COUP Transcription Factors: A sub-family of steroid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptors that have specificity for a variety of DNA sequences related to AGGTCA. COUP transcription factors can heterodimerize with a variety of factors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.COUP Transcription Factor I: A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.COUP Transcription Factor II: A COUP transcription factor that negatively regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and competes with other hormone receptors for the common response element AGGTCA. It can also stimulate transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of GLUCOSE and CHOLESTEROL.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Facial Hemiatrophy: A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Scalp DermatosesCell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).

The orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII is required for angiogenesis and heart development. (1/113)

The embryonic expression of COUP-TFII, an orphan nuclear receptor, suggests that it may participate in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions required for organogenesis. Targeted deletion of the COUP-TFII gene results in embryonic lethality with defects in angiogenesis and heart development. COUP-TFII mutants are defective in remodeling the primitive capillary plexus into large and small microcapillaries. In the COUP-TFII mutant heart, the atria and sinus venosus fail to develop past the primitive tube stage. Reciprocal interactions between the endothelium and the mesenchyme in the vascular system and heart are essential for normal development of these systems. In fact, the expression of Angiopoietin-1, a proangiogenic soluble factor thought to mediate the mesenchymal-endothelial interactions during heart development and vascular remodeling, is down-regulated in COUP-TFII mutants. This down-regulation suggests that COUP-TFII may be required for bidirectional signaling between the endothelial and mesenchymal compartments essential for proper angiogenesis and heart development.  (+info)

Expression of ptc and gli genes in talpid3 suggests bifurcation in Shh pathway. (2/113)

talpid3 is an embryonic-lethal chicken mutation in a molecularly un-characterised autosomal gene. The recessive, pleiotropic phenotype includes polydactylous limbs with morphologically similar digits. Previous analysis established that hox-D and bmp genes, that are normally expressed posteriorly in the limb bud in response to a localised, posterior source of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) are expressed symmetrically across the entire anteroposterior axis in talpid3 limb buds. In contrast, Shh expression itself is unaffected. Here we examine expression of patched (ptc), which encodes a component of the Shh receptor, and is probably itself a direct target of Shh signalling, to establish whether talpid3 acts in the Shh pathway. We find that ptc expression is significantly reduced in talpid3 embryos. We also demonstrate that talpid3 function is not required for Shh signal production but is required for normal response to Shh signals, implicating talpid3 in transduction of Shh signals in responding cells. Our analysis of expression of putative components of the Shh pathway, gli1, gli3 and coupTFII shows that genes regulated by Shh are either ectopically expressed or no longer responsive to Shh signals in talpid3 limbs, suggesting possible bifurcation in the Shh pathway. We also describe genetic mapping of gli1, ptc, shh and smoothened in chickens and confirm by co-segregation analysis that none of these genes correspond to talpid3.  (+info)

Heterodimeric interactions between chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor family members ARP1 and ear2. (3/113)

Members of the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors, which minimally includes COUP-TFI and ARP1, are highly expressed in brain and are generally considered to be constitutive repressors of transcription. We have used a yeast two-hybrid system to isolate proteins expressed in brain that interact with ARP1. One of the proteins isolated in this screen was Ear2, another orphan receptor that has been suggested to be a member of the COUP-TF subfamily. Here we demonstrate that ARP1 and Ear2 form heterodimers in solution and on directly repeated response elements with high efficiency and a specificity differing from that of homodimeric complexes composed of either receptor. ARP1 and Ear2 were observed to interact in mammalian cells, and the tissue distribution of Ear2 transcripts was found to overlap precisely with the expression pattern of ARP1 in several mouse tissues and embryonal carcinoma cell lines. Heterodimeric interactions between ARP1 and Ear2 may define a distinct pathway of orphan receptor signaling.  (+info)

Functional study of the E276Q mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha found in type 1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young: impaired synergy with chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II on the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 promoter. (4/113)

Seven mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha gene have been shown to correlate with type 1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY 1), a monogenic form of type 2 diabetes. Up to now, only the functional properties of two MODY 1 HNF-4alpha mutants, Q268X and V393I, have been investigated to address how the mutations in the HNF-4alpha gene, found by genetic studies, can give rise to impaired activities of mutated HNF-4alpha proteins and can cause this disease. The E276Q mutation results in a nonconservative substitution occurring in the HNF-4alpha E domain, which is involved in dimerization and transactivation activities as well as in protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors or coactivators. Using the mutated human HNF-4alpha2, we have found that, in the absence of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP TFII), the E276Q substitution does not significantly affect the dimerization and transactivating activities of HNF-4alpha, at least on the promoters studied herein. On the other hand, in the presence of COUP TFII, the substitution impairs the enhancement of HNF-4-mediated activation of HNF-1 promoter. The impaired synergy between COUP TFII and HNF-4 on the HNF-1 promoter results from an alteration of their interaction. HNF-1 expression plays a crucial role in transactivation of insulin promoter and of numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in glucose homeostasis. Therefore, its downregulation resulting from the E276Q mutation in HNF-4alpha gene most probably impairs the function of pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Dorsal and ventral retinal territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression. (5/113)

Determination of the dorso-ventral dimension of the vertebrate retina is known to involve retinoic acid (RA), in that high RA activates expression of a ventral retinaldehyde dehydrogenase and low RA of a dorsal dehydrogenase. Here we show that in the early eye vesicle of the mouse embryo, expression of the dorsal dehydrogenase is preceded by, and transiently overlaps with, the RA-degrading oxidase CYP26. Subsequently in the embryonic retina, CYP26 forms a narrow horizontal boundary between the dorsal and ventral dehydrogenases, creating a trough between very high ventral and moderately high dorsal RA levels. Most of the RA receptors are expressed uniformly throughout the retina except for the RA-sensitive RARbeta, which is down-regulated in the CYP26 stripe. The orphan receptor COUP-TFII, which modulates RA responses, colocalizes with the dorsal dehydrogenase. The organization of the embryonic vertebrate retina into dorsal and ventral territories divided by a horizontal boundary has parallels to the division of the Drosophila eye disc into dorsal, equatorial and ventral zones, indicating that the similarities in eye morphogenesis extend beyond single molecules to topographical patterns.  (+info)

