A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.

A 43-nucleotide RNA cis-acting element governs the site-specific formation of the 3' end of a poxvirus late mRNA. (1/120)

The 3' ends of late mRNAs of the ati gene, encoding the major component of the A-type inclusions, are generated by endoribonucleolytic cleavage at a specific site in the primary transcript [Antczak et al., (1992), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 12033-12037]. In this study, sequence analysis of cDNAs of the 3' ends of ati mRNAs showed these mRNAs are 3' polyadenylated at the RNA cleavage site. This suggests that ati mRNA 3' end formation involves cleavage of a late transcript, with subsequent 3' polyadenylation of the 5' cleavage product. The RNA cis-acting element, the AX element, directing orientation-dependent formation of these mRNA 3' ends, was mapped to a 345-bp AluI-XbaI fragment. Deletion analyses of this fragment showed that the boundaries of the AX element are within -5 and +38 of the RNA cleavage site. Scanning mutagenesis showed that the AX element contains at least two subelements: subelement I, 5'-UUUAU downward arrowCCGAUAAUUC-3', containing the cleavage site ( downward arrow), separated from the downstream subelement II, 5'-AAUUUCGGAUUUGAAUGC-3', by a 10-nucleotide region, whose composition may be altered without effect on RNA 3' end formation. These features, which differ from those of other elements controlling RNA processing, suggest that the AX element is a component of a novel mechanism of RNA 3' end formation.  (+info)

Vaccinia virus strains Lister, USSR and Evans express soluble and cell-surface tumour necrosis factor receptors. (2/120)

Poxviruses encode a broad range of proteins that interfere with host immune functions such as soluble versions of cytokine receptors. Soluble virus tumour necrosis factor receptors (vTNFRs) were described originally in myxoma and Shope fibroma viruses. Cowpox virus (CPV) encodes three vTNFRs (CrmB, CrmC and CrmD). The genes equivalent to CrmB and CrmC in vaccinia virus (VV) Copenhagen are mutated and are named B28R/C22L and A53R, respectively. CrmD was identified recently in CPV and ectromelia virus but the gene is absent in VV Copenhagen. We have tested for expression of soluble binding activity for human TNF in cultures infected with 18 orthopoxviruses and have found that TNFRs are mostly absent but are produced by VV strains Lister, USSR and Evans, by the CPV elephantpox and by camelpox virus. Interestingly, we also found TNFR activity on the surface of cells infected with VV Lister, USSR and Evans. Sequence analysis of the relevant regions in VV Lister identified an intact A53R gene and an inactive B28R gene. Expression of VV Lister A53R in baculovirus and VV Western Reserve demonstrated that gene A53R encodes an active soluble vTNFR of 22 kDa. Expression and characterization of recombinant vTNFRs from VV Lister (A53R) and CPV (CrmB and CrmC) showed a similar binding specificity, with each receptor binding TNF from man, mouse and rat, but not human lymphotoxin-alpha. Lastly, the VV Lister and CPV vTNFRs bind human TNF with high affinity and prevent the binding of TNF to cellular receptors.  (+info)

Myxoma virus Serp2 is a weak inhibitor of granzyme B and interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme in vitro and unlike CrmA cannot block apoptosis in cowpox virus-infected cells. (3/120)

The Serp2 protein encoded by the leporipoxvirus myxoma virus is essential for full virulence (F. Messud-Petit, J. Gelfi, M. Delverdier, M. F. Amardeilh, R. Py, G. Sutter, and S. Bertagnoli, J. Virol. 72:7830-7839, 1998) and, like crmA of cowpox virus (CPV), is reported to inhibit the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE, caspase-1) (F. Petit, S. Bertagnoli, J. Gelfi, F. Fassy, C. Boucraut-Baralon, and A. Milon, J. Virol. 70:5860-5866, 1996). Serp2 and CrmA both contain Asp at the P1 position within the serpin reactive site loop and yet are only 35% identical overall. Serp2 protein was cleaved by ICE but, unlike CrmA, did not form a stable complex with ICE that was detectable by native gel electrophoresis. Attempts to covalently cross-link ICE-serpin inhibitory complexes were successful with CrmA, but no complex between ICE and Serp2 was visible after cross-linking. Purified His10-tagged Serp2 protein was a relatively poor inhibitor of ICE, with a Ki of 80 nM compared to 4 pM for CrmA. Serp2 protein resembled CrmA in that a stable complex with the serine proteinase granzyme B was detectable after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, Serp2 was less effective at inhibiting granzyme B activity (Ki = 420 nM) than CrmA (Ki = 100 nM). Finally, Serp2 was tested for the ability to replace CrmA and inhibit apoptosis in LLC-PK1 cells infected with a CPV recombinant deleted for CrmA but expressing Serp2. Unlike wild-type-CPV-infected cells, apoptosis was readily observed in cells infected with the recombinant virus, as indicated by the induction of both nuclear fragmentation and caspase-mediated cleavage of DEVD-AMC [acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-(amino-4-methyl coumarin)]. These results indicate that Serp2 is unable to functionally substitute for CrmA within the context of CPV and that the inhibition spectra for Serp2 and CrmA are distinct.  (+info)

Cowpox: reservoir hosts and geographic range. (4/120)

It is generally accepted that the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are wild rodents, although direct evidence for this is lacking for much of the virus's geographic range. Here, through a combination of serology and PCR, we demonstrate conclusively that the main hosts in Great Britain are bank voles, wood mice and short-tailed field voles. However, we also suggest that wood mice may not be able to maintain infection alone, explaining the absence of cowpox from Ireland where voles are generally not found. Infection in wild rodents varies seasonally, and this variation probably underlies the marked seasonal incidence of infection in accidental hosts such as humans and domestic cats.  (+info)

Structure of a soluble secreted chemokine inhibitor vCCI (p35) from cowpox virus. (5/120)

Most poxviruses, including variola, the causative agent of smallpox, express a secreted protein of 35 kDa, vCCI, which binds CC-chemokines with high affinity. This viral protein competes with the host cellular CC-chemokine receptors (CCRs), reducing inflammation and interfering with the host immune response. Such proteins or derivatives may have therapeutic uses as anti-inflammatory agents. We have determined the crystal structure to 1.85-A resolution of vCCI from cowpox virus, the prototype of this poxvirus virulence factor. The molecule is a beta-sandwich of topology not previously described. A patch of conserved residues on the exposed face of a beta-sheet that is strongly negatively charged might have a role in binding of CC-chemokines, which are positively charged.  (+info)

Caspase inhibitors. (6/120)

Caspases are the key effector molecules of the physiological death process known as apoptosis, although some are involved in activation of cytokines, rather than cell death. They exist in most of our cells as inactive precursors (zymogens) that kill the cell once activated. Caspases can be controlled in two ways. The processing and activation of a caspase can be regulated by molecules such as FADD, APAF-1, Bcl-2 family members, FLIP and IAPs. Active caspases can be controlled by a variety of inhibitors that directly interact with the protease. This review describes the later direct caspase inhibitors that have been identified, products of both viral and cellular genes, and artificial caspase inhibitors that have been developed both as research tools and as pharmaceutical agents to inhibit cell death in vivo.  (+info)

Transmission dynamics of a zoonotic pathogen within and between wildlife host species. (7/120)

The transmission dynamics of the cowpox virus infection have been quantified in two mixed populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), through analyses of detailed time-series of the numbers of susceptible, infectious and newly infected individuals. The cowpox virus is a zoonosis which circulates in these rodent hosts and has been shown to have an adverse effect on reproductive output. The transmission dynamics within species is best described as frequency dependent rather than density dependent, contrary to the 'mass action' assumption of most previous studies, both theoretical and empirical. Estimation of a transmission coefficient for each species in each population also allows annual and seasonal variations in transmission dynamics to be investigated through an analysis of regression residuals. Transmission between host species is found to be negligible despite their close cohabitation. The consequences of this for the combining ability of hosts as zoonotic reservoirs, and for apparent competition between hosts, are discussed.  (+info)

Alastrim smallpox variola minor virus genome DNA sequences. (8/120)

Alastrim variola minor virus, which causes mild smallpox, was first recognized in Florida and South America in the late 19th century. Genome linear double-stranded DNA sequences (186,986 bp) of the alastrim virus Garcia-1966, a laboratory reference strain from an outbreak associated with 0.8% case fatalities in Brazil in 1966, were determined except for a 530-bp fragment of hairpin-loop sequences at each terminus. The DNA sequences (EMBL Accession No. Y16780) showed 206 potential open reading frames for proteins containing >/=60 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins were compared with those reported for vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen and the Asian variola major strains India-1967 and Bangladesh-1975. About one-third of the alastrim viral proteins were 100% identical to correlates in the variola major strains and the remainder were >/=95% identical. Compared with variola major virus DNA, alastrim virus DNA has additional segments of 898 and 627 bp, respectively, within the left and right terminal regions. The former segment aligns well with sequences in other orthopoxviruses, particularly cowpox and vaccinia viruses, and the latter is apparently alastrim-specific.  (+info)

Cowpox virus is a species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects cows and occasionally other animals such as cats, dogs, and humans. The virus causes a mild disease in its natural host, cattle, characterized by the development of pustular lesions on the udder or teats.

