Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein: An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Coxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Pleurodynia, Epidemic: An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Enterovirus InfectionsProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Swine Vesicular Disease: An enterovirus infection of swine clinically indistinguishable from FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, vesicular stomatitis, and VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE. It is caused by a strain of HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS B.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Echovirus 9: A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Enterovirus C, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 11 serotypes, all coxsackieviruses.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Astragalus membranaceus: A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PhenylthioureaBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vesicular Exanthema of Swine: A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.MercaptoethylaminesImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Enteroviruses, Porcine: Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. Mild strains are also present in Canada, U.S., and Australia. Specific species include Porcine enterovirus A and Porcine enterovirus B.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Facial DermatosesGenes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia. (1/298)

Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency.  (+info)

The human HLA-A*0201 allele, expressed in hamster cells, is not a high-affinity receptor for adenovirus type 5 fiber. (2/298)

The coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alpha2 domain have been identified as high-affinity cell receptors for adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) fiber. In this study we show that CAR but not MHC class I allele HLA-A*0201 binds to Ad5 with high affinity when expressed on hamster cells. When both receptors are coexpressed on the cell surface of hamster cells, Ad5 fiber bind to a single high-affinity receptor, which is CAR.  (+info)

Maturation of dendritic cells accompanies high-efficiency gene transfer by a CD40-targeted adenoviral vector. (3/298)

Important therapeutic applications of genetically modified dendritic cells (DC) have been proposed; however, current vector systems have demonstrated only limited gene delivery efficacy to this cell type. By means of bispecific Abs, we have dramatically enhanced gene transfer to monocyte derived DC (MDDC) by retargeting adenoviral (Ad) vectors to a marker expressed on DC, CD40. Adenovirus targeted to CD40 demonstrated dramatic improvements in gene transfer relative to untargeted Ad vectors. Fundamental to the novelty of this system is the capacity of the vector itself to modulate the immunological status of the MDDC. This vector induces DC maturation as demonstrated phenotypically by increased expression of CD83, MHC, and costimulatory molecules, as well as functionally by production of IL-12 and an enhanced allostimulatory capacity in a MLR. In comparing this vector to other Ad-based gene transfer systems, we have illustrated that the features of DC maturation are not a function of the Ad particle, but rather a consequence of targeting to the CD40 marker. This vector approach may thus mediate not only high-efficiency gene delivery but also serve a proactive role in DC activation that could ultimately strengthen the utility of this vector for immunotherapy strategies.  (+info)

Fibroblast growth factor 2 retargeted adenovirus has redirected cellular tropism: evidence for reduced toxicity and enhanced antitumor activity in mice. (4/298)

Adenovirus (Ad) have been used as vectors to deliver genes to a wide variety of tissues. Despite achieving high expression levels in vivo, Ad vectors display normal tissue toxicity, transient expression, and antivector immune responses that limit therapeutic potential. To circumvent these problems, several retargeting strategies to abrogate native tropism and redirect Ad uptake through defined receptors have been attempted. Despite success in cell culture, in vivo results have generally not shown sufficient selectivity for target tissues. We have previously identified (C. K. Goldman et al., Cancer Res., 57: 1447-1451, 1997) the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligand and receptor families as conferring sufficient specificity and binding affinity to be useful for targeting DNA in vivo. In the present studies, we retargeted Ad using basic FGF (FGF2) as a targeting ligand. Cellular uptake is redirected through high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFRs) and not the more ubiquitous lower-affinity Ad receptors. Initial in vitro experiments demonstrated a 10- to 100-fold increase in gene expression in numerous FGFR positive (FGFR+) cell lines using FGF2-Ad when compared with Ad. To determine whether increased selectivity could be detected in vivo, FGF2-Ad was administered i.v. to normal mice. FGF2-Ad demonstrates markedly decreased hepatic toxicity and liver transgene expression compared with Ad treatment. Importantly, FGF2-Ad encoding the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene transduces Ad-resistant FGFR+ tumor cells both ex vivo and in vivo, which results in substantially enhanced survival (180-260%) when the prodrug ganciclovir is administered. Because FGFRs are up-regulated on many types of malignant or injured cells, this broadly useful method to redirect native Ad tropism and to increase the potency of gene expression may offer significant therapeutic advantages.  (+info)

Molecular determinants of adenovirus serotype 5 fibre binding to its cellular receptor CAR. (5/298)

Adenovirus (Ad) tropism is mediated in part through the fibre protein. The common coxsackie B virus and Ad receptor (CAR) was recently identified as the major receptor for subgroup C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) and serotype 2 (Ad2) fibres. Effects of mutations in the Ad5 fibre gene were studied to assess domains of the fibre capsomer that could alter virus tropism without altering virus assembly and replication. All mutants that accumulated as fibre monomers failed to assemble with a penton base and proved lethal for Ad5 which suggests that the absence of infectious virions resulted in part from a defect in fibre penton base assembly. Cell binding capacity of all fibre mutants was investigated in cell binding competition experiments with adenovirions using CHO-CAR cells (CHO cells that have been transfected with CAR cDNA and express functional CAR). The results suggest that the R-sheet of the Ad5 fibre knob monomer contains binding motifs for CAR and that beta-strands E and F, or a region close to them, may also be involved in receptor recognition.  (+info)

Expression of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells: regulation in response to cell density. (6/298)

Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (HCAR). Whereas HCAR expression in HeLa cells was constant with respect to cell density, HCAR expression in HUVEC increased with culture confluence. HCAR expression in HUVEC was not quantitatively altered by infection with coxsackievirus B.  (+info)

Picornavirus receptor down-regulation by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2. (7/298)

Therapeutic interference with virus-cell surface receptor interactions represents a viable antiviral strategy. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic expression of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), affords a high level of protection from lytic infection by multiple human picornaviruses. The antiviral action of PAI-2 was mediated primarily through transcriptional down-regulation of the following virus receptors: intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, a cellular receptor for the major group of rhinoviruses), decay-accelerating factor (a cellular receptor for echoviruses and coxsackieviruses), and to a lesser extent the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor protein (a cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and group C adenoviruses). Expression of related cell surface receptors, including membrane cofactor protein and the poliovirus receptor, remained unaffected. These findings suggest that PAI-2 and/or related serpins may form the basis of novel antiviral strategies against picornavirus infections and also therapeutic interventions against ICAM-1-mediated respiratory inflammation.  (+info)

Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-dependent and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-independent uptake of recombinant adenoviruses into human tumour cells. (8/298)

The role of two receptors, previously proposed to mediate the entry of adenoviruses into human cells, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain has been investigated. The expression of MHC class I in many tumours is reduced or absent, therefore if this were a means by which adenoviruses gained entry into cells, it would have important implications for their application in cancer treatment. In order to determine if MHC class I heavy chain is involved in adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) uptake, the binding of recombinant Ad5 fibre knob domain (which mediates viral attachment) to human cell lines that had greatly different levels of surface MHC class I was studied. We also created derivatives of a non-permissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that expressed human class I (HLA-A2) and found that these cells did not bind fibre or take up virus. In addition, the extracellular domain of CAR was expressed in E. coli and used to generate a polyclonal anti-CAR antibody. This antibody blocked both 125I labelled fibre knob binding and virus uptake. Thus CAR, and not MHC class I, is a receptor for human adenoviruses in cultured tumour cells. Tissue CAR levels may therefore be an important factor in the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.  (+info)

