Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.RestaurantsFast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.DirectoryPhotography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.SmokeTars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Famous PersonsHealth Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.VermontFood Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Awards and PrizesCaliforniaAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Leigh Disease: A group of metabolic disorders primarily of infancy characterized by the subacute onset of psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, ataxia, weakness, vision loss, eye movement abnormalities, seizures, dysphagia, and lactic acidosis. Pathological features include spongy degeneration of the neuropile of the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Patterns of inheritance include X-linked recessive, autosomal recessive, and mitochondrial. Leigh disease has been associated with mutations in genes for the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX; CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE; ATP synthase subunit 6; and subunits of mitochondrial complex I. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p850).Eucommiaceae: A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Literature, ModernPassiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)ColoradoPeritoneovenous Shunt: An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Casuistry: A method of ETHICAL ANALYSIS that emphasizes practical problem solving through examining individual cases that are considered to be representative; sometimes used to denote specious argument or rationalization. Differentiate from casuistics, which is the recording and study of cases and disease.Postmodernism: A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)Ethical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)BooksMultilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Each green raw coffee is tested using various roasts and brew methods in multiple cuppings then evaluated for consumer value and finally subjected to the friends and family test. (autogestion2010.info)
  • Maui Wowi Hawaiian, retailer of premium Hawaiian coffees and fresh fruit smoothies, prepares to bring back its popular Pacific Passion coffee blend as a limited time offer. (prweb.com)
  • Some farmers plant fruit trees around them or plant the coffee on the sides of hills, because they need specific conditions to flourish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plus, the rise in micro mills (the acquisition of small scale post-harvest equipment by farmers) has given growers control over their coffee. (usatoday.com)
  • This means better opportunities for coffee farmers, their families and our planet. (ikea.com)
  • Editor's note: This article originally inaccurately characterized the duration of Jarman's career, and the ages and origins of various coffee farmers. (theweek.com)
  • Local farmers who cultivate about 100 traditional varieties in their own gardens may know more about wild coffee than anyone else, he said. (bbc.co.uk)
  • For Wouter De Smet, manager of Nestlé Coffee Agriculture Service, ' tea is in the heart of those farmers, but coffee is in their purse ! (forbes.com)
  • Nestlé pays at the rate of the New York Coffee Exchange - but it had soon to modify its practice, due to an unexpected development: after having been taught how to check the daily rates on the web site of the New York Coffee Exchange, the farmers started excessive hoarding, hoping to grab the best timing for the highest price, a psychological trend which unsettled the natural flow of the merchandise. (forbes.com)
  • Browse the photo gallery above for the ultimate coffee and culinary experience in Costa Rica, and see more coffee destinations below. (usatoday.com)
  • Gene banks for coffee outside Ethiopia, in Kenya, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and elsewhere, are also in danger, said Charles Adwanda of Kenya's Coffee Research Foundation. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Search Strategy Most of the information above was accumulated in the course of twenty years' addiction to coffee (beans of life! (google.com)
  • Coffee is the lifeblood of most of our mornings, but do you know what's actually inside that cup of coffee you're drinking each day? (wired.com)
  • Some mornings it's difficult to express yourself before finishing that first cup of coffee. (cafepress.com)
  • True, she has instigated investigations into the fund-raising behaviour of both the president and the vice-president, but she has given Mr Clinton a clean bill of health over his coffee mornings. (economist.com)
  • Add fleas to the list of pests that hate coffee grounds. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In another example of environmental destruction begetting environmental destruction Erica Westly, in Yale Environment 360 , tells us how the "cooling effects of shade trees have provided some of the best protection from coffee pests, including the coffee berry borer," a pest that can devastate coffee plants and that can spread rapidly with minor increases in temperature. (utne.com)
  • If nothing serious is done to mitigate the effects of climate change, the total extend of land on the planet suitable for growing coffee is forecast to be reduced by as much as 50 percent by 2050 as producing areas will steadily move away from the equator and to higher elevations, and yields will increasingly be curtailed by pests and diseases. (news24.com)
