James Robart sentenced Deandre Bradford , 34, a member of the Kelly Park Crips, after he pleaded guilty to a charge of possession of cocaine base with intent to distribute. (seattlepi.com)
  • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. (thebody.com)
  • Cocaine is a stimulant drug that is made from the leaves of a coca plant and comes in the form of a white powder or a "rock. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Cocaine is a stimulant drug that can make people feel more alert and energetic. (camh.ca)
  • Currently possession for sale of crack cocaine calls for a sentence of three, four or five years. (latimes.com)
  • The Maine Drug Enforcement Agency says it arrested 65-year-old Reginald Gilbert following a 2-month investigation into the sale of crack cocaine near a school zone. (pressherald.com)
  • Goldenrod is joining with both departments to strengthen the area's effort to stamp out and prevent use or sale of crack cocaine. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • for distribution of crack cocaine. (justice.gov)
  • BLUEFIELD, W.Va. - A Charleston man was sentenced on June 25 to 18 years in federal prison for distribution of crack cocaine, announced U.S. Attorney Booth Goodwin. (huntingtonnews.net)
  • Jerome Moye , 32, pleaded guilty in February to one count of possession with intent to distribute, and distribution of, crack cocaine. (nhregister.com)
  • The commutations have come during a pendulum swing away from tough mandatory minimum sentencing laws enacted a generation ago amid the crack epidemic. (nytimes.com)
  • Florida Department of Law Enforcement Supervisory Special Agent Buck Buchanan, a member of the task force`s law enforcement committee, said liberal sentencing guidelines may be at the root of what that group considers a Palm Beach County crack cocaine epidemic. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In 1996, Webb published a series of articles that later became part of the book "Dark Alliance," which investigated the alleged link between the CIA, the Contras in Nicaragua and the crack-cocaine epidemic in South Los Angeles. (kqed.org)
  • Told through the eyes of a young black kid from Compton, a Mexican wrestler and a CIA agent charged with running money to the Contras, Snowfall will examine the beginnings of the crack cocaine epidemic in Los Angeles. (deadline.com)
  • Crystal meth is moving into the inner cities and it is quickly becoming an epidemic to rival the crack era. (thefix.com)
  • Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. (thebody.com)
  • Could cannabis help crack cocaine addicts kick the habit? (newscientist.com)
  • Crack addicts often continue to use crack searching for the extreme euphoria felt the first time crack was used. (healthyplace.com)
  • In the case of cocaine, addicts also report an intense motivation to try to obtain the "high" that they experienced the first time they ever used, but the intensity of that first experience is impossible to ever achieve through repeated use. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Mark Gold, a cocaine researcher who conducted the study, said violence during drug use shows the marked differences between crack users and heroin addicts, who tend to resort to violence in order to support their habits. (latimes.com)
  • Seeks to help addicts find alternative ways and treatment to stop the madness of smoking crack cocaine. (botw.org)
  • Signs of crack cocaine use are also typically signs of crack addiction as people who regularly use crack cocaine are almost universally addicts. (healthyplace.com)
  • A Canadian filmmaker creating a documentary on drug addicts found out just how fast crack works. (narconon.org)
  • Crack addicts often live marginal lives, with non-existent medical care and terrible diets. (narconon.org)
  • But as soon as the high wears off, crack addicts are likely to lose concentration and suffer severe mood swings . (narconon.org)
  • Effects of smoking crack only last a few minutes, but the intensity of the high increases its appeal to addicts. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • Through cognitive-behavioral therapy, recovering crack addicts are given a foundation for living a sober life. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • Binge-patterned cocaine use may lead to irritability, restlessness, and anxiety. (thebody.com)
  • Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocaine causes the blood vessels to thicken and constrict, reducing the flow of oxygen to the heart. (camh.ca)
  • 148 By adopting an 18:1 ratio, instead of equalizing the penalties attached to crack and powder cocaine, the measure that would be-come the Fair Sentencing Act assuaged these concerns and facilitated its enactment into law. (drugwarfacts.org)
  • Graham, Kyle, "Sorry seems to be the hardest word: The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, Crack, and Methamphetamine, "University of Richmond Law Review (Richmond, VA: Richmond School of Law, March 2011) Vol. 45, Issue 3, pp. 792-793. (drugwarfacts.org)
  • The guidelines reduce sentences for crack cocaine possession. (hrw.org)
  • The case stems from changes to the 1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act, which put in place sentences for crack cocaine possession that were 100 times more severe than those for the powered form of the drug. (kunc.org)
  • I think they were much too high," said Justice Stephen Breyer, one of the court's more liberal members, of the tough sentences for crack cocaine possession. (kunc.org)
  • There are many health side effects of cocaine use. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • With regular use, people may become tolerant to the euphoric effects of cocaine. (camh.ca)
  • The effects of cocaine can be different from person to person, and also from one use to the next. (canada.ca)
