A technique for assisting the circulation by decreasing the afterload of the left ventricle and augmenting the diastolic pressure. It may be achieved by intra-aortic balloon, or by implanting a special pumping device in the chest, or externally by applying a negative pressure to the lower extremities during cardiac systole.
Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.
Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.
A complication of INTERNAL MAMMARY-CORONARY ARTERY ANASTOMOSIS whereby an occlusion or stenosis of the proximal SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY causes a reversal of the blood flow away from the CORONARY CIRCULATION, through the grafted INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY (internal thoracic artery), and back to the distal subclavian distribution.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

The multicenter study of enhanced external counterpulsation (MUST-EECP): effect of EECP on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia and anginal episodes. (1/70)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP). BACKGROUND: Case series have shown that EECP can improve exercise tolerance, symptoms and myocardial perfusion in stable angina pectoris. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled trial was conducted in seven university hospitals in 139 outpatients with angina, documented coronary artery disease (CAD) and positive exercise treadmill test. Patients were given 35 h of active counterpulsation (active CP) or inactive counterpulsation (inactive CP) over a four- to seven-week period. Outcome measures were exercise duration and time to > or =1-mm ST-segment depression, average daily anginal attack count and nitroglycerin usage. RESULTS: Exercise duration increased in both groups, but the between-group difference was not significant (p > 0.3). Time to > or =1-mm ST-segment depression increased significantly from baseline in active CP compared with inactive CP (p = 0.01). More active-CP patients saw a decrease and fewer experienced an increase in angina episodes as compared with inactive-CP patients (p < 0.05). Nitroglycerin usage decreased in active CP but did not change in the inactive-CP group. The between-group difference was not significant (p > 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced external counterpulsation reduces angina and extends time to exercise-induced ischemia in patients with symptomatic CAD. Treatment was relatively well tolerated and free of limiting side effects in most patients.  (+info)

Stabilisation of medically refractory ventricular arrhythmia by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. (2/70)

OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABCP) in medically refractory ventricular arrhythmia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the outcome of patients with ventricular arrhythmia treated with IABCP after transfer between 1992 and 1997. SETTING: Tertiary cardiac referral centre. PATIENTS: 21 patients (mean age 58 years) who underwent IABCP for control of ventricular arrhythmia. All had significant left ventricular impairment (mean ejection fraction 28.6%); 18 had coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Before IABCP, 10 patients had incessant monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and 11 had paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). IABCP resulted in suppression of ventricular arrhythmia in 18 patients, of whom 13 were weaned from IABCP. After stabilisation of ventricular arrhythmia, 10 patients were maintained on medical treatment alone and one underwent endocardial resection. IABCP was maintained until cardiac transplantation in five patients. One patient had a fatal arrest before discharge and one died from progressive heart failure. IABCP failed to control ventricular arrhythmia in three patients and was subsequently discontinued. A cardiac assist device was employed in one of these until cardiac transplantation; the other two were eventually stabilised on medical treatment. Nineteen patients were discharged from hospital. Overall survival was 95% at mean follow up of 25.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: IABCP can be an effective means of controlling refractory ventricular arrhythmia, allowing time for the institution of more definitive treatment.  (+info)

Improvement of regional myocardial and coronary blood flow reserve in a patient treated with enhanced external counterpulsation: evaluation by nitrogen-13 ammonia PET. (3/70)

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive treatment for chronic stable angina, which works by recruiting and developing the coronary collateral vessels. Coronary perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were evaluated by nitrogen-13 (13N) ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) in a patient who had undergone EECP. The patient, who had 3-vessel coronary artery disease, required a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the right coronary artery. The PTCA was successful, but 6 months later he again felt chest oppression. The coronary angiography showed re-stenosis at the PTCA site, and other progressive coronary stenosis. The patient was again treated with EECP for 35 h. The 13N-ammonia PET was performed both at baseline and during dipyridamole provocation, before and after EECP treatment. Coronary perfusion of each myocardial wall increased at the baseline (anterior: 0.52-0.75; septal: 0.48-0.66; lateral: 0.61-0.68; inferior: 0.46-0.57 ml min(-1) g(-1), and the CFRs in the septal and inferior walls (septal: 2.07-2.15; inferior: 1.99-2.06) also increased after the treatment. Thus, the EECP treatment improved both coronary perfusion at baseline and CFR, which suggests that it may be one of the choices for treatment of angina.  (+info)

Cardiogenic shock triggered by verapamil and atenolol: a case report of therapeutic experience with intravenous calcium. (4/70)