Sagittal band expression of COUP-TF2 gene in the developing cerebellum. (6/113)

In the developing cerebellum, the medio-lateral compartmentalization of the adult cerebellum is preceded by the transient expression of factors which divide the cortex into similar parasagittal stripes. Here we report that COUP-TF2, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family which suppresses RA actions by forming heterodimers with RXR, shows a pattern of sagittal bands in developing mouse cerebellum. The band pattern changes according to the developmental stage. At embryonic day 13 it is expressed in the lateral half of the cerebellum, but at later stages the expression is divided into several parasagittal bands. By postnatal day 5 the COUP-TF2 expression substantially decreases to low, but detectable, levels.  (+info)

Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II, a new partner of the glucose response element of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene, acts as an inhibitor of the glucose response. (7/113)

Transcription of the L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) gene is induced by glucose in the presence of insulin and repressed by glucagon via cyclic AMP. The DNA regulatory sequence responsible for mediating glucose and cyclic AMP responses, called glucose response element (GlRE), consists of two degenerated E boxes spaced by 5 base pairs and is able to bind basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper proteins, in particular the upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). From ex vivo and in vivo experiments, it appears that USFs are required for correct response of the L-PK gene to glucose, but their expression and binding activity are not known to be regulated by glucose. A genetic screen in yeast has allowed us to identify a novel transcriptional factor binding to the GlRE, i.e. the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII). Binding of COUP-TFII to the GlRE was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and COUP-TFII-containing complexes were detectable in liver nuclear extracts. Neither abundance nor binding activity of COUP-TFII appeared to be significantly regulated by diets. In footprinting experiments, two COUP-TFII-binding sites overlapping the E boxes were detected. Overexpression of COUP-TFII abrogated the USF-dependent transactivation of an artificial GlRE-dependent promoter in COS cells and the glucose responsiveness of the L-PK promoter in hepatocytes in primary culture. In addition, a mutated GlRE with increased affinity for USF and very low affinity for COUP-TFII conferred a dramatically decreased glucose responsiveness on the L-PK promoter in hepatocytes in primary culture by increasing activity of the reporter gene in low glucose condition. We propose that COUP-TFII could be a negative regulatory component of the glucose sensor complex assembled on the GlRE of the L-PK gene and most likely of other glucose-responsive genes as well.  (+info)

Functional interactions between C/EBP, Sp1, and COUP-TF regulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription in human brain cells. (8/113)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. However, mechanisms underlying HIV-1 gene expression in the CNS are poorly understood. The importance of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) for HIV-1 expression in cells of the immune system has been recently reported. In this study, we have examined the role and the molecular mechanisms by which proteins of the C/EBP family regulate HIV-1 gene transcription in human brain cells. We found that NF-IL6 acts as a potent activator of the long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription in microglial and oligodendroglioma cells. In contrast, C/EBPgamma inhibits NF-IL6-induced activation. Consistent with previous data, our transient expression results show cell-type-specific NF-IL6-mediated transactivation. In glial cells, full activation needs the presence of the C/EBP binding sites; however, NF-IL6 is still able to function via the minimal -40/+80 region. In microglial cells, C/EBP sites are not essential, since NF-IL6 acts through the -68/+80 LTR region, containing two binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. Moreover, we show that functional interactions between NF-IL6 and Sp1 lead to synergistic transcriptional activation of the LTR in oligodendroglioma and to mutual repression in microglial cells. We further demonstrate that NF-IL6 physically interacts with the nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF), via its DNA binding domain, in vitro and in cells, which results in mutual transcriptional repression. These findings reveal how the interplay of NF-IL6 and C/EBPgamma, together with Sp1 and COUP-TF, regulates HIV-1 gene transcription in brain cells.  (+info)

Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor
COUP Transcription Factors: A sub-family of steroid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptors that have specificity for a variety of DNA sequences related to AGGTCA. COUP transcription factors can heterodimerize with a variety of factors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although dystrophin deficiency in myofiber triggers the diseases pathological changes, the degree of satellite cell (SC) dysfunction defines disease progression. Here, we have identified chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) hyperactivity as a contributing factor underlying muscular dystrophy in a dystrophin-deficient murine model of DMD. Ectopic expression of COUP-TFII in murine SCs led to Duchenne-like dystrophy in the muscles of control animals and exacerbated degenerative myopathies in dystrophin-deficient mice. COUP-TFII-overexpressing mice exhibited regenerative failure that was attributed to deficient SC proliferation and myoblast fusion. Mechanistically, we determined that COUP-TFII coordinated a regenerative program through combined regulation of multiple promyogenic factors. Furthermore, inhibition of COUP-TFII preserved SC ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although dystrophin deficiency in myofiber triggers the diseases pathological changes, the degree of satellite cell (SC) dysfunction defines disease progression. Here, we have identified chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) hyperactivity as a contributing factor underlying muscular dystrophy in a dystrophin-deficient murine model of DMD. Ectopic expression of COUP-TFII in murine SCs led to Duchenne-like dystrophy in the muscles of control animals and exacerbated degenerative myopathies in dystrophin-deficient mice. COUP-TFII-overexpressing mice exhibited regenerative failure that was attributed to deficient SC proliferation and myoblast fusion. Mechanistically, we determined that COUP-TFII coordinated a regenerative program through combined regulation of multiple promyogenic factors. Furthermore, inhibition of COUP-TFII preserved SC ...
Alias: NR2F2, ARP1, ARP-1, COUP transcription factor II, COUP-TF II, COUP-TF2, COUP-TFII, COUPTFB, COUPTFII, COUP transcription factor 2, EAR3, NF-E3, SVP40, COUPTF-II, TFCOUP2 ...
The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are members from the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily and function in transcriptional regulation of a multitude of genes. of the ovalbumin gene (Bagchi et al., 1987; Pastorcic et al., 1986; Wang et Procyanidin B3 inhibitor Mouse monoclonal to Human Albumin al., 1987). It was found to bind an element (COUP) between C90 and C70 within the ovalbumin promoter that is much like thyroid and estrogen response elements (Pastorcic et al., 1986). The COUP-TF has also been shown to bind cis-elements involved in positive transcription rules in the rat insulin II (Hwung et al., 1988; Hwung et al., 1988b), chicken VLDL II (Wijnholds et Procyanidin B3 inhibitor al., 1988), and human being apolipoprotein AI and CIII genes (Ladias and Karathanasis, 1991). It was also reported to bind to bad regulatory elements in the proopiomelanocortin (Drouin et al., 1989a; Drouin et al., 1989b) and HIV-1 (Cooney et al., 1991) promoters. The ...
The sexual differentiation paradigm contends that the female pattern of the reproductive system is established by default because the male reproductive tracts (Wolffian ducts) in the female degenerate owing to a lack of androgen. Here, we discovered that female mouse embryos lacking Coup-tfII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II) in the Wolffian duct mesenchyme became intersex-possessing both female and male reproductive tracts. Retention of Wolffian ducts was not caused by ectopic androgen production or action. Instead, enhanced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in Wolffian duct epithelium was responsible for the retention of male structures in an androgen-independent manner. We thus suggest that elimination of Wolffian ducts in female embryos is actively promoted by COUP-TFII, which suppresses a mesenchyme-epithelium cross-talk responsible for Wolffian duct maintenance. ...
Sugiyama T, Wang JC, Scott DK, Granner DK (Feb 2000). "Transcription activation by the orphan nuclear receptor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI). Definition of the domain involved in the glucocorticoid response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (5): 3446-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.5.3446. PMID 10652338 ...
B168 Nuclear receptors, the transcription factors regulated by ligands, have become major targets for drug discovery, including new drug development for chemotherapy. Orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) possesses the ability to either activate or repress the transcription of a diversity of target genes through undefined mechanisms. A proteomics-based, tandem affinity purification (TAP) procedure was used in this study to identify the component proteins of COUP-TFI complexes in mammalian cells. Several known proteins of transcriptional repressive complexes, including NCoR, HDAC1 and TIF1β/KAP-1, were found to co-purify with COUP-TFI, as were other transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the SWI/SNF family member Brahma, and its associated factors BAF155 and BAF170. Proteins not previously implicated in transcriptional regulation were also found to co-purify with COUP-TFI including the DNA repair protein DDB1, a pro-apoptotic ...
Gtf2ird1 (untagged) - Mouse general transcription factor II I repeat domain-containing 1 (Gtf2ird1), transcript variant 9, (10ug), 10 µg.
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Very well explained, thank you very much. The div structure you mention is the one I used, but the background image (film strip) was in the wrong div. Locally, on my machine, I corrected the situation: I put the background image (film strip) in the container, and removed it from menuside. Now it appears ok in IE6 but not in Firefox nor Chrome. On those 2 browsers, the film strip does not go down all the way.. Using Firebug, I can see the container stops about 1/3 of content side??? How can it be possible?. I just made some more tests and I can see that when I reduce the browser window (firefox and chrome), the film strip shortens too! It looks like the height of the container varies with the height of the browsers window (no matter the size of the contentside), with some kind of fixed offset from the bottom of the window.. The maximum height of the film strip (or container) seems to be reached when the browser window is maximized to full screen. (I wish I would have a longer ...
Regional and cell-type specification during embryogenesis are often coupled to expression of TFs that are restricted to specific progenitor domains. Here, we found that Nkx2-1 restricts the expression of Coup-TF1/2 in the MGE to an arc that extended from a small rostrodorsal domain to a larger caudoventral domain (Fig. 1; Fig. S1B,D,H,K,L). The Coup-TF1/2+ MGE domain was complementary to an Otx2+ domain (Fig. S1B-E), where Otx2 represses Coup-TF1 MGE expression (Hoch et al., 2015a,b).. Our data support a model in which the Coup-TF1/2+ MGE domain is biased towards generating SST+ CINs (Fig. 2; Fig. S3A-C), as well as cholinergic and pallidal neurons (Fig. S4). These conclusions differ from other publications regarding the major location for the origin of SST+ interneurons, and provide evidence for a Coup-TF1/2-dependent activation of Sox6 expression that promotes SST+ interneuron development.. Multiple lines of evidence show that Coup-TF1/2 have key roles in promoting SST+ interneuron ...
Looking for online definition of COUP-TF I in the Medical Dictionary? COUP-TF I explanation free. What is COUP-TF I? Meaning of COUP-TF I medical term. What does COUP-TF I mean?