Vol 21: Study of Coxsackie B viruses interactions with Coxsackie Adenovirus receptor and Decay-Accelerating Factor using Human CaCo-2 cell line.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor is a modifier of cardiac conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia. AU - Marsman, Roos F J. AU - Bezzina, Connie R.. AU - Freiberg, Fabian. AU - Verkerk, Arie O.. AU - Adriaens, Michiel E.. AU - Podliesna, Svitlana. AU - Chen, Chen. AU - Purfürst, Bettina. AU - Spallek, Bastian. AU - Koopmann, Tamara T.. AU - Baczko, Istvan. AU - Dos Remedios, Cristobal G.. AU - George, Alfred L.. AU - Bishopric, Nanette. AU - Lodder, Elisabeth M.. AU - De Bakker, Jacques M T. AU - Fischer, Robert. AU - Coronel, Ruben. AU - Wilde, Arthur A M. AU - Gotthardt, Michael. AU - Remme, Carol Ann. PY - 2014/2/18. Y1 - 2014/2/18. N2 - Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on ventricular conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Background A heritable component in the risk of ventricular fibrillation during myocardial ...
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Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely used as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy. However, its infectivity is highly dependent on the expression level of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) on the surface of tumor cells. We engineered Ad5 virus with the protein transduction domain (PTD) from the HIV-1 Tat protein (Tat-PTD) inserted in the hypervariable region 5 (HVR5) of the hexon protein in the virus capsid. Tat-PTD-modified Ad5 shows a dramatically increased transduction level of CAR-negative cells and bypassed fiber-mediated transduction. It also overcomes the fiber-masking problem, which is caused by release of excess fiber proteins from infected cells. To achieve specific viral replication in neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumor cells, we identified the secretogranin III (SCG3) promoter and constructed an adenovirus Ad5PTD(ASH1-SCG3-E1A) wherein E1A gene expression is controlled by the SCG3 promoter and the achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASH1) enhancer. This virus shows ...
Adenovirus binds to mammalian cellular material via conversation of fiber with the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). the monomeric proteins. In addition, the trimerized sCAR protein without focusing on ligands efficiently clogged liver gene transfer in normal C57BL/6 mice. However, addition of either ligand failed to retarget the liver in vivo. One explanation may be the large complex size, which serves to decrease the bioavailability of the trimeric sCAR-adenovirus complexes. In summary, we have exhibited that trimerization of sCAR proteins can significantly improve the potency of this focusing on approach in altering vector tropism in vitro and allow the efficient blocking of liver gene transfer in vivo. Adenoviral vectors efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types, which is one reason why they are prominent gene transfer vehicles in the field of gene therapy. However, systemic administration of vector leads to widespread distribution in tissue, which is not favorable if the desired ...
Photo: (Logo: The new research findings demonstrate that cardiac ischemia plays an important role in adenovector gene transfection (delivery) in mammalian hearts. Based on this understanding, using a standard balloon angioplasty catheter, researchers have developed and tested a new method to induce transient ischemia during a non-surgical interventional cardiac procedure, which when coupled with the infusion of nitroglycerin, boosts the delivery (cell transfection) of an adenovector gene construct into heart cells. The increase in adenovector-based gene transfection with the new technique is over two orders of magnitude (,100 fold).. Cardiums new method of adenovector delivery takes advantage of the findings that transient ischemia appears to alter the permeability barrier of the vascular endothelium and may expose the blood to the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor mediating adenovector ...
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A Google executive said he sees no regulatory hurdles to self-driving cars and expects to see the first fully autonomous cars on roads within the next five years.
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If the probability of observing a car (read: at least one car) in 20 minutes on a highway is 609/625, what is the probability of observing a car (read: at least one) in 5 minutes (assuming constant default probability ...
A former Doncaster cycling champion is ‘lucky to be alive’ after being flung into the air and thrown 60 metres down the road by a speeding car.
Sat at the hospital waiting to push clear. We pause as we hear the crew, that had previously cleared, get a job. It was to a person in a car on the side of the road and they were having real difficulty locating the person. Oh well, so we pressed clear. Next thing we get a job and its also to a person in a car on the side of the road. Psychiatric problems. I was wondering why we copped the same job seeing as the other crew were closer. As we are so often reminded by control "You dont know the bigger picture", I wasnt going to argue. Even if we really wanted to get back to base for a cuppa. Details were sketchy and the location was somewhere along a road that stretches pretty much from one end of the county to the other. It was passed as a Cat C, non-life threatening. We heard some radio traffic and it appeared that the other crew were still attending, not because it was serious but because there was two separate incidents. Two cars, both psychiatric patients, both wanting our help and both ...
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Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CARS protein. CARS (NP_001742.1, 1 a.a. ~ 748 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00000833-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Expect cars of the future to be more closely scrutinizing your fingerprints, heart and breathing rates, iris and pupils in the years to come.
For instance, the first car you buy may be vital to your earning an income if you need it for work, so you will pay good money for a good-and-reliable one. Your familys second car is a convenience, so youd pay less for it. The third car is just so the teenagers wont drive one of the two good ones -- you get em a clunker ... there isnt going to be any fifth car on your bill, if the kids all want their own they can get jobs and buy them themselves ...
Google has been testing self-driving cars on the roads of Mountain View for a while, but now the companys own models are hitting the streets. Last month, Goo...
This simulation for grades 6-12 demonstrates how vectors are used to represent velocity. As users drive a virtual car on a flat surface, vectors change in response to the changes in speed and direction. A graph of speed vs. time is displayed in…
A seven-year-old girl who miraculously escaped unhurt after being flung from a car on the M55 was expected to be released from hospital today.
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Author Summary Mice with homozygous deletion of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mimic the syndrome of neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) in humans with very high circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR-deficient mice to those of double homozygous CaR- and 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice or those of double homozygous CaR- and PTH-deficient mice. CaR-deficient mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, severe skeletal growth retardation, and abnormalities; and most died within 2 weeks of age. Deletion of 1,25(OH)2D3 in CaR-deficient mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, and slight improvement in skeletal growth. Deletion of PTH in CaR-deficient mice resulted in rescue of
We have previously reported that RAS-MEK (Cancer Res. 2003 May 1;63(9):2088-95) and TGF-β (Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1648-57) signaling negatively regulate coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) cell-surface expression and adenovirus uptake. In the case of TGF-β, down-regulation of CAR occurred in context of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with transcriptional repression of E-cadherin by, for instance, the E2 box-binding factors Snail, Slug, SIP1 or ZEB1. While EMT is crucial in embryonic development, it has been proposed to contribute to the formation of invasive and metastatic carcinomas by reducing cell-cell contacts and increasing cell migration.. ...
Abstract: : Purpose:Currently a phase I clinical trial of adenoviral vector is now underway for intraocular neovascularization. We have previously reported that eyes with laser photocoagulation (PC) and photodynamic therapy increased and sustained transduction in the area of the treatment, which are already established for the treatment of retinal and/or choroidal neovascularization (Anzai K, et al. ARVO 2003). This study is designed to demonstrate the mechanisms of enhanced gene transduction by adenoviral vector in the PC treated retina. Methods:Five C57/BL6 mice received no treatment or fundus PC with 532 nm diode laser. Twenty-four hours after the treatment eyes were enucleated and total RNA was extracted from laser photocoagulated retina and choroid. Samples were processed for qRT-PCR (Prism 7700, Applied Biosystems) to quantify mRNA expression of coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrins αV, ß3 and ß5, which have been shown to play a role in cell surface interaction and ...
Want to know if its possible to convert your car to run on water and gas? And can this water for gas conversion system really improve your vehicles fuel efficiency or is it a scam?. The buzz on this water for gas hybrid technology began when fuel prices around the world escalated to record highs. With no immediate relief from oil companies or the government in sight, ordinary folks began searching for alternative energy resources or gas saving technologies that will help them combat the rising cost of fuel. And currently, one of the most controversial and talked about solution is how to convert ones car to run on water and gas to increase fuel efficiency.. Run Your Car On Water - The Truth. To begin with, run your car on water is not about adding water to the gas tank and driving your car completely on water. This kind of water fuel combination wont mix and will result in serious damages to your car. Which is why the general community is having problems believing such water for gas ...
