An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Enterovirus Infections are acute viral illnesses caused by various Enterovirus serotypes, primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, manifesting as a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild self-limiting fever to severe and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis-like illness, depending on the age, immune status, and serotype of the infected individual.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
An enterovirus infection of swine clinically indistinguishable from FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, vesicular stomatitis, and VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE. It is caused by a strain of HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS B.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 11 serotypes, all coxsackieviruses.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Phenylthiourea is a chemical compound with the formula C6H5NCS, used historically in scientific research as an inhibitor of tyrosinase activity, but now mostly replaced by other more specific agents, and infrequently used in certain diagnostic tests or as a reagent in organic synthesis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mercaptoethylamines are specialized chemical compounds containing a sulfhydryl (-SH) group and an amino (-NH2) group, linked to a two-carbon ethylene chain, which are used in various pharmaceutical and industrial applications due to their ability to act as reducing agents, chelating agents, or precursors for other chemical reactions.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. Mild strains are also present in Canada, U.S., and Australia. Specific species include Porcine enterovirus A and Porcine enterovirus B.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Facial dermatoses refers to various skin conditions that affect the face, causing symptoms such as redness, inflammation, papules, pustules, scaling, or pigmentation changes, which can be caused by a range of factors including genetics, infections, allergies, and environmental factors.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia. (1/298)

Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency.  (+info)

The human HLA-A*0201 allele, expressed in hamster cells, is not a high-affinity receptor for adenovirus type 5 fiber. (2/298)

The coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alpha2 domain have been identified as high-affinity cell receptors for adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) fiber. In this study we show that CAR but not MHC class I allele HLA-A*0201 binds to Ad5 with high affinity when expressed on hamster cells. When both receptors are coexpressed on the cell surface of hamster cells, Ad5 fiber bind to a single high-affinity receptor, which is CAR.  (+info)

Maturation of dendritic cells accompanies high-efficiency gene transfer by a CD40-targeted adenoviral vector. (3/298)

Important therapeutic applications of genetically modified dendritic cells (DC) have been proposed; however, current vector systems have demonstrated only limited gene delivery efficacy to this cell type. By means of bispecific Abs, we have dramatically enhanced gene transfer to monocyte derived DC (MDDC) by retargeting adenoviral (Ad) vectors to a marker expressed on DC, CD40. Adenovirus targeted to CD40 demonstrated dramatic improvements in gene transfer relative to untargeted Ad vectors. Fundamental to the novelty of this system is the capacity of the vector itself to modulate the immunological status of the MDDC. This vector induces DC maturation as demonstrated phenotypically by increased expression of CD83, MHC, and costimulatory molecules, as well as functionally by production of IL-12 and an enhanced allostimulatory capacity in a MLR. In comparing this vector to other Ad-based gene transfer systems, we have illustrated that the features of DC maturation are not a function of the Ad particle, but rather a consequence of targeting to the CD40 marker. This vector approach may thus mediate not only high-efficiency gene delivery but also serve a proactive role in DC activation that could ultimately strengthen the utility of this vector for immunotherapy strategies.  (+info)

Fibroblast growth factor 2 retargeted adenovirus has redirected cellular tropism: evidence for reduced toxicity and enhanced antitumor activity in mice. (4/298)

Adenovirus (Ad) have been used as vectors to deliver genes to a wide variety of tissues. Despite achieving high expression levels in vivo, Ad vectors display normal tissue toxicity, transient expression, and antivector immune responses that limit therapeutic potential. To circumvent these problems, several retargeting strategies to abrogate native tropism and redirect Ad uptake through defined receptors have been attempted. Despite success in cell culture, in vivo results have generally not shown sufficient selectivity for target tissues. We have previously identified (C. K. Goldman et al., Cancer Res., 57: 1447-1451, 1997) the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligand and receptor families as conferring sufficient specificity and binding affinity to be useful for targeting DNA in vivo. In the present studies, we retargeted Ad using basic FGF (FGF2) as a targeting ligand. Cellular uptake is redirected through high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFRs) and not the more ubiquitous lower-affinity Ad receptors. Initial in vitro experiments demonstrated a 10- to 100-fold increase in gene expression in numerous FGFR positive (FGFR+) cell lines using FGF2-Ad when compared with Ad. To determine whether increased selectivity could be detected in vivo, FGF2-Ad was administered i.v. to normal mice. FGF2-Ad demonstrates markedly decreased hepatic toxicity and liver transgene expression compared with Ad treatment. Importantly, FGF2-Ad encoding the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene transduces Ad-resistant FGFR+ tumor cells both ex vivo and in vivo, which results in substantially enhanced survival (180-260%) when the prodrug ganciclovir is administered. Because FGFRs are up-regulated on many types of malignant or injured cells, this broadly useful method to redirect native Ad tropism and to increase the potency of gene expression may offer significant therapeutic advantages.  (+info)

Molecular determinants of adenovirus serotype 5 fibre binding to its cellular receptor CAR. (5/298)

Adenovirus (Ad) tropism is mediated in part through the fibre protein. The common coxsackie B virus and Ad receptor (CAR) was recently identified as the major receptor for subgroup C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) and serotype 2 (Ad2) fibres. Effects of mutations in the Ad5 fibre gene were studied to assess domains of the fibre capsomer that could alter virus tropism without altering virus assembly and replication. All mutants that accumulated as fibre monomers failed to assemble with a penton base and proved lethal for Ad5 which suggests that the absence of infectious virions resulted in part from a defect in fibre penton base assembly. Cell binding capacity of all fibre mutants was investigated in cell binding competition experiments with adenovirions using CHO-CAR cells (CHO cells that have been transfected with CAR cDNA and express functional CAR). The results suggest that the R-sheet of the Ad5 fibre knob monomer contains binding motifs for CAR and that beta-strands E and F, or a region close to them, may also be involved in receptor recognition.  (+info)

Expression of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells: regulation in response to cell density. (6/298)

Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (HCAR). Whereas HCAR expression in HeLa cells was constant with respect to cell density, HCAR expression in HUVEC increased with culture confluence. HCAR expression in HUVEC was not quantitatively altered by infection with coxsackievirus B.  (+info)

Picornavirus receptor down-regulation by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2. (7/298)

Therapeutic interference with virus-cell surface receptor interactions represents a viable antiviral strategy. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic expression of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), affords a high level of protection from lytic infection by multiple human picornaviruses. The antiviral action of PAI-2 was mediated primarily through transcriptional down-regulation of the following virus receptors: intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, a cellular receptor for the major group of rhinoviruses), decay-accelerating factor (a cellular receptor for echoviruses and coxsackieviruses), and to a lesser extent the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor protein (a cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and group C adenoviruses). Expression of related cell surface receptors, including membrane cofactor protein and the poliovirus receptor, remained unaffected. These findings suggest that PAI-2 and/or related serpins may form the basis of novel antiviral strategies against picornavirus infections and also therapeutic interventions against ICAM-1-mediated respiratory inflammation.  (+info)

Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-dependent and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-independent uptake of recombinant adenoviruses into human tumour cells. (8/298)

The role of two receptors, previously proposed to mediate the entry of adenoviruses into human cells, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain has been investigated. The expression of MHC class I in many tumours is reduced or absent, therefore if this were a means by which adenoviruses gained entry into cells, it would have important implications for their application in cancer treatment. In order to determine if MHC class I heavy chain is involved in adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) uptake, the binding of recombinant Ad5 fibre knob domain (which mediates viral attachment) to human cell lines that had greatly different levels of surface MHC class I was studied. We also created derivatives of a non-permissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that expressed human class I (HLA-A2) and found that these cells did not bind fibre or take up virus. In addition, the extracellular domain of CAR was expressed in E. coli and used to generate a polyclonal anti-CAR antibody. This antibody blocked both 125I labelled fibre knob binding and virus uptake. Thus CAR, and not MHC class I, is a receptor for human adenoviruses in cultured tumour cells. Tissue CAR levels may therefore be an important factor in the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.  (+info)

The Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane protein that serves as a receptor for several viruses, including Coxsackieviruses and certain types of Adenoviruses. The "Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein" likely refers to a membrane protein that shares structural or functional similarities with the CAR protein.

The CAR protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, lungs, and nervous system. It plays important roles in cell adhesion, tissue development, and repair, as well as serving as an entry point for certain viruses to infect cells.

The CAR-like membrane protein may have similar functions or structures to the CAR protein, but its specific identity and role are not clearly defined in the medical literature. It is possible that it could be a target for viral infection or play a role in cellular processes, but further research is needed to confirm these possibilities.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Adenoviruses, Human: A group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup, in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), cystitis (bladder infection), and gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal infection).

Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the family Adenoviridae. There are more than 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which can be classified into seven species (A-G). Different types of adenoviruses tend to cause specific illnesses, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Human adenoviruses are highly contagious and can spread through close personal contact, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. They can also be transmitted through contaminated water sources. Some people may become carriers of the virus and experience no symptoms but still spread the virus to others.

Most human adenovirus infections are mild and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, some types of adenoviruses can cause severe illness, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, such as infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with HIV/AIDS or organ transplants.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for human adenovirus infections, but supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and fever reduction, can help manage symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing personal items like towels or utensils.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Enterovirus B, Human (HEVB) is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family and are named after the Greek word "pico" meaning small. They are further classified into several species, including Human Enterovirus B (HEV-B).

HEVB includes several serotypes, such as Coxsackievirus A9, A16, and B types, and Echoviruses. These viruses are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route or respiratory droplets and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

HEVB infections are common worldwide, and people of all ages can be affected. However, young children and individuals with weakened immune systems are at higher risk for severe illness. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. There is no specific treatment for HEVB infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, hospitalization may be necessary for severe cases.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Coxsackievirus infections are a type of viral illness caused by Coxsackie A and B viruses, which belong to the family Picornaviridae. These viruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific strain and the age and overall health of the infected individual.

The most common types of Coxsackievirus infections are hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. HFMD is characterized by fever, sore throat, and a rash that typically appears on the hands, feet, and mouth. Herpangina is similar but is usually marked by painful sores in the back of the mouth or throat.

Other possible symptoms of Coxsackievirus infections include:

* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain

In some cases, Coxsackievirus infections can lead to more serious complications, such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), or pleurodynia (also known as "devil's grip," a painful inflammation of the chest and abdominal muscles).

Coxsackievirus infections are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or by touching contaminated surfaces. The viruses can also be spread through fecal-oral transmission.

There is no specific treatment for Coxsackievirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a week or two. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as fluids and pain relief. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and fevers in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), croup, and stomach and intestinal inflammation (gastroenteritis). Adenovirus infections are most common in children, but people of any age can be infected. The viruses spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a week or two. However, some people may develop more severe illness, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Preventive measures include frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Some adenoviruses can also cause serious diseases in people with compromised immune systems, such as transplant recipients and people undergoing cancer treatment. There are vaccines available to prevent some types of adenovirus infections in military recruits, who are at higher risk due to close living quarters and stress on the immune system from basic training.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Junctional Adhesion Molecules (JAMs) are a group of proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell adhesion, formation and maintenance of tight junctions, and regulation of trafficking of various molecules across the epithelial and endothelial barriers. They belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are typically composed of a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain with variable numbers of immunoglobulin-like motifs, and a cytoplasmic tail that interacts with intracellular signaling molecules.