In humans, cowpox virus infection can cause a localized skin infection, typically following contact with an infected animal or contaminated fomites. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within 1-2 weeks without specific treatment. However, in rare cases, the virus may spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe symptoms.

Historically, cowpox virus has played a significant role in medical research as it was used by Edward Jenner in 1796 to develop the first successful vaccine against smallpox. The similarity between the two viruses allowed for cross-protection, providing immunity to smallpox without exposing individuals to the more deadly disease. Smallpox has since been eradicated globally, and vaccination with cowpox virus is no longer necessary. However, understanding the biology of cowpox virus remains important due to its potential use as a model organism for studying poxvirus infections and developing countermeasures against related viruses.

Cowpox is a mild and self-limiting viral disease that primarily affects cattle. Historically, it was known for providing immunity against smallpox in humans who came into contact with the virus. The cowpox virus belongs to the Poxviridae family and is closely related to the variola virus, which causes smallpox.

The infection in cows typically results in pustular lesions on their udders or teats. When a human milkmaid or farmer handling an infected animal develops cowpox, they usually experience flu-like symptoms and form pustular skin lesions, primarily on the hands and fingers. These lesions eventually scab over and heal within 1-2 months without medical intervention.

The transmission of cowpox from animals to humans is rare nowadays due to widespread vaccination against smallpox and improved hygiene practices in dairy farming. However, it remains an occupational hazard for those working closely with cattle or other susceptible animals.

Orthopoxvirus is a genus of large, complex, enveloped DNA viruses in the family Poxviridae. It includes several species that are significant human pathogens, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and also known to cause cowpox and buffalopox), Monkeypox virus, and Camelpox virus. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild rashes to severe disease and death, depending on the specific species and the immune status of the infected individual. Historically, smallpox was one of the most devastating infectious diseases known to humanity, but it was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 due to a successful global vaccination campaign. However, other Orthopoxviruses continue to pose public health concerns and require ongoing surveillance and research.

Poxviridae is a family of large, complex, double-stranded DNA viruses that includes many significant pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is the Variola virus, which causes smallpox in humans, a highly contagious and deadly disease that has been eradicated through global vaccination efforts. Other important human pathogens in this family include the Monkeypox virus, which can cause a smallpox-like illness, and the Molluscum contagiosum virus, which causes benign skin tumors.

Poxviruses have a unique ability to replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. They also have a complex structure, with a large, brick-shaped virion that contains a lateral body, a core, and an outer envelope. The genome of poxviruses is relatively large, ranging from 130 to 375 kilobases in length, and encodes many genes involved in viral replication, host immune evasion, and modulation of host cell processes.

Poxviridae is further divided into two subfamilies: Chordopoxvirinae, which includes viruses that infect vertebrates, and Entomopoxvirinae, which includes viruses that infect insects. The Chordopoxvirinae subfamily is divided into several genera, including Orthopoxvirus (which includes Variola, Monkeypox, and Vaccinia viruses), Parapoxvirus (which includes Orf virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus), and Yatapoxvirus (which includes Yaba monkey tumor virus and Tanapox virus).

Overall, Poxviridae is a diverse family of viruses that pose significant public health and agricultural threats, and continue to be the subject of ongoing research and development efforts aimed at understanding their biology and developing new vaccines and therapies.

Poxviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Poxviridae family of viruses, which are large, complex viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. This family includes several pathogens that can infect humans, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and can rarely cause infection), Monkeypox virus, and Cowpox virus.

These viruses typically cause skin lesions or pocks, hence the name "Poxviridae." The severity of the disease can vary depending on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Smallpox, once a major global health threat, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 thanks to a successful vaccination campaign. However, other Poxviridae infections continue to pose public health concerns, particularly in regions with lower vaccination rates and where animal reservoirs exist.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Variola virus is the causative agent of smallpox, a highly contagious and deadly disease that was eradicated in 1980 due to a successful global vaccination campaign led by the World Health Organization (WHO). The virus belongs to the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus. It is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus with a complex structure that includes a lipoprotein membrane and an outer protein layer called the lateral body.

The Variola virus has two main clinical forms: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is more severe and deadly, with a mortality rate of up to 30%, while variola minor is less severe and has a lower mortality rate. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, such as clothing or bedding.

Smallpox was once a major public health threat worldwide, causing millions of deaths and severe illnesses. However, since its eradication, Variola virus has been kept in secure laboratories for research purposes only. The virus is considered a potential bioterrorism agent, and efforts are being made to develop new vaccines and antiviral treatments to protect against possible future outbreaks.

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family and Orthopoxvirus genus. It's the causative agent of monkeypox, a zoonotic disease with symptoms similar to smallpox but milder in nature. The virus was first discovered in 1958 in laboratory monkeys, hence its name.

There are two clades of MPXV: the Central African (Congo Basin) clade and the West African clade. The former is more severe and has a higher mortality rate, while the latter tends to cause less severe disease with lower fatality rates.

The virus is primarily transmitted to humans from infected animals such as rodents and primates, through direct contact with blood, bodily fluids, or rash material of an infected animal. Human-to-human transmission can occur via respiratory droplets, direct contact with lesions, or contaminated objects.

Monkeypox typically presents with fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and a distinctive rash that progresses from macules to papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs before falling off. The incubation period ranges from 5-21 days, and the illness usually lasts for 2-4 weeks.

Vaccination against smallpox has been found to provide some cross-protection against monkeypox, but its efficacy wanes over time. Currently, there are no approved vaccines specifically for monkeypox, although research is ongoing to develop new vaccines and antiviral treatments for this disease.

Ectromelia virus, also known as mousepox virus, is a species of Poxviridae family that specifically infects mice. It is the causative agent of a disease called ectromelia or mousepox, which is similar to smallpox in humans. The virus primarily affects the spleen, liver, and lungs of the host, leading to symptoms such as rash, fever, weight loss, and hind limb paralysis. Ectromelia virus has been used as a model organism to study poxvirus immunology and pathogenesis.

SERPINs are an acronym for "serine protease inhibitors." They are a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases, which are enzymes that cut other proteins. SERPINs are found in various tissues and body fluids, including blood, and play important roles in regulating biological processes such as inflammation, blood clotting, and cell death. They do this by forming covalent complexes with their target proteases, thereby preventing them from carrying out their proteolytic activities. Mutations in SERPIN genes have been associated with several genetic disorders, including emphysema, cirrhosis, and dementia.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Herpestidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic family that includes mongoose species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Vaccinia is actually not a medical term with a specific definition, but it refers to the virus used in the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is related to, but less harmful than, the variola virus that causes smallpox. When vaccinia virus is introduced into the skin, it leads to an immune response that protects against smallpox.

The term "vaccinia" also refers to the characteristic pockmark-like lesion that forms on the skin as part of the body's reaction to the vaccine. This lesion is a result of the infection and replication of the vaccinia virus in the skin cells, which triggers an immune response that helps protect against smallpox.