  • Smoking crack cocaine delivers large quantities of the drug to the lungs, producing an immediate and intense euphoric effect. (justice.gov)
  • Individuals of all ages use crack cocaine--data reported in the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicate that an estimated 6,222,000 U.S. residents aged 12 and older used crack at least once in their lifetime. (justice.gov)
  • The survey also revealed that hundreds of thousands of teenagers and young adults use crack cocaine--150,000 individuals aged 12 to 17 and 1,003,000 individuals aged 18 to 25 used the drug at least once. (justice.gov)
  • Cocaine, in any form, is a powerfully addictive drug, and addiction seems to develop more quickly when the drug is smoked--as crack is--than snorted--as powdered cocaine typically is. (justice.gov)
  • In order to sustain the high, a cocaine abuser has to administer the drug again. (thebody.com)
  • When people consume two or more psychoactive drugs together, such as cocaine and alcohol, they compound the danger each drug poses and unknowingly perform a complex chemical experiment within their bodies. (thebody.com)
  • Crack cocaine is being injected - not just smoked - by a significant number of US drug users, reveals the first large survey of the practice. (newscientist.com)
  • And sometime in the mid-1990s, people began mixing crack with vinegar or other acids to make an injectible form of the drug. (newscientist.com)
  • Crack: Cocaine, Corruption & Conspiracy examines not only the personal devastation caused by the drug, but also the shadowy origins of the crisis and the resultant, ongoing marginalization of Black and Brown people trapped by the U.S. prison and healthcare systems. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • Crack cocaine is a form of the drug that gives a very quick, intense high. (kidshealth.org)
  • Then it wears off (crack wears off very quickly) and the user feels depressed and nervous and craves more of the drug to feel good again. (kidshealth.org)
  • In a press conference this afternoon about the arrest of Lindsay Lohan, cops say they found a "usable amount" of a drug at the scene, which they say was cocaine. (tmz.com)
  • But by the end of the 1970s, cocaine was the popular drug - so popular and so cheap - that dealers weren't making the kind of money that they used to. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 55 percent of past-month crack users were white and 37 percent were black. (howstuffworks.com)
  • And it goes up from there astronomically to where you're at a life sentence before you can bat an eye with crack cocaine," she said, "Whereas you have to have 5 kilos of powder cocaine, so it's literally 100 times more severe penalty for the same amount of drug. (npr.org)
  • Between 2012 and 2016 there's been a 23-fold increase in the number of deaths involving cocaine in combination with synthetic opioids, according to the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse . (webmd.com)
  • A cellphone video that appears to show Mayor Rob Ford smoking crack cocaine is being shopped around Toronto by a group of Somali men involved in the drug trade. (thestar.com)
  • Mr. Flood, like tens of thousands of other prisoners, had received a far tougher sentence for a crime involving crack cocaine than he would have if the drug had been in powdered form - a disparity commonly referred to as 100 times greater for crack than for powder. (nytimes.com)
  • Across the studies, 3000 people with a history of drug use completed questionnaires detailing their habits, including whether they had started taking cannabis with the intention of reducing their crack cravings. (newscientist.com)
  • Drug dealers mix cocaine with other substances so they can have more of the drug to sell. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • These "fillers" make the drug even more dangerous because the user does not know how much cocaine he or she is taking or what fillers may have been used. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • When a person smokes crack (or powder via freebase) cocaine, the drug reaches the brain more rapidly and in higher peak doses than when it is snorted in powder form. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Repeated overloading of this brain circuit by cocaine causes changes in the brain in which nothing seems pleasurable without the drug. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Those with at least 24 grams of crack would face the same penalties as those with at least 450 grams of powder cocaine.Changes to Missouri drug laws were included in broad legislation dealing with the state's judiciary. (kmbc.com)
  • This bill is monumental in its scope," said House Majority Leader Tim Jones, R-Eureka.Federal drug laws in 2010 were changed to more closely align prison sentences for crack and powder cocaine. (kmbc.com)
  • Federal drug laws in 2010 were changed to more closely align prison sentences for crack and powder cocaine. (kmbc.com)
  • Crack Cocaine was the primary drug of abuse in 178,475 admissions to treatment in 2006. (smore.com)
  • The FSA also directed the US Sentencing Commission to change the current drug weights for crack cocaine sentences in the US Sentencing Guidelines. (hrw.org)
  • But, according to federal drug use surveys, 27 percent of crack cocaine users were African American and 65 percent were white. (hrw.org)
  • The search also yielded powdered cocaine, about 50 crack rocks, pot, 33 Seroquel pills, scales and $984 in suspected drug proceeds, according to the report. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Police allege Neworb N. Brown ran a drug ring that sold crack cocaine in Edgewood. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A legally blind Middle River man Harford County authorities allege is a drug 'kingpin' at the head of an organization that transported, manufactured and sold crack cocaine between New York and Harford County, is being held in the Harford County Detention Center on $100,000 bail. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A Los Angeles police officer counts the number of doses of crack cocaine, as he files an evidence police report after a drug related arrest in the skid row area of downtown Los Angeles. (latimes.com)