JAMs are involved in various cellular processes, such as leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and maintenance of epithelial polarity. Dysregulation of JAMs has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and viral infections.

Some examples of Junctional Adhesion Molecules include JAM-A, JAM-B, JAM-C, JAM-4, and coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). These proteins are differentially expressed in various tissues and cells, and they have distinct functions and binding partners.

Adenovirus E1A proteins are the early region 1A proteins encoded by adenoviruses, a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections in humans. The E1A proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of the viral life cycle and host cell response. They function as transcriptional regulators, interacting with various cellular proteins to modulate gene expression and promote viral replication.

There are two major E1A protein isoforms, 289R and 243R, which differ in their amino-terminal regions due to alternative splicing of the E1A mRNA. The 289R isoform contains an additional 46 amino acids at its N-terminus compared to the 243R isoform. Both isoforms share conserved regions, including a strong transcriptional activation domain and a binding domain for cellular proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, such as retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and p300/CBP.

The interaction between E1A proteins and pRb is particularly important because it leads to the release of E2F transcription factors, which are essential for the initiation of viral DNA replication. By binding and inactivating pRb, E1A proteins promote the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes that facilitate viral replication in dividing cells.

In summary, adenovirus E1A proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins involved in the control of viral gene expression and host cell response during adenovirus infection. They manipulate cellular transcription factors and pathways to create a favorable environment for viral replication.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

In medical terms, membranes refer to thin layers of tissue that cover or line various structures in the body. They are composed of connective tissue and epithelial cells, and they can be found lining the outer surface of the body, internal organs, blood vessels, and nerves. There are several types of membranes in the human body, including:

1. Serous Membranes: These membranes line the inside of body cavities and cover the organs contained within them. They produce a lubricating fluid that reduces friction between the organ and the cavity wall. Examples include the pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart), and peritoneum (abdominal cavity).
2. Mucous Membranes: These membranes line the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal passages. They produce mucus to trap particles, bacteria, and other substances, which helps protect the body from infection.
3. Synovial Membranes: These membranes line the joint cavities and produce synovial fluid, which lubricates the joints and allows for smooth movement.
4. Meninges: These are three layers of membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. They include the dura mater (outermost layer), arachnoid mater (middle layer), and pia mater (innermost layer).
5. Amniotic Membrane: This is a thin, transparent membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus during pregnancy. It produces amniotic fluid, which provides a cushion for the developing baby and helps regulate its temperature.

Epidemic pleurodynia, also known as Bornholm disease or devils' grip, is a self-limiting viral illness characterized by sudden onset of severe, stabbing chest or upper abdominal pain. It is caused most commonly by an enterovirus, often Coxsackie A or B.

The hallmark of epidemic pleurodynia is the pleuritic nature of the pain, which is aggravated by deep breathing, coughing, or movement. The muscle spasms can be so intense that they cause the patient to assume a fetal position in order to minimize the discomfort. Other symptoms may include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and generalized weakness.

The term "epidemic" refers to the fact that this disease tends to occur in outbreaks, particularly during the summer and fall months. However, sporadic cases can also occur throughout the year. The illness typically lasts for 5-10 days but may rarely persist for several weeks.

Treatment is generally supportive and includes rest, hydration, and analgesics for pain relief. Antiviral medications are not usually recommended, as they have not been shown to significantly affect the course of the illness.

Intracellular membranes refer to the membrane structures that exist within a eukaryotic cell (excluding bacteria and archaea, which are prokaryotic and do not have intracellular membranes). These membranes compartmentalize the cell, creating distinct organelles or functional regions with specific roles in various cellular processes.

Major types of intracellular membranes include:

1. Nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope): A double-membraned structure that surrounds and protects the genetic material within the nucleus. It consists of an outer and inner membrane, perforated by nuclear pores that regulate the transport of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): An extensive network of interconnected tubules and sacs that serve as a major site for protein folding, modification, and lipid synthesis. The ER has two types: rough ER (with ribosomes on its surface) and smooth ER (without ribosomes).
3. Golgi apparatus/Golgi complex: A series of stacked membrane-bound compartments that process, sort, and modify proteins and lipids before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or secreted out of the cell.
4. Lysosomes: Membrane-bound organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down various biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) in the process called autophagy or from outside the cell via endocytosis.
5. Peroxisomes: Single-membrane organelles involved in various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid oxidation and detoxification of harmful substances like hydrogen peroxide.
6. Vacuoles: Membrane-bound compartments that store and transport various molecules, including nutrients, waste products, and enzymes. Plant cells have a large central vacuole for maintaining turgor pressure and storing metabolites.
7. Mitochondria: Double-membraned organelles responsible for generating energy (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle and fatty acid synthesis.
8. Chloroplasts: Double-membraned organelles found in plant cells that convert light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis, producing oxygen and organic compounds (glucose) from carbon dioxide and water.
9. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): A network of interconnected membrane-bound tubules involved in protein folding, modification, and transport; it is divided into two types: rough ER (with ribosomes on the surface) and smooth ER (without ribosomes).
10. Nucleus: Double-membraned organelle containing genetic material (DNA) and associated proteins involved in replication, transcription, RNA processing, and DNA repair. The nuclear membrane separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and contains nuclear pores for transporting molecules between the two compartments.

Membrane lipids are the main component of biological membranes, forming a lipid bilayer in which various cellular processes take place. These lipids include phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type, consisting of a hydrophilic head (containing a phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (composed of fatty acid chains). Glycolipids contain a sugar group attached to the lipid molecule. Cholesterol helps regulate membrane fluidity and permeability. Together, these lipids create a selectively permeable barrier that separates cells from their environment and organelles within cells.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Integrin αV (also known as ITGAV or CD51) is a subunit of a family of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors called integrins, which are involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrin αV combines with various β subunits (e.g., β1, β3, β5, β6, and β8) to form distinct integrin heterodimers, such as αVβ1, αVβ3, αVβ5, αVβ6, and αVβ8. These integrins recognize and bind to specific arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequences present in various ECM proteins, such as fibronectin, vitronectin, osteopontin, and collagens. Integrin αV plays crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis, and has been implicated in several pathological processes, including cancer, fibrosis, and inflammation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

Adenovirus early proteins refer to the viral proteins that are expressed by adenoviruses during the early phase of their replication cycle. Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that can cause various symptoms, such as respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

The adenovirus replication cycle is divided into two phases: the early phase and the late phase. During the early phase, which occurs shortly after the virus infects a host cell, the viral genome is transcribed and translated into early proteins that help to prepare the host cell for viral replication. These early proteins play various roles in regulating the host cell's transcription, translation, and DNA replication machinery, as well as inhibiting the host cell's antiviral response.

There are several different adenovirus early proteins that have been identified, each with its own specific function. For example, E1A is an early protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and helps to activate the expression of other viral genes. E1B is another early protein that functions as a DNA-binding protein and inhibits the host cell's apoptosis (programmed cell death) response.

Overall, adenovirus early proteins are critical for the efficient replication of the virus within host cells, and understanding their functions can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of viral infection and pathogenesis.

Adenovirus E1B proteins are proteins encoded by the early region 1B (E1B) gene of adenoviruses. There are two main E1B proteins, E1B-55kD and E1B-19kD, which play crucial roles during the viral life cycle and in tumorigenesis.

1. E1B-55kD: This protein is a potent transcriptional repressor that inhibits the expression of host cell genes involved in DNA damage response, apoptosis, and antiviral defense mechanisms. By doing so, it creates a favorable environment for viral replication and evades the host's immune surveillance. E1B-55kD also interacts with p53, a tumor suppressor protein, leading to its degradation and further contributing to oncogenesis.

2. E1B-19kD: This protein is involved in blocking apoptosis or programmed cell death, which would otherwise be triggered by the host's defense mechanisms during viral infection. E1B-19kD forms a complex with another adenoviral protein, E4orf6, and together they inhibit the activity of several pro-apoptotic proteins, thus promoting viral replication and persistence in the host cell.

In summary, Adenovirus E1B proteins are essential for the viral life cycle by counteracting host defense mechanisms, particularly through the inhibition of apoptosis and transcriptional repression. Additionally, their interaction with crucial cellular regulatory proteins like p53 contributes to oncogenic transformation in certain contexts.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E3 region of the adenovirus genome encodes several proteins that play important roles in the virus's life cycle and its interactions with the host cell.

The E3 proteins include:

1. E3-10.4K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis), allowing the virus to continue replicating.
2. E3-14.7K: This protein inhibits the host cell's antiviral response by blocking the activation of certain immune signaling pathways.
3. E3-14.5K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from presenting viral antigens on its surface, which would otherwise alert the immune system to the infection.
4. E3-19K: This protein helps to stabilize the virion and protect it from being broken down by host cell enzymes.
5. E3-gp19K: This protein is involved in the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they can be assembled into new virions.
6. E3-RID: This protein helps to protect the virus from being neutralized by antibodies produced by the host's immune system.

Overall, the E3 proteins play important roles in helping the adenovirus evade the host's immune response and establish a successful infection.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E4 proteins of adenoviruses are non-structural proteins encoded by the early region 4 (E4) of the adenovirus genome. These proteins play important roles during the viral life cycle, including regulation of viral transcription, DNA replication, and host cell response.

There are several E4 proteins expressed by adenoviruses, depending on the serotype, but some of the well-characterized ones include E4 ORF6, E4 ORF3, and E4 ORF1/2. These proteins have been shown to interact with various host cell factors and viral proteins to modulate the intracellular environment for efficient viral replication.

For example, E4 ORF6 interacts with the host cell protein p53 to inhibit its transcriptional activity, which helps to prevent premature apoptosis of infected cells. E4 ORF3 is involved in the regulation of viral DNA replication and also interacts with cellular proteins to modulate the host cell cycle. E4 ORF1/2 forms a complex that functions as a helicase during viral DNA replication.

Overall, adenovirus E4 proteins are important regulators of the viral life cycle and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of adenovirus infections.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Artificial membranes are synthetic or man-made materials that possess properties similar to natural biological membranes, such as selective permeability and barrier functions. These membranes can be designed to control the movement of molecules, ions, or cells across them, making them useful in various medical and biotechnological applications.

Examples of artificial membranes include:

1. Dialysis membranes: Used in hemodialysis for patients with renal failure, these semi-permeable membranes filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood while retaining essential proteins and cells.
2. Hemofiltration membranes: Utilized in extracorporeal circuits to remove larger molecules, such as cytokines or inflammatory mediators, from the blood during critical illnesses or sepsis.
3. Drug delivery systems: Artificial membranes can be used to encapsulate drugs, allowing for controlled release and targeted drug delivery in specific tissues or cells.
4. Tissue engineering: Synthetic membranes serve as scaffolds for cell growth and tissue regeneration, guiding the formation of new functional tissues.
5. Biosensors: Artificial membranes can be integrated into biosensing devices to selectively detect and quantify biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, in diagnostic applications.
6. Microfluidics: Artificial membranes are used in microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip applications, enabling the manipulation and analysis of small volumes of fluids for various medical and biological purposes.