Rasd1 is becoming somewhat of avant-garde member of the Ras family of GTPases by performing many non-conventional signaling functions. Our identification of Rasd1 in Avp neurons starts a new chapter for this small GTPase. Here we show that Rasd1 is rapidly induced by stress in the PVN, and by elevated plasma osmolality in the PVN and SON of the hypothalamus. We propose that the abundance of RASD1 in MCN and PCNs, based on its inhibitory actions on CREB phosphorylation, is an important mechanism for controlling the transcriptional responses to stressors in both the PVN and SON. In MCN we show, by virally mediated overexpression of Rasd1, that Rasd1 inhibits HS induced stimulation of cAMP inducible genes. When a CAAX box deficient mutant form of Rasd1 is expressed in the SON cAMP inducible genes were further increased by SL. These effects likely occur through modulation of cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.. Our interest in Rasd1 began following identification increased expression of this gene in ...
Sediqque Mir Mateen. Sediqque Mir Mateen stated of his son, We were in Downtown Miami, Bayside, people were playing music. And he saw two men kissing each other in front of his wife and kid and he got very angry. They were kissing each other and touching each other and he said, Look at that. In front of my son they are doing that. And they were in the mens bathroom and men were kissing each other. He has also apologized for his sons actions. A former classmate of Mateens stated the terrorist was gay, a claim his father denies, If he was gay, why would he do something like this. The list of gay bars Mateens classmate stated they visited have all stated they do not recognize him. However, some of the staff at Pulse recognized him, stating he had visited the club in the past. Mateen was clearly studying the club and planning an attack, which he executed to deadly results. RELATED ARTICLE. 20 People Shot In A Gay And Lesbian Night Club In Orlando, Florida Where Hostages Are Being Held By ...
Egyptian coup detat - Get latest news on Egyptian coup detat. Read Breaking News on Egyptian coup detat updated and published at Zee News
Ze studie 407 Prologue se zrodil Peugeot 407 Coup . Sv tov premi ra je p ipravena na z iov Frankfurt. Z kladn cena by m la atakovat milionovou hranici.
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Complete information for RASD2 gene (Protein Coding), RASD Family Member 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Buy RASD2 blocking peptide, TEM2 Blocking Peptide-Q96D21.1 (MBS151981) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Blocking Peptides. Application: Blocking (BL)
Looking for online definition of Coup d'etát in the Medical Dictionary? Coup d'etát explanation free. What is Coup d'etát? Meaning of Coup d'etát medical term. What does Coup d'etát mean?
After months of political crisis, the generals declare martial law. They claim theyre just making peace, not running the country.
2011 was a year of bigger deals and fewer exits for venture-backed companies, according to data being released today by Dow Jones VentureSource.
Synonyms for Sport coupé in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Sport coupé. 5 words related to coupe: auto, automobile, car, motorcar, machine. What are synonyms for Sport coupé?
a Psychic Internet Digital Coup for those created to Die, Children will Get Even Soon using our shared Internet; a Meta-Psychical Electronic Community Center Genius Phenomenon
In this video, Alex explains why there has been a coup détat against our Constitutional Republic, and breaks down why the office of the presidency is becoming dictatorial.. Read: Retired Army Captain Warns DHS Acquisitions are bold threat of war Against the American People - http://www.infowars.com/retired-army-captain-warns-recent-dhs-acquisitions-are-bold-threat-of-war… ...
Former House Majority Leader Dick Armey (R-Texas), who abruptly resigned as head of Tea Party group FreedomWorks, brought in an assistant with a gun in an apparent coup attempt at the group, according to a report in the Washington Post. | this curious life
Oracle Corp ORCL.O said on Thursday it was moving its stock listing to the New York Stock Exchange from Nasdaq OMX Groups (NDAQ.O) main U.S. exchange, a major coup for NYSE Euronext NYX.N, as it lands the largest-ever U.S. market transfer.
The Brazilian Coups Image Problem from Boston Review. New leaks prove the impeachment is intended to protect corrupt politicians.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-COUP-TF I/NR2F1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
WHY WE LOVE IT Bread van of-fers a slice of the VW ac-tion at low prices The Polo MkII was a prac-ti-cal re-think of the orig-i-nal VW su-per-mini (1975-1981), and was ini-tially avail-able with a squared-off back end and big rear win-dows, like a com-pact es-tate car that fans af-fec-tion-ately named the bread van. The ar-rival of the coupé ver-sion from 1983 of-fered a more tra-di-tional slop-ing hatch-back style.. En-gine sizes ranged from 895cc to 1272cc, but who can for-get the leg-endary su-per-charged 116bhp G40 in-tro-duced in 1991, thats ca-pa-ble of a top speed of 120mph?. Per-haps spurred on by the G40, Polo MkIIs have a strong fol-low-ing - par-tic-u-larly among mod-i-fiers - though theres good avail-abil-ity of most types and some re-ally great bar-gains to be had out there. BUY-ING TIPS. As ever, rust is the big po-ten-tial prob-lem - take a good look at those door bot-toms. Also check for signs of ac-ci-dent dam-age, break-ins and poor re-pair work.. Reg-u-lar oil changes ...
Thousands of public servants dismissed in state of emergency decrees have applied to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) since Turkeys July 2016 coup attempt.
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Intelligence sources say the Bangladesh coup attempt last month was fueled by retired officers campaigning to introduce sharia law. The news raises concern about political instability in the region.
Turkey has reportedly made a formal request to the United States for the arrest of U.S.-based Turkish cleric Fethullah Gulen on charges of orchestrating an attempted military coup on July 15. Mana Rabiee reports.}
This is an ongoing situation, I assume no members are currently in the country. If you are then follow FCO advice, if youre a Turkish citizen then TOR and...
Coup de cœur pour le travail de Juan Alfonso Solis : un graphiste espagnol basé en Irlande qui a imaginé lidentité graphique du lieu Le 29,
This barely released thriller, Any Mans Death, offers one dunderheaded miscasting coup after another. Waspy John Savage plays a Jewish…
This NR2F2 / COUP2 polyclonal antibody from Active Motif has been validated for use in Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Western blot.
Turkeys mayhem started with an attempted coup, followed by a chaotic night of gunfire, violence and uncertainty. Read a breakdown of how the events unfolded.
A failed coup attempt on Friday night has gripped Turkey. By Saturday morning, thousands of soldiers had been detained, accused of trying to overthrow the government, and civilians were left in a state of unease.
A BOATBUILDER from Wales who has been blind for the past 38 years is set to dazzle visitors to this years Chelsea Flower Show with his latest creation.
The crash has laid bare many unpleasant truths about the United States. One of the most alarming, says a former chief economist of the International Monetary Fund, is that the finance industry has effectively captured our government—a state of affairs that more typically describes emerging markets, and is at the center of many emerging-market crises. If the IMF’s staff could speak freely about the U.S., it would tell us what it tells all countries in this situation: recovery will fail unless we break the financial oligarchy that is blocking essential reform. And if we are to prevent a true depression, we’re running out of time.