  • In my opinion, the only practical solution to the racial disparity in cocaine sentencing, and to a failed but unending and costly drug war, is to lower the penalties associated with both forms while investing in effective prevention and rehabilitation to reduce demand,' Mitchell told her colleagues. (latimes.com)
  • Crack cocaine is commonly used as a recreational drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • When (powder) cocaine is dissolved and injected, the absorption into the bloodstream is at least as rapid as the absorption of the drug which occurs when crack cocaine is smoked, and similar euphoria may be experienced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite a 1986 LA County arrest warrant detailing allegations that Brandon "filtered" drug money to the Contras, other newspapers dismissed Webb's allegation that the Contras' drug trafficking operation directly impacted the increased use of crack in the US - primarily, they said, because Blandon split off from the group and ran his own drug venture. (rt.com)
  • BIDDEFORD - The Maine Drug Enforcement Agency and Biddeford police joined with federal officials to charge a local woman with aggravated trafficking in crack cocaine. (pressherald.com)
  • The Maine Drug Enforcement Agency arrested a 65-year-old Biddeford man this week for allegedly selling crack cocaine in a school zone. (pressherald.com)
  • Reginald Gilbert faces one count of aggravated trafficking in schedule W drugs as the result of a two-month investigation in which police say undercover agents with the Maine Drug Enforcement Agency made several purchases of crack cocaine from Gilbert while he was in a school zone. (pressherald.com)
  • The survey, conducted among 600 callers to the national toll-free cocaine hot line last fall, buttresses the argument of law enforcement officials that the current wave of drug-related violence now sweeping the District of Columbia and other cities is primarily attributable to the rapid spread of crack cocaine that began three years ago. (latimes.com)
  • The introduction of crack cocaine into the Williamsburg area five years ago has fueled a 16-fold increase in felony drug convictions here, and the trend shows no signs of letting up, local officials say. (dailypress.com)
  • Two teen-agers identified in court documents as Phoebus High School students were arrested on felony drug charges last week after Hampton police searched their homes Thursday night and found about 1 1/2 ounces of cocaine. (dailypress.com)
  • A drug kingpin who operated a cocaine pipeline between New York and Hampton Roads was sentenced to life in prison without parole Thursday in U.S. District Court. (dailypress.com)
  • Hall, one of 12 defendants named in a multistate drug racketeering operation, was convicted June 27 of conspiring to distribute cocaine and crack cocaine, conspiring to launder money and engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise. (dailypress.com)
  • A member of a Baltimore drug gang was sentenced to 20 years Friday for dealing crack cocaine. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A Glen Burnie man was stopped for not wearing his seat belt while leaving Freetown Village Friday, then was arrested on drug charges after police searched his car.Joseph E. Neuman, 32, of the 7700 block of West Drive was charged with possession of crack cocaine. (baltimoresun.com)
  • WEST PALM BEACH -- Police attempting to stem the rising tide of `crack` cocaine abuse have been frustrated by liberal sentencing guidelines that allow captured drug dealers to virtually go free, a veteran law enforcement officer told the Palm Beach County Cocaine Task Force Thursday night. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A 17-year-old Delray Beach boy sold crack cocaine and pills to deputies posing as drug buyers, according to arrest reports. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Seattle police descended on Belltown en masse Saturday, rounding up members of what they described as a tightly organized Honduran drug dealing operation that had apparently taken over the area's crack cocaine market. (seattletimes.com)
  • Saturday, more than 70 officers descended on Belltown, hoping to arrest 52 targeted members of what police described as a tightly organized Honduran drug-dealing operation that had taken over the neighborhood's crack-cocaine market. (seattletimes.com)
  • Toronto Mayor Rob Ford has admitted smoking crack cocaine in a 'drunken stupor', after allegations first emerged in May that he had used the drug. (bbc.com)
  • When the cocaine high fades, the person may begin to feel anxious and depressed, and have intense craving for more of the drug. (camh.ca)
  • While many people use cocaine on occasion without harm, the drug can be very dangerous, whether it's used once or often. (camh.ca)