CD55, also known as Decay-accelerating factor (DAF), is a protein that acts as an inhibitor of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. It prevents the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) on host cells and tissues, thereby protecting them from damage caused by the complement activation. CD55 is found on the surface of many types of cells in the body, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and cells lining the blood vessels.

As an antigen, CD55 is a molecule that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. However, unlike some other antigens, CD55 does not typically elicit a strong immune response because it is a self-antigen, meaning it is normally present in the body and should not be targeted by the immune system.

In certain medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders or transplant rejection, the immune system may mistakenly attack cells expressing CD55. In these cases, measuring the levels of CD55 antigens can provide valuable diagnostic information and help guide treatment decisions.

An erythrocyte, also known as a red blood cell, is a type of cell that circulates in the blood and is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. The erythrocyte membrane refers to the thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the erythrocyte and helps to maintain its shape and stability.

The erythrocyte membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer, which contains various proteins and carbohydrates. These components help to regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the erythrocyte, as well as provide structural support and protection for the cell.

The main lipids found in the erythrocyte membrane are phospholipids and cholesterol, which are arranged in a bilayer structure with the hydrophilic (water-loving) heads facing outward and the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails facing inward. This arrangement helps to maintain the integrity of the membrane and prevent the leakage of cellular components.

The proteins found in the erythrocyte membrane include integral proteins, which span the entire width of the membrane, and peripheral proteins, which are attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane. These proteins play a variety of roles, such as transporting molecules across the membrane, maintaining the shape of the erythrocyte, and interacting with other cells and proteins in the body.

The carbohydrates found in the erythrocyte membrane are attached to the outer surface of the membrane and help to identify the cell as part of the body's own immune system. They also play a role in cell-cell recognition and adhesion.

Overall, the erythrocyte membrane is a complex and dynamic structure that plays a critical role in maintaining the function and integrity of red blood cells.

Enterovirus infections are viral illnesses caused by enteroviruses, which are a type of picornavirus. These viruses commonly infect the gastrointestinal tract and can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific type of enterovirus and the age and overall health of the infected individual.

There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. Some enterovirus infections may be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms, while others can lead to more severe illnesses.

Common symptoms of enterovirus infections include fever, sore throat, runny nose, cough, muscle aches, and skin rashes. In some cases, enteroviruses can cause more serious complications such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and paralysis.

Enterovirus infections are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or fecal-oral transmission. They can also be spread through contaminated surfaces or objects. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for enterovirus infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. Prevention efforts include vaccination against poliovirus and surveillance for emerging enteroviruses.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Adenovirus E1 proteins are the earliest expressed and most critical proteins in the replication cycle of adenoviruses. The "E" stands for "early," indicating that these proteins are produced before the viral DNA begins to replicate. The E1 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the viral life cycle, altering cellular processes to support efficient viral replication, and inhibiting the host's antiviral responses.

The adenovirus E1 proteins are divided into two groups: E1A and E1B.

1. E1A proteins: These proteins are involved in transactivating various viral and cellular promoters, which leads to the expression of early and late viral genes. They also interact with several cellular proteins to alter the host cell cycle, promote cell growth, and inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). E1A proteins are essential for efficient viral replication and can transform cells in culture, contributing to adenovirus-induced tumorigenesis in certain animal models.

2. E1B proteins: These proteins have multiple functions during the viral life cycle. E1B 55kDa protein is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and contributes to efficient viral replication by preventing premature cell death. It also interacts with several cellular proteins, including tumor suppressor p53, to modulate their functions. The E1B 19kDa protein, on the other hand, is a DNA-binding protein that plays a role in viral mRNA processing and export from the nucleus.

Together, adenovirus E1 proteins are essential for successful viral replication and manipulate host cellular processes to create a favorable environment for viral propagation. Understanding their functions has contributed significantly to our knowledge of viral pathogenesis and cancer biology.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Membrane fluidity, in the context of cell biology, refers to the ability of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane to change its structure and organization in response to various factors. The membrane is not a static structure but rather a dynamic one, with its lipids constantly moving and changing position.

Membrane fluidity is determined by the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids that make up the bilayer. Lipids with unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their hydrocarbon chains, which prevent them from packing closely together and increase membrane fluidity. In contrast, lipids with saturated fatty acids can pack closely together, reducing membrane fluidity.

Membrane fluidity is important for various cellular processes, including the movement of proteins within the membrane, the fusion of vesicles with the membrane during exocytosis and endocytosis, and the ability of the membrane to respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors. Abnormalities in membrane fluidity have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases.

Vitronectin receptors, also known as integrin αvβ3 or integrin avb3, are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the protein vitronectin. These receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins composed of αv and β3 subunits. They play important roles in various biological processes including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. Vitronectin receptors are widely expressed in many different cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and platelets. In addition to vitronectin, these receptors can also bind to other extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and osteopontin. They are also involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, wound healing, and bone metabolism.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Luminescent proteins are a type of protein that emit light through a chemical reaction, rather than by absorbing and re-emitting light like fluorescent proteins. This process is called bioluminescence. The light emitted by luminescent proteins is often used in scientific research as a way to visualize and track biological processes within cells and organisms.

One of the most well-known luminescent proteins is Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which was originally isolated from jellyfish. However, GFP is actually a fluorescent protein, not a luminescent one. A true example of a luminescent protein is the enzyme luciferase, which is found in fireflies and other bioluminescent organisms. When luciferase reacts with its substrate, luciferin, it produces light through a process called oxidation.

Luminescent proteins have many applications in research, including as reporters for gene expression, as markers for protein-protein interactions, and as tools for studying the dynamics of cellular processes. They are also used in medical imaging and diagnostics, as well as in the development of new therapies.

CD46, also known as membrane cofactor protein (MCP), is a regulatory protein that plays a role in the immune system and helps to protect cells from complement activation. It is found on the surface of many different types of cells in the body, including cells of the immune system such as T cells and B cells, as well as cells of various other tissues such as epithelial cells and endothelial cells.

As an antigen, CD46 is a molecule that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. It is a type I transmembrane protein that consists of four distinct domains: two short cytoplasmic domains, a transmembrane domain, and a large extracellular domain. The extracellular domain contains several binding sites for complement proteins, which helps to regulate the activation of the complement system and prevent it from damaging host cells.

CD46 has been shown to play a role in protecting cells from complement-mediated damage, modulating immune responses, and promoting the survival and proliferation of certain types of immune cells. It is also thought to be involved in the development of some autoimmune diseases and may be a target for immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Tight junctions, also known as zonula occludens, are specialized types of intercellular junctions that occur in epithelial and endothelial cells. They are located near the apical side of the lateral membranes of adjacent cells, where they form a continuous belt-like structure that seals off the space between the cells.

Tight junctions are composed of several proteins, including occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), which interact to form a network of strands that create a tight barrier. This barrier regulates the paracellular permeability of ions, solutes, and water, preventing their uncontrolled movement across the epithelial or endothelial layer.

Tight junctions also play an important role in maintaining cell polarity by preventing the mixing of apical and basolateral membrane components. Additionally, they are involved in various signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Cell membrane permeability refers to the ability of various substances, such as molecules and ions, to pass through the cell membrane. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells, controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Its primary function is to protect the cell's internal environment and maintain homeostasis.

The permeability of the cell membrane depends on its structure, which consists of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the phospholipids face outward, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails face inward, creating a barrier that is generally impermeable to large, polar, or charged molecules.

However, specific proteins within the membrane, called channels and transporters, allow certain substances to cross the membrane. Channels are protein structures that span the membrane and provide a pore for ions or small uncharged molecules to pass through. Transporters, on the other hand, are proteins that bind to specific molecules and facilitate their movement across the membrane, often using energy in the form of ATP.

The permeability of the cell membrane can be influenced by various factors, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain chemicals or drugs. Changes in permeability can have significant consequences for the cell's function and survival, as they can disrupt ion balances, nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction.

Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) is a contagious viral disease affecting pigs, caused by the Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), which is closely related to human, bovine, and enteric cytopathic types of Coxsackie B virus. The disease is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, lameness, and the development of vesicles or blisters on the snout, mouth, and hooves of infected animals. It can result in significant economic losses to the swine industry due to reduced growth rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and trade restrictions on affected herds.

SVD is primarily spread through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct contact with infected pigs, or indirectly through fomites such as vehicles, equipment, and clothing. The virus can also be transmitted via aerosolized particles, making it highly contagious in susceptible populations.

While SVD is not considered a significant threat to human health, its clinical signs are similar to those of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), which can have severe consequences for both animal and human health. As such, SVD is often reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and is subject to strict control measures in affected countries.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

The basement membrane is a thin, specialized layer of extracellular matrix that provides structural support and separates epithelial cells (which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels) from connective tissue. It is composed of two main layers: the basal lamina, which is produced by the epithelial cells, and the reticular lamina, which is produced by the connective tissue. The basement membrane plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

The basal lamina is composed mainly of type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and proteoglycans, while the reticular lamina contains type III collagen, fibronectin, and other matrix proteins. The basement membrane also contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines that can influence cell behavior.

Defects in the composition or organization of the basement membrane can lead to various diseases, including kidney disease, eye disease, and skin blistering disorders.

Canine adenoviruses are a type of virus that can infect dogs and cause two distinct diseases: Infectious Canine Hepatitis (type 1) and Canine Respiratory Disease Complex (type 2).

Canine adenovirus type 1 primarily affects the liver, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure and death.

Canine adenovirus type 2 mainly causes respiratory infections, including kennel cough, which is characterized by a harsh, hacking cough and nasal discharge. It can also cause pneumonia in some cases.

Both types of canine adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces and urine. Vaccination is available to protect against both forms of the virus and is recommended for all dogs.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

Detergents are cleaning agents that are often used to remove dirt, grease, and stains from various surfaces. They contain one or more surfactants, which are compounds that lower the surface tension between two substances, such as water and oil, allowing them to mix more easily. This makes it possible for detergents to lift and suspend dirt particles in water so they can be rinsed away.

Detergents may also contain other ingredients, such as builders, which help to enhance the cleaning power of the surfactants by softening hard water or removing mineral deposits. Some detergents may also include fragrances, colorants, and other additives to improve their appearance or performance.

In a medical context, detergents are sometimes used as disinfectants or antiseptics, as they can help to kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms on surfaces. However, it is important to note that not all detergents are effective against all types of microorganisms, and some may even be toxic or harmful if used improperly.

It is always important to follow the manufacturer's instructions when using any cleaning product, including detergents, to ensure that they are used safely and effectively.