It's worth noting that while the smallpox vaccine is no longer routinely administered due to the eradication of smallpox, it may still be used in certain circumstances, such as in laboratory workers who handle the virus or in the event of a bioterrorism threat involving smallpox.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

Laboratory personnel are individuals who work in a laboratory setting and are responsible for conducting various types of tests, experiments, and research activities. They may include, but are not limited to, the following roles:

1. Medical Technologists/Clinical Scientists: These professionals typically have a bachelor's or master's degree in medical technology or a related field and are responsible for performing complex laboratory tests, analyzing specimens, and reporting results. They may specialize in areas such as hematology, microbiology, chemistry, immunology, or molecular biology.

2. Laboratory Technicians: These individuals typically have an associate's degree or a certificate in medical laboratory technology and assist medical technologists in performing routine tests and maintaining laboratory equipment. They may prepare specimens, operate automated instruments, and perform quality control checks.

3. Research Assistants/Associates: These professionals work under the supervision of principal investigators or research scientists and are responsible for conducting experiments, collecting data, and analyzing samples in support of scientific research.

4. Laboratory Managers/Supervisors: These individuals oversee the day-to-day operations of the laboratory, ensuring that all procedures are followed correctly, maintaining quality control, managing staff, and handling administrative tasks such as ordering supplies and maintaining records.

5. Pathologists' Assistants: They work under the direction of pathologists to provide support in autopsy and surgical specimen examination, preparation, and histology.

6. Histotechnicians/Histology Technicians: These professionals prepare tissue samples for microscopic examination by cutting thin sections, staining them with dyes, and mounting them on slides. They work closely with pathologists and laboratory technologists to ensure accurate results.

7. Phlebotomists: Although not strictly laboratory personnel, phlebotomists are essential members of the healthcare team who draw blood samples from patients for laboratory testing. They must follow strict protocols to ensure proper specimen collection and handling.

8. Other Specialist Roles: Depending on the specific laboratory setting, there may be additional specialist roles such as cytogenetic technologists, virologists, or toxicologists who have specialized knowledge and skills in their respective fields.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

Smallpox is a severe, contagious, and fatal infectious disease caused by the variola virus. It's characterized by fever, malaise, prostration, headache, and backache; followed by a distinctive rash with flat, red spots that turn into small blisters filled with clear fluid, then pus, and finally crust, scab, and fall off after about two weeks, leaving permanent scarring. There are two clinical forms of smallpox: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is the severe and most common form, with a mortality rate of 30% or higher. Variola minor is a less common presentation with milder symptoms and a lower mortality rate of about 1%.

Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980 following a successful global vaccination campaign, and routine smallpox vaccination has since been discontinued. However, due to concerns about bioterrorism, military personnel and some healthcare workers may still receive smallpox vaccinations as a precautionary measure.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

A Laboratory Infection, also known as a laboratory-acquired infection (LAI), is an infection that occurs in individuals who are exposed to pathogens or other harmful microorganisms while working in a laboratory setting. These infections can occur through various routes of exposure, including inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion of contaminated materials.

Laboratory infections pose significant risks to laboratory workers, researchers, and even visitors who may come into contact with infectious agents during their work or visit. To minimize these risks, laboratories follow strict biosafety protocols, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), proper handling and disposal of contaminated materials, and adherence to established safety guidelines.

Examples of laboratory infections include tuberculosis, salmonella, hepatitis B and C, and various other bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Prompt diagnosis, treatment, and implementation of appropriate infection control measures are crucial to prevent the spread of these infections within the laboratory setting and beyond.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

DNA contamination refers to the unintended presence of extraneous DNA in a sample or experimental setup that can interfere with the accuracy and interpretation of the results. This can occur at various stages, including during sample collection, storage, extraction, amplification, or analysis. It is crucial to avoid DNA contamination in molecular biology research, genetic testing, and forensic science to prevent false positive or negative results. Common sources of DNA contamination include skin cells, hair, bodily fluids, microorganisms, reagents, and previous samples. Specific measures must be taken to minimize the risk of DNA contamination, such as using dedicated equipment, maintaining clean laboratory conditions, and implementing rigorous quality control procedures.

Cytosine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). The single-letter abbreviation for cytosine is "C."

Cytosine base pairs specifically with guanine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair. In DNA, the double helix consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by these base pairs, such that the sequence of one strand determines the sequence of the other. This property is critical for DNA replication and transcription, processes that are essential for life.

Cytosine residues in DNA can undergo spontaneous deamination to form uracil, which can lead to mutations if not corrected by repair mechanisms. In RNA, cytosine can be methylated at the 5-carbon position to form 5-methylcytosine, a modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