  • A crack overdose may occur for a number of reasons, but as the drug can be taken intravenously, overdose often occurs in first-time users or regular intravenous users who miscalculate the amount of the drug that they will need to get high. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • A crack overdose can be extremely serious in nature and can result in the death of the drug user. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Doctors will try to control the effects of a crack overdose with a number of drugs, and will try to bring the drug user's body to a point where it can safely process the drugs in its system. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • The best way to help an emergency response doctor who is working on a crack overdose patient is to provide information about the drug use that led to the overdose. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • The survival rate for a crack overdose is much higher with emergency medical treatment, but after the overdose, patients should seek ongoing therapy for drug addiction. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Crack is an extremely physically and psychologically addictive drug, so therapy from a drug addiction expert is recommended. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Organizations like Narcotics Anonymous (NA) can be very helpful in finding an ongoing drug therapy provider that can help you or your loved one treat a crack addiction after an overdose. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Crack emerged about a year ago as what police call the drug of choice. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and dangerous drug made of purified cocaine. (healthyplace.com)
  • Signs of crack cocaine use are similar to signs of cocaine use , but vary due to the method of ingestion and drug strength. (healthyplace.com)
  • Federal sentencing law, which ties prison terms to drug quantities, treats one gram of crack as the equivalent of 100 grams of powder cocaine, which is used more by whites. (mit.edu)
  • On July 31, 2012, Washington sold .69 grams of crack cocaine to a confidential informant working with the Metropolitan Drug Enforcement Network Team (MDENT) in exchange for $100. (huntingtonnews.net)
  • In August, the San Jose Mercury news published a series of investigative reports by Gary Webb revealing that the CIA allowed a Nicaraguan drug network to sell cut-rate crack-cocaine in the U.S. because profits from the drug trade were helping arm the Nicaraguan Contras. (democracynow.org)
  • The LA Times, however, said its investigation which included interviews with officials, drug dealers and researchers, showed that crack-cocaine was already flourishing in South Central long before Nicaraguan traffickers were on the scene. (democracynow.org)
  • Because crack produces a very short-lived effect, people who smoke the drug often use it several times. (canada.ca)
  • People who use cocaine also want to avoid the drop in mood (crashing) that happens after the drug wears off. (canada.ca)
  • A GROUP of drug dealers who were bringing large quantities of heroin and crack cocaine to Brighton have been jailed for a total of more than 38 years. (theargus.co.uk)
  • The allegations include almost superhuman drug abuse, involving as much as an ounce of cocaine a day, which he is cutting and cooking down himself into crack, which creates a sharper, albeit shorter high. (theimproper.com)
  • Crack is more dangerous and addictive drug than powdered cocaine, according to medical references. (theimproper.com)
  • Four drug dealers involved in supplying crack cocaine on Teesside's streets have been locked up for a total of ten-and-a-half years. (gazettelive.co.uk)
  • In the mid 1990s, cocaine and crack users became the group of illicit drug users that most turned to outpatient and inpatient services for addiction treatment 9 . (scielo.br)
  • Considering the effects of the cholinergic system on the drug reward and self-administration mechanisms, acetylcholine (Ach) may play an important role on cocaine dependence process. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The only practical solution to the racial disparity in cocaine sentencing, and to a failed but unending and costly drug war, is to lower the penalties … while investing in effective prevention and rehabilitation,' Mitchell told her colleagues in arguing for SB 1010. (ctnow.com)
  • He knows the ins and outs of the drug trade and was hustling when crack was at its peak and the Colombians were dumping kilos of yayo on Los Angeles' streets. (thefix.com)
  • It's a simple equation of drug economics with the demand for cocaine down and weed dispensaries popping up all over Los Angeles, the most profitable contraband item the Mexican drug cartels can capitalize off in America is crystal meth. (thefix.com)
  • Feds say 2 major drug cases cracked in SE Wis. (wislawjournal.com)
  • About his experience, he said, "Crack has to be the most mentally addictive drug in the history of mankind. (narconon.org)
  • Keeping up with the supply of crack needed easily drives a crack addict to theft, prostitution, drug dealing or other crime. (narconon.org)
  • As the cocaine residues are flushed out, the person can once again find the bright viewpoint they had before drug use. (narconon.org)
  • Reduced or eliminated cravings are an essential part of recovering from crack cocaine addiction as it is triggered cravings that send a person back into drug abuse and the addictive lifestyle. (narconon.org)
  • A drug smuggling gang from Manchester who tried to import heroin and crack cocaine worth nearly a million pounds have been jailed for a total of 60 years. (manchestereveningnews.co.uk)
  • Within a recent four-day period, a Philadelphia hospital treated 18 patients for an apparent opioid overdose even though they'd only been smoking crack cocaine, researchers report. (webmd.com)
  • No drugs are approved to rapidly reverse the cocaine overdose itself or to treat cocaine addiction. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A crack cocaine overdose can be very serious and can result in long-term damage to the body of the user, coma, or death. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • If you or someone you know uses crack, knowing the signs of an overdose and what to do when an overdose occurs is very important. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Crack cocaine overdose will have many of the same signs and symptoms of a cocaine overdose. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Seek treatment as soon as you notice the signs of a crack overdose-call your country's emergency medical number (911 in the United States) and don't attempt to move or treat the person yourself. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Crack is often "cut" with other drugs and substances used to increase its bulk before sale, so an overdose may occur that does not match the normal signs of a crack overdose. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Usually, the crack overdose victim is unconscious, so this may be difficult, but try to find out how much crack was used and get a sample of the crack if possible. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • During crack cocaine use, an overdose or side effects are a huge concern. (healthyplace.com)