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Audi is officially the first automaker to get a permit from the state of California to test self-driving cars on public roads. At the same time, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has made official its new regulations regarding how manufacturers can test those so-called autonomous vehicles....
Molecular model of the fibre knob protein from an Adenovirus complexed with its human cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The binding of the fibre knob protein to CAR allows the virus entry to the cell. - Stock Image C025/1656
According to preliminary data from a small phase I study, using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to target mesothelin in solid tumors is both feasible and safe. The results were reported by Janos Tanyi, MD, PhD, a gynecologic oncologist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2015 in Philadelphia, PA, April 18-22.. CAR T-cell therapy involves genetically engineering a patients T cells to recognize and destroy specific antigens on tumor cells-in this case, mesothelin, which is present in a range of tumor types, including gastric and esophageal cancers. Tanyi and his colleagues had previously delivered CAR-encoding DNA to T cells through electroporation, which uses brief electrical pulses to increase cell permeability. However, "CAR expression was very short-lived, with limited antitumor effects," he said, "and patients required multiple infusions to maintain even those transient CAR levels.". In this study, the ...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of modified immune cells (IL13Ralpha2 CAR T cells) after a chemotherapy conditioning regimen for the treatment of patients with stage IIIC or IV melanoma. The study agent is called IL13Ralpha2 CAR T cells. T cells are a special type of white blood cell (immune cells) that have the ability to kill tumor cells. The T cells are obtained from the patients own blood, grown in a laboratory, and modified by adding the IL13Ralpha2 CAR gene. The IL13Ralpha2 CAR gene is inserted into T cells with a virus called a lentivirus. The lentivirus allows cells to make the IL13Ralpha2 CAR protein. This CAR has been designed to bind to a protein on the surface of tumor cells called IL13Ralpha2. This study is being done to determine the dose at which the gene-modified immune cells are safe, how long the cells stay in the body, and if the cells are able to attack the cancer ...
The observation of strong CAR downregulation at the mRNA level at high cardiomyocyte densities suggests cell-to-cell contact-dependent signaling as one possible regulatory mechanism of CAR gene transcription. Indeed, the cellular targeting of recombinant CAR in cardiomyocytes and the CAR expression patterns in human DCM5 indicate that CAR does fulfill one important requirement for molecules involved in cell-to-cell contact-dependent signaling: ie, aggregation at sites of cell-to-cell contacts.21 In addition, the medium transfer experiments summarized in Figure 5 indicate that the regulation does not occur via diffusible intermediates. Cell-to-cell contact-dependent signals (in contrast to paracrine signals requiring diffusible intermediates such as norepinephrine, ET-1, angiotensin-II, CT-1, LIF, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) have been shown to play a key role in fine patterning during embryogenesis, whereas paracrine signaling allows patterning of large embryonic fields.21 Among the ...
Look at any Houston newspaper from the 1950s and youll find some write-up on a car wreck. Doesnt even have to be a deadly crash. If two cars (or a truck, van, whatever) collided, it made the news. That kinda continued for the next 20 years or so, especially as getting around Houston became more of a challenge. These days, a wreck has to be pretty spectacular, or responsible for major delays, to merit attention in the paper or on As youd expect, we have plenty of photos from said wrecks. Some looked minor while others were pretty serious. (The bus photo, however, is quite the head-scratcher.) Ill say this, Id much rather be in a car wreck in a late-model car than these older cars. However, if anyone out there wants to sell me their old Lincoln Town Car, drop me a line. One thing to keep in mind is that no one died in any of the wrecks shown here. How do I know that? We have a separate file for fatal accidents. ...
May be involved in the cell-cell adhesion. May play a role in adipocyte differentiation and development of obesity. Is required for normal small intestine development.
A WONDERFUL string of classic cars took to Scotlands roads this week and Road Records Maggie Barry caught up with them at Cameron House on the banks of Loch Lomond.
Officials in the United States reveal that an average of 38 children have died every year between 1998 and 2013 due to heatstroke after their parents left them in parked cars.
A countdown of the top 5 places odor hides in your car. What could you be missing and what can you do to finally eliminate that stench?
Police in a British city said they are considering new driving rules after an officer totaled an unmarked car during a test drive.
Engineered T cells using CARs or TCRs have the potential for serious side effects, both on-target/on-tumor (CRS), and on target/off tumor (HER2 CAR lung tox), in addition to straight off-target (Titin cross-reactive MAGE-A3 TCR). There are numerous safety switch technologies different groups have developed to either remove the engineered T cells or, more recently, control CAR expression/function. The safety switch designs currently being used in the clinic generally rely on inducible removal of the engineered T cells, such as Bellicums inducible caspase 9 approach, and Junos truncated EGFR, although the latter has never been used as a safety switch in the clinic. In UPenns abstract here, they wanted to design a CAR that could be inducibly down-regulated, to avoid irreversibly ablating the engineered T cells, which occurs with the previously mentioned strategies. UPenns approach is to attach an inducible degradation component to the CAR construct. I believe the one they are using is this LID ...
Following a glimpse of the Proton Iriz EV prototype in South Korea last October, we now have the first pictures and initial specs of the local carmakers v
Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.
If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isnt anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean non enim ut enim fringilla adipiscing id in lorem. Quisque aliquet neque vitae lectus tempus consectetur. Aliquam erat volutpat. Nunc eu nibh nulla, id cursus arcu.. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae ...
Lyrics to Two Stones by Walking On Cars: [Verse:] / Oh if I let you down / Were just two hearts that one day will go their own way. / Oh
The nature of the specificity of Ad12 knob for CAR is suggested by the structure of the complex, particularly at the interface that is formed by four loop regions of Ad12 knob interacting with a single face of the CAR D1 sandwich. Specifically, the AB loop, the carboxyl ends of the DE loop, and the very short F strand of one knob monomer and the FG loop of the adjacent knob monomer interact with strands C, C′, C", and the second half of strand F in CAR D1. The AB loop (colored yellow in Fig. 1A) contributes over 50% of interfacial protein-protein interactions, including the three hydrogen bonds involving conserved atoms in Ad12 knob [D415 O on knob forms a hydrogen bond with K104 Nζ on CAR D1 (D415 O/K104 Nζ), L426 O/Y64 OH, and K429 Nζ/E37 Oɛ2] (10), and thus may be the key anchor for the complex. This loop spans the width of the CAR D1, held at one end by D415 and at the other end by E425, which changes rotomer conformation upon CAR D1 binding to accommodate the approaching side chain of ...
Cars that are capable of driving themselves could become a reality within a decade, thanks to a new EU-sponsored project. The plan is to create cars that are capable of driving themselves in convoys under the control of a driver in a lead vehicle. Cars in the convoy would travel with small gaps between them, cutting both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by up to 20%. When a car approaches its chosen exit, the driver will retake control and move out of the convoy, with other vehicles then moving up to close the gap. Both Volvo and British-based engineering consultancy Ricardo are partners in the project, dubbed SARTRE (SAfe Road TRains for the Environment), which aims to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions. First test cars on track for 2011 ...
I hope you have found a hand control for your car by now. Since you live near a big city, there will be many providers of hand controls in your area. This is a routine and simple job for them and the hand controls and installation are not very expensive. I believe mine was less than $1000 installed. They are easy to use but you do need to concentrate for a while so you dont make mistakes. The nice thing is that the car can still be driven normally by a person without a handicap so when necessary anyone can drive the car. I seem to recall that medicare doesnt cover modifications to cars, at least I paid for mine myself. When your legs are not totally responsive, it is imperative that you get hand controls before you find yourself in an accident that may injure you or someone else unnecessarily. They do disconnect the steering wheel tilt so that it is in a fixed position. I believe you can specifiy the position you want if there is room for you to operate the vehicle, get in etc. I have had mine ...