... the stem cell factor (SCF) induces γ-globin gene expression by regulating downstream transcription factor COUP-TFII, which can ... "CF induces γ-globin gene expression by regulating downstream transcription factor COUP-TFII". Blood. 114 (1): 187-194. doi: ... The 2015 study concludes that "we were unable to provide evidence for COUP-TFII expression under any in vivo or in vitro ...
Mammalian transcription factor LSF is a target of ERK signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 89:733-746. Hartley, D. and Cooper, G.M. ... Identification of COUP-TF as a transcriptional repressor of the c-mos proto-oncogene. J. Biol. Chem. 274:36796-36800. Erhardt, ... Identification of transcription factor binding sites upstream of human genes regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ... Direct binding and activation of STAT transcription factors by the herpesvirus saimiri protein Tip. J. Biol. Chem. 275:16925- ...
"Regulation of human Clara cell 10 kD protein expression by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs ... "Regulation of Clara cell secretory protein gene transcription by thyroid transcription factor-1". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ...
"Involvement of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 in chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF)-interacting ... Avram D, Fields A, Senawong T, Topark-Ngarm A, Leid M (2002). "COUP-TF (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription ... BCL11B has been shown to interact with COUP-TFI. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000127152 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... finger proteins implicated in transcriptional repression mediated by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor ( ...
... is also able to act as a transcriptional coactivator with Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor II ... "Identification and characterization of nucleolin as a COUP-TFII coactivator of retinoic acid receptor β transcription in breast ... Parada CA, Roeder RG (Jul 1999). "A novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex potentiates Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription". ... COUP-TFII). Midkine and pleiotrophin bind to cell-surface nucleolin as a low affinity receptor. This binding can inhibit HIV ...
"Involvement of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 in chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF)-interacting ... which are essential metabolic regulatory transcription factors. In mammals, SIRT1 has been shown to deacetylate and thereby ... which are essential metabolic regulatory transcription factors. Human aging is characterized by a chronic, low-grade ... "Stress-dependent regulation of FOXO transcription factors by the SIRT1 deacetylase". Science. 303 (5666): 2011-15. Bibcode: ...
... finger proteins implicated in transcriptional repression mediated by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor ( ... BCL11A has been shown to interact with COUP-TFI. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119866 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... finger proteins implicated in transcriptional repression mediated by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor ( ... COUP-TF) orphan nuclear receptors". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (14): 10315-22. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.14.10315. PMC 2819356 . PMID ...
COUP-TF1 (COUP Transcription Factor 1) also known as NR2F1 (Nuclear Receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1) is a protein that ... "Interactions between a DNA-binding transcription factor (COUP) and a non-DNA binding factor (S300-II)". Cell. 50 (5): 701-9. ... Wang LH, Tsai SY, Cook RG, Beattie WG, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW (Jul 1989). "COUP transcription factor is a member of the steroid ... Coup (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter) transcription factor binds to the ovalbumin promoter and, in conjunction with ...
... (COUP transcription factor 2), also known as NR2F2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2) is a protein ... "Immunolocalization of nuclear transcription factors, DAX-1 and COUP-TF II, in the normal human ovary: correlation with adrenal ... "The COUP-TFs compose a family of functionally related transcription factors". Gene Expr. 1 (3): 207-16. PMID 1820218. Ladias JA ... "Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor and the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII): ...
... chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI), retinoic acid receptor (RARα), retinoid X receptor (RXRα ... This suggests that differential expression of RARα, RXRα, and COUP-PTI may determine transcription levels in various cell lines ... "ATRA inhibits ceramide kinase transcription in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells: the role of COUP-TFI". J. ... RARE-like plays a role in transcription regulation of CERK. It is suspected that in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid ( ...
Budhram-Mahadeo V, Parker M, Latchman DS (Feb 1998). "POU Transcription Factors Brn-3a and Brn-3b Interact with the Estrogen ... Métivier R, Gay FA, Hübner MR, Flouriot G, Salbert G, Gannon F, Kah O, Pakdel F (Jul 2002). "Formation of an hERα-COUP-TFI ... It is hypothesized that estrogen stimulation of ERα may trigger the release of growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor ... heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor". Cell Stress Chaperones. 1 (4): 237-50. doi:10.1379/ ...
... may refer to: COUP-TFI, a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2F1 gene COUP-TFII, a protein ...
COUP Transcription Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) COUP Transcription Factor I ... The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TFs) proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of ... intracellular transcription factors. There are two variants of the COUP-TFs, labeled as COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII encoded by the ... Park JI, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ (2003). "Molecular mechanism of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) ...
... is a member of the Nur nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. NGFIB is involved ... It is also capable of heterodimerising with COUP-TF (an orphan nuclear receptor) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in mediating ... This process is mediated by the NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) complex, a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in cellular ... "Cloning and structural organization of the gene encoding the murine nuclear receptor transcription factor, NURR1". Gene. 187 (1 ...
Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression) has ... Winged-Helix+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Winged-helix_transcription_factors&oldid=730546101" ...
Zinc finger transcription factors or ZF-TFs, are transcription factors composed of a zinc finger-binding domain and any of a ... Zinc finger transcription factor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Zinc finger protein transcription ... genes in order to control the transcription of all these genes with a single transcription factor. Also, it is possible to ... Zinc finger protein transcription factors can be encoded by genes small enough to fit a number of such genes into a single ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors. ... Kliewer SA, Umesono K, Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Dyck JA, Evans RM (February 1992). "Retinoid X receptor-COUP-TF interactions ... "Adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6 is a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear hormone receptors, PPAR gamma and RXR ... "Adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6 is a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear hormone receptors, PPAR gamma and RXR ...