... vaccination using the cowpox virus became the primary defense against smallpox. After infection by the cowpox virus, the body ( ... Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus (CPXV). It presents with large blisters in the skin, a fever and ... The vaccinia virus now used for smallpox vaccination is sufficiently different from the cowpox virus found in the wild as to be ... The virus does have an envelope that surrounds the virion. The cowpox's genome allows the virus to encode its own transcription ...
Edward Jenner pioneered smallpox inoculation with cowpox virus. 1800. The Royal College of Surgeons of England was founded. ... Lady Mary Wortley Montagu brought the Ottoman practice of inoculation to England using live smallpox virus. 1735. Claudius ...
... macacapox virus Akhmeta virus Alaskapox virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus ... Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus †Variola virus Volepox virus Among the path of evolution of the Orthopoxvirus ... Cowpox virus has also infected a variety of animals in European zoos, such as elephants, resulting in human infection. Aerosols ... Bennett, M; Gaskell, C.J.; Baxby, D.; Gaskell, R.M.; Kelly, D.F.; Naidoo, J. (1990). "Feline cowpox virus infection". Journal ...
Orthopoxvirus: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus; Parapoxvirus: orf virus, pseudocowpox, ... Within the Othopoxvirus genus Cowpox virus strain Brighton Red, Ectromelia virus and Monkeypox virus do not group closely with ... However, several poxviruses including vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, tanapox virus and raccoon pox virus are currently being ... Variola virus and Camelpox virus form a subgroup. Vaccinia virus is most closely related to CPV-GRI-90.[citation needed] The GC ...
Her research considered the assembly of the Vaccina virus (cowpox). After earning her doctorate, Sodeik returned to the United ... Sodeik has explored the cell biology of Herpes simplex virus. She is interested in virus-host interactions, virus assembly and ... Schmelz M; Sodeik B; Ericsson M; Wolffe EJ; Shida H; Hiller G; Griffiths G (1 January 1994). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: the ... At Yale, Sodeik studied the early phases of Herpes simplex virus. Sodeik was made a Senior Scientist at Hannover Medical School ...
... a factor influencing cowpox virus lesion pathogenesis". Arch Virol. 156 (4): 617-28. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0900-0. PMID ... Type-A inclusion bodies are found only in certain poxviruses like cowpox. The Guarnieri bodies are found in all poxvirus ...
... it produced enough cowpox viruses to infect the entire United States. The deployment of these biological weapons on fire ...
Cowpox is a virus that today is rarely found in either cows or humans. It is a historically important disease, as it led to the ...
"Investigation of the First Laboratory-Acquired Human Cowpox Virus Infection in the United States". The Journal of Infectious ... Emond, R T; Evans, B; Bowen, E T; Lloyd, G (27 August 1977). "A case of Ebola virus infection". British Medical Journal. 2 ( ... Helen Regan (2019-09-17). "Explosion and fire break out at Russian lab known for housing deadly smallpox virus". CNN. Retrieved ... Mole, Beth (2023-02-04). "Freak infection with an eradicated form of polio shows virus' craftiness". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. ...
... the cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination was replaced by the vaccinia virus. Vaccinia is in the same family as cowpox and ... Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature. The life cycle of poxviruses is ... Variola minor virus, also called alastrim, was a less common form of the virus, and much less deadly. Although variola minor ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
... the HA of RCN did not cross-react with monkeypox virus HA. Though RPV is a close relative of vaccinia and cowpox viruses, it is ... Patel, D. D.; Pickup, D. J.; Koklik, W. K. (1985). "Isolation of Cowpox Virus A-Type Inclusions and Characterization of Their ... Raccoonpox virus (RCN) is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and ... The sera partially cross-reacted with a vaccinia virus HA preparation, suggesting a close relation between the viruses. Unlike ...
In 1939, Allan Watt Downie showed that the vaccinia virus was serologically distinct from the "spontaneous" cowpox virus. This ... Cowpox virus Tulman ER, Delhon G, Afonso CL, Lu Z, Zsak L, Sandybaev NT, et al. (September 2006). "Genome of horsepox virus". ... of the live cowpox virus. After arrival, "other Spanish governors and doctors used enslaved girls to move the virus between ... so he named the virus vaccinia, after the Latin word for cow. Jenner believed that both cowpox and smallpox were viruses that ...
Some viruses use serpins to disrupt protease functions in their host. The cowpox viral serpin CrmA (cytokine response modifier ... In particular, serpins expressed by pox viruses, including cow pox (vaccinia) and rabbit pox (myxoma), are of interest because ... cowpox virus encodes an inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme". Cell. 69 (4): 597-604. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92 ... Turner PC, Sancho MC, Thoennes SR, Caputo A, Bleackley RC, Moyer RW (August 1999). "Myxoma virus Serp2 is a weak inhibitor of ...
... to act as carriers of the cowpox virus. The boys were necessary because the vaccine consisted of infecting patients with cowpox ... However, only an active infection could be transferred to successive patients, so two boys were infected with cowpox at the ... In 1798, English physician Edward Jenner pioneered the use of a vaccine to immunize persons with an inoculation of cowpox ... which is a virus closely related to smallpox but produces a much milder disease that confers immunity to both. ...
The most common notion is that vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) were all ... When it was realized that the virus used in smallpox vaccination was not, or was no longer, the same as cowpox virus, the name ... ISBN 978-0-435-54057-9. Downie, AW (1939). "The Immunological Relationship of the Virus of Spontaneous Cowpox to Vaccinia Virus ... Roseola vaccinia Vaccinia virus is closely related to the virus that causes cowpox; historically the two were often considered ...
Some viruses express caspase inhibitors that inhibit caspase activity and an example is the CrmA protein of cowpox viruses. ... April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ... Many viruses encode proteins that can inhibit apoptosis. Several viruses encode viral homologs of Bcl-2. These homologs can ...
... no one seems to know exactly where vaccinia virus came from; it is not the strain of cowpox that Edward Jenner used, and it is ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ... These giant viruses have renewed interest in the role viruses play in evolution. Smallpox virus was a major cause of death in ...
SPI-2 shares 92% of its amino acid sequence with the cowpox virus modifier of the cytokine response - known as crmA. SPI-2 ... Vaccinia virus is member of Orthopoxvirus family. These viruses contain approximately 200 genes in their genome. About one ... Host reaction was comparable to that on MVA virus (modified virus Ankara) which serves as a smallpox vaccine nowadays. The ... Vaccinia virus encodes two more serpin - SPI-1 and SPI-3. SPI-1 influences the host range and SPI-3 stops infected cells from ...
Furthermore, both types of marginal zone macrophages in the clearance and degradation of viruses e.g. cowpox virus and ... adenovirus serotype 5. Evidence has shown that the clearance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by marginal zone macrophages ...
They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. Another West Nile virus vaccine has been ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ...
Cowpox is an orthopox virus that increases their chances of survival and infection by inhibition of specific caspases and ... crmA, or cytokine response modifier A, is a cowpox serpin that inhibits caspases 1, 6 and 8, forming complexes with these ...
... against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease called cowpox. ... Dangerous non-human viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses ... The West Nile virus first appeared in the United States in 1999, in the New York City area. Bubonic plague is a zoonotic ... 2020). "Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in pets in the Netherlands and the permissiveness of canine liver cells to the ...
... with the invention of a vaccine by Edward Jenner in 1798 to eradicate smallpox by injecting relatively weaker cowpox virus into ... Regarding application, both the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and the virus-like particles (VLPs) of the major ... Parts of the protein shell or capsid of a virus are often suitable. The goal is for the protein subunit to prime the immune ... Large assemblies of proteins such as viruses often use a small number of types of protein subunits as building blocks. A key ...
Vaccinia Skin lesion Necrosis Smallpox Vaccination Chicken pox Cowpox- a virus closely related to the vaccinia virus and ... The virus replicates in the basal layer and disseminates from cell to cell, causing necrosis and the formation of fluid-filled ... Due to the impaired immune response of the host, the virus multiplies by cell-to-cell spread at the inoculation site, and the ... Although some vaccinia viruses commonly disseminate through the bloodstream, the NYCBOH strain reportedly causes only limited ...
IFN-gammaR from vaccinia virus, cowpox virus and camelpox virus exist naturally as homodimers, whereas the cellular IFN-gammaR ... The existence of the virus protein as a dimer in the absence of ligand may provide an advantage to the virus in efficient ... The vaccinia virus interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR), which is a 43 kDa soluble glycoprotein that is secreted from ... Alcami A, Smith GL (March 2002). "The vaccinia virus soluble interferon-gamma receptor is a homodimer". J. Gen. Virol. 83 (Pt 3 ...
In 1798, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of deliberate infection with cowpox virus, (smallpox vaccine), which ... A characteristic example is the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus. In addition, there are some newer types of vaccines ... Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde (2022-05-18). "HIV UTR, LTR, and Epigenetic Immunity". Viruses. 14 (5): 1084. doi:10.3390/ ...
Cowpox, horsepox, and monkeypox are more distantly related. All of these viruses share a common ancestor about 10,000 years ago ... When the next cowpox epidemic broke out in 1798, Jenner conducted a series of inoculations using cowpox, all of them successful ... In 1633 in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Native Americans were struck by the virus. As it had done elsewhere, the virus wiped ... Jenner hypothesized that in order to become immune to smallpox using cowpox, the matter from the cowpox pustules must be ...