Saturday morning, I took my car to the dealership, because the stupid "check engine" light was on. I purposely took it early - 8:00 a.m., so that I would have it back, hopefully by noon. The guy at the counter asked that I leave my number, and wait at home for it, because there were 4 people in front of me. I dont usually have a problem doing this, because (A) I live about a 10-minute walk from the place, and (B) I usually dont need the car on Saturday. However, I know that when I leave the car there, it immediately drops on the "priority chart" at the dealership. I called the place at around 12:30 p.m., because I heard nothing from them. Shockingly enough, they were just getting to my car at this point. I informed the guy that I expressly dropped my car off in the morning, so that I could get it back sooner. I called back at 2:00 - the car still wasnt done. I immediately sent an e-mail to the dealership informing them of my complete disgust in them. I did finally get the car at 2:30 p.m. - ...
Camp Charlie is raising funds for Charlie the Unicorn Art Car on Kickstarter! OUR NEW GOAL IS $8,000! Charlie the Unicorn heads to Burning Man strapped to a 26 x 16 art car! (Shunnnnn -nah!)
Find new & used Mercedes-Benz cars for sale locally in Canberra Region, ACT. Find great deals on Mercedes-Benz cars on Gumtree Australia.
by David The Dogman DOGS die in hot DOGS die in hot cars Dont leave your dog alone in a car.If you are going out in the car think very carefully about what you are going to do with your dog. You should never leave a dog alone in a car. It can get unbearably hot in a car on a sunny... read more ...
Read the latest Border stories, Exclusive: David Bogie announces exciting new car on ITV News, videos, stories and all the latest Border news
Washoe County Regional Animal Services is reminding the public to never leave your pet alone in the car on hot days--not even for a few minutes.
Lying in the back seat of his parents car on July 3, 2012, 13-year-old Nathan Newman had no idea just how much his life was about to change.
Those of you who read my blog regularly, how did you find me? Add so this post isnt too empty Ill post pictures^^ Taken in the car on my way home one day^^ More pictures after the fold^^
10 MOST POWERFUL PRODUCTION CARS (on sale): 1. Koenigsegg CCR, 806 hp 2. Saleen S7, 750 hp 3. Maserati MC12, 624 hp 4. Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, 617
Kamikaze on The Road Cat Walks Like a Horse Deaf Blind Brazilian Guy Watches Soccer Championship Cyclist vs Car on the Pedestrian Bridge Epic Russian Fighting Skills Abus
Russia is a huge industrial country known for its powerful facilities. The standard of living of many Russians improves every year, which leads to an increase in the number of cars on the roads. This in turn causes deterioration of the environmental situation. The Russians are breathing harmful air, which can lead to irreversible consequences
If Jane has 124 apples, and 93 of them are rotten to the core, riddled with worms and covered in pesticides, what percentage of apples should be thrown away immediately? If Acme Motor sales has 124 cars on the lot...
What happens when the A/C gets it too cold in the rail car on a long trip after the A/C gets repaired? A thermostat is turned warmer B windows are opened C FURNACE IS STARTED This is a true story u get 3 guesses and the first 2 dont count
Positive Motivation In every day life one will generally find a plethora of ways people motivate themselves. Some people write something positive and uplifting on their mirror that they will see and read aloud each day. They will listen to motivation speakers on the radio in their car on the way to and from work. […]. ...
IT is a drink that many a Scot would consider a miracle liquid – and now it seems we may even be able to run cars on whisky.
I read the article. I still believe that people who have a job and need a job are not the problem. I worked as a mechanic and I can tell you winter really sucks for working on cars but I made good money working on cars in the snow. While the storys intent might have been to poke fun at hapless city dwellers who clearly arent as smart as you self sufficient country folks it came across snarky. You are falling into that trap that all the liberals are in. I.e. if a liberal doesnt like something they want to make it illegal for everyone, but if a conservative doesnt like something then they simply choose to not do it. So dont order pizza. I dont care. And write abut hw stupid pizza delivery is, I dont care. But dont get all self defensive when someone disagrees. ReplyDelete ...
But theres another defensive tool you probably already own: once you are in your car with the doors locked, you command a "weapon" more powerful than a gun. It doesnt move as fast, but it weighs a lot more. Bad guys run from it if it moves their way. You can re-aim it while its in motion. And you already practice with it every day. Yes, your car may be a comfortable, familiar item, but its deadly dangerous, too. (Seriously, not everyone is a gunnie, and with all love to L. Neil Smith and the delightful characters in his novels, not everyone will be if they are offered the chance, either -- but a whole lot of people drive cars). I have been taken to task for advising readers to "run down a badguy with their car." No, dont do that; get in, lock the doors and LEAVE. Flee; you are in fear for your life. I dont think youre obliged to yield the right-of-way to someone attacking you. (Get local legal advice; IANAL) I do think hes likely to step back right smartly. In that way, a car is a ...
Antony Currie and Richard Beales explore why the French maker of Peugeot cars may want to acquire General Motors European operations and why offloading Opel and Vauxhall could suit GM, too.}
You both repeated the question and still got the same wrong answer. I hope that a car may find itself atop your chest with studded wheels. - ProProfs Discuss
The displayed data on opinions on cars shows results of the Statista Global Consumer Survey conducted in the Netherlands in 2017.
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The first Euro NCAP tests on Autonomous Emergency Brake systems. These tests were performed on cars fitted with crash avoidance systems.
left rear iginitor continues to clik when knob is off pushing on the knob may cause the clicking to stop. When the - DCS RGS-486GD Gas Kitchen Range question
CSIO Technologies is raising funds for CSIOs SKRS 18 Speed Eaton Fuller Style USB Shift Knob on Kickstarter! A Real Eaton Fuller Style 18 Speed Transmission Shift Knob Converted for American & Euro Truck Simulator
The Standers Car Caddie Universal Fit makes it easy to get in-and-out of the car. Simply roll down the window and attach the Car Caddie to add an extra support handle on any door of the car.
hi guuiise, i really wanna get a more fuel efficient car for a daily/audio car.. but im worried about charging limitations, i will not run more than 5k rms. i currently
Have you been hunting for a unicorn in the car market? Want a car that is big enough but not too big, stylish, safe AND comfortable? Look no further!
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Finally, the Smart is coming to the U.S., in slightly larger form than the original. The car is a familiar sight in most of the clogged European citie
Fifty patients with congestive cardiomyopathy have been studied for evidence of previous Coxsackie B virus infection and compared with age- and sex-matched controls who had been admitted to hospital for investigation of other cardiac diseases. High neutralisation titres (greater than or equal to 1024) to Coxsackie B viruses were more common among the controls. On subdividing the patients according to their length of symptomatic history before study, high titres were more common only in those with a short history (less than or equal to 1 year). High titres were more common when there had been a febrile illness at the onset of symptoms. Endomyocardial biopsies of 18 patients disclosed no evidence of myocarditis, or, in 12 cases, of viral involvement. Although the evidence remains circumstantial, these results support the theory that Coxsackie B viruses may cause congestive cardiomyopathy and encourage further research into the mechanisms of myocardial cell damage by these visuses. ...
Interest in CAR stems from its function as the primary high affinity receptor for Ad serotype 5, the most commonly used adenoviral vector in gene therapy protocols. CAR expression is the main determinant in gene transfer to normal tissue as ectopic expression of CAR in transgenic mice leads to several magnitudes of increase in adenovirus transducibility of tissues that are otherwise refractory to Ad-mediated gene expression [13-17]. As well, although decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) was the first described CVB receptor [18, 19], CAR is necessary and sufficient for CVB infection in vitro [20]. Thus, the expression levels of CAR may also govern the susceptibility to CVB diseases and the pathological consequences of CVB viral infection. In this context, acute viral myocarditis and myositis are inflammatory diseases affecting cardiac and skeletal muscle that can result from infection by the Coxsackie B virus. In both humans and rodents, heart is among the tissues showing the greatest abundance ...
Define Coxsackie A virus. Coxsackie A virus synonyms, Coxsackie A virus pronunciation, Coxsackie A virus translation, English dictionary definition of Coxsackie A virus. also Cox·sack·ie virus n. Any of a group of enteroviruses that are associated with a variety of diseases, including meningitis, myocarditis, and...
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Autonomous drive paves the way for more efficient time-management behind the wheel. You can safely interact via phone or tablets or simply choose to relax. The self-driving technology used in the pilot ´Drive Me - Self-driving cars for sustainable mobility - allows you to hand over the driving to the car when the circumstances are appropriate.
Can be fixed to rear car window with suction cup. The Safety Baby Logo indicates to other motorists that there is a child in the car and encourages drivers to use caution when approaching cars with young passengers.
Signing of project Drive Me, from left to right: Staffan Widlert (Swedish Transport Agency), Caroline Ottosson (Swedish Transport Administration), Håkan Samuelsson (Volvo Car Group), Anneli Hulthén (City of Gothenburg), Niklas Wahlberg (Lindholmen Science Park).
Search prices for Budget, Dollar, Enterprise, Hertz and Thrifty. Save up to 40%. Find Sulphur car rental deals and discounts on KAYAK.
Three teen boys will face misdemeanor criminal charges after they allegedly harassed and threatened a tenant at Tower in the Park Apartments. Also, a Brook Park woman was arrested after police saw her car stopped on railroad tracks.