A lipid bilayer is a thin membrane made up of two layers of lipid molecules, primarily phospholipids. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the lipids face outwards, coming into contact with watery environments on both sides, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails point inward, away from the aqueous surroundings. This unique structure allows lipid bilayers to form a stable barrier that controls the movement of molecules and ions in and out of cells and organelles, thus playing a crucial role in maintaining cellular compartmentalization and homeostasis.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Gene targeting is a research technique in molecular biology used to precisely modify specific genes within the genome of an organism. This technique allows scientists to study gene function by creating targeted genetic changes, such as insertions, deletions, or mutations, in a specific gene of interest. The process typically involves the use of engineered nucleases, such as CRISPR-Cas9 or TALENs, to introduce double-stranded breaks at desired locations within the genome. These breaks are then repaired by the cell's own DNA repair machinery, often leading to the incorporation of designed changes in the targeted gene. Gene targeting is a powerful tool for understanding gene function and has wide-ranging applications in basic research, agriculture, and therapeutic development.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Echovirus 9 is a type of enterovirus, which is a single-stranded RNA virus that can infect humans. The name "echovirus" stands for "enteric cytopathic human orphan virus," as these viruses were initially discovered in the intestines and were not known to cause any specific diseases. However, it is now known that some echoviruses, including echovirus 9, can cause a range of illnesses, particularly in children.

Echovirus 9 is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, usually through contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the virus can infect various organs and tissues, including the respiratory system, central nervous system, and skin.

The symptoms of echovirus 9 infection can vary widely depending on the age and overall health of the infected person, as well as the severity of the infection. In some cases, people may not experience any symptoms at all. However, in others, the virus can cause a range of illnesses, including:

* Common cold-like symptoms, such as runny nose, sore throat, and cough
* Fever and fatigue
* Skin rashes or mouth ulcers
* Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
* Neurological symptoms, such as meningitis, encephalitis, or paralysis

In severe cases, echovirus 9 infection can lead to serious complications, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage fever and pain. There is no specific antiviral treatment for echovirus 9 infection. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contact with sick individuals.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Enterovirus C, Human (HEV-C) is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family and consist of a single strand of RNA enclosed in a protein shell. They are named "enteroviruses" because they are typically found in the gastrointestinal tract and are transmitted through the fecal-oral route.

HEV-C includes several serotypes, such as Coxsackievirus A21, A24, B3, B5, and Echovirus 9, 11, 16, 30. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

HEV-C infections are common worldwide, and they often occur in children and young adults. The viruses can be spread through respiratory droplets, contaminated food or water, and direct contact with infected individuals. In many cases, HEV-C infections may not cause any symptoms or only mild ones, but some people may develop severe illnesses that require hospitalization.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and avoiding sharing food, drinks, or utensils with infected persons. There is no specific treatment for HEV-C infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Astragalus membranaceus is a plant species native to China, Mongolia, and Korea. In traditional Chinese medicine, the root of this plant is known as "Huang Qi" and has been used for centuries for its immunostimulant and adaptogenic properties.

The active components of Astragalus membranaceus include polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids, and trace elements. Modern research suggests that this herb may have potential health benefits in various areas, such as:

1. Boosting the immune system: Astragalus membranaceus has been shown to stimulate the production and activity of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, T-cells, and B-cells. This may help enhance the body's ability to fight off infections and diseases.
2. Anti-inflammatory effects: The plant contains anti-inflammatory compounds that may help reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms associated with conditions like arthritis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease.
3. Cardiovascular health: Astragalus membranaceus has been found to have cardioprotective effects, such as improving heart function, reducing oxidative stress, and lowering blood pressure in some studies.
4. Antioxidant properties: The herb contains antioxidants that may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which can contribute to aging and chronic diseases.
5. Neuroprotection: Some research suggests that Astragalus membranaceus may have neuroprotective effects, potentially helping to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
6. Diabetes management: Preliminary studies indicate that this herb might help regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement, including Astragalus membranaceus, especially if you have pre-existing medical conditions or are taking medications.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E2 proteins of adenoviruses are involved in the replication of the viral genome. Specifically, E2 consists of three proteins: E2a, E2b, and E2c.

E2a is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to the origin of replication on the viral genome and recruits other viral and cellular proteins necessary for replication. E2b is a DNA polymerase processivity factor that interacts with the viral DNA polymerase and increases its processivity, allowing for efficient synthesis of new viral DNA. E2c is a helicase that unwinds the double-stranded DNA at the replication fork, enabling the synthesis of new strands.

Together, these proteins play a critical role in the replication of adenoviruses and are important targets for the development of antiviral therapies.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of interconnected tubules and sacs that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is a continuous membranous organelle that plays a crucial role in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins and lipids.

The ER has two main types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is covered with ribosomes, which give it a rough appearance, and is responsible for protein synthesis. On the other hand, SER lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, calcium homeostasis, and steroid hormone production.

In summary, the endoplasmic reticulum is a vital organelle that functions in various cellular processes, including protein and lipid metabolism, calcium regulation, and detoxification.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

A mastadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and the genus Mastadenovirus. These viruses are known to infect mammals, including humans, and can cause a variety of diseases such as respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

Human mastadenoviruses are typically associated with mild illnesses, although some strains can cause more severe disease, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. The virus is usually transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces.

Mastadenoviruses are non-enveloped viruses, which means they do not have a lipid membrane surrounding their protein capsid. They contain a double-stranded DNA genome that encodes for several proteins involved in the virus's replication and assembly. The virus replicates in the nucleus of infected cells and can cause cell lysis or transformation, leading to various clinical manifestations.

Overall, mastadenoviruses are a significant cause of human and animal diseases, and understanding their biology and epidemiology is essential for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild, contagious viral infection common in infants and children but can sometimes occur in adults. The disease is often caused by coxsackievirus A16 or enterovirus 71.

The name "hand, foot and mouth" comes from the fact that blister-like sores usually appear in the mouth (and occasionally on the buttocks and legs) along with a rash on the hands and feet. The disease is not related to foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which affects cattle, sheep, and swine.

HFMD is spread through close personal contact, such as hugging and kissing, or through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching objects and surfaces that have the virus on them and then touching the face. People with HFMD are most contagious during the first week of their illness but can still be contagious for weeks after symptoms go away.

There is no specific treatment for HFMD, and it usually resolves on its own within 7-10 days. However, over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers may help alleviate symptoms. It's important to encourage good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, to prevent the spread of HFMD.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (dTMP), a nucleotide required for DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by transferring a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are two major isoforms of thymidine kinase in humans: TK1 and TK2. TK1 is primarily found in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells, such as those involved in the cell cycle, while TK2 is located mainly in the mitochondria and is responsible for maintaining the dNTP pool required for mtDNA replication and repair.

Thymidine kinase activity has been used as a marker for cell proliferation, particularly in cancer cells, which often exhibit elevated levels of TK1 due to their high turnover rates. Additionally, measuring TK1 levels can help monitor the effectiveness of certain anticancer therapies that target DNA replication.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or simply the Golgi, is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae, which are stacked together in a parallel arrangement. These stacks are often interconnected by tubular structures called tubules or vesicles. The Golgi apparatus has two main faces: the cis face, which is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives proteins and lipids directly from the ER; and the trans face, which is responsible for sorting and dispatching these molecules to their final destinations.

The Golgi apparatus performs several essential functions in the cell:

1. Protein processing: After proteins are synthesized in the ER, they are transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo various post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation (the addition of sugar molecules) and sulfation. These modifications help determine the protein's final structure, function, and targeting.
2. Lipid modification: The Golgi apparatus also modifies lipids by adding or removing different functional groups, which can influence their properties and localization within the cell.
3. Protein sorting and packaging: Once proteins and lipids have been processed, they are sorted and packaged into vesicles at the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles then transport their cargo to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.
4. Intracellular transport: The Golgi apparatus serves as a central hub for intracellular trafficking, coordinating the movement of vesicles and other transport carriers between different organelles and cellular compartments.
5. Cell-cell communication: Some proteins that are processed and packaged in the Golgi apparatus are destined for secretion, playing crucial roles in cell-cell communication and maintaining tissue homeostasis.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle involved in various cellular processes, including post-translational modification, sorting, packaging, and intracellular transport of proteins and lipids. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall organismal health.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Mitochondrial membranes refer to the double-layered structure that surrounds the mitochondrion, an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. The outer mitochondrial membrane is a smooth, porous membrane that allows small molecules and ions to pass through freely, while the inner mitochondrial membrane is highly folded and selectively permeable, controlling the movement of larger molecules and maintaining the electrochemical gradient necessary for ATP synthesis. The space between the two membranes is called the intermembrane space, and the space within the inner membrane is called the matrix. Together, these membranes play a crucial role in energy production, metabolism, and cellular homeostasis.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Adenoviruses, Porcine:

A group of viruses that primarily infect pigs and cause a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory illness, diarrhea, vomiting, and reproductive failure. They belong to the family Adenoviridae and are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Porcine adenoviruses can be classified into several serotypes, with different serotypes causing different disease manifestations. Some porcine adenoviruses have been associated with economic losses in the swine industry due to their impact on growth and mortality rates. They are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be found in contaminated environments. Currently, there are no specific treatments for porcine adenovirus infections, and control measures focus on preventing transmission through good biosecurity practices.

Cell fractionation is a laboratory technique used to separate different cellular components or organelles based on their size, density, and other physical properties. This process involves breaking open the cell (usually through homogenization), and then separating the various components using various methods such as centrifugation, filtration, and ultracentrifugation.

The resulting fractions can include the cytoplasm, mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and other organelles. Each fraction can then be analyzed separately to study the biochemical and functional properties of the individual components.

Cell fractionation is a valuable tool in cell biology research, allowing scientists to study the structure, function, and interactions of various cellular components in a more detailed and precise manner.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

An Aviadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family *Adenoviridae* and the genus *Aviadenovirus*. These viruses primarily infect avian species, such as birds, and can cause a variety of diseases. The genome of an Aviadenovirus is double-stranded DNA. Some species of Aviadenoviruses have been known to cause respiratory and reproductive problems in poultry, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. It's important to note that Aviadenoviruses are not known to infect or cause disease in humans.

Tissue culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain and grow cells, tissues or organs from multicellular organisms in an artificial environment outside of the living body, called an in vitro culture. These techniques are widely used in various fields such as biology, medicine, and agriculture for research, diagnostics, and therapeutic purposes.

The basic components of tissue culture include a sterile growth medium that contains nutrients, growth factors, and other essential components to support the growth of cells or tissues. The growth medium is often supplemented with antibiotics to prevent contamination by microorganisms. The cells or tissues are cultured in specialized containers called culture vessels, which can be plates, flasks, or dishes, depending on the type and scale of the culture.

There are several types of tissue culture techniques, including:

1. Monolayer Culture: In this technique, cells are grown as a single layer on a flat surface, allowing for easy observation and manipulation of individual cells.
2. Organoid Culture: This method involves growing three-dimensional structures that resemble the organization and function of an organ in vivo.
3. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more cell types are grown together to study their interactions and communication.
4. Explant Culture: In this technique, small pieces of tissue are cultured to maintain the original structure and organization of the cells within the tissue.
5. Primary Culture: This refers to the initial culture of cells directly isolated from a living organism. These cells can be further subcultured to generate immortalized cell lines.

Tissue culture techniques have numerous applications, such as studying cell behavior, drug development and testing, gene therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Poliovirus is a human enterovirus, specifically a type of picornavirus, that is the causative agent of poliomyelitis (polio). It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. There are three serotypes of Poliovirus (types 1, 2 and 3) which can cause different degrees of severity in the disease. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route and infects the gastrointestinal tract, from where it can invade the nervous system and cause paralysis.