It may appear similar to cowpox and orf. Paravaccinia virus originates from livestock infected with bovine papular stomatitis. ... Pseudocowpox is a disease caused by the Paravaccinia virus or Pseudocowpox virus, a virus of the family Poxviridae and the ... The virus is resistant to cold, dehydration, and temperatures up to 56 °C. Upon injecting a cell with its genome, the virus ... Unlike other pox viruses, there is no record of contracting paravaccinia virus from another human. Further, cattle only show a ...
In 1796, the discovery of vaccination-the use of the related cowpox virus to immunize against smallpox-by Edward Jenner ... an inoculated person was treated with live smallpox virus, taken from pustules of the mildest variety of smallpox that could be ...
Interest in the prophylactic powers of cowpox virus grew and in May 1796, over 20 years after Jesty had made his inoculations, ... Jesty and two of his female servants, Ann Notley and Mary Reade, had been infected with cowpox. When an epidemic of smallpox ... He was one of the six English, Danish and German people who reportedly administered cowpox to artificially induce immunity ... The notion that those people infected with cowpox, a relatively mild disease, were subsequently protected against smallpox was ...
Schmiedeknecht G, Eickmann M, Köhler K, Herden CE, Kolesnikova L, Förster C, Fatal cowpox virus infection in captive banded ... Cowpox virus infection: an emerging health threat. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:153-6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Rat-to-elephant-to-human transmission of cowpox virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:670-1. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy. Volume 17, Number 8-August 2011. Article Views: 199. Data is collected weekly and does not ...
Today, cowpox is a rare disease, largely confined to small mammals on the European continent and in Great Britain, with ... Edward Jenner inoculated a young English boy with cowpox material from a dairymaid and showed that the boy became resistant to ... Cowpox is caused by the cowpox or catpox virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus family, which also includes smallpox and vaccinia ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons encoding cowpox virus structural proteins protects mice from intranasal cowpox virus ...
Other notable members include vaccinia virus which is used in the current smallpox vaccine; cowpox virus, first introduced by ... Swinepox virus is the sole member of the Suipoxvirus genus. Swine are the only known host for this virus. ... Myxoma virus was used in Australia in the 1950s as a pest control to try and eradicate feral European rabbits. Transmission of ... The viruses in this genus are listed by the World Organizations for Animal Health (OIE: Office International des Epizooties) as ...
... vaccination using the cowpox virus became the primary defense against smallpox. After infection by the cowpox virus, the body ( ... Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus (CPXV). It presents with large blisters in the skin, a fever and ... The vaccinia virus now used for smallpox vaccination is sufficiently different from the cowpox virus found in the wild as to be ... The virus does have an envelope that surrounds the virion. The cowpoxs genome allows the virus to encode its own transcription ...
The cowpox virus is closely related to variola, the causative virus of smallpox. Learn about the history, causative virus, and ... Cowpox, uncommon mildly eruptive disease of animals that when transmitted to otherwise healthy humans produces immunity to ... The vaccinia virus used in modern vaccines, though descended from cowpox, differs genetically from the existing cowpox virus. ... The cowpox virus is closely related to variola, the causative virus of smallpox. The word vaccinia is sometimes used ...
... a zoo attendant experienced an extensive papular skin rash from a cowpox-like virus (123). Cowpox virus transmission from rats ... Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15:781--4. ... Adv Virus Res 2008;72:127--54.. * Howden KJ, Egan JB, Francois DC, et al. An investigation into human pandemic influenza virus ... transmission of human influenza viruses to swine also has been documented (154). For example, in 2009, an H1N1 influenza virus ...
There are several other viruses related to smallpox, including cowpox and camelpox. "I would be more worried about camelpox ... SARS-CoV-2 evolved from a virus just about as contagious as the flu virus into one thats almost as contagious as the far more ... Is monkeypox a "new" virus?. No. The virus has likely been infecting people for centuries, even millennia, Rimoin says. But for ... So scientists are keeping a close eye on the virus and outbreaks that occur - especially if the virus appears to change its ...
87593: Infectious agent detection by nucleic acid (DNA or RNA); orthopoxvirus (e.g., monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, vaccinia ... The CPT Editorial Panel has approved addition of accepted addition of code 90622 to identify vaccinia (smallpox) virus vaccine ... 90611: Smallpox and monkeypox vaccine, attenuated vaccinia virus, live, non-replicating, preservative free, 0.5 mL dosage, ... 90622: Vaccinia (smallpox) virus vaccine, live, lyophilized, 0.3 mL dosage, for percutaneous use ...
Categories: Cowpox virus Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 17 ...
SSCNRLStkqsSDVISTSELT 74 Cowpox virus Q0NPJ0 1 MSSiRFIACLYLISV---FGNCHeDPYYQP------------FDKLNITLDIYTYEDL-VPYTVDN-------------- ... EYYSVKDKTAIAGLFTDTTKKQNTSKMCTLNIEVKCNAETEPVlIGNFTrVPEKASTHAEnftli 153 Cowpox virus Q0NPJ0 51 ---------------DLPNPNDYQ---------- ... KLDI 188 Cowpox virus Q0NPJ0 60 ------------LLS--------LR--YTLKIFG------------------L 72 Taterapox virus ... Q0GP69 1 MSAiRFIACLCLIFV---LGNCHdDPYYQP------------FNKLNITLDIYTYEDL-VPYTVDNdttsFVKIYFKKFW 64 Horsepox virus AFH54727 1 MYK-KLIT ...
Variola, the smallpox virus, is not in the smallpox vaccine. Instead, a cultured form of cowpox, called vaccinia, is the virus ... Orthopox viruses include cowpox(vaccinia), smallpox(variola), and monkeypox. Mutations do occur in these viruses, but at a very ... The genetic sequence of a virus has to first be mapped prior to designing a PCR test. So before smallpox, cowpox, or monkeypox ... Nobody really knows when or where monkeypox viruses originated, but they seem to be close relatives of cowpox and smallpox. All ...
Molluscum contagiosum virus. H01052. Orthopoxvirus. T40359. Cowpox virus. H02351. T40083. Monkeypox virus. H00373. ... Influenza C virus (C/Ann Arbor/1/50). H00398. Kolmioviridae. Deltavirus. T40085. Hepatitis D virus (Hepatitis delta virus). ... Hepatitis B virus. H00412. ssRNA-RT viruses. Retroviridae. Deltaretrovirus. T40003. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ... Bean leafroll virus. -ssRNA viruses. Rhabdoviridae. Alphanucleorhabdovirus. T40199. Maize mosaic virus (Maize mosaic ...
Smallpox was a serious illness caused by the variola virus that killed hundreds of millions of people. Smallpox was eradicated ... We now know that cowpox and smallpox are very similar viruses. So, by getting cowpox, a minor illness, and becoming immune to ... The viruses that cause smallpox and mpox both belong to the same genus (grouping) of viruses called orthopoxvirus. They share ... Only people who work in a lab with the variola virus (and similar viruses) should get the vaccine. The vaccine is generally ...
At some point in the 1800s, the virus used to make the smallpox vaccine changed from cowpox to vaccinia virus. ... Stocks of Variola Virus. Following the eradication of smallpox, scientists and public health officials determined there was ... Jenner took material from a cowpox sore on milkmaid Sarah Nelmes hand and inoculated it into the arm of James Phipps, the 9- ... Jenner also knew about variolation and guessed that exposure to cowpox could be used to protect against smallpox. To test his ...
Cowpox is a virus that is related to smallpox but isnt nearly as lethal. ... and vaccination was the technique that used the safer cowpox virus. In the early 19th century, the word vaccination was used ... He took cowpox and purposely inoculated patients with it. He then later exposed the same patients to smallpox, and they ... So, basically what a vaccine does is put a dead version of a harmful virus or bacteria in your body such that your immune ...
... contagious disease caused by the variola virus, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, in the Poxviridae family (see the image ... Vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and camelpox virus [1, 2] are other members of Orthopoxvirus that infect humans ... Treatment of Vaccinia and Cowpox Virus Infections in Mice with CMX001 and ST-246. Viruses. 2010 Dec. 2(12):2681-95. [QxMD ... Characteristics of variola virus. The variola virus is a large, brick-shaped, double-stranded DNA virus that serologically ...
... vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus. Monkeypox is not related to chickenpox. ... Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in ... High Level UV light air cleansing in the office to eliminate bacteria and viruses in the air. ... However, African rodents and non-human primates (like monkeys) may harbor the virus and infect people. ...
Breakthrough as scientists create a new cowpox-style virus that can kill EVERY type of cancer ... Scientists have created a new cowpox-style virus in a bid to cure cancer. The treatment, called CF33, can kill every type of ... Its hoped the virus would infect the cancer calls and make them explode. The immune system is then expected to be alerted ... Similarly, a form of the cold sore virus called Imlygic or T-Vec was found to be able to treat melanoma, as it helped the ...
Mass vaccination against Smallpox (variola virus) started (Cowpox vaccine). Smallpox vaccine was mandatory until 1976. Vaccine ... It was actually a Cowpox vaccine. Edward Jenner developed the Cowpox (smallpox) vaccine using cowpox fluid (the name vaccine is ... It consists of an injected dose of killed polio virus. Thereafter, Albert Sabin produced an oral polio vaccine using live but ... Surgeon Magnus Andreas Thulstrup started the first recorded vaccination against Smallpox (variola vera virus) in Christiania ( ...
A preparation from the cowpox virus that protects against smallpox when administered to an individual. ... A preparation of a weakened or killedpathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of thepathogens structure, that ... Sure, in the first few weeks, when we still didnt know much about this novel corona-virus, we were willing to follow ... Schools were shut down, claiming it was dangerous for even asymptomatic children to gather, since they may spread the virus to ...
Viral inhibition of inflammation: cowpox virus encodes an inhibitor of the interleukin-1β converting enzyme. CA Ray, RA Black, ...
Crystal structure of Cowpox virus CPXV018 (OMCP) bound to human NKG2D. 4pp8. Crystal structure of murine NK cell ligand RAE-1 ... Structure of the Epstein-Barr Virus gp42 Protein Bound to the MHC class II Receptor HLA-DR1. ...