The number of vehicles on the globes roads, streets, highways and expressways recently pushed past the billion mark, which helps to illustrate the need for the advent of cleaner burning fuels and higher mileage vehicles.
There are many reasons given for low cycle modal share in the UK. Some seem fairly obvious like the state of the roads for cycling, others are less obvious such as home cycle storage, the concerns about arriving "sweaty" and dishevelled, and then there are the arguments against which can never change - such as the climate or hills. We can all speculate about the main causes, and maybe cycling will simply become more popular because of external conditions such as fuel cost, economy etc. But for my money I still think fundamental re-think of the way we use our roads is required. When one considers all the facts, it seems odd that local government and transport bodies are effectively ignoring great sections of their community when they consider roads only in the context of moving private traffic from A-B. This seems non-nonsensical in areas such as Walthamstow, and becomes lunatic in central London with plans such as Blackfriars bridge. I am not anti-car - I have one and am very glad on occasion I ...
The hype of autonomous car is at peak lately and everyone is talking about its advantages, one research points out a serious disadvantage.
I got a text from Ben yesterday asking me to pick him up from Meijer as it was hailing and he didnt want to skate home. I got the kids in the car and we headed off down Main St towards Meijer. A little way down the road the car seemed to hit something or go over something and I momentarily lost control of the car. The noise that the car had been making whilst moving over the past few weeks changed slightly and there was a new sound. I also noticed a burning smell and a little bit of smoke coming from the front passenger side tire. I managed to get to Meijer safely and we waited for Ben to arrive. I tried to jack up the car so I could look at the tire but the storm was moving in quickly and I gave up and just sat waiting. When Ben arrived we made our way home slowly and are now trying to work out what to do. I dont really want to drive the car again. I dont feel safe in it. We cant afford a new one and as we only have a year left on our current visas I doubt we would be able to get a car on ...
Special Report on behavioral search retargeting, along with research on current topics, trends and surveys relating to Behavioral Search Retargeting
I received a call today from the car dealership I bought my car from last year. It was time for my first annual service. When would I like to be booked in? I am almost completely ignorant when it comes to cars. I can change a tyre and refill my oil and windscreen fluid but other than that I am so clueless its not funny.. I know that services are recommended to make sure there are no problems with your car but when I was told the price I was taken aback. £196 for a full service. Certainly not pocket change. I wasnt really sure if this was expensive or cheap? Was I paying a premium for using the Vauxhall dealer I bought the car from or is that just what is cost?. I agreed in principal that I would book the car in because I had been receiving an error code when I turned my car on and Google couldnt help me when it came to researching what it was. I needed to know that the car wasnt going to explode or the wheels were going to fall off or something!. I had a quick scout about for full service ...
The left-hand drive is OK, still working on the positioning. When discussing this people often seem to think what Im worrying about is suddenly forgetting which country Im in and so which side of the road Im meant to be driving on, and turning into oncoming traffic, going the wrong way around roundabouts, etc. In fact, of all the cock-ups Ive made driving here, that was never one of them and I dont think it will be now, unless serious dementia kicks in; I have driven in France far more and longer than I ever did in England, and would, I think, have serious problems re-adjusting to driving on the left. No, its a question of my spatial awareness with regard to where I am in the car, which has never really come naturally to me; the danger that I will go too close to the right hand side of the road, forgetting how much more car there now is on that side of me, and scuff curbs, scrape parked cars, slide into ditches or whatever, and that it still feels scarily close to oncoming traffic to be ...
Toyota and BMW have formed an alliance to work on fuel cell cars. So have Daimler, Ford, and Nissan, with hopes of having cars on the road by 2017. But why
Looking for the definition of CAR? Find out what is the full meaning of CAR on! Continuing Alumni Relations is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
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As you may have seen from our social channels, we have been covering the launch of the new car company called: LYNK & CO (via our Instagram) in Berlin, Germany. It has been an exciting ride as that is our first international unveiling for Abduzeedo. As expected, we are now releasing the first official images for what it would be called the LYNK & CO Model 01. What comes different from them to other car manufacturers from the shopping experience to how you will interact with the car on a daily basis, it will be a whole concept on his own. As we were intrigued about when this will be on the market and at what price? We still dont know yet but one thing we do know is LYNK & CO Model 01 will be launching first in China and Europe for 2017. The US market will fall shortly afterwards, so more to come. Some Words The 01 will be the most connected car in the world. Designed for a modern, urban audience who are used to collaborative consumption and all the benefits that this brings. As consumer behavior ...
I like to watch NASCAR racing, but I only understand parts of it. Up till the late 1990s, NASCAR had a rule, when there was an accident and the yellow flag went out, crashed cars on the track, busted tires & car parts & smoke & flames everywhere, the cars were supposed to "race to the line," dodging alla that junk on the track, to have a good position when the race restarted ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. CAR ... "Entrez Gene: CXADR coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor". "Protein sequence of human CXADR (Uniprot ID: P78310)". Cardiac ... "Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor". Journal of Virology. 76 (2 ... CAR is a receptor for both Coxsackie B virus and adenovirus 2 and 5, which are structurally distinct. In patients with ...
... by Adhesive Interactions between Epithelial Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor and a Junctional Adhesion Molecule-like Protein ... It is composed of two extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, a membrane-spanning region, and a cytoplasmic tail involved in ... A known ligand of JAML is Coxsackie virus and Adenovirus Receptor (CXADR in humans and CAR in mice) which has been shown to ... by adhesive interactions between epithelial coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and a junctional adhesion molecule-like protein ...
"Study of Coxsackie B viruses interactions with Coxsackie Adenovirus receptor and Decay-Accelerating Factor using Human CaCo-2 ... The ER membrane moves to surround the genome and proteins, at which point the procapsid attaches to the exterior of the vesicle ... Riabi, 2014) When VP1 binds to the Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR), which can be found on heart muscle cells as well as ... Coxsackie B4 virus is able to infect the brain and spinal cord and cause inflammation. Infection due to Coxsackie B viruses can ...
... sCAR-Fc prevents the virus entering the cell by competitively binding to coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptors (CAR) on the ... internal capsid protein, VP4. This irreversible reaction prevents the virus from interacting with cellular receptors (CAR) on ... located in tight junctions on cell membranes. Once inside the cytoplasm, the virus can use the host's ribosomal machinery to ... September 2005). "Inhibition of coxsackie B virus infection by soluble forms of its receptors: binding affinities, altered ...
... is mediated by Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. Coxsackieviruses are divided into group A and group B viruses based on ... Other researchers found this interference can be mediated by a substance produced by the host animal, a protein now known as ... In general, group A coxsackieviruses tend to infect the skin and mucous membranes, causing herpangina, acute hemorrhagic ... Coxsackie A virus causes paralysis and death of the mice, with extensive skeletal muscle necrosis; Coxsackie B causes less ...
... whose binding to host cells is initiated by interactions between the cellular coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... "Oncolytic Group B Adenovirus Enadenotucirev Mediates Non-apoptotic Cell Death with Membrane Disruption and Release of ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ...
Capsid proteins define cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. PV1 is the most common form encountered in nature ... a vitronectin and poliovirus receptor that localizes to alpha(v)beta3 integrin-containing membrane microdomains". J Biol Chem. ... analysis of the RNA and protein sequences of poliovirus suggests that it may have evolved from a C-cluster Coxsackie A virus ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ...
Coxsackie B, specifically B3 and B5, has been found to interact with coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay- ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used in those who are about to go into cardiac arrest.[28] ... Myocardial inflammation can be suspected on the basis of electrocardiographic (ECG) results, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) ... Viral (adenovirus, parvovirus B19, coxsackie virus, rubella virus, polio virus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C, and severe ...
CAR-Like Membrane Protein , Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor , Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor ... Like Membrane Protein , CXADR Like Membrane Protein , CXADR-Like Membrane Protein , Receptor, Coxsackie-Adenovirus ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein Equivalent Terms Adhesion Molecule, Adipocyte , Adipocyte Adhesion ... Molecule , CAR (Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor) , CAR Like Membrane Protein , ...