  • See cocaine overdose . (healthyplace.com)
  • The most serious short-term side effect of cocaine or crack is the possibility of an overdose, which can be lethal. (canada.ca)
  • The amount of cocaine needed to cause an overdose varies. (canada.ca)
  • Crack is produced by dissolving powdered cocaine in a mixture of water and ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). (justice.gov)
  • According to sheriff's officials, Stackhouse's latest arrest followed several instances in which he allegedly sold crack cocaine to undercover detectives. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Watson pleaded guilty to conspiracy to distribute cocaine. (newsday.com)
  • Johnson was charged with the cocaine trafficking offence in February 2006, pleaded guilty in March 2011 and was given a suspended sentence and six months' probation. (thestar.com)
  • The leader and creator of the Sparky line Mejanoor Qureshi, 27, of Sherrard Road, London, was sentenced to 10 years after being found guilty of conspiracy to supply heroin and crack cocaine between 1 December 12 2016 and 15 March 2017 and between 1 November 2017 and 11 January 2018. (theargus.co.uk)
  • Mohammed Shah Rohim, 27, of Eastfield Street, London, was jailed for nine years after being found guilty of conspiracy to supply heroin and crack cocaine between 1 November 2017 and 11 January 2018 following a three-week trial at Lewes Crown Court on 5 June. (theargus.co.uk)
  • Abu Sultan, 26, of Chicksand Street, London, was sentenced to six years imprisonment and a 16-year-old boy from London, who cannot be named for legal reasons, was sjailed for twoo years and eight months after both pleading guilty to conspiracy to supply heroin and crack cocaine between 1 November 2017 and 11 January 2018. (theargus.co.uk)
  • The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments Tuesday in a case involving sentencing disparities between people found guilty of possessing crack cocaine and those possessing powdered forms, and whether recent changes in federal law should apply retroactively to those given long prison terms for small amounts of crack. (kunc.org)
  • Jason Stackhouse, 36, pleaded not guilty to charges of unlawful possession of a controlled substance with intent to deliver within 1,000 feet of a school, manufacturing and delivery of cocaine, and unlawful possession of a controlled sentence. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The ruling is significant against the backdrop of a highly charged national debate over tough prison terms for crack cocaine that fall disproportionately on blacks. (mit.edu)
  • A private security guard accused of selling crack cocaine to an undercover Newport News police officer on three occasions since March was arrested Tuesday night when he tried to make another sale, police spokesman Bobby Kipper said Friday. (dailypress.com)
  • Late last year, Seattle police noticed something unusual about the dealers selling crack cocaine who had taken over Seattle's Kinnear Park: Most of them were Honduran. (seattletimes.com)
  • A Missouri measure that would reduce the disparity in prison sentences between people convicted of crack and powder cocaine crimes gained final approval from lawmakers Friday and is now headed to the governor.Currently, a person convicted of producing, distributing or possessing more than 2 grams of crack in Missouri faces the same prison sentence as someone convicted of a similar offense involving more than 150 grams of powder cocaine. (kmbc.com)
  • Under it, those convicted of having more than 8 grams of crack would face the same sentences as those with more than 150 grams of powder cocaine. (kmbc.com)
  • Currently, a person convicted of producing, distributing or possessing more than 2 grams of crack in Missouri faces the same prison sentence as someone convicted of a similar offense involving more than 150 grams of powder cocaine. (kmbc.com)
  • Those with at least 24 grams of crack would face the same penalties as those with at least 450 grams of powder cocaine. (kmbc.com)
  • Lamadeleine was already on federal supervised release after a conviction for conspiracy to distribute cocaine and faces up to five years in prison if convicted of violating her supervised release. (pressherald.com)
  • Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that increases levels of dopamine, a brain chemical (or neurotransmitter) associated with pleasure and movement, in the brain's reward circuit. (thebody.com)
  • Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant extracted from Erythroxylum coca leaves 1 . (scielo.br)
  • Crack is a central nervous system stimulant that significantly increases alertness, inhibits hunger, and causes a surge of energy. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • The court heard that in December 2016, during Operation Glenlivet, CIT officers first identified that Mohammed Alom and Emad Uddin were supplying heroin and crack cocaine in Brighton on behalf of the "Sparky" line. (theargus.co.uk)
  • Qureshi was in possession of 308 wraps of heroin and crack cocaine and once again the key deal line phone. (theargus.co.uk)