Edward Jenner used the relatively harmless cowpox virus to vaccinate against smallpox with extreme effectiveness.. Is there any ... Right now, we think the reservoir of Ebola-Reston virus is a frugivorous bat (although we dont have the proof for Reston virus ... Ebola-Reston [initial identification] virus is a mystery. Although quite deadly in monkeys, this Ebola cousin doesnt appear to ... including virus isolation, from 3 separate farms and sharing the results with both the human and animal health authorities in ...
... but also cowpox and myxoma viruses, are able to evade host IFN responses. Similar mechanisms have not been described for avian ... fowlpox virus (FWPV) FP9, canarypox virus (CNPV), and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)) and a birnavirus (infectious bursal ... Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of ... However, these viruses typically replicate within discrete cytoplasmic virus factories (VFs) that may represent a barrier to ...
The vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT) was used to vaccinate against smallpox in China 42 years ago. It is urgent to assess ... The ongoing pandemic caused by mpox virus (MPXV) has become an international public health emergency that poses a significant ... such as variola virus (VARV), vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV). Vaccination using VACV against smallpox has been ... Viruses and cells. Vaccinia virus (VACV) Tiantan strain (VTT) was grown in Vero cells by using a multiplicity of infection of ...
Edwards fatally overlooked the detail that the inoculant should be the cowpox virus-not variola, the agent of virulent smallpox ...
... vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine) and cowpox virus. ... CDC: Ebola Virus Disease Overview. *CDC: General Resources for ... Missouri Ebola Virus Disease Plan, located in EMResource library. *UNMC: Global Center for Health Security *Subscribe to ... CDC: Guidance Videos for Donning and Doffing PPE During Management of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease in U.S. Hospitals ... Prior consultation with CDC is required before shipping a specimen to CDC for Sudan virus testing. All specimens collected from ...
Cowpox is a benign, contagious skin infection characterized by pox lesions on the teats and udder of cows. ... The virus of cowpox is closely related to vaccinia and smallpox viruses. The cowpox virus and vaccinia were originally ... Cowpox. Diseases and conditions image EquiMed Cowpox. Also known as. Vaccina. Description. Cowpox is a benign, contagious skin ... Other orthopox viruses remain prevalent in certain regions and continue to infect humans, such as the cowpox virus in Europe, ...
  • More than 200 years ago, in one of the first demonstrations of vaccination, Edward Jenner inoculated a young English boy with cowpox material from a dairymaid and showed that the boy became resistant to smallpox. (medscape.com)
  • The preventive effect of vaccination, or intentional inoculation with the vaccinia virus, was demonstrated by English surgeon Edward Jenner in 1796, following the observation that milkmaids who had been infected by cowpox during milking subsequently were immune to smallpox. (britannica.com)
  • The basis for vaccination began in 1796 when the English doctor Edward Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had gotten cowpox were protected from smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • About 200 years ago, Dr. Edward Jenner used the relatively harmless cowpox virus to vaccinate against smallpox with extreme effectiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Its close resemblance to the mild form of smallpox and the observation that dairy farmers were immune to smallpox inspired creation of smallpox vaccine by the English physician Edward Jenner, using the cowpox virus. (equimed.com)
  • Edward Jenner is considered the founder of vaccinology in the West in 1796, after he inoculated a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrated immunity to smallpox. (onteenstoday.com)
  • In 1796, the British doctor Edward Jenner demonstrated that an infection with the relatively mild cowpox virus conferred immunity against the deadly smallpox virus. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Coming back to 1796, Edward Jenner, a physician, noticed that the milkmaids who had previously been infected with cowpox were not infected with smallpox, and also he had observed that people who survived smallpox once were then not infected by it. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • British physician Edward Jenner tested the hypothesis that infection with the cowpox virus (vaccinia) could protect an individual from a much more deadly infection from smallpox (caused by the variola virus). (bioedonline.org)
  • Later that century, English doctor Edward Jenner discovered that inoculation with a closely related virus, cowpox, also conferred immunity to smallpox but was much safer . (inverse.com)
  • The most well known member of the genus is variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Once vaccinated, a patient develops antibodies that make them immune to cowpox, but they also develop immunity to the smallpox virus, or Variola virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference may be a result of documented contamination of earlier vaccine cultures with variola virus, creating a hybrid that still confers immunity to smallpox infection. (britannica.com)
  • Smallpox was a serious illness caused by the variola virus. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • One of the first methods for controlling smallpox was variolation, a process named after the virus that causes smallpox (variola virus). (cdc.gov)
  • Months later, Jenner exposed Phipps several times to variola virus, but Phipps never developed smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox is an acute, contagious disease caused by the variola virus, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus , in the Poxviridae family (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • The variola virus is a large, brick-shaped, double-stranded DNA virus that serologically cross-reacts with other members of the poxvirus family, including ectromelia, cowpox, monkeypox, vaccinia, and camelpox. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike other DNA viruses, the variola virus multiplies in the cytoplasm of parasitized host cells. (medscape.com)
  • MPXV belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, which is genetically closely linked to other Orthopoxvirus viruses, such as variola virus (VARV), vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV). (nature.com)
  • The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes variola virus (which causes smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine) and cowpox virus. (mhanet.com)
  • After vaccination, humans develop antibodies that make them immune to cowpox, but also immune to smallpox (Variola virus). (equimed.com)
  • It is closely related to the variola virus that causes human smallpox, as well as the vaccinia virus used in smallpox vaccines, and the cowpox virus. (dognews.com)
  • The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes variola virus (the cause of smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus. (endoftheamericandream.com)
  • and monkeypox virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Other orthopox viruses remain prevalent in certain communities and continue to infect humans, such as the cowpox virus in Europe, vaccinia in Brazil, and monkeypox virus in Central and West Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of the monkeypox virus are shown on a patient's hand, from a 2003 case in the United States. (npr.org)
  • But health officials have little clue where people caught the monkeypox virus. (npr.org)
  • Typically, people catch monkeypox from animals in West Africa or central Africa and import the virus to other countries. (npr.org)
  • ARCHIVED] What is the Monkeypox Virus? (trophyclub.org)
  • Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. (trophyclub.org)
  • Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. (trophyclub.org)
  • Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by the monkeypox virus. (dognews.com)
  • The monkeypox virus is a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus. (dognews.com)
  • The virus is called "monkeypox" because it was first discovered in colonies of research monkeys in 1958. (dognews.com)
  • The monkeypox virus usually occurs in Central and West Africa. (dognews.com)
  • How does the monkeypox virus spread? (dognews.com)
  • The monkeypox virus spreads through close contact with an infected animal or person. (dognews.com)
  • The virus spreads from person to person through direct contact with rashes, scabs or body fluids of a person infected with monkeypox. (dognews.com)
  • A fetus can contract the monkeypox virus from an infected mother. (dognews.com)
  • Rabbits and mice, but not guinea pigs and hamsters, have been found to develop signs of monkeypox following exposure to the virus. (dognews.com)
  • Qué es la viruela del mono que acaba de aparecer en Reino Unido y qué implica / Rare monkeypox outbreak in U.K., Europe and U.S.: What is it and should we worry? (lasemanadelsur.com)
  • The Maryland Department of Health, in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), today confirmed a single case of monkeypox virus infection in a Maryland resident who recently returned from Nigeria. (endoftheamericandream.com)
  • The monkeypox virus is one particular with a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genome and is 1 of the orthopoxviruses. (medicinator.com)
  • Mpox (previously named monkeypox) is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with mpox virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic infection caused by monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that also contain smallpox, cowpox, Orf, and vaccinia viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in 2014 in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, Monkeypox virus in Nigeria in 2017 and most recently Lassa virus in Nigeria, Togo and Benin in 2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • Orthopoxviruses and Monkeypox virus were detected in the organs by PCR using consensus primers targeting the virus surface membrane haemagglutinin (HA) genes, while Leptospira species were detected by PCR using primers targeting the rrs and lfb1 genes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Monkeypox virus was not detected from studied small mammals. (bvsalud.org)
  • cowpox , uncommon mildly eruptive disease of animals , first observed in cows and occurring particularly in cats , that when transmitted to otherwise healthy humans produces immunity to smallpox . (britannica.com)
  • though this usually produces a self-limiting local ulcer like cowpox infection, it can cause a systemic smallpoxlike disease in patients whose immunity is compromised, and it has-though rarely-been found to cause encephalitis . (britannica.com)