Recombinant Proteins, ELISA Kits, Custom Gene Synthesis, Peptide Synthesis, Protein Expression and Purification, and Antibody ... Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein (CLMP) Polyclonal Antibody 50ug $238.00 add to cart ... Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein (CLMP) Polyclonal Antibody 100ug $309.00 add to cart ... Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like Membrane Protein (CLMP) Polyclonal Antibody 50ug $238.00 add to cart ...
Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor-like membrane protein. Short name: CAR-like membrane protein ... Plasma membrane. *Cell membrane Curated; Single-pass type I membrane protein Curated ... CXADR-like membrane proteinAdd BLAST. 355. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.,p>,a href ...
We found that following infection, human airway epithelia first released adenovirus to the basolateral surface. Virus then ... Adenovirus binds its receptor (CAR), enters cells, and replicates. It must then escape to the environment to infect a new host ... Capsid Proteins * Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein * Receptors, Virus * hexon capsid protein, Adenovirus ... Adenovirus binds its receptor (CAR), enters cells, and replicates. It must then escape to the environment to infect a new host ...
Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. Protein classi. Protein class the gene product belongs to according to selected gene ... Predicted membrane proteins. Prediction method-based. Membrane proteins predicted by MDM. MEMSAT3 predicted membrane proteins. ... Predicted membrane proteins. Prediction method-based. Membrane proteins predicted by MDM. MEMSAT3 predicted membrane proteins. ... MEMSAT3 predicted membrane proteins. MEMSAT-SVM predicted membrane proteins. Predicted secreted proteins. Secreted proteins ...
... extracted proteins were electrotransferred to nitrocellulose membranes. Membranes were blocked with Tris-buffered saline ... We recently identified a 46-kDa protein, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), as a receptor responsible for coxsackie ... The Murine CAR Homolog Is a Receptor for Coxsackie B Viruses and Adenoviruses. Jeffrey M. Bergelson, Anita Krithivas, Leo Celi ... 1997) Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 275:1320-1323. ...
Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 275:1320-1323. ... Membrane cofactor protein is a receptor for adenoviruses associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. J. Virol. 78:3897-3905. ... Adenovirus protein-protein interactions: hexon and protein VI. J. Gen. Virol. 75:3365-3374. ... Adenovirus protein-protein interactions: molecular parameters governing the binding of protein VI to hexon and the activation ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. *Fibroblasts/metabolism. *Gene Transfer Techniques ... Mentions: Most mammalian cell types express heparin-containing cellular receptors that could bind to charged amino acids [36,37 ... Mentions: Most mammalian cell types express heparin-containing cellular receptors that could bind to charged amino acids [36,37 ... The transduction efficiency of Ad (adenovirus) depends, to some extent, on the expression level of CAR (coxsackievirus and Ad ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. *HCT116 Cells. *Humans. *MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects ... offering possible enhanced adenovirus infection. MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to ... offering possible enhanced adenovirus infection. MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to ... Oncolytic adenoviruses, such as ONYX-015, have been tested in clinical trials for currently untreatable tumors, but have yet to ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. *HCT116 Cells. *Humans. *MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects ... offering possible enhanced adenovirus infection. MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to ... offering possible enhanced adenovirus infection. MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to ... Oncolytic adenoviruses, such as ONYX-015, have been tested in clinical trials for currently untreatable tumors, but have yet to ...
... angiotensin type 1 receptor; BKR, bradykinin receptor; CAR, Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; CaSR, calcium-sensing receptor; ... Podocyte plasma membrane proteins and a canonical pattern of injury. Shown is an (incomplete) list of membrane proteins that ... protein 1; IGFR, insulin growth factor receptor; insulin R, insulin receptor; MAC, membrane attack complex; Maxi-K, large- ... In this review, we take a membrane biologists view of the podocyte, examining the many membrane receptors, channels, and other ...
... covalently attached to the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (magenta). This device detects the adenovirus (the icosahedral ... Many viruses initiate infection by binding to specific receptor proteins located in the membrane of a host cell. One of the ... A.T. Charlie Johnson group at the University of Pennsylvania have coupled olfactory receptor proteins from mice to carbon ... Self-Assembly of Proteins on Carbon Nanotubes. There is a need for proteins that self-organzing into specific molecular ...
... coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor) for IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor pAb (GTX118382) is tested in ... coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. Background. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B ... CVB3-binding protein antibody, HCVADR antibody, coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor antibody, coxsackie virus and adenovirus ... Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor. The exact sequence ...
Protein Coding), Protein Interacting With PRKCA 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... A role for the PDZ-binding domain of the coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in cell adhesion and growth. (PMID: ... Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Membrane; Lipid-anchor. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane, postsynaptic ... Protein Symbol:. Q9NRD5-PICK1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. PRKCA-binding protein Protein Accession:. Q9NRD5. Secondary Accessions: ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor for group B coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. CAR ... "Entrez Gene: CXADR coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor". "Protein sequence of human CXADR (Uniprot ID: P78310)". Cardiac ... "Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor". Journal of Virology. 76 (2 ... CAR is a receptor for both Coxsackie B virus and adenovirus 2 and 5, which are structurally distinct. In patients with ...
Results: We identified loss-of-function mutations in Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor-like membrane protein (CLMP) in CSBS ... Mutations in CLMP prevented its normal localization to the cell membrane. Knock-down experiments in zebrafish resulted in ... CLMP is a tight-junctionassociated protein that is expressed in the intestine of human embryos throughout development. ...
CXADR-like membrane protein, Adipocyte adhesion molecule, Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor-like membrane protein, CAR-like ... The Autophagy Receptor Motif Plotter predicts and scores autophagy receptor binding sites in your protein. Identifying proteins ... Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Tissue Location Predominantly expressed in epithelial cells within ... The CTX (see VSIG2, MIM 606011) family of proteins, including ASAM, are type I transmembrane proteins within the Ig superfamily ...
Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins) define tissue ... consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each ... and another group consisting of Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR), Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor-Like Membrane ... Three major protein complexes involve one or more scaffolding proteins: (1) the ZO protein complex [127], (2) the protein ...
CXADR Like Membrane Protein or CLMP, part of the CTX family within the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a type 1 transmembrane ... Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor-like membrane protein, CAR-like membrane protein. ... CXADR Like Membrane Protein or CLMP, part of the CTX family within the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a type 1 transmembrane ... CXADR like membrane protein, ACAM, ASAM, CSBM, CSBS, Adipocyte adhesion molecule, ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. *Female. *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ... Background: Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been suggested to function as a tumour suppressor. Its impact on the ... Background: Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been suggested to function as a tumour suppressor. Its impact on the ... Methods: Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor was analysed in non-cancerous and neoplastic colon samples using ...
... membrane cofactor protein) as a cellular receptor instead of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (A. Segerman et al., J. Virol. ... Most adenoviruses use the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a major cellular receptor. We have shown recently that ... Most adenoviruses bind to the coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Surprisingly, CAR is not expressed apically on ... Selected members of the adenovirus family have been shown to interact with the coxsackie adenovirus receptor, alpha(v) ...
It effectively transduces naive mouse T cells if they express a transgenic Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Importantly, ... Unlipidated outer membrane protein Omp16 (U-Omp16) from Brucella spp. as nasal adjuvant induces a Th1 immune response and ... It applies transduction with the replication-deficient adenovirus and explains its generation and production. The adenovirus ... Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor Fc ...