The first is the basic-region (b), which is involved in the binding of the transcription factor to DNA. The second is the helix ... "The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacts with estrogen receptor alpha and orphan receptors COUP-TFI and ERRalpha1". Arch. ... The bHLH motif is located in the N-terminal of the protein and is a common entity in a variety of transcription factors. ... Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at ...
Once expressed, the Fgf8 induces other transcription factors to form cross-regulatory loops between cells, thus the border is ... Moreover, the sharpness of both COUPTF1 and COUP-TF2 expression borders would be expected of genes involved in boundary ... Fibroblast growth factor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2002). "Fibroblast growth factor 8 is expressed at higher levels in lactating human breast and in breast cancer". Br. J. Cancer ...
V-erbA-related protein 2 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. Comparatively ... V-erbA-related gene has been shown to interact with: COUP-TFII Thyroid hormone receptor beta GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Heterodimeric interactions between chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor family members ARP1 and ear2". The ... "Heterodimeric interactions between chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor family members ARP1 and ear2". The ...
第二亚族(COUP-TF(英语:Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语: ... 转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... GATA(英语:GATA transcription factor)(1、2、3、4、5、6) · MTA(1、2、3) · TRPS1(英语:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome Type
... which goes on to activate certain transcription factors such as NFAT, NF-κB, and AP-1. These transcription factors regulate the ... Lck has been shown to interact with: ADAM15, CD2, CD44, CD4, COUP-TFII, DLG1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, PTPN6, PTPRC, UNC119, SYK, UBE3A ... Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (Jan 2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Current HIV Research. 3 (1): ... "Signal transduction through decay-accelerating factor. Interaction of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor and protein tyrosine ...
... coup transcription factor i MeSH D12.776.826.750.074.500 - coup transcription factor ii MeSH D12.776.826.750.350.174 - estrogen ... lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 MeSH D12.776.664.235.400.800.750 - t cell transcription factor 1 MeSH D12.776.664.962. ... vascular endothelial growth factor a MeSH D12.776.467.100.800.300 - vascular endothelial growth factor b MeSH D12.776.467.100. ... fibroblast growth factor 4 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.112 - fibroblast growth factor 6 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.114 - fms-like ...
"Expression profiling in primates reveals a rapid evolution of human transcription factors". Nature. 440 (7081): 242-245. doi: ... 11, 1973, in a CIA-backed coup. She has been supportive of women and ethnic and sexual minorities in science, and critical of ... but researchers were skeptical about the use of genetics in the more common diseases caused by multiple genetic factors as well ...
... coup transcription factor i MeSH D12.776.930.682.074.500 -- coup transcription factor ii MeSH D12.776.930.682.350.174 -- ... transcription factor brn-3b MeSH D12.776.930.632.625.875 -- transcription factor brn-3c MeSH D12.776.930.635.600.100 -- ets- ... mafg transcription factor MeSH D12.776.930.127.656.750.750 -- mafk transcription factor MeSH D12.776.930.127.656.770 -- nf-e2 ... mafg transcription factor MeSH D12.776.930.316.750.750.750 -- mafk transcription factor MeSH D12.776.930.316.750.770 -- nf-e2 ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
COUP transcription factor may refer to: COUP-TFI, a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2F1 gene COUP-TFII, a protein ...
GO:0003700 DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0003707 steroid hormone receptor activity GO:0004879 nuclear receptor ...
COUP transcription factor 1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/ ... tr,Q32NY6,Q32NY6_MOUSE COUP transcription factor 1 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Nr2f1 PE=1 SV=1 ... Transcription, Transcription regulationPROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: Ensembl. *transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB- ...
Regulation of the apolipoprotein A-I gene transcription. Binds to DNA site A (By similarity). ... Ligand-activated transcription factor. Activated by high concentrations of 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid, but ... COUP transcription factor 2Add BLAST. 414. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... sp,P43135,COT2_MOUSE COUP transcription factor 2 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Nr2f2 PE=1 SV=2 ...
COUP transcription factors can heterodimerize with a variety of factors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE ... COUP Transcription Factors: A sub-family of steroid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptors that have specificity for a ... COUP Transcription Factors. Subscribe to New Research on COUP Transcription Factors A sub-family of steroid receptor-related ... COUP TF Proteins; Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factors; Transcription Factors, COUP ...
Role of the transcription factors COUP-TFI and Pax6 in neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis during mouse cortical ... The transcription factors COUP-TFI and Pax6 are expressed in opposite gradients and required to co-ordinately control areal and ... Romano, Anna Lisa (2013) Role of the transcription factors COUP-TFI and Pax6 in neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis ... Next, by generating double compound mutants between COUP-TFI and Pax6, I found that lowering the gene dosage of Pax6 in COUP- ...
NR2F2 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine COUP transcription factor 2, NR2F2 concentrations ... Bovine COUP transcription factor 2, NR2F2 ELISA KIT. Product Name:Bovine COUP transcription factor 2, NR2F2 ELISA KIT. Packing: ... Target Protein Name:Bovine COUP transcription factor 2, NR2F2 Alternative Name:NR2F2,Bovine COUP transcription factor 2, NR2F2 ... The microtiter plate provided in Bovine COUP transcription factor 2, NR2F2 ELISA KIT has been pre-coated with an Bovine COUP ...
Mechanism of Action of COUP-Transcription Factors Tsai, Ming-Jer Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States ... We discovered that COUP-TFII, a transcription factor that regulates cell fate determination, embryonic development and adult ... When COUP-TFII is conditionally ablated early, the MM cannot form properly and no kidney is formed. When COUP-TFII is knocked ... The various COUP-TFII deficient mouse models generated here will reveal how COUP-TFII affects kidney development and disease ...
Dividing COUP-TFII+ progenitor cells were localised to ventral CGE as previously described but were also numerous in adjacent ... Distinct cortical and sub-cortical neurogenic domains for GABAergic interneuron precursor transcription factors NKX2.1, OLIG2 ... We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using ... Thus COUP-TFII+ progenitors gave rise to pyramidal cells, but also interneurons which not only migrated posteriorly into the ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-COUP-TF I/NR2F1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% ... Alternate Names for COUP-TF I/NR2F1 Antibody. *COUP transcription factor 1 ... Coup (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter) transcription factor binds to the ovalbumin promoter and, in conjunction with ... transcription factor COUP 1 (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter 1, v-erb-ahomolog-like 3) ...