  • The rest of the group were sentenced earlier with Mohammed Rahat Alom, 23, of Old Bethnal Green Road, London and Emad Uddin, 24, of Queens Road, Northampton each jailed for four years and nine months at Hove Crown Court last December for conspiracy to supply heroin and crack cocaine between 1 December 2016 and 15 March 2017. (theargus.co.uk)
  • The indictment alleges that in December 2013 Taylor distributed a quantity of crack cocaine to another individual. (justice.gov)
  • The Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment does not preclude a mandatory life sentence for dealers who possess a smaller quantity of crack cocaine than the quantity of powder cocaine necessary to trigger a similar sentence, the 7th Circuit has ruled. (wislawjournal.com)
  • Then more bad luck: A subsequent search of the car revealed a substance inside that tested positive for crack cocaine. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Concerned that Olorunfemi had been reaching for a weapon, the officer reached into the pocket and pulled out a cell phone and a bag holding 19 smaller baggies containing what tested positive for crack cocaine. (unionleader.com)
  • According to police, two teen-agers were charged with possession and intent to distribute crack cocaine. (dailypress.com)
  • A 56-year-old woman was arrested and charged with possession of crack cocaine after a traffic stop early Wednesday morning in Boynton Beach. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A JAMAICAN national has been charged with possession of 38 wraps of crack cocaine with intent to supply after a drugs warrant was carried out at Brantwood Court, West Byfleet, on May 31. (getsurrey.co.uk)
  • Because its production doesn't require the use of flammable solvents, it is safer to make than freebase cocaine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Some research suggests that smoking crack or freebase cocaine has additional health risks compared to other methods of taking cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This powder is not a base, and it can be snorted, or converted into crack with the addition of baking soda and water, or made into "freebase" when dissolved in ammonia and water. (courthousenews.com)
  • Chemically, therefore, there is no difference between the cocaine in coca paste, crack cocaine, and freebase - all are cocaine in its base form," according to the lead opinion authored by Justice Sonia Sotomayor. (courthousenews.com)
  • These forms, known as "freebase" and "crack," look like crystals or rocks. (camh.ca)
  • Mr. Flood, who has served 10 years in prison over crimes involving crack cocaine, had been scheduled for release in 2013. (nytimes.com)
  • A Missouri measure that would reduce the disparity in prison sentences between people convicted of crack and powder cocaine crimes gained final approval from lawmakers Friday and is now headed to the governor. (kmbc.com)
  • The FSA increased the amounts of crack cocaine that trigger mandatory minimum sentences for federal crack cocaine crimes, thereby reducing the differential from 100-1 to 18-1. (hrw.org)
  • We explain these results by characterizing crack cocaine as a technological" innovation in the market for cocaine intoxication and by positing that different types of crimes" play different roles in the market for illegal drugs. (nber.org)
  • In one of the first studies to clearly link violent behavior and crack cocaine use, a new survey reports that nearly 50% of the callers to a nationwide cocaine hot line acknowledged committing violent crimes or aggressive acts, ranging from murder and robbery to rape, child abuse and physical assaults. (latimes.com)
  • Since crimes involving 50 grams or more of cocaine-based drugs carry minimum 10-year sentences, the jury imposed that sentence on DePierre. (courthousenews.com)
  • A 2010 law designed to eliminate harsher sentences for black offenders convicted of crack cocaine crimes should not apply retroactively, a federal appeals court ruled in a deeply divided decision that several dissenting judges wrote amounts to furthering racial discrimination. (wislawjournal.com)
  • The Supreme Court ruled Thursday that people who committed crack cocaine crimes before more lenient penalties took effect and received their prison sentence afterward should benefit from the new rules. (wislawjournal.com)
  • Cocaine abusers can also experience severe paranoia -- a temporary state of full-blown paranoid psychosis -- in which they lose touch with reality and experience auditory hallucinations. (thebody.com)
  • All three methods of cocaine abuse can lead to addiction and other severe health problems, including increasing the risk of contracting HIV and other infectious diseases. (thebody.com)
  • Ingesting cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene as a result of reduced blood flow. (thebody.com)
  • Injecting cocaine can bring about severe allergic reactions and increased risk for contracting HIV and other blood-borne diseases. (thebody.com)
  • Urine tests drawn from 16 of the patients showed they had used cocaine, and 15 patients also had confirmed fentanyl exposure in concentrations consistent with severe poisoning, the study authors said. (webmd.com)
  • Candidly, the damages done to individuals, families and neighborhoods by virtue of cocaine trafficking are severe," the chiefs said in a letter to senators. (latimes.com)
  • Cocaine and crack use have both moderate and severe physical effects. (canada.ca)
  • There are also alkaline presentations, volatile at low temperatures, that can be smoked in "pipes", including crack, merla , and cocaine base paste 2 , and non-soluble forms that can be modified to make them "solubilized", and which when injected leads to severe consequences such as increased risk of abscesses, mental disorders, and HIV and hepatitis C infection. (scielo.br)
  • Crack is such a strong stimulant that it creates severe stresses on the heart, the vascular system, the lungs and the brain. (narconon.org)