Capsid Proteins. *Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. *Receptors, Virus. *hexon capsid protein, Adenovirus ... Adenovirus Entry Pathway. After binding to the plasma membrane through the Coxsackie and Adenovirus (CAR) receptor, adenovirus ... Following receptor-mediated uptake into endocytic vesicles and escape from the endosome, adenovirus is transported by ... We review here the evidence for a role for dynein and other motor proteins in adenovirus infectivity. We also discuss the ...
The costimulatory molecule JAML binds to its ligands Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), that leads to cellular ... JAML is a transmembrane protein, which consists of two extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, a membrane-spanning region, ... Additional information: Clone REA862 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. ... also known as AMICA1 or junctional adhesion molecule-like protein. ...
Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein; 0 / Receptors, Virus; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine ... Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Genetic Therapy / methods. Genetic Vectors ... Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / drug effects. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor ...
  • Flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were performed with rat antiserum raised against the p46 putative murine brain receptor for CB3 (anti-p46) ( 32 ) or control serum from an unimmunized rat, followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat antibody to rat immunoglobulin (Sigma). (
  • Immunoprecipitation of CAR protein from HeLa whole cell extracts using 5 μg of CAR antibody (GTX118382). (
  • By staining with a fluorochrome conjugated antibody against CD107a, a lysosomal membrane protein that becomes expressed on the NK cell surface when the cytolytic granules fuse to the plasma membrane, we can determine what percentage of NK cells degranulate in response to target cell recognition. (
  • Due to higher transduction efficiency (almost 100%), higher level expression of transgene and broad range of tropism, adenovirus vector has been widely used as gene therapy vector, vaccine production, gene knockdown, production of membrane and hard-to-expression protein and engineering antibody. (
  • These molecules are fusion proteins that are made up of an antibody raised against the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein, fused to a natural ligand for a cell-surface receptor. (
  • An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. (
  • Thus, adenovirus exploits its receptor for two important but distinct steps in its life cycle: entry into host cells and escape across epithelial barriers to the environment. (
  • More recent work indicates that coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) forms a detergent-stable complex with a 46-kDa putative receptor protein on the surface of murine YAC-1 cells ( 13 ). (
  • Genetically modified adenoviral vector with the protein transduction domain of Tat improves gene transfer to CAR-deficient cells. (
  • The protein is found to be expressed in various regions of the body including the heart, brain, and, more generally, epithelial and endothelial cells. (
  • This was coordinate with the loss of connexin-45 at cell-cell junctions on the sarcolemmal membranes of AV node cells. (
  • Gap junction channels, which link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, are made up of membrane-spanning proteins, the connexins [ 10 ]. (
  • In epithelial cells, TJs are thought to be the principal structures that contribute to cell polarity by acting as an intermembrane barrier that prevents the lateral movement of membrane proteins between the apical and basolateral membranes [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • In the recipient cells, the mRNA shuttled by exosomes was shown to be translated into protein, suggesting a regulatory function of the transferred RNA 16 . (
  • Results: In all cell lines, an increase in viral expression per cell and an increase in the percentage of transduced cells were seen with the retargeted adenovirus. (
  • Conclusions: This study demonstrates that an RGD retargeted adenovirus infects human esophageal carcinoma cells with enhanced efficiency, while in normal esophageal cells this effect is less pronounced. (
  • This has recently been understood to result from a relative paucity of expression of the primary adenovirus receptor, coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor (CAR), on primary tumor cells. (
  • To expand the inventory of potentially relevant proteins, we expressed E-cadherin fused to biotin ligase in MDCK epithelial cells, and identified by mass spectrometry neighboring proteins that were biotinylated. (
  • to identify proximal proteins in living cells. (
  • In this method, cells are transfected with a fusion protein, in this case, E-cadherin, attached to an engineered biotin ligase with decreased substrate specificity. (
  • Transfer of hepatitis B virus genome by adenovirus vectors into cultured cells and mice: crossing the species barrier. (
  • However, many primary cells lack the requisite coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), limiting the in vivo efficacy of gene therapy. (
  • Major factors for viral entry into epithelial cells are the localization and abundance of the primary receptor. (
  • Many viral infections are initiated by the specific binding of specialized proteins or attachment factors on the virion's surface to glycoprotein receptors on the surface of host cells. (
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumoricidal potential of combining the apoptosis-inducing protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) against TRAIL-resistant bladder tumor cells. (
  • Necrotic cells cannot maintain proper plasma membrane function so they can no longer regulate osmotic pressure. (
  • In this report, we present a protocol to label the LRRK1 and LRRK2 proteins in cells with 32 P orthophosphate, thereby providing a means to measure the overall phosphorylation levels of these 2 proteins in cells. (
  • In brief, affinity tagged LRRK proteins are expressed in HEK293T cells which are exposed to medium containing 32 P-orthophosphate. (
  • The protocol can readily be adapted to monitor phosphorylation of any other protein that can be expressed in cells and isolated by immunoprecipitation. (
  • We expressed a membrane-bound fragment of human CSMD1 composed of the 15 C-terminal CCP domains and demonstrated that it inhibits deposition of C3b by the classical pathway on the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells by 70% at 6% serum and of C9 (component of membrane attack complex) by 90% at 1.25% serum. (
  • Researchers indicated that coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-SIV was the principal isoform in islets and was localized mainly within the cytoplasm of beta cells, rather than at the plasma membrane. (
  • In contrast to the tumor-suppressor effect of the mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1 (MST1)-MOB kinase activator 1 (MOB1) complex, the MST4-MOB4 complex promoted growth and migration of PANC-1 cells. (
  • Bergamottin was found to induce cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and disintegration of organelles in PANC-1 cells. (
  • They validated its mechanism of action on pancreatic cancer cells by demonstrating the downregulation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases and inhibition of growth factor and cytokine secretion. (
  • Enrichment of membrane cholesterol by 40-50% following squalene administration in mice was paralleled by an increased number of resting CD4 T helper cells in periphery. (
  • Antigen stimulation or CD3/CD28 polyclonal stimulation of membrane cholesterol-enriched, resting CD4 T-cells followed a path of Th1 differentiation, which was more vigorous in the presence of increased IL-12 secretion by APCs enriched in membrane cholesterol. (
  • Enrichment of membrane cholesterol in antigen-specific, autoimmune Th1 cells fostered their organ-specific reactivity, as confirmed in an autoimmune mouse model for diabetes. (
  • However, membrane cholesterol enrichment in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T-reg cells did not alter their suppressogenic function. (
  • Cholesterol content of cells must be maintained within the very tight limits, too much or too little cholesterol in a cell results in disruption of cellular membranes, apoptosis and necrosis 1 . (
  • A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. (
  • For example, carcinoma cells, which are targets for numerous gene therapy applications, are typically inefficiently transduced by adenoviral vectors, and alterations in receptor tropism have been shown to enhance gene delivery in vitro and efficacy in vivo with local delivery (5, 39). (
  • The nuclear membrane presentsa major barrier to entry, particularly in nondividing cells,and strategies are being developed to enable translocationof plasmid DNA through the nuclear pore complex (NPC).Consensus nuclear localization sequences (NLS) permitrapid delivery of nucleoproteins from the cytoplasm intothe nucleus , and attempts have been made to use NLSto promote nuclear entry of DNA in target cells. (
  • Forexample, adenovirus enters cells and delivers its DNA intothe nucleus using a highly efficient pathway. (
  • Cells were photographed at the earliest achiev-able time after injection (5 min) and again after 30 and 60 min.with tubulin, vimentin, and heat shock proteins . (
  • We have generated novel conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) targeted to melanoma cells. (
  • The properties of these CRAds were compared with wild-type adenovirus (Adwt) and our previous CRAd with a targeted E1A CRII mutation (AdTyrΔ24) in submerged cultures of melanoma cells and nonmelanoma control cells. (
  • For example, cancer cells in which the tumor suppressor proteins p53 or pRb are inactivated were reported to be permissive for efficient replication of adenoviruses that are mutated in the E1B55K or E1A genes that encode p53- or pRb-inactivating proteins, respectively ( 7 -9 ). (
  • The Apical Membrane Glycocalyx of MDCK Cells. (
  • The microenvironment near the apical membrane of MDCK cells was studied by quantitation of the fluorescence of wheat germ agglutin attached to fluorescein (WGA). (