Transcription factor NR2F2 (also known as chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II, COUP-TFII) plays a key ... 1997). Chick ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFs): coming of age. Endocr. Rev. 18, 229-240. doi:10.1210 ... 2005). Suppression of Notch signalling by the COUP-TFII transcription factor regulates vein identity. Nature 435, 98-104. doi: ... 2011). Transcription factor COUP-TFII is indispensable for venous and lymphatic development in zebrafish and Xenopus laevis. ...
Wang, L. H., Tsai, S. Y., Cook, R. G., Beattie, W. G., Tsai, M. J. and OMalley, B. W. (1989). COUP transcription factor is a ... C) Expression of COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII transcripts in cochleae treated with DAPT. COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII expression was not ... Expression of COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII are unchanged by DAPT treatment. We next determined whether DAPT treatment affected COUP- ... COUP-TFI (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I; also known as NR2F1) is an ONR proposed to function as a ...
COUP-TFs) are members from. The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are members from the ... The COUP-TF, along with a non-DNA-binding transcription element, S300-II, was essential for in vitro transcription of the ... The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are members from ... Also, we explain the series and id of another low Mr COUP-TF, COUP-TF2. Components and strategies Purification from the COUP- ...
COUP /EAR ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,1: Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I ( COUP-TFI ; NR2F1 ) ,/li,,/ul,,/ ... ul,,ul,,ul,,li,2: Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II ( COUP-TFII ; NR2F2 ) ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li, ... Conclusion: ,ul,,li,Functioning as transcription factors and controlling cellular process at the level of gene expression. ,/li ... Gene transcription cartoon showing interactions of ligand/PPAR/RXR heterodimer with cofactors and basal transcription machinery ...
The Transcription Factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII have Distinct Roles in Arealisation and GABAergic Interneuron Specification in ... The Transcription Factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII have Distinct Roles in Arealisation and GABAergic Interneuron Specification in ... The Transcription Factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII have Distinct Roles in Arealisation and GABAergic Interneuron Specification in ...
COUP-TF1 (COUP Transcription Factor 1) also known as NR2F1 (Nuclear Receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1) is a protein that ... "Interactions between a DNA-binding transcription factor (COUP) and a non-DNA binding factor (S300-II)". Cell. 50 (5): 701-9. ... Wang LH, Tsai SY, Cook RG, Beattie WG, Tsai MJ, OMalley BW (Jul 1989). "COUP transcription factor is a member of the steroid ... Coup (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter) transcription factor binds to the ovalbumin promoter and, in conjunction with ...
COUP-TFII (COUP transcription factor 2), also known as NR2F2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2) is a protein ... "Immunolocalization of nuclear transcription factors, DAX-1 and COUP-TF II, in the normal human ovary: correlation with adrenal ... "The COUP-TFs compose a family of functionally related transcription factors". Gene Expr. 1 (3): 207-16. PMID 1820218. Ladias JA ... "Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor and the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII): ...
Transcription factor COUP. ENSMUSP00000034831. ProSitePatterns. PS00031. IPR001628. 40. 66. -. Zinc finger, nuclear hormone ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSMUSP00000034831. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 381. 392. 1.20e-14. ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSMUSP00000034831. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 361. 374. 1.20e-14. ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSMUSP00000034831. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 314. 326. 1.20e-14. ...
Transcription factor COUP. ENSSARP00000012244. ProSitePatterns. PS00031. IPR001628. 46. 72. -. Zinc finger, nuclear hormone ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSSARP00000012244. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 390. 401. 5.10e-05. ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSSARP00000012244. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 370. 383. 5.10e-05. ... Copyright © 2017 REGULATOR: a database of metazoan transcription factors and maternal factors for developmental studies ...
Transcription factor COUP. ENSGMOP00000016025. ProSitePatterns. PS00031. IPR001628. 39. 65. -. Zinc finger, nuclear hormone ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSGMOP00000016025. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 242. 256. 1.10e-34. ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSGMOP00000016025. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 222. 240. 1.10e-34. ... Transcription factor COUP. ENSGMOP00000016025. PRINTS. PR01282. IPR003068. 168. 184. 1.10e-34. ...
Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MYL7 gene promoter:. *COUP ... Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MYL7 Gene Localization for MYL7 Gene Jump to section. Aliases. ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH07J044146. Promoter/Enhancer. 2.1. EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas ...
Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TGM2 gene promoter:. *COUP ... No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TGM2 Gene ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH20J038139. Promoter/Enhancer. 2.5. EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE ...
Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the RMND5B gene promoter:. *COUP ... No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH05J178129. Promoter/Enhancer. 2.2. EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas ... The multi-subunit GID/CTLH E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes cell proliferation and targets the transcription factor Hbp1 for ...
The nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor type II (COUP-TFII)/NR2F2 is expressed in adult ... COUP-TFII regulates mouse Amhr2 gene transcription in MA-10 Leydig cells. (A) Depletion of COUP-TFII in MA-10 Leydig cells ... 1 transcription factor. COUP-TFII transcriptionally cooperates with SP1 on the Amhr2 promoter. Mutations that altered the ... supporting an additional role in steroidogenesis for this transcription factor. COUP-TFII action in Leydig cells remains to be ...
IPR003068 Transcription factor COUP. IPR013088 Zinc finger, NHR/GATA-type. IPR001628 Zinc finger, nuclear hormone receptor-type ...
  • In the spinal cord, most motor neurons are born during a single time window in a progenitor domain that is determined by Sonic hedgehog signaling and homeodomain transcription factors ( Jessell, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Aitola M, Carlsson P, Mahlapuu M, Enerback S, Pelto-Huikko M (2000) Forkhead transcription factor FoxF2 is expressed in mesodermal tissues involved in epithelio-mesenchymal interactions. (springer.com)
  • To further define the defects of COUP-TFII mutants and dissect the underlying mechanism of COUP-TFII action, our specific aims in the next five years are: 1) Delineate the role of COUP-TFII in kidney development and its underlying mechanism;2) Determine the role of COUP-TFII in kidney function and diseases;and 3) Determine the role of COUP-TFII in diabetic nephropathy. (grantome.com)
  • In the first part of my work, I found that in the absence of COUP-TFI function cortical cells abnormally proliferate over time, implying that COUP-TFI is responsible for maintaining a proper progenitor pool during development. (unina.it)