  • One of the most severe symptoms of long term crack use is psychosis and delusions that resemble schizophrenia. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • The long term effects of smoking crack are severe and dangerous, as frequent use may result in heart attack, stroke, or irreversible psychological damage. (treatment4addiction.com)
  • Different methods of taking cocaine can produce different adverse effects. (thebody.com)
  • The arrests took place Wednesday following a traffic stop of Gilbert, who has a 2014 conviction for trafficking cocaine. (pressherald.com)
  • Elena Johnson, one of the residents of the home where Mayor Rob Ford was photographed with murder victim Anthony Smith, has a 2011 conviction for trafficking cocaine. (thestar.com)
  • A federal judge on Monday sentenced a 31-year-old College Park man to 150 months - more than 12 years - in prison for possessing crack cocaine and intending to distribute it. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Five people were arrested in Brooklyn Park this week on charges of possession of crack cocaine with intent to distribute, Anne Arundel County police said. (baltimoresun.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Fentanyl , a powerful and dangerous synthetic opioid , is now showing up in crack cocaine and causing life-threatening overdoses. (webmd.com)
  • When Keys detectives executed an early morning search warrant in Marathon on Friday, they found Katrina Ann Mitchell, 29, Ralph Curry, 38, along with two other people -- a crack cocaine lab, according to a news release from the Monroe County Sheriff's Office. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • If true, the news would contradict multiple reports made by national media outlets at the time, which doubted just how much cash was going to the Contras - or even if the Contras knew it was coming from crack cocaine sales. (rt.com)
  • A man described by federal prosecutors as a onetime major crack cocaine dealer in Hempstead, supplying street gangs and others, was sentenced to 12 years in federal prison Monday, officials said. (newsday.com)
  • Prior to the FSA, a person convicted of an offense involving possession of crack cocaine would get the same mandatory prison term as someone with 100 times that amount of powder cocaine. (hrw.org)
  • Supporters cite state prison statistics showing that African Americans were imprisoned for possession of crack cocaine for sale at a rate 43.25 times that for Caucasians. (latimes.com)
  • CRANSTON, R.I. (AP) - A Rhode Island inmate has been running a crack cocaine distribution ring from inside prison. (boston.com)
  • A Southern California gang member who came to Seattle to sell crack cocaine was sentenced Tuesday to 46 months in federal prison. (seattlepi.com)
  • A Hamden man was sentenced to five years in federal prison for distributing crack cocaine, according to a press release by Deirdre M. Daly , U.S. attorney for the District of Connecticut. (nhregister.com)
  • The plaintiff in the case, Tarahrick Terry, a Black man from Florida, was sentenced in 2008 to 15 1/2 years in prison for possession of less than 4 grams of crack, about $50 worth, his attorney estimated. (kunc.org)
  • Under her measure, possession of crack cocaine for sale would incur a reduced penalty, equal to that imposed for powder cocaine - up to four years in prison - and make it easier to get probation for both. (ctnow.com)
  • According to court and prison records, Simmons has repeatedly been convicted of possessing, purchasing, and selling cocaine. (thesmokinggun.com)
  • The use of cocaine declined until the 1970s, when it became known for its high cost, and for the rich and glamorous people who used it. (camh.ca)
  • People snort cocaine through their nose, rub it into their gums, or dissolve it and inject it with a needle into their veins. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • People who regularly snort cocaine can develop nose and sinus problems. (canada.ca)
  • Coolio has officially been charged with felony cocaine possession -- and two other misdemeanors -- after cops say they found drugs in his luggage at LAX last week. (tmz.com)
  • Terry Leon Simmons, 53, was arrested Friday afternoon at his home in Fort Pierce on a felony cocaine sales charge. (thesmokinggun.com)
  • Crack cocaine is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled Substances Act. (justice.gov)
  • Crack cocaine is a mind-alternating substance with a sinister mystique. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The reality is that crack cocaine and powder cocaine are the same chemical substance. (npr.org)
  • Young said Curl was seen stuffing a substance that later tested positive as crack cocaine into his mouth. (ktre.com)
  • According to Lake County Sheriff's reports, Stackhouse was arrested in June after allegedly dealing crack cocaine, with one undercover purchase by police allegedly occurring within 300 feet of Antioch High School. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The video was taken on a smartphone by a person who said he has supplied crack cocaine to the mayor. (thestar.com)
  • Toronto Mayor Rob Ford says allegations he was caught on tape smoking crack are 'ridiculous,' following reports that someone had been trying to sell a purported recording of such an event to U.S. and Canadian media outlets. (cbc.ca)
  • Toronto Star reporters and the editor of the U.S. gossip website Gawker report viewing the footage, which they say shows the mayor smoking from what appears to be a crack pipe. (cbc.ca)
  • The mayor has rejected calls for his resignation despite the revelation that a video apparently showing him smoking crack cocaine was in police possession. (bbc.com)
  • Toronto mayor denies crack smoking video. (bbc.com)
  • One resident of the home where Mayor Rob Ford was photographed with murder victim Anthony Smith has been convicted of trafficking cocaine. (thestar.com)