  • Although Ad subgroup C vectors demonstrate very efficient gene transfer, their tropism is limited in vitro and in vivo by receptor expression on target cells ( 2 , 3 , 15 , 22-24 , 35 , 45 , 47-54 ). (
  • One approach to circumvent limited gene transfer resulting from a deficiency of the appropriate Ad receptor on the target cells is to introduce a novel tropism to the capsid. (
  • This concept is borne out by the observation that Ad fiber proteins from different Ad subgroups mediate high-affinity attachment to different cell surface receptors on target cells ( 3 , 9 , 13 , 36 , 41 , 45 ). (
  • Enrichment of HAS cells with cholesterol reduced the delay between triggering and lipid dye transfer between HAS cells and human red blood cells (RBC), indicating that cholesterol facilitates membrane lipid mixing prior to fusion pore opening. (
  • Essentially, sCAR-Fc mimics CAR receptors on cardiac cells, competitively inhibiting viral attachment and entry into myocytes. (
  • This irreversible reaction prevents the virus from interacting with cellular receptors (CAR) on cardiac cells, decreasing infectivity of CVB3. (
  • The entry of coxsackievirus into cells, especially endothelial cells, is mediated by Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. (
  • It was initially proposed that an adenovirus mutant lacking the E1B55kDa gene, dl1520 (ONYX-015), could replicate selectively in p53 deficient cells. (
  • A conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) with a 24 base pair deletion in the retinoblastoma-binding domain of the E1A protein (Ad5- Δ24E3), is unable to silence retinoblastoma, and therefore unable to induce S-phase in host cells. (
  • Retargeting of Ad5 from CAR, to another receptor that is ubiquitously expressed on cancer cells, may overcome this resistance. (
  • U-Omp16 i.n. administration during sensitization ameliorated the hypersensitivity responses of sensitized mice upon oral exposure to Cows Milk Protein (CMP), decreased clinical signs, reduced anti-CMP IgE serum antibodies and modulated the Th2 response in favor of Th1 immunity. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • EGF (show EGF Antibodies ) suppresses specifically CAR signaling mainly through transcriptional regulation and drives the xenobiotic response toward a pregnane X receptor (PXR (show NR1I2 Antibodies ))-mediated mechanism. (
  • Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). (
  • Treatment with VP8 augments the paracellular passage of non-ionic tracers, allows the diffusion of a fluorescent lipid probe and the apical surface protein GP135, from the luminal to the lateral membrane, and triggers the movement of the basolateral proteins Na + -K + -ATPase, α ν β 3 integrin and β 1 integrin subunit, to the apical surface. (
  • Therefore, rotaviruses reaching the intestinal epithelium from the apical surface or being in contact with the lumenal surface of confluent epithelial cell lines would find their integrin receptors hidden beneath the tight junction (TJ) on the basolateral surface. (
  • Viral DNA and associated core proteins are encased in an icosahedral capsid, with 20 triangular faces composed largely of the major capsid protein, hexon (Fig. 1A ) (reviewed in reference 68 ). (
  • All were infected with the native adenovirus (Ad) and the retargeted adenovirus (AdRGD), encoding for the reporter genes luciferase or Green Fluorescent Protein to analyze gene transfer efficiency. (
  • Analysis of adherens junction (AJ)- and TJ-associated genes/proteins using qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and assessment of TJ permeability using FITC-dextran uptake assay revealed that the developmental failure and relatively small cavities are attributed to the defects of TJ assembly. (
  • The genes of Adenovirus are divided into two phases, early and late phases. (
  • Whereas ERα's regulation of protein-coding genes is well established, its regulation of noncoding microRNA (miRNA) is less explored. (
  • AdCox2Lluc is a CRAd targeted against oesophageal adenocarcinoma by placing the early genes under the control of a Cox-2 promoter (adenoviruses have two early genes, E1A and E1B, that are essential for replication). (
  • These considerations have led to the development of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAds) for cancer therapy ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • BACKGROUND: Adenovirus-based gene therapy is a promising approach to treat advanced cancers that are resistant to other treatments. (
  • We used noninvasive imaging to investigate the in vivo antitumor efficacy of gene therapy using this adenovirus in an animal model of ovarian cancer. (
  • Podocyte plasma membrane proteins and a canonical pattern of injury. (
  • It has been shown to interact with multiple glutamate receptor subtypes, monoamine plasma membrane transporters, as well as non-voltage gated sodium channels, and may target PRKCA to these membrane proteins and thus regulate their distribution and function. (
  • Compared with healthy mucosa, increased CAR-mRNA expression was found in adenomas, whereas primary cancers and metastases displayed a marked decline.At the plasma membrane, CAR was present in normal mucosa samples (93%), adenomas, and metastases (100% ea. (
  • At the plasma membrane, CAR was present in normal mucosa samples (93%), adenomas, and metastases (100% ea. (
  • Exosomes are formed by inward budding of late endosomes, producing multivesicular bodies (MVBs), and are released into the environment by fusion of the MVBs with the plasma membrane 2 . (
  • When required, the subepithelial microcirculation promptly delivers plasma proteins and leucocytes locally anywhere along the tracheobronchial tree. (
  • Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) is the principle and specific carrier of vitamin A in the blood. (
  • Consistent with the relative resistance of adult mice to encephalitis ( 9 , 10 ), expression of this receptor in the brain decreases sharply with age ( 31 ). (
  • Multiple phenotypes in adult mice following inactivation of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (Car) gene. (
  • Mice were vaccinated with plasmid DNA, RNA, peptide, protein, particles, and bacteria as well as adjuvants, and strong improvement of immune responses against all type of vaccines was observed. (
  • In addition, the trimerized sCAR protein without focusing on ligands efficiently clogged liver gene transfer in normal C57BL/6 mice. (
  • Delivery of hCYP2D6 into wildtype FVB or C57BL/6 mice was by an Adenovirus construct (Ad-2D6) that ensures a direct delivery of the triggering antigen to the liver. (
  • Picornavirus entry is mediated by binding a specific receptor at the host cell membrane, which initiates endocytosis and, in many family members, triggers formation of the altered particle, or "A-particle," that is a necessary entry intermediate ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • the function is competetive with nucleation promoting factors and is linked to neuronal morphology regulation and AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. (
  • Ad attaches with high affinity to cell surface receptors via the fiber protein, internalizes by endocytosis into an endocytic vesicle, escapes from the endosome into the cytoplasm, and then translocates to the nucleus of the target cell ( 16-19 , 28 , 40 ). (
  • The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Ack1 belongs to a unique multi-domain protein kinase family, Ack. (
  • We postulate that features of Ack1 activation and regulation parallel those of receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR with some interesting differences. (
  • The precise cellular roles of LRRK1 and LRRK2 have yet to be elucidated, however LRRK1 has been implicated in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling 1,2 , while LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease 3,4 . (
  • Retargeting the adenoviral vector to other cellular receptors, by inserting an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) tripeptide in the fiber knob, might overcome this problem. (
  • A crystal structure of the Ad12 fiber knob domain in complex with the first (D1) Ig-like domain of CAR ( 6 ) and mutagenesis studies ( 28 ) showed that receptor binding occurs on the lateral surface of the fiber knob rather than on the top of this molecule, as had originally been predicted ( 50 ). (
  • Wild-type Ad but not ts 1 particles permeabilized model membranes (liposomes) and facilitated the cytosolic delivery of a ribotoxin. (
  • Using freeze-fracture analysis of salivary epithelium cell membranes, TJs appear as aggregates of particles that form continuous anastomosing strands [ 20 ]. (
  • These first high-resolution structures of a picornavirus entry intermediate captured at a membrane with and without imposing icosahedral symmetry (3.9 and 7.8 Å, respectively) revealed a novel A-particle that is markedly different from the classical A-particles. (
  • Second, high titers of adenovirus particles are easy to produce and are stable. (
  • Herein, we investigated whether enrichment of membrane cholesterol in lipid rafts affects antigen-specific CD4 T-helper cell functions. (
  • Oncolytic adenoviruses, such as ONYX-015, have been tested in clinical trials for currently untreatable tumors, but have yet to demonstrate adequate therapeutic efficacy. (
  • Integrin targeted oncolytic adenoviruses Ad5-D24-RGD and Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF for treatment of patients with advanced chemotherapy refractory solid tumors. (
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (
  • While the location in the capsid and precise role in the Ad life cycle of these capsid components have yet to be fully elucidated, protein VI was recently shown to act as a shuttling adaptor for hexon import into the nucleus ( 53 ). (
  • Acid-induced conformational changes in the capsid are thought to be required for membrane penetration, allowing cytosolic translocation of the partially uncoated virion containing the DNA, core proteins, hexon, and protein VIII ( 14 ). (
  • Adenovirus recruits dynein by an evolutionary novel mechanism involving direct binding to pH-primed hexon. (
  • adenovirus hexon protein enhances nuclear delivery and increases transgene expression of. (
  • An intravenously-administered agent capable of modulating the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. (