  • Distinct cortical and sub-cortical neurogenic domains for GABAergic interneuron precursor transcription factors NKX2.1, OLIG2 and COUP-TFII in early fetal human telencephalon. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Loss of cortical COUP-TFI function results in a dysmorphic HP with altered shape, volume, and connectivity, particularly in its dorsal and intermediate regions. (ovid.com)
  • What's more, FGF8 manipulations suggest FGF8 controls the cortical graded expression of COUP-TF1. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2009 study, published under the mentorship of Griffin P. Rodgers, discovered that in human erythrocytes (peripheral blood CD34+ cells), the stem cell factor (SCF) induces γ-globin gene expression by regulating downstream transcription factor COUP-TFII, which can be a crucial molecular mechanism that has the potential for the development of effective pharmacologic strategies for treatment of patients with sickle cell disease or other β-hemoglobinopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, our genetic analysis of Bcl11a reveals essential functions of this transcription factor in neuronal morphogenesis and sensory wiring of the dorsal spinal cord and identifies Frzb, a component of the Wnt pathway, as a downstream acting molecule involved in this process. (biologists.org)
  • Binding of LIF to LIFR recruits gp130 to form high affinity functional receptor complex leading to activation of downstream signal transduction pathway such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, a variety of transcription factor families acting downstream of-or in concert with-these signaling networks play vital roles in arteriovenous (AV) specification. (edu.au)
  • Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR) » The Transcription Factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII have Distinct Roles in Arealisation and GABAergic Interneuron Specification in the Early Human Fetal Telencephalon. (hdbr.org)
  • A constellation of contact-mediated (laminins, CAMs, ephrins, etc.) and secreted mechanisms (semaphorins, slits, growth factors, etc.) are known to play different roles in the establishment of synaptic interactions between the olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory cortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • COUP-TFs play critical roles in the development of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989). Antisera and labeled concatenated COUP elements were used to display a HeLa cell mRNA library in lambda gtll and determine a COUP-TF1 cDNA (Wang et al. (biodiversityhotspot.org)
  • We found that Amhr2 mRNA levels are reduced in COUP-TFII-depleted MA-10 Leydig cells. (nih.gov)
  • By quantitative PCR we demonstrated a positive correlation of Coup-TFII and Ucp3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in response to food deprivation and cold exposure, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Coup-TFII mRNA is expressed in all examined tissue types as measured by qPCR. (nih.gov)
  • Ucp3 mRNA is found together with Coup-TFII mRNA in BAT and SKM. (nih.gov)
  • The XAB2 complex, which contains PRPF19, is also involved in pre-mRNA splicing, transcription and transcription-coupled repair (PubMed:17981804). (genecards.org)
  • Using deletions and mutated constructs, we identified a Coup-TFII enhancer element 816-840 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of Coup-TFII to this upstream enhancer was confirmed in electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the repressor COUP-TF becomes strongly bound to a different recognition site on the class I enhancer, where it associates with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) and E1A-12, resulting in chromatin compaction. (upenn.edu)
  • At the nephrongenesis stage (E13.5), COUP-TFII becomes regionalized with high expression in the distal tubules and the glomeruli (podocytes and Bowman's capsule), but not detected in the proximal tubules. (grantome.com)
  • We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • NKX2.1, OLIG2 and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial and ventral. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • A) Depletion of COUP-TFII in MA-10 Leydig cells reduces Amhr2 gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The 2015 study concludes that "we were unable to provide evidence for COUP-TFII expression under any in vivo or in vitro culture condition from human or mouse adult erythroid cells, confirming previous microarray, as well as RNA-seq studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic expression of COUP-TFII in murine SCs led to Duchenne-like dystrophy in the muscles of control animals and exacerbated degenerative myopathies in dystrophin-deficient mice. (jci.org)
  • We showed that COUP-TFI is expressed in the stroma and mesenchymal cells at embryonic d 11.5 (E11.5) and expression persists throughout embryonic development. (nih.gov)
  • In the adult kidney, only mesangial cells show meaningful COUP-TFI expression. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, COUP-TFII expression is detected as early as E9.5 and high expression is seen in the mesenchymal-derived epithelial cells but not in the ureteric buds through E12.5. (nih.gov)
  • At E13.5, COUP-TFII expression becomes regionalized with higher expression in the region that gives rise to the distal tubule. (nih.gov)
  • The proximal part of the S-shaped body that will become the glomerulus after endothelial cell migration shows COUP-TFII expression in podocyte precursor cells and epithelial cells of the Bowman's capsule. (nih.gov)
  • Further, the expression of sprouty was repressed and that of rau was increased by the COUP transcription factor Seven-up in the presence of weak, but not constitutive, activation of FGFR. (sciencemag.org)
  • We therefore examined the expression levels and immunolocalization of COUP-TF, DAX-1, and SF-1 in human adrenal gland (NL) and adrenocortical adenomas, and compared the results with CYP17 expression levels and its enzyme activities to study their potential correlation with adrenocortical steroidogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • These results showed CYP17 expression to be upregulated and downregulated in CS and DOC, respectively, in a manner reciprocal to that of its repressors, COUP-TF and/or DAX-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Bolte C, Zhang Y, Wang IC, Kalin TV, Molkentin JD, Kalinichenko VV (2011) Expression of Foxm1 transcription factor in cardiomyocytes is required for myocardial development. (springer.com)
  • This suggests that differential expression of RARα, RXRα, and COUP-PTI may determine transcription levels in various cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temporal and spatial pattern of this gene expression suggests its function as an embryonic epithelial factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, recent studies demonstrated mutual inhibition between PXR and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway, providing a potential molecular mechanism that links xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation [ 10 , 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These include the Hedgehog, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), Wnt and Notch signaling pathways. (edu.au)
  • After arterial and venous endothelial cells differentiate, a subpopulation of venous endothelial cells is thought to become competent to acquire lymphatic endothelial cell fate by progressively expressing the transcription factors Sox18 and Prox1 to differentiate into lymphatic endothelial cells. (edu.au)
  • In addition, excess proliferation in the COUP-TFI -/- sensory epithelium indicates that the origin of the extra HCs in the apex is complex. (biologists.org)
  • COUP-TFII-overexpressing mice exhibited regenerative failure that was attributed to deficient SC proliferation and myoblast fusion. (jci.org)
  • We have discovered PF-8, the processivity factor KSHV that enables the viral DNA polymerase (Pol-8) to remain on the template and incorporate thousands of nucleotides. (upenn.edu)