The Poliovirus has an icosahedral symmetry, with a diameter of about 30 nanometers. It contains a single stranded RNA genome which is encapsidated in a protein shell called capsid. The capsid is made up of 60 units of four different proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4).

Poliovirus has been eradicated from most countries of the world through widespread vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, it still remains endemic in a few countries and is considered a major public health concern.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Fowl adenovirus A, also known as Fowl aviadenovirus serotype 1 or Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-A), is a species of DNA virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and genus Aviadenovirus. It primarily infects birds, particularly chickens, causing various clinical manifestations such as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). The virus is transmitted horizontally through the fecal-oral route and can be found in the environment for extended periods. FAdV-A infection can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, especially in young chickens.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Echovirus infections refer to diseases caused by infection with an echovirus, which is a type of enterovirus. Echoviruses are named for their ability to cause “echo” diseases, or symptoms that resemble those caused by other viruses. They are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or fecal-oral transmission.

Echovirus infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific strain of the virus and the age and overall health of the person infected. Some common symptoms include fever, rash, mouth sores, muscle aches, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and runny nose. In severe cases, echovirus infections can cause more serious complications, such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), or pericarditis (inflammation of the lining around the heart).

Echovirus infections are typically diagnosed based on symptoms, as well as laboratory tests that can detect the presence of the virus in samples such as stool, throat swabs, or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment for echovirus infections is generally supportive and aimed at managing symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment available. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Phenylthiourea is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is used in scientific research and has been studied in the context of medicine. Here's a definition from a chemistry perspective:

Phenylthiourea (PTU) is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NCS. It is a derivative of thiourea, where one hydrogen atom is replaced by a phenyl group. PTU is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol.

In medical terms, PTU has been used as a medication to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) because it can inhibit the production of thyroid hormones. However, its use as a therapeutic agent has declined due to the availability of other medications with fewer side effects. It is still used in research settings to study various biological processes and diseases.

It's important to note that PTU should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have adverse effects if not used properly.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VES) is a viral disease that affects pigs, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent is an RNA virus known as Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV), which belongs to the family Caliciviridae.

The disease is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The incubation period for VES ranges from 2-6 days, after which affected animals develop fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and lameness.

The most notable clinical sign of VES is the development of vesicles on the snout, coronary bands, and hooves of infected pigs. These lesions can rupture and form crusts or scabs, leading to secondary bacterial infections. In severe cases, lameness can progress to the point where affected animals are unable to stand or walk.

VES is a highly contagious disease that can cause significant economic losses for pig farmers. While it does not pose a direct threat to human health, VESV can cause a mild self-limiting illness in humans who come into contact with infected pigs or their secretions.

It's worth noting that Vesicular Exanthema of Swine has been eradicated from the United States since 1952, and it is now considered a foreign animal disease. However, it remains a significant concern for the global swine industry due to its potential to cause significant economic losses.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Synaptic membranes, also known as presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes, are specialized structures in neurons where synaptic transmission occurs. The presynaptic membrane is the portion of the neuron's membrane where neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft, a small gap between two neurons. The postsynaptic membrane, on the other hand, is the portion of the neighboring neuron's membrane that contains receptors for the neurotransmitters released by the presynaptic neuron. Together, these structures facilitate the transmission of electrical signals from one neuron to another through the release and binding of chemical messengers.

Protein sorting signals, also known as sorting motifs or sorting determinants, are specific sequences or domains within a protein that determine its intracellular trafficking and localization. These signals can be found in the amino acid sequence of a protein and are recognized by various sorting machinery such as receptors, coat proteins, and transport vesicles. They play a crucial role in directing newly synthesized proteins to their correct destinations within the cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.

There are several types of protein sorting signals, such as:

1. Signal peptides: These are short sequences of amino acids found at the N-terminus of a protein that direct it to the ER for translocation across the membrane and subsequent processing in the secretory pathway.
2. Transmembrane domains: Hydrophobic regions within a protein that span the lipid bilayer, often serving as anchors to tether proteins to specific organelle membranes or the plasma membrane.
3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors: These are post-translational modifications added to the C-terminus of a protein, allowing it to be attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane.
4. Endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signals: KDEL or KKXX-like sequences found at the C-terminus of proteins that direct their retrieval from the Golgi apparatus back to the ER.
5. Lysosomal targeting signals: Sequences within a protein, such as mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) residues or tyrosine-based motifs, that facilitate its recognition and transport to lysosomes.
6. Nuclear localization signals (NLS): Short sequences of basic amino acids that direct a protein to the nuclear pore complex for import into the nucleus.
7. Nuclear export signals (NES): Sequences rich in leucine residues that facilitate the export of proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

These various targeting and localization signals help ensure that proteins are delivered to their proper destinations within the cell, allowing for the coordinated regulation of cellular processes and functions.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Subcellular fractions refer to the separation and collection of specific parts or components of a cell, including organelles, membranes, and other structures, through various laboratory techniques such as centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. These fractions can be used in further biochemical and molecular analyses to study the structure, function, and interactions of individual cellular components. Examples of subcellular fractions include nuclear extracts, mitochondrial fractions, microsomal fractions (membrane vesicles), and cytosolic fractions (cytoplasmic extracts).

Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb substances from their external environment by engulfing them in membrane-bound structures, resulting in the formation of intracellular vesicles. This mechanism allows cells to take up large molecules, such as proteins and lipids, as well as small particles, like bacteria and viruses. There are two main types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking). Phagocytosis involves the engulfment of solid particles, while pinocytosis deals with the uptake of fluids and dissolved substances. Other specialized forms of endocytosis include receptor-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which allow for the specific internalization of molecules through the interaction with cell surface receptors.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Endosomes are membrane-bound compartments within eukaryotic cells that play a critical role in intracellular trafficking and sorting of various cargoes, including proteins and lipids. They are formed by the invagination of the plasma membrane during endocytosis, resulting in the internalization of extracellular material and cell surface receptors.

Endosomes can be classified into early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes based on their morphology, molecular markers, and functional properties. Early endosomes are the initial sorting stations for internalized cargoes, where they undergo sorting and processing before being directed to their final destinations. Late endosomes are more acidic compartments that mature from early endosomes and are responsible for the transport of cargoes to lysosomes for degradation.

Recycling endosomes, on the other hand, are involved in the recycling of internalized cargoes back to the plasma membrane or to other cellular compartments. Endosomal sorting and trafficking are regulated by a complex network of molecular interactions involving various proteins, lipids, and intracellular signaling pathways.

Defects in endosomal function have been implicated in various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, developmental abnormalities, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying endosomal trafficking and sorting is of great importance for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Mercaptoethylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfhydryl (-SH) group and an amino (-NH2) group, bonded to a carbon atom in an ethylamine structure. The general formula for mercaptoethylamines is R-CH2-CH2-SH, where R represents the organic group attached to the sulfur atom.

In medical terms, mercaptoethylamines are not commonly used as a term. However, one compound that falls under this category is 2-Mercaptoethylamine (MEA), which has been studied in the context of medicine and biochemistry. MEA is a reducing agent and a nucleophile, and it has been used in research to investigate its potential as an antioxidant or a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions.

It's worth noting that mercaptans (compounds containing a sulfhydryl group) can have a strong odor, which may be why some people associate the term "mercapto" with unpleasant smells. However, in the context of medicine and biochemistry, mercaptoethylamines are primarily studied for their chemical properties and potential therapeutic uses.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Enteroviruses, Porcine are a group of viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae and include several species that can infect pigs. These viruses are typically associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses in pigs, although some strains have been linked to reproductive problems and neurological disorders as well.

Some of the enteroviruses that can infect pigs include Porcine Enterovirus A (PEVA), Porcine Enterovirus B (PEVB), Porcine Enterovirus C (PEVC), Porcine Enterovirus D (PEVD), and Porcine Enterovirus E (PEVE). These viruses are usually spread through the fecal-oral route, and they can cause a range of clinical signs depending on the specific virus and the age and health status of the infected pig.

In general, porcine enteroviruses are not considered to be a significant threat to human health, although there have been rare reports of transmission from pigs to humans in cases where proper biosecurity measures were not followed. However, further research is needed to fully understand the potential risks associated with these viruses and their impact on both animal and human health.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins (LAMPs) are a group of proteins found in the membrane of lysosomes, which are cellular organelles responsible for breaking down and recycling various biomolecules. LAMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the lysosomal membrane.

There are two major types of LAMPs: LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. Both proteins share structural similarities, including a large heavily glycosylated domain that faces the lumen of the lysosome and a short hydrophobic region that anchors them to the membrane.

The primary function of LAMPs is to protect the lysosomal membrane from degradation by hydrolytic enzymes present inside the lysosome. They also participate in the process of autophagy, a cellular recycling mechanism, by fusing with autophagosomes (double-membraned vesicles formed during autophagy) to form autolysosomes, where the contents are degraded.

Moreover, LAMPs have been implicated in several cellular processes, such as antigen presentation, cholesterol homeostasis, and intracellular signaling. Mutations in LAMP-2 have been associated with certain genetic disorders, including Danon disease, a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by heart problems, muscle weakness, and intellectual disability.

Facial dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the face. These can include a wide range of disorders, such as:

1. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition characterized by the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. It primarily affects the face, neck, chest, and back.
2. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels on the face, along with bumps or pimples and sometimes eye irritation.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: A common inflammatory skin disorder that causes a red, itchy, and flaky rash, often on the scalp, face, and eyebrows. It can also affect other oily areas of the body, like the sides of the nose and behind the ears.
4. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. While it can occur anywhere on the body, it frequently affects the face, especially in infants and young children.
5. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that results in thick, scaly, silvery, or red patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the face.
6. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. The face can be affected when allergens or irritants come into contact with the skin through cosmetics, skincare products, or other substances.
7. Lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disorder that can cause a butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and nose, along with other symptoms like joint pain, fatigue, and photosensitivity.
8. Perioral dermatitis: A inflammatory skin condition that causes redness, small bumps, and dryness around the mouth, often mistaken for acne. It can also affect the skin around the nose and eyes.
9. Vitiligo: An autoimmune disorder that results in the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, which can occur on the face and other parts of the body.
10. Tinea faciei: A fungal infection that affects the facial skin, causing red, scaly, or itchy patches. It is also known as ringworm of the face.

These are just a few examples of skin conditions that can affect the face. If you experience any unusual symptoms or changes in your skin, it's essential to consult a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that are non-enveloped and have an icosahedral symmetry. The name "picornavirus" is derived from "pico," meaning small, and "RNA." These viruses are responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases, including the common cold, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and myocarditis. The genome of picornaviruses is around 7.5 to 8.5 kilobases in length and encodes a single polyprotein that is processed into structural and nonstructural proteins by viral proteases. Picornaviridae includes several important genera, such as Enterovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatovirus, Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus, and Erbovirus.

Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technique used in medical and biological research to obtain high-resolution, contrast-rich images of thick samples. This super-resolution technology provides detailed visualization of cellular structures and processes at various depths within a specimen.