  • Also, because cold-brewed coffee never gets heated, it creates a less bitter and smoother iced coffee drink. (sheknows.com)
  • When your coffee is ready simply strain using a cheesecloth-lined strainer and store your fresh, cold-brewed coffee in the fridge. (sheknows.com)
  • Cold-brewed coffee, if made right, is simply divine. (wired.com)
  • I still haven't made what I'd consider my perfect cup of cold-brewed coffee, but I'm getting closer. (wired.com)
  • Updated in February 2019: We've added a new recommendations from Primula, a new coffee blend, and a few new cold-brew makers to our list of products to avoid. (wired.com)
  • Other early writings establish Yemen, on the southern part of Arabian Peninsula, just across the Red Sea from Ethiopia, as home to the first coffee plantations starting in the early 15th century. (theatlantic.com)
  • Also, the rebels' mountain strongholds are much closer to the coffee fields than to the sugar and cotton plantations in the coastal lowlands where government troops travel more easily. (washingtonpost.com)
  • To check the origin and learn more about the plantations where the coffee or cacao beans in your IKEA coffee or chocolate bar were grown, visit www.utz.org/IKEA. (ikea.com)
  • Coffee labor is often performed by migrants who travel from poorer parts of the continent to find work on the plantations. (theweek.com)
  • Most of the coffee is grown on plantations outside Ethiopia from a handful of cultivated varieties created from a few individual bushes. (bbc.co.uk)
  • But these plantations are at risk from disease, such as the coffee rust that hit Brazil in the 1970s. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Tens of thousands of poor peasants now are plodding through fields of large green bushes in Central America, carefully plucking the small, fragile berries that contain the region's most valuable product: coffee beans. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Use this as a general guide regardless of the method you choose for brewing your coffee and the coarseness of the grind. (ehow.com)
  • If only a few people indulge, and you're only drinking a cup at most, a single- serve machine ensures you won't be pouring leftover coffee down the drain every morning. (slideshare.net)
  • Colombia coffee crop under threat Jump to media player Coffee producers in Colombia's Caldas region are battling a plague of red spider mites that are threatening this year's harvest. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The peaberry occurs only between 10 and 15% of the time, and it is a fairly common (yet scientifically unproven) belief that they have more flavour than normal coffee beans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flavour of coffee comes from several volatile oils which our taste buds have learned to appreciate. (google.com)
  • coffee heated too high, or kept on heat too long, will lose most of its flavour and aroma (or develop an unpleasant scorched flavour). (google.com)
  • The overall outcomes are likely to include price increases, supply shortages and drops in coffee aroma and flavour. (news24.com)
  • Gravity causes the coffee-infused hot water -- or coffee -- to drip through a valve and down into the carafe. (ehow.com)
  • My wife regularly refers to me in this manner, usually as I am offered drip coffee by family and friends. (everything2.com)
  • Once you have discovered what coffee was truly meant to be, the icksome sludge they serve at work, drip robusta , is so offensive that one might perfer cyanide or hemlock as an alternative. (everything2.com)
  • I learned that the secret is to brew the coffee right on to the ice so it's hot for a second or less,' said Giuliano. (chicagotribune.com)
  • And where wine has the advantage that it leaves the winery as a finished product, we must brew the coffee ourselves and assume at least some of the responsibilities that we otherwise delegate to the winemaker. (decanter.com)
  • This simple recipe is perfect for summer and will save you a little cash, since you won't have to make a trip to the coffee shop. (sheknows.com)
  • Either version of this recipe is also gorgeous as cold coffee, but the ginger will warm you even in the summer. (selfgrowth.com)
  • But shade equals less crops, while sun increases yields, so "many coffee growers have cut down the trees around their coffee plants," creating an environment more likable to the coffee-loving beetle. (utne.com)
  • Get to know basic coffee characteristics so you can begin pairing it with complementary foods and bring out the best flavors in each. (allrecipes.com)
  • Arabian coffees have berry- and wine-like characteristics--some with spice and cocoa notes, while African beans tend to have a citrus flavor with floral elements. (allrecipes.com)
  • Now in its fifth year as a coffee LTO, Pacific Passion is naturally sweet, with a fruity aroma, and a full body finish. (prweb.com)
  • The "1-3" setting is for 1 to 3 cups of coffee and results full flavor and aroma. (ehow.com)
  • Still, she does not complain about the many bags of coarse ground coffee which inhabit our kitchen, or the lovely aroma which lives with us constantly, and the resulting worship which revolves around our press. (everything2.com)
  • Tavani A, La Vecchia C (2000) Coffee and cancer: a review of epidemiological studies, 1990-1999. (springer.com)