  • A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of the pathogen's structure that upon administration to an individual stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but is incapable of causing severe infection. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • Eventually, people realized that young women who worked on dairy farms who contracted cowpox would develop immunity to smallpox. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • Variolation became known as the technique where samples of smallpox itself were used to develop immunity, and vaccination was the technique that used the safer cowpox virus. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • Cowpox virus "scarification" by Jenner, used to induce protective immunity against smallpox, is not a single species but a group of up to 5 virus species that infects cows, humans, and other animals. (medscape.com)
  • The virus can spread rapidly through a herd and affect cows for several weeks or months, but recovered cows have immunity that can last several years. (equimed.com)
  • Discover the mechanism behind cowpox immunity and its potential for vaccine development. (askthenurseexpert.com)
  • Buddhist monks drank snake venom to confer immunity to snake bite and variolation (smearing of a skin tear with cowpox to confer immunity to smallpox) was practiced in 17th century China. (immune.org.nz)
  • Rubella Virus Infected Macrophages and Neutrophils Define Patterns of Granulomatous Inflammation in Inborn and Acquired Errors of Immunity. (cdc.gov)
  • A subsequent challenge with the smallpox virus, obtained from a vesicle on a smallpox patient, did not result in any lesions on Phipps, indicating complete immunity. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Naturally occurring cases of cowpox were not common, but it was discovered that the vaccine could be "carried" in humans and reproduced and disseminated human-to-human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new method used cows to manufacture the vaccine using a process called "retrovaccination", in which a heifer was inoculated with humanized cowpox virus, and it was passed from calf to calf to produce massive quantities efficiently and safely. (wikipedia.org)
  • This then led to the next incarnation, "true animal vaccine", which used the same process but began with naturally-occurring cowpox virus, and not the humanized form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have not determined exactly when the change or mutation occurred, but the effects of vaccinia and cowpox virus as vaccine are nearly the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the years from 1770 to 1790, at least six people who had contact with a cow had independently tested the possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an immunization for smallpox in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • At some point in the 1800s, the virus used to make the smallpox vaccine changed from cowpox to vaccinia virus. (cdc.gov)
  • So, basically what a vaccine does is put a dead version of a harmful virus or bacteria in your body such that your immune system can recognize it and fight it off in the future. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • It was actually a Cowpox vaccine. (curezone.org)
  • Thereafter, Albert Sabin produced an oral polio vaccine using live but weakened (attenuated) virus. (curezone.org)
  • ACAM2000, a replicating vaccinia virus-based second generation smallpox vaccine, can provide effective protection even after exposure to MPXV. (nature.com)
  • One way to make Alzheimer's vaccinations safer would be to use a closely-related, but not human, protein as the vaccine, much like cowpox virus is used for smallpox immunizations. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Discover the captivating history and origins of cowpox, its impact on medicine, and its role in developing the smallpox vaccine. (askthenurseexpert.com)
  • Discover the remarkable role that cowpox played in vaccine development. (askthenurseexpert.com)
  • Vaccinia is a live virus vaccine that was last routinely used in the United States in 1972. (netce.com)
  • 10 Worse still, in the absence of a vaccine or any drug treatment that selectively targets the virus, there is little that can be done for many vulnerable individuals who develop the most severe forms of Covid-19. (isj.org.uk)
  • Why is it that, despite all the scientific expertise available in today's world, so many governments were caught unawares by the spread of the virus, failed to protect the most vulnerable and have few answers about what to do next other than to hope for a vaccine? (isj.org.uk)
  • The Covi-Shield vaccine used the viruses that cause flu in chimpanzees which are similar to the Corona Virus. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • The search for a vaccine for HIV has been underway for over two decades with little success although scientists have continued to better understand how the virus is able to defeat the body's immune system. (thoughttheater.com)
  • The vaccine is what is known as a genetic vaccine, which uses parts of the virus DNA to stimulate the rapid endogenous production of the proteins for which the injected DNA codes. (thoughttheater.com)
  • In order to enhance the effect, the researchers also gave the subjects a fourth dose of a vaccine in which parts of the HIV virus DNA had been integrated into another virus (vaccinia = the cowpox virus). (thoughttheater.com)
  • The fact that the vaccine is also being tested on HIV positive individuals offers hope that a vaccine could provide therapeutic benefit to those already infected with the virus. (thoughttheater.com)
  • Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015. (medscape.com)
  • The apparent changing epidemiology of the disease, the current reliance on the public health system for testing and access to vaccine, and the need for prompt public health response to identified cases for the purposes of reducing spread all support the need for a standardized case definition and national notifiability for mpox virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • People who received the vaccine many years ago may no longer be fully protected against the virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cowpox is caused by the cowpox or catpox virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus family, which also includes smallpox and vaccinia. (medscape.com)
  • As a member of the Orthopoxvirus family, cowpox is a large double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in cell cytoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • The virus, part of the genus Orthopoxvirus, is closely related to the vaccinia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There currently is a global outbreak of mpox affecting multiple countries in which the disease is not endemic, including the U.S. Mpox is a rare disease that is caused by infection with the mpox virus, which belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae . (mhanet.com)
  • The causative virus (orthopoxvirus) of true cowpox is closely related to several other viruses including horsepox and smallpox. (equimed.com)
  • In Europe, cowpox virus is the most relevant representative of the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. (laboklin.com)
  • Justification : Depuis l'éradication du virus de la variole, on note une émergence des autres Orthopoxvirus surtout le Monkeypoxvirus en Afrique centrale. (bvsalud.org)
  • A ce jour aucun cas d'infection humaine à Orthopoxvirus n'a été notifié en Côte d'Ivoire. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objectif : Mettre en évidence la circulation des Orthopoxvirus en Côte d'Ivoire en situation post éradication de la variole dans la population non vaccinée contre cette maladie. (bvsalud.org)
  • The first description of cowpox was given by Jenner in 1798. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jenner also knew about variolation and guessed that exposure to cowpox could be used to protect against smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • To test his theory, Dr. Jenner took material from a cowpox sore on milkmaid Sarah Nelmes' hand and inoculated it into the arm of James Phipps, the 9-year-old son of Jenner's gardener. (cdc.gov)
  • Coming back to Jenner, he created used viruses causing cowpox. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • On May 14, 1796, Dr Jenner took fluid from a cowpox blister and scratched it into the skin of 8-year-old James Phipps. (medscape.com)
  • The cowpox vaccinations and later incarnations proved so successful that in 1980, the World Health Organization announced that smallpox was the first disease to be eradicated by vaccination efforts worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jenner's original vaccination used lymph from the cowpox pustule on a milkmaid, and subsequent "arm-to-arm" vaccinations applied the same principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 19th century, the word vaccination was used only for the very specific technique of inoculating someone using cowpox. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • Before vaccination of the general population against smallpox was discontinued, some outbreaks of cowpox in cows in North America and Europe were due to infection with vaccinia from recently vaccinated persons. (equimed.com)
  • Verheust C, Goossens M, Pauwels K, Breyer D. Biosafety aspects of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vectors used for gene therapy or vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Other very well-acknowledged associates incorporate the smallpox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses. (medicinator.com)
  • Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. (cdc.gov)
  • When examining skin lesions on llamas, viral diseases to consider as differential diagnoses include vesicular stomatitis, rabies, poxvirus (contagious ecthyma and cowpox virus [CPXV]) ( 2 ), foot-and-mouth disease, bluetongue, and mucocutaneous fibropapillomas ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Because mice and rats are considered carriers of CPXV ( 4 ) and birds of prey at the farm were fed frozen mice imported from a large farm in Germany, 2 lots of these mice were sampled (31 animals in total) along with 44 wild gray rats ( Rattus rattus ) captured on the farm for molecular analysis and virus isolation. (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus (CPXV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT) was used to vaccinate against smallpox in China 42 years ago. (nature.com)
  • Risk factors for infection with cowpox include exposure to potentially infected animals (eg, cats, cows, rodents) in an endemic area. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of infection with cowpox virus in humans are localized, pustular lesions generally found on the hands and limited to the site of introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with cowpox virus goes through 5 stages. (equimed.com)
  • The cowpox virus is closely related to variola, the causative virus of smallpox . (britannica.com)