In confocal microscopy, a laser beam focused through a pinhole illuminates a small spot within the sample. The emitted fluorescence or reflected light from this spot is then collected by a detector, passing through a second pinhole that ensures only light from the focal plane reaches the detector. This process eliminates out-of-focus light, resulting in sharp images with improved contrast compared to conventional widefield microscopy.

By scanning the laser beam across the sample in a raster pattern and collecting fluorescence at each point, confocal microscopy generates optical sections of the specimen. These sections can be combined to create three-dimensional reconstructions, allowing researchers to study cellular architecture and interactions within complex tissues.

Confocal microscopy has numerous applications in medical research, including studying protein localization, tracking intracellular dynamics, analyzing cell morphology, and investigating disease mechanisms at the cellular level. Additionally, it is widely used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, such as analyzing skin lesions or detecting pathogens in patient samples.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Post-translational protein processing refers to the modifications and changes that proteins undergo after their synthesis on ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. These modifications occur through various biochemical processes and play a crucial role in determining the final structure, function, and stability of the protein.

The process begins with the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into a linear polypeptide chain, which is then subjected to several post-translational modifications. These modifications can include:

1. Proteolytic cleavage: The removal of specific segments or domains from the polypeptide chain by proteases, resulting in the formation of mature, functional protein subunits.
2. Chemical modifications: Addition or modification of chemical groups to the side chains of amino acids, such as phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate group), glycosylation (addition of sugar moieties), methylation (addition of a methyl group), acetylation (addition of an acetyl group), and ubiquitination (addition of a ubiquitin protein).
3. Disulfide bond formation: The oxidation of specific cysteine residues within the polypeptide chain, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds between them. This process helps stabilize the three-dimensional structure of proteins, particularly in extracellular environments.
4. Folding and assembly: The acquisition of a specific three-dimensional conformation by the polypeptide chain, which is essential for its function. Chaperone proteins assist in this process to ensure proper folding and prevent aggregation.
5. Protein targeting: The directed transport of proteins to their appropriate cellular locations, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or plasma membrane. This is often facilitated by specific signal sequences within the protein that are recognized and bound by transport machinery.

Collectively, these post-translational modifications contribute to the functional diversity of proteins in living organisms, allowing them to perform a wide range of cellular processes, including signaling, catalysis, regulation, and structural support.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Oncolytic virotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses genetically modified viruses to selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The virus used in oncolytic virotherapy can replicate inside cancer cells, causing them to rupture and release new viruses that can then infect nearby cancer cells.

The process continues in a cascading manner, leading to the destruction of many cancer cells in the treated area. Additionally, some oncolytic viruses can also stimulate an immune response against cancer cells, further enhancing their therapeutic effect. Oncolytic virotherapy is still an experimental treatment approach and is being studied in clinical trials for various types of cancer.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic head group, which contains a choline moiety, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Phosphatidylcholines are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, and they also serve as important precursors for the synthesis of signaling molecules such as acetylcholine. They can be found in various tissues and biological fluids, including blood, and are abundant in foods such as soybeans, eggs, and meat. Phosphatidylcholines have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Viral meningitis is a form of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by viral infections, such as enteroviruses, herpesviruses, and HIV. The infection enters the body through the respiratory system or the gastrointestinal tract and then spreads to the central nervous system.

Symptoms of viral meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, photophobia (intolerance to light), and altered mental status. In some cases, patients may also experience vomiting, seizures, or skin rash. However, viral meningitis is generally less severe than bacterial meningitis and has a lower mortality rate.

Most cases of viral meningitis resolve on their own within 7-10 days, and treatment typically involves supportive care such as hydration, pain relief, and fever reduction. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, so they are not used to treat viral meningitis. In some cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed for certain types of viral meningitis, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis.

Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. There is also a vaccine available to protect against enterovirus D68, which can cause viral meningitis in some cases.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Freeze fracturing is not a medical term itself, but it is a technique used in the field of electron microscopy, which is a type of imaging commonly used in scientific research and medical fields to visualize structures at a very small scale, such as cells and cellular components.

In freeze fracturing, a sample is rapidly frozen to preserve its structure and then fractured or split along a plane of weakness, often along the membrane of a cell. The freshly exposed surface is then shadowed with a thin layer of metal, such as platinum or gold, to create a replica of the surface. This replica can then be examined using an electron microscope to reveal details about the structure and organization of the sample at the molecular level.

Freeze fracturing is particularly useful for studying membrane structures, such as lipid bilayers and protein complexes, because it allows researchers to visualize these structures in their native state, without the need for staining or other chemical treatments that can alter or damage the samples.

Oncolytic viruses are a type of viruses that preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells relatively unharmed. These viruses can replicate inside the cancer cells, causing them to rupture and ultimately leading to their death. The release of new virus particles from the dead cancer cells allows the infection to spread to nearby cancer cells, resulting in a potential therapeutic effect.

Oncolytic viruses can be genetically modified to enhance their ability to target specific types of cancer cells and to increase their safety and efficacy. They may also be used in combination with other cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve treatment outcomes. Oncolytic virus therapy is a promising area of cancer research, with several clinical trials underway to evaluate its potential benefits for patients with various types of cancer.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the body through the mouth, usually from contaminated water or food. The virus multiplies in the intestine and can invade the nervous system, causing paralysis.

The medical definition of Poliomyelitis includes:

1. An acute viral infection caused by the poliovirus.
2. Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord (poliomyelitis), leading to muscle weakness, and in some cases, paralysis.
3. The disease primarily affects children under 5 years of age.
4. Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by respiratory droplets.
5. The virus enters the body via the mouth, multiplies in the intestines, and can invade the nervous system.
6. There are three types of poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3), each capable of causing paralytic polio.
7. Infection with one type does not provide immunity to the other two types.
8. The disease has no cure, but vaccination can prevent it.
9. Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
10. Rare complications of OPV include vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs).

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

Bacteriorhodopsins are a type of protein found in certain archaea, a group of single-celled microorganisms. They are most commonly found in the archaea of the genus Halobacterium, which live in extremely salty environments such as salt lakes and solar salterns.

Bacteriorhodopsins are embedded in the cell membrane of these archaea and contain a retinal molecule, which is a type of vitamin A derivative. When exposed to light, the retinal changes shape, which causes a conformational change in the bacteriorhodopsin protein. This leads to the pumping of protons (hydrogen ions) across the cell membrane, generating a proton gradient.

The proton gradient created by bacteriorhodopsins can be used to generate ATP, which is the main energy currency of the cell. Bacteriorhodopsins are therefore involved in energy production in these archaea and are often referred to as light-driven proton pumps. They have also been studied extensively for their potential applications in optoelectronics and biotechnology.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Poliovirus vaccines are preparations used for active immunization against poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. The two types of poliovirus vaccines available are:

1. Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV): This vaccine contains inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. IPV is typically administered through an injection, usually in combination with other vaccines. It provides a strong immune response and does not carry the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), which is a rare but serious adverse event associated with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).

2. Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV): This vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. OPV is administered orally and induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, which helps prevent the spread of the virus in a community. However, there is a small risk of VAPP associated with this vaccine, especially after multiple doses. In rare cases, the weakened virus can revert to its virulent form and cause paralytic polio in the vaccinated individual or their close contacts.

Both IPV and OPV have been instrumental in global efforts to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using IPV in routine immunization programs, while using OPV during supplementary immunization activities in areas with a high risk of poliovirus transmission.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Protein folding is the process by which a protein molecule naturally folds into its three-dimensional structure, following the synthesis of its amino acid chain. This complex process is determined by the sequence and properties of the amino acids, as well as various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of molecular chaperones. The final folded conformation of a protein is crucial for its proper function, as it enables the formation of specific interactions between different parts of the molecule, which in turn define its biological activity. Protein misfolding can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Microvilli are small, finger-like projections that line the apical surface (the side facing the lumen) of many types of cells, including epithelial and absorptive cells. They serve to increase the surface area of the cell membrane, which in turn enhances the cell's ability to absorb nutrients, transport ions, and secrete molecules.

Microvilli are typically found in high density and are arranged in a brush-like border called the "brush border." They contain a core of actin filaments that provide structural support and allow for their movement and flexibility. The membrane surrounding microvilli contains various transporters, channels, and enzymes that facilitate specific functions related to absorption and secretion.

In summary, microvilli are specialized structures on the surface of cells that enhance their ability to interact with their environment by increasing the surface area for transport and secretory processes.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