  • It's been almost three weeks since the Star revealed two reporters had seen a video of the mayor appearing to smoke crack cocaine and uttering a homophobic slur. (thestar.com)
  • MAYOR ROB FORD: Yes, I have smoked crack cocaine. (kcur.org)
  • During his tenure as City Hall reporter for Global Toronto he covered the turmoil surrounding Mayor Rob Ford, and at an unscheduled press conference, asked the question that resulted in Ford's admission of crack cocaine use while mayor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Officers found crack cocaine and 60 bags of heroin in August 2007 after stopping a vehicle in which Coleman was a passenger. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Then, during a body search at the jail, authorities found crack cocaine hidden inside her vagina. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A reporter asks Ford, "Do you smoke crack cocaine? (kcur.org)
  • Ford has denied he smokes crack cocaine and that the video exists. (thestar.com)
  • Washington, DC) - The US Sentencing Commission's unanimous vote on June 30, 2011, to make new federal crack cocaine sentencing guidelines retroactive, is consistent with internationally recognized human rights principles, Human Rights Watch said today. (hrw.org)
  • More than 1,400 prisoners sentenced on federal crack cocaine charges in the Eastern District of Virginia over the past 15 years could have their sentences cut under the new rules. (dailypress.com)
  • In spite of decades of political maneuvering, social upheaval, and border policing, Colombia was still the world's biggest supplier of cocaine in 2017. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Brazil is the world's biggest consumer of crack cocaine, and dependence is a major public health issue. (scielo.br)
  • Cocaine is nature's most powerful stimulant and is used by an estimated 14 million people worldwide. (newscientist.com)
  • The study did not probe why people inject rather than smoke crack, but some users have reported the high after injecting it lasts longer than the 5 to 10 minutes of euphoria they derive from smoking it. (newscientist.com)
  • And health officials say the reason people turn to crack over powdered cocaine is largely down to cost. (newscientist.com)
  • Current law punishes people who possess crack, which is much cheaper than powder, 100 times more heavily than people who possess powder cocaine. (npr.org)
  • You have a large percentage of people who are Latino or African-American being locked up for crack cocaine convictions," he said. (npr.org)
  • Walton says he believes there will still be objections to the Senate bill from people who think crack and powder should be treated the same. (npr.org)
  • He was one of the people responsible for flooding our neighborhoods with crack cocaine," Durham wrote. (newsday.com)
  • Bartenders are being trained to administer naloxone, and signs are being hung in bathrooms warning people not to use cocaine by themselves, she said. (webmd.com)
  • After the story was published the Star was contacted by two separate people who purported to have information on Ford abusing crack cocaine. (thestar.com)
  • Cannabis comes in various forms, which might explain why other studies have found that people who take cannabis find it harder to quit cocaine. (newscientist.com)
  • How do people become addicted to cocaine? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The legislation would lower Missouri's 75-to-1 ratio in sentencing people for the two types of cocaine to a ratio of about 18-to-1. (kmbc.com)
  • People believe reports of crack cocaine abuse are commonly restricted in large cities with high levels of unemployment and living conditions. (smore.com)
  • Investigators used electronic surveillance of Neworb Brown and his co-conspirator's text messages and cell phone calls, visual surveillance of their movements between Edgewood and Middle River and alleged purchases of crack from Srewob by a detective to document the conspiracy involving Neworb and an organization of 17 people, according to charging documents. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Offering resources to help people find rehab services for crack cocaine addiction. (botw.org)
  • Cocaine can also make people feel euphoric, or "high. (camh.ca)
  • As cocaine use increased, people began to discover its dangers. (camh.ca)
  • Cocaine makes people feel energetic, talkative, alert and euphoric. (camh.ca)
  • Although cocaine is a stimulant, some people find it calming, and feel increased self-control, confidence and ease with others. (camh.ca)
  • But we hope it makes people more aware of what crack can do. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Cocaine changes brain chemistry so that people feel a sense of pleasure (euphoria). (canada.ca)
  • Deputy Solicitor General Eric Feigin told the court that only 100 to 200 people convicted of crack cocaine possession would be affected by what the court decides. (kunc.org)
  • Cocaine consumption affects around 13.4 mi people or 0.3% of the world population between 15 and 64 years old. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Four people have been arrested after crack cocaine and heroin worth an estimated street value of £13,000 was seized from a house in Aberdeen. (stv.tv)
  • Cocaine (also known as C, rock, snow, coke and blow) is made from the leaves of the South American coca bush. (canada.ca)
  • When Charlie gets his coke he immediately cooks it with baking soda in his bathroom to make crack," the source claims. (theimproper.com)
  • For this reason, cocaine is sometimes abused in binges -- taken repeatedly within a relatively short period of time, at increasingly higher doses. (thebody.com)
  • In higher doses, it is also more addictive than regular cocaine that is snorted. (canada.ca)