  • They are also closely related to buffalopox virus. (equimed.com)
  • Most often, it is spread to the elephants from rodents, and is closely related to Rodent Pox Virus. (elephant.se)
  • Explore the symptoms and transmission of Cowpox, a viral infection commonly found in cows. (askthenurseexpert.com)
  • Many of the viral diseases that affect camelids are related to bovine, equine, ovine, and swine virus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • During the 1980s researchers discovered that rodents were also a natural reservoir for the virus, and that rodents, not cattle , were responsible for most cowpox infections in humans. (britannica.com)
  • Nearly half of the 27 IDTEs within the vectorborne and rodentborne IDTE category were caused by West Nile virus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • West Nile virus infection events and a large outbreak of hantavirus infections in Germany in 2010 was attributed to bank vole populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccinia-related viruses continue to cause occasional outbreaks of teat infections in dairy cattle in South America and buffalo in India. (equimed.com)
  • From its serendipitous discovery to eradicating deadly diseases, learn how cowpox revolutionized the way we protect ourselves against infections. (askthenurseexpert.com)
  • After new viral particles are assembled, the host cell lyses, releasing infectious virus, which can enter surrounding cells. (medscape.com)
  • CDC's chief viral special pathogens expert and Chief Pathologist assisted the USDA in confirming the diagnosis amongst multiple pig samples, including virus isolation, from 3 separate farms and sharing the results with both the human and animal health authorities in the Philippines. (cdc.gov)
  • Prior to the current pandemic, people in the Global North had become accustomed to the effective treatment of infectious diseases that are caused by viruses, bacteria or microbial parasites through anti-viral medicines, vaccines and antibiotics. (isj.org.uk)
  • With viral DNA sequences in hand, scientists can construct genetic family trees by analyzing the small changes - mutations - that accumulated in the genes while the viruses were circulating in the human population. (inverse.com)
  • Mpox is a zoonotic disease caused by the mpox virus (MPXV) characterized by smallpox-like symptoms, including fever and rash, but the signs of mpox are milder and the mortality rate is lower than those of smallpox. (nature.com)
  • Explore the history, transmission, and symptoms of cowpox, as well as its role in smallpox immunization. (askthenurseexpert.com)
  • Containment worked because people infected with the smallpox virus do not pass it on until they exhibit obvious symptoms . (inverse.com)
  • Symptoms most often occur about 12 to 14 days after you have been infected with the virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The vaccinia virus used in modern vaccines , though descended from cowpox, differs genetically from the existing cowpox virus. (britannica.com)
  • Presently, there are numerous vaccines in development that seek to defeat the virus with a variety of novel approaches. (thoughttheater.com)
  • Rimmelzwaan GF, Sutter G. Candidate influenza vaccines based on recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara. (medscape.com)
  • He observed that dairy workers, who contracted cowpox from cattle, typically did not become infected with smallpox. (bioedonline.org)
  • Cowpox was benign and it protected the dairy maids from becoming infected with smallpox. (medscape.com)
  • However, African rodents and non-human primates (like monkeys) may harbor the virus and infect people. (trophyclub.org)
  • Today, cowpox is a rare disease, largely confined to small mammals on the European continent and in Great Britain, with occasional transmission to humans. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The virus is believed to be acquired by direct contact with an infected animal, most often a cat in the case of humans, with lesions occurring where the virus gains access through broken skin. (medscape.com)
  • The natural reservoir of cowpox virus is believed to be small woodland mammals, such as bank voles and wood mice, with humans, cows, and cats being only accidental hosts. (medscape.com)
  • Cowpox is a rare infection of humans, with fewer than 150 human cases reported. (medscape.com)
  • From these rodents, domestic cats contract and transmit the virus to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans first noticed this effect before they knew of the existence of bacteria and viruses. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • Friedland and colleagues note that potato virus is a fairly common infection that poses no risk to humans (many people have probably eaten PVY infected potatoes). (sciencedaily.com)
  • and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. (bvsalud.org)
  • He then took the fluids from the cowpox blister and rubbed them on the skin of an eight-year-old boy. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • A blister appeared on the boy's body, indicating that he had been infected by cowpox. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • Cowpox is a benign, contagious skin infection characterized by pox lesions on the teats and udder of cows. (equimed.com)
  • The horsepox virus can be carried to cows and causes typical cowpox lesions. (equimed.com)
  • Moreover, he demonstrated that the protective cowpox pus could be effectively inoculated from person to person, not just directly from cattle. (everything-everywhere.com)
  • Today cowpox is fairly rare, and more commonly found in animals other than cattle, such as rodents. (equimed.com)
  • These viruses often spread to the people in contact with cattle. (equimed.com)
  • Poxviridae are linear, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • The viruses in this genus are listed by the World Organizations for Animal Health (OIE: Office International des Epizooties) as important animal diseases that require notification. (cdc.gov)
  • West Nile virus infection and malaria are notifiable diseases in the EU and, therefore, subject to surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • These rats are also vectors of diseases including plague, jaundice, rat-bite fever, cowpox virus, trichinosis and salmonellosis. (mccloudservices.com)
  • 6 Be that as it may, however we describe them, viruses are at the root of some of the most infectious and lethal diseases that afflict humanity. (isj.org.uk)
  • Although the primary route of infection is inhalation , the characteristic skin pustules are also filled with the virus. (inverse.com)
  • Swinepox virus is the sole member of the Suipoxvirus genus. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus is zoonotic, meaning that it is transferable between species, such as from cat to human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equally animals and human hosts have been implicated in previously outbreaks in the Usa, producing this however a different of the zoonotic viruses. (medicinator.com)
  • Cowpox spreads by contact during milking. (equimed.com)
  • Young people may be at greater risk because of a propensity for close contact with animals, such as cats, or because of their not having been vaccinated for smallpox, which may confer some protection against cowpox. (medscape.com)
  • We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cowpox causes inconvenience when milking cows because the teats are sore. (equimed.com)
  • He observed that girls who milked cows often developed cowpox, which he believed was similar to smallpox in both virology and clinical expression. (medscape.com)
  • July 21, 2020 Researchers have created a virus in the lab that infects cells and interacts with antibodies just like the COVID-19 virus, but lacks the ability to cause severe disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Immunosuppression can be caused by pathogens such as chicken infectious anemia virus, infectious bursal disease virus, reovirus, and some retroviruses (e.g., reticuloendotheliosis virus). (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Transmission of leporipoxviruses is primarily through the mosquito although other biting insects such as fleas may also transmit virus. (cdc.gov)
  • As this abnormal an infection crosses a thousand cases in six various continents, overall health treatment scientists warn that the entire world have to be prepared to facial area a likely outbreak induced by this virus, in addition to the by now circulating intense acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (medicinator.com)
  • DNA viruses such as herpesvirus and poxvirus have multiple genes, some of them host-derived, which interfere with effective innate or acquired immune responses. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The cowpox virus when introduced into that boy's body, it provoked the body to begin primary immune response forming memory cells. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • Then the next time when the smallpox virus was introduced, the white blood cells of the boy's body recognized the smallpox virus same as the cowpox virus immediately triggering a secondary immune response. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • Disruption of TNF-a/TNFR1 function in resident skin cells impairs host immune response against cutaneous vaccinia virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • In 1796, he inoculated an eight-year-old boy with material from a cowpox sore on the hand of an infected dairy worker. (bioedonline.org)
  • Human cowpox is a disease of young people, with half of all cases occurring in individuals younger than 18 years. (medscape.com)
  • Human cowpox is usually a self-limited disease. (medscape.com)
  • The word vaccinia is sometimes used interchangeably with cowpox to refer to the human form of the disease, sometimes to refer to the causative virus, and sometimes to refer only to the artificially induced human form of cowpox. (britannica.com)
  • human cowpox occurred as a self-contained localized ulcer on the hands or at other sites where scratches or abrasions allowed entry of the virus. (britannica.com)
  • 3 Viruses can cause vast human suffering and death, as well as social and economic dislocation. (isj.org.uk)
  • For example, the influenza virus contains only 11 protein-coding genes, compared to around 21,000 genes in our own human genome. (isj.org.uk)
  • Baxby D, Bennett M, Getty B. Human cowpox 1969-93: a review based on 54 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. (medscape.com)
  • The variola genome consists of double-stranded DNA, which is more stable and gets copied more accurately when the virus replicates than do single-stranded RNA genomes, such as that of SARS-CoV-2. (inverse.com)
  • RNA viruses may escape acquired humoral and cellular immune responses by mutations in protective antigenic epitopes (e.g., avian influenza viruses), while accessory nonstructural proteins or multifunctional structural proteins interfere with the interferon system (e.g. (imperial.ac.uk)