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CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor) also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, same like JAM proteins. CAR is ... Plaque proteins are molecules, that are required for the coordination of signals coming from the plasma membrane. In recent ... This domain contains PDZ-binding motif, that facilitate to bind them to the PDZ membrane proteins, like a ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, ... The tetraspan membrane protein is established by two extracellular loops, two extracellular domains and one short intracellular ...
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... sCAR-Fc prevents the virus entering the cell by competitively binding to coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptors (CAR) on the ... internal capsid protein, VP4. This irreversible reaction prevents the virus from interacting with cellular receptors (CAR) on ... located in tight junctions on cell membranes. Once inside the cytoplasm, the virus can use the host's ribosomal machinery to ... September 2005). "Inhibition of coxsackie B virus infection by soluble forms of its receptors: binding affinities, altered ...
"Transgenic expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor enables adenoviral-mediated gene delivery in naive T cells". ... This amphipathic helix enables the binding of protein VI to the endsomal membrane leading to a severe membrane curvature that ... It is the co-receptor interaction that stimulates entry of the adenovirus. This co-receptor molecule is αV integrin. Binding to ... The two currently established receptors are: CD46 for the group B human adenovirus serotypes and the coxsackievirus/adenovirus ...
Coxsackie B, specifically B3 and B5, has been found to interact with coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay- ... Myocardial inflammation can be suspected on the basis of elevated inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP), ... In people with myocarditis severe enough to cause cardiac arrest, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to ... Viral: adenovirus, parvovirus B19, coxsackie virus, rubella virus, polio virus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, ...
... whose binding to host cells is initiated by interactions between the cellular coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... "Oncolytic Group B Adenovirus Enadenotucirev Mediates Non-apoptotic Cell Death with Membrane Disruption and Release of ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. CAR ... "Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor". Journal of Virology. 76 (2 ... CAR is a receptor for both Coxsackie B virus and adenovirus 2 and 5, which are structurally distinct. In patients with ... Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXADR gene. ...
Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Receptor, ... Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor. Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein. Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor. Receptor ... CAR (Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor) CAR Like Membrane Protein CAR-Like Membrane Protein CXADR Like Membrane Protein CXADR-Like ... CAR (Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor). CAR Like Membrane Protein. CAR-Like Membrane Protein. CXADR Like Membrane Protein. CXADR- ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein 44% * Disease Eradication 38% 149 Scopus citations ... Treatment of ovarian cancer with a tropism modified oncolytic adenovirus. Bauerschmitz, G. J., Lam, J. T., Kanerva, A., Suzuki ... Trends in immunoconjugate and ligand-receptor based targeting development for cancer therapy. Brumlik, M. J., Daniel, B. J., ... Triple-Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses Featuring the Cox2 Promoter, E1A Transcomplementation, and Serotype Chimerism for ...
Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (UXADR) is an integral membrane protein that serves as a receptor for coxsackie B ... Galinhas , Proteína de Membrana Semelhante a Receptor de Coxsackie e Adenovirus/metabolismo , Adenovirus A das Aves/metabolismo ... Gallus gallus coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor facilitates the binding of fowl adenovirus serotype 1 in chickens. ... Adenoviruses have been reported to infect a variety of birds. Here, we isolated a novel adenovirus from the liver of a dead owl ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein D12.776.543.750.925.124 D12.776.543.750.830.124 D12.776.543.984.600.500 ... Receptor Aggregation G4.299.780 G4.774 Receptor Cross-Talk G4.299.785 G4.794 Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases D12.776.543.750. ... Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1 D12.776.476.24.412.100 D12.776.476.24.410.100 Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 ... Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2 D12.776.157.57.04.750 D12.776.157.57.06.750 Receptor-Interacting Protein ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. *Receptors, Complement 3d. *Receptors, HIV ... Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 ... "Receptors, HIV" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, HIV" by people in this website by year, and whether ...
Human CLMP(Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein) ELISA Kit. *Human CNPY2(Canopy 2 Homolog) ELISA Kit ... Mouse RAPSN(Receptor Associated Protein Of The Synapse) ELISA Kit. *Mouse REG1b(Regenerating Islet Derived Protein 1 Beta) ... Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein Binding Protein 2) ELISA Kit. *Rat ARC(Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton Associated Protein) ELISA ... Mouse LDLRAP1(Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Adaptor Protein 1) ELISA Kit. *Mouse LEFTY2(Left/Right Determination Factor 2) ...
Ad5 vectors are the most commonly used adenovirus vector. Ad5 vectors transduce a wide range of cell types. They utilize the ... mainly because they lack the Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). A new adenovirus vector has been developed where the fiber ... This assay may be Western blot with an antibody to a protein encoded by your gene, RT-PCR using primers to your gene, Northern ... Transduction efficiency is related to the level of CAR expression on the cell membrane. It your target cells has low level of ...
The induction of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the complement deflecting protein decay accelerating factor (DAF, ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of infants, children, and young adults with acute myocarditis: a review of ... 11] coxsackie B, adenovirus, influenza, cytomegalovirus, poliomyelitis, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV-1, viral hepatitis, mumps, ... Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level (and that of other acute phase reactants [eg, C-reactive protein]) ...
Human CLMP(Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein) ELISA Kit. *Human CFHR5(Complement Factor H Related Protein ... Mouse GPER(G Protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1) ELISA Kit. *Human MAP1LC3a(Microtubule Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 ... Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein Binding Protein B3) ELISA Kit. *Rat APPBP2(Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein Binding Protein 2) ... Cattle BMPR1A(Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A) ELISA Kit. *Rat ZP2(Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein 2, Sperm Receptor) ELISA ...
Hemoglobin level was 104 g/L, and platelet count was 296 x 109 cells/L. The C-reactive protein level was normal at 4 mg/L. ... Ecological behavior of 6 coxsackie B and 29 echo serotypes as revealed by serologic survey of general population in Aomori, ... Results of physical examination were otherwise normal, with no lung rales, normal tympanic membranes, and no rash. Leukocyte ... for adenoviruses and parainfluenza viruses 1-3. Results of all rapid antigenic tests were negative, and the NPA was inoculated ...
... adenovirus, parvovirus B19, Coxsackie A9 ... Test for the presence of CD55 or CD59 on the RBC membrane if ... Impaired growth and elevated fas receptor expression in PIGA(+) stem cells in primary paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. J ... serum protein electrophoresis, and quantitative determination of immunoglobulins in case of cold antibodies. ... Chrobak L. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (membrane defect, pathogenesis, aplastic anemia, diagnosis). Acta Medica (Hradec ...
... of genome-editing principles to the targeted manipulation of defective DMD loci can result in the rescue of dystrophin protein ... Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science. 1997;275:1320-3. ... In muscle cells, the long rod-shaped dystrophin protein anchors the intracellular cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix via ... Skeletal muscle repair by adult human mesenchymal stem cells from synovial membrane. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:909-18. ...
Engineered expression of the Coxsackie B and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in human dendritic cells enhances recombinant adenovirus ... The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human Factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning beta- ... Multiple P2Y receptor subtypes in the apical membranes of polarized epithelial cells. British Journal of Pharmacology, 131 (8 ... Thermodynamic Penalty Arising from Burial of a Ligand Polar Group Within a Hydrophobic Pocket of a Protein Receptor. Journal of ...
Human CXADR(Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human CYCS(Cytochrome C, Somatic) ELISA Kit ... Human EPB42(Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.2) ELISA Kit. *Human EPHA4(Ephrin Type A Receptor 4) ELISA Kit ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... GABA-A Receptor Associated Protein Like Protein 2) ELISA Kit. *Human GABPa(GA Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha) ELISA ...
CXADR (coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor), also known as CAR, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CTX ... Recombinant Acinetobacter Baumannii Efflux Pump Membrane Transporter (HMPREF0010_00594) Protein (His). *Molecule: HMPREF0010_ ... Interleukins and Receptors Growth Factors and Receptors Chemokines and Receptors Tumor Necrosis Factors and Receptors (TNFs) ... Why is protein freeze-dried? What is the effect of freeze-drying on protein? Proteins are sensitive to heat, and freeze-drying ...
Human EPB42(Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.2) ELISA Kit. *Human EPHA4(Ephrin Type A Receptor 4) ELISA Kit ... Human CXADR(Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human CYCS(Cytochrome C, Somatic) ELISA Kit ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... GABA-A Receptor Associated Protein Like Protein 2) ELISA Kit. *Human GABPa(GA Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha) ELISA ...
Human EPB42(Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.2) ELISA Kit. *Human EPHA4(Ephrin Type A Receptor 4) ELISA Kit ... Human CXADR(Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human CYCS(Cytochrome C, Somatic) ELISA Kit ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ...
Human EPB42(Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.2) ELISA Kit. *Human EPHA4(Ephrin Type A Receptor 4) ELISA Kit ... Human CXADR(Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human CYCS(Cytochrome C, Somatic) ELISA Kit ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... GABA-A Receptor Associated Protein Like Protein 2) ELISA Kit. *Human GABPa(GA Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha) ELISA ...
E44 Protein-energy malnutrition of moderate and mild degree E44.0 Moderate protein-energy malnutrition E44.1 Mild protein- ... "Disorder of amniotic fluid and membranes, unspecified" O42 Premature rupture of membranes O42.0 "Premature rupture of membranes ... B30.0 Keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus B30.1 Conjunctivitis due to adenovirus B30.2 Viral pharyngoconjunctivitis B30.3 ... J20.3 Acute bronchitis due to coxsackie virus J20.4 Acute bronchitis due to parainfluenza virus J20.5 Acute bronchitis due to ...
A major difference between these vectors is their binding to cellular receptors used for infection. Whereas rAd5 binds ... Recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) based on types 5 (rAd5) and 35 (rAd35) have emerged as important vaccine delivery vectors in ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Whereas rAd5 binds coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), rAd35 binds the complement regulatory protein CD46. Although rAd35 ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1. 6.036. Other. CXADR. Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. 6.018. Transmembrane ... G-protein-coupled receptor 160. 10.806. G-protein-coupled receptor. OR51E2. Olfactory receptor subfamily E, member 2. 10.529. G ... Roundabout, axon guidance receptor. 6.785. Other. CXCR4. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4. 6.736. G-protein-coupled receptor ... Natriuretic peptide receptor C. 9.023. G-protein-coupled receptor. TNFRSF21. Tumor necrosis factor receptor member 21. 8.503. ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein D12.776.543.750.925.124 D12.776.543.750.830.124 D12.776.543.984.600.500 ... Receptor Aggregation G4.299.780 G4.774 Receptor Cross-Talk G4.299.785 G4.794 Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases D12.776.543.750. ... Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1 D12.776.476.24.412.100 D12.776.476.24.410.100 Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 ... Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2 D12.776.157.57.04.750 D12.776.157.57.06.750 Receptor-Interacting Protein ...
CAR (Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor) CAR-Like Membrane Protein CXADR-Like Membrane Protein Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor ... 2013; CXADR-LIKE MEMBRANE PROTEIN (now COXSACKIE AND ADENOVIRUS RECEPTOR-LIKE MEMBRANE PROTEIN) was indexed under RECEPTORS, ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein [D12.776.543.750.830.124] * Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 [ ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein Preferred Term Term UI T814739. Date12/21/2011. LexicalTag NON. ...
CAR (Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor) CAR-Like Membrane Protein CXADR-Like Membrane Protein Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor ... 2013; CXADR-LIKE MEMBRANE PROTEIN (now COXSACKIE AND ADENOVIRUS RECEPTOR-LIKE MEMBRANE PROTEIN) was indexed under RECEPTORS, ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein [D12.776.543.750.830.124] * Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 [ ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein Preferred Term Term UI T814739. Date12/21/2011. LexicalTag NON. ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein 73% * Adenoviridae 44% * Serogroup 41% ... Localization of the N-Terminus of Minor Coat Protein IIIa in the Adenovirus Capsid. San Martín, C., Glasgow, J. N., Borovjagin ... A plasmodium promiscuous T cell epitope delivered within the Ad5 hexon protein enhances the protective efficacy of a protein ... Development of an adenovirus vector vaccine platform for targeting dendritic cells. Sharma, P. K., Dmitriev, I. P., Kashentseva ...
Anaphylatoxin C5a N0000185643 Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein N0000168308 Alkyl and Aryl Transferases ... Synthetic N0000171135 Adenovirus E1 Proteins N0000171148 Adenovirus E1A Proteins N0000171149 Adenovirus E1B Proteins ... G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 N0000178689 G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 N0000178640 G-Protein-Coupled Receptor ... Regulatory Proteins N0000171162 LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein N0000169501 LDL-Receptor Related Proteins ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. ... coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. *coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor. *coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor ...
Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor-like membrane protein (CLMP) was identified as the tight junction-associated ... Proteína de Membrana Semelhante a Receptor de Coxsackie e Adenovirus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus ... Proteína de Membrana Semelhante a Receptor de Coxsackie e Adenovirus/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Regulação ... Gpnmb is classified as a type 1 membrane protein and its soluble form is secreted by ADAM10-mediated cleavage. Gpnmb mRNA was ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein D12.776.543.750.925.124 D12.776.543.750.830.124 D12.776.543.984.600.500 ... Receptor Aggregation G4.299.780 G4.774 Receptor Cross-Talk G4.299.785 G4.794 Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases D12.776.543.750. ... Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1 D12.776.476.24.412.100 D12.776.476.24.410.100 Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 ... Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2 D12.776.157.57.04.750 D12.776.157.57.06.750 Receptor-Interacting Protein ...
Basolateral sorting of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor through interaction of a canonical YXXPhi motif with the clathrin ... The PDZ protein SCRIB regulates sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression at the basolateral plasma membrane.. Martín M; ... Interactions between the Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural 2 Protein and Host Adaptor Proteins 1 and 4 Orchestrate Virus Release. ... 6. Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface. ...
Human CLMP(Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein) ELISA Kit. *Human CNPY2(Canopy 2 Homolog) ELISA Kit ... Mouse RAPSN(Receptor Associated Protein Of The Synapse) ELISA Kit. *Mouse REG1b(Regenerating Islet Derived Protein 1 Beta) ... Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein Binding Protein 2) ELISA Kit. *Rat ARC(Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton Associated Protein) ELISA ... Mouse LDLRAP1(Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Adaptor Protein 1) ELISA Kit. *Mouse LEFTY2(Left/Right Determination Factor 2) ...
The induction of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the complement deflecting protein decay accelerating factor (DAF, ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of infants, children, and young adults with acute myocarditis: a review of ... 11] coxsackie B, adenovirus, influenza, cytomegalovirus, poliomyelitis, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV-1, viral hepatitis, mumps, ... Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level (and that of other acute phase reactants [eg, C-reactive protein]) ...
Human CLMP(Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein) ELISA Kit. *Human CFHR5(Complement Factor H Related Protein ... Mouse GPER(G Protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1) ELISA Kit. *Human MAP1LC3a(Microtubule Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 ... Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein Binding Protein B3) ELISA Kit. *Rat APPBP2(Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein Binding Protein 2) ... Cattle BMPR1A(Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A) ELISA Kit. *Rat ZP2(Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein 2, Sperm Receptor) ELISA ...
The induction of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the complement deflecting protein decay accelerating factor (DAF, ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of infants, children, and young adults with acute myocarditis: a review of ... 11] coxsackie B, adenovirus, influenza, cytomegalovirus, poliomyelitis, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV-1, viral hepatitis, mumps, ... Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level (and that of other acute phase reactants [eg, C-reactive protein]) ...
Alternatively spliced soluble coxsackie- adenovirus receptors inhibit coxsackievirus infection. Dorner, A, Xiong, D, Couch, K, ... The matrix protein of Marburg virus is transported to the plasma membrane along cellular membranes: exploiting the retrograde ... The nsp9 Replicase Protein of SARS-Coronavirus, Structure and Functional Insights. Sutton, G, Fry, E, Carter, L, Sainsbury, S, ... Geldanamycin, a Ligand of Heat Shock Protein 90, Inhibits the Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Vitro ...
Coxsackievirus uses coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is a junctional protein. The same structure is used by HAdV ( ... 9 and cellular membrane-bound TLR4, or by TRIF (5) in case of TLR3, associated with endosomal TLR4. Signal from TLR9/Myd88 ... Isolation of a common receptor for Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science. 275:1320-1323. ... Cardiac deletion of the Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor abolishes Coxsackievirus B3 infection and prevents myocarditis in ...
... protype strain of Coxsackie virus A9 X COXSACKIE VIRUSES BP viruses X ADENOVIRUS brachial-basilar insurficiency syndrome X ... otolithic membranes (IAF) X LABYRINTH X RECEPTORS, NEURAL N HEHBRANES otter (VET) X CARNIVORA Otto-chrobak syndroae (SYN) X ... X ELOOD PROTEINS H PROTEIN BINDING X PROTEIN-BOUND IODINE TEST if applic protein immunogen (IKK) X ANTIGENS X PROTEINS if ... X ADENOVIRUS N HACACA simiau virus 32 (VIR) ♦ SVJ2 X ADENOVIRUS N yACACA simian virus j3 (VIR) ♦S V 3 3 X ADENOVIRUS X ...
The induction of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the complement deflecting protein decay accelerating factor (DAF, ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of infants, children, and young adults with acute myocarditis: a review of ... 11] coxsackie B, adenovirus, influenza, cytomegalovirus, poliomyelitis, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV-1, viral hepatitis, mumps, ... Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level (and that of other acute phase reactants [eg, C-reactive protein]) ...
... we neutralized the mice that had the coxsackie A type 1 and passed their tissues into other mice and we isolated the coxsackie ... Of course nothing much came of that because they never established that adenoviruses were ever a cause of human cancer, but in ... the combination of amino acids and minerals and also I think he threw in a little protein, calf serum of various types. So, ... showed that the placentas of birth membranes also were heavily laden, so this was another factor; this accounted for infection ...
Hemoglobin level was 104 g/L, and platelet count was 296 x 109 cells/L. The C-reactive protein level was normal at 4 mg/L. ... Ecological behavior of 6 coxsackie B and 29 echo serotypes as revealed by serologic survey of general population in Aomori, ... Results of physical examination were otherwise normal, with no lung rales, normal tympanic membranes, and no rash. Leukocyte ... for adenoviruses and parainfluenza viruses 1-3. Results of all rapid antigenic tests were negative, and the NPA was inoculated ...
A Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalized with the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113, ... Renyu Liu, A.T. Charlie Johnson, and Jeffery G. Saven, Water soluble G-protein coupled receptor enabled biosensors, ... Z. Luo, Y. Lu, L.A. Somers, and A.T. Charlie Johnson, Preparation of macroscopic graphene oxide membranes, Journal of the ... Detection of viral proteins using human receptor functionalized carbon nanotubes, Proceedings of the Materials Research Society ...
Human CXADR(Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human CYCS(Cytochrome C, Somatic) ELISA Kit ... Human EPB42(Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.2) ELISA Kit. *Human EPHA4(Ephrin Type A Receptor 4) ELISA Kit ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... GABA-A Receptor Associated Protein Like Protein 2) ELISA Kit. *Human GABPa(GA Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha) ELISA ...
" = "E44 Protein?energy malnutrition of moderate and mild degree" "E440" = "E44.0 Moderate protein?energy malnutrition" "E441 ... " = "O42 Premature rupture of membranes" "O420" = "O42.0 Premature rupture of membranes, onset of labor within 24 hours" "O421 ... " = "B30.0 Keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus" "B301" = "B30.1 Conjunctivitis due to adenovirus" "B302" = "B30.2 Viral ... " = "Y50.1 Opioid receptor antagonists" "Y502" = "Y50.2 Methylxanthines, not elsewhere classified" "Y508" = "Y50.8 Other ...
PMID- 214782 TI - Formation of protein micelles from amphiphilic membrane proteins. AB - The membrane penicillinase (penicillin ... It is not certain at present if these EBV binding proteins are involved in the receptor activity of the extract. PMID- 215106 ... PMID- 215030 TI - Hypoglycorrhachia and coxsackie B3 meningoencephalitis. AB - The case of a 3-week-old infant with Coxsackie ... Papovaviruses, adenoviruses and oncornaviruses are considered from this point of view. PMID- 214774 TI - The effect of ...
Mitochondrial membrane protein mitofusin 2 as a potential therapeutic target for treating free fatty acid-induced hepatic ... Uncoupling Protein 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Gene Polymorphisms in Association with Diabetes ... activated protein kinases in Coxsackie virus B3‑infected rat cardiomyocytes. Pubmed:25377925 ... Synthesis and inflammatory response of a novel silk fibroin scaffold containing BMP7 adenovirus for bone regeneration PubMed: ...
Human EPB42(Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.2) ELISA Kit. *Human EPHA4(Ephrin Type A Receptor 4) ELISA Kit ... Human CXADR(Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human CYCS(Cytochrome C, Somatic) ELISA Kit ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ...
  • Human CAR protein has a theoretical molecular weight of 40.0 kDa and is composed of 365 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasmic tail of CAR contains the amino acids G S I V, which is characterized as a class 1 PDZ-binding motif for interacting with proteins containing PDZ domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXADR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXADR (coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor), also known as CAR, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CTX family of the Ig superfamily, and is essential for normal cardiac development in the mouse. (betalifesci.com)
  • Adenoviruses have been reported to infect a variety of birds. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenovirus 5 is an important vector because it can infect a variety of non-dividing cells and elicit high levels of transgene expression. (bcm.edu)
  • Receptors, HIV" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the infant's tachypnea, a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was obtained for human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen testing (Test Pack, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and direct immunofluorescence assays (Bartels, Carlsbad, CA) for adenoviruses and parainfluenza viruses 1-3. (cdc.gov)
  • This assay may be Western blot with an antibody to a protein encoded by your gene, RT-PCR using primers to your gene, Northern blot with a probe to your gene or some other functional assay for the protein encoded by your gene. (bcm.edu)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5 (BMP5) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • CAR is a transmembrane bound protein with two Ig-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane domain, a cytoplasmic domain, and two N-linked glycosylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it poorly transduces a number of human cells and tissues, mainly because they lack the Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). (bcm.edu)
  • Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Ad5 vectors are the most commonly used adenovirus vector. (bcm.edu)
  • The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The protein is found to be expressed in various regions of the body including the heart, brain, and, more generally, epithelial and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was coordinate with the loss of connexin-45 at cell-cell junctions on the sarcolemmal membranes of AV node cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They utilize the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) to enter cells. (bcm.edu)
  • Leukocyte count was 4.5 x 10 9 cells/L (30% neutrophils, 0% band forms, 60% lymphocytes), hemoglobin level was 123 g/L, and platelet count was 166 x 10 9 cells/L. C-reactive protein was undetectable. (cdc.gov)
  • Experiments involving different programmable nuclease platforms and target cell types have established that the application of genome-editing principles to the targeted manipulation of defective DMD loci can result in the rescue of dystrophin protein synthesis in gene-edited cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In muscle cells, the long rod-shaped dystrophin protein anchors the intracellular cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix via a large glycoprotein complex embedded in the plasma membrane called the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new adenovirus vector has been developed where the fiber gene from adenovirus type 35 has been substituted for the Ad5 fiber. (bcm.edu)
  • You can choose options such as endotoxin removal, liquid or lyophilized forms, preferred tags, and the desired functional sequence range for proteins. (betalifesci.com)
  • Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. (myelisakit.com)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Bone morphogenetic protein 5(BMP5) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • Complete Evaluation of the Antigenic Influence of Human Papillomavirus Lineage Variation on Recognition by Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Raised Towards Lineage A Main Capsid Proteins of Vaccine-Associated Genotypes Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical and different epithelial cancers. (tuberculosistest.net)
  • Orthobornaviruses use alternative splicing to regulate the expression level of viral proteins and achieve efficient viral replication in the nucleus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transduction efficiency is related to the level of CAR expression on the cell membrane. (bcm.edu)
  • A lumbar puncture was performed, and analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed erythrocytes with no leukocytes, a glucose level of 2.8 mmol/L (normal 2.2-4.4 mmol/L), and a protein level of 0.44 g/L (normal 0.15-0.45 g/L). Chest radiograph results were normal. (cdc.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, HIV" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, HIV" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, HIV" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The recombinant proteins are stable for up to 1 year from date of receipt at -70°C. (betalifesci.com)
  • studies also showed that CAR, and connexin-45 form a protein complex that requires the PDZ-binding motif on CAR for proper formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coxsackievirus uses coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is a junctional protein. (pjmonline.org)
  • An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS . (bvsalud.org)
  • 12. Basolateral sorting of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor through interaction of a canonical YXXPhi motif with the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B. (nih.gov)
  • 5. The AP-1A and AP-1B clathrin adaptor complexes define biochemically and functionally distinct membrane domains. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Quantitative proteomics of MDCK cells identify unrecognized roles of clathrin adaptor AP-1 in polarized distribution of surface proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Leukocyte count was 4.5 x 10 9 cells/L (30% neutrophils, 0% band forms, 60% lymphocytes), hemoglobin level was 123 g/L, and platelet count was 166 x 10 9 cells/L. C-reactive protein was undetectable. (cdc.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. (nih.gov)