Cardiogenic shock developed in a 72-year-old Japanese woman during combination therapy with verapamil and atenolol for recurrent supraventricular arrhythmia. She had coronary atherosclerosis, liver cirrhosis and bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome. Despite of the high-dose catecholamines and counterpulsation, she progressively deteriorated. Bolus administration of intravenous calcium chloride (CaCl2) immediately resolved her hemodynamic collapse.  (+info)

Enhanced external counterpulsation improves exercise tolerance, reduces exercise-induced myocardial ischemia and improves left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease. (5/70)

OBJECTIVES: We examined whether enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves myocardial ischemia, exercise tolerance and cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counterpulsation reduces angina and improves exercise tolerance in patients with CAD. Some objective improvements of ischemia by EECP have been reported, but they should be confirmed further. Detailed hemodynamic effects of EECP have been less well documented. METHODS: Enhanced external counterpulsation was performed for a total of 35 h in patients with stable CAD (n = 12) who showed evidence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia despite conventional medical or surgical therapies. All patients had significant stenotic lesions in major coronary arteries. RESULTS: Enhanced external counterpulsation improved all exercise test parameters (p < 0.05): exercise duration, time to 1-mm ST segment depression, rate-pressure product at peak exercise and rate-pressure product at 1-mm ST segment depression. Moreover, the prevalence of exercise-induced reversible perfusion defects by thallium scintigraphy decreased after treatment (p < 0.01). Enhanced external counterpulsation did not alter systolic function but improved diastolic filling, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (p < 0.05) by cardiac catheterization and LV peak filling rate end-diastolic volume/s (p < 0.01) and time to peak filling rate (p < 0.05) by radionuclide scintigraphy. These hemodynamic improvements were associated with decreased plasma brain natriuretic peptides levels after EECP (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, EECP treatment improves exercise tolerance and reduced myocardial ischemia by thallium scintigraphy in association with improved LV diastolic filling in patients with stable CAD.  (+info)

Enhanced external counterpulsation improved myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina; evaluation by(13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography. (6/70)

AIMS: The mechanism by which enhanced external counterpulsation therapy exerts its beneficial effects on chronic and symptomatic stable angina is largely unknown. To clarify the mechanism of action of enhanced external counterpulsation, we used(13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography to evaluate myocardial perfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was not a randomized controlled study. Eleven patients (eight male, age: 61.6+/-9.7) with angina pectoris underwent enhanced external counterpulsation therapy for 35 1 h sessions. They underwent a treadmill exercise test and(13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography, both at rest and with dipyridamole, before and after enhanced external counterpulsation therapy. Neurohumoral factors and nitric oxide were also evaluated. Myocardial perfusion increased at rest after therapy (0.69+/-0.27 to 0.85+/-0.47 ml x min(-1) x g(-1), P<0.05). In ischaemic regions, particularly the anterior region, myocardial perfusion at rest and with dipyridamole and coronary flow reserve improved significantly after therapy (at rest: 0.71+/-0.26 to 0.86+/-0.31;P<0.05, with dipyridamole: 1.26+/-0.65 to 1.84+/-0.94;P<0.02, coronary flow reserve: 1.75+/-0.24 to 2.08+/-0.28;P<0.04). Exercise time was prolonged and the time to 1-mm ST depression improved markedly (P<0.01). After therapy, nitric oxide levels increased (P<0.02) and neurohumoral factors decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced external counterpulsation therapy improved myocardial perfusion at rest and with dipyridamole and was associated with an increased exercise tolerance with(13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography and increased nitric oxide levels. These results suggest that one of the enhanced external counterpulsation mechanisms is development and recruitment of collateral vessels.  (+info)

Left ventricular systolic unloading and augmentation of intracoronary pressure and Doppler flow during enhanced external counterpulsation. (7/70)

BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive, pneumatic technique that provides beneficial effects for patients with chronic, symptomatic angina pectoris. However, the physiological effects of EECP have not been studied directly. We examined intracoronary and left ventricular hemodynamics in the cardiac catheterization laboratory during EECP. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients referred for diagnostic evaluation underwent left heart catheterization and coronary angiography from the radial artery. At baseline and then during EECP, central aortic pressure, intracoronary pressure, and intracoronary Doppler flow velocity were measured using a coronary catheter, a sensor-tipped high-fidelity pressure guidewire, and a Doppler flow guidewire, respectively. Similar to changes in aortic pressure, EECP resulted in a dramatic increase in diastolic (71+/-10 mm Hg at baseline to 137+/-21 mm Hg during EECP; +93%; P<0.0001) and mean intracoronary pressures (88+/-9 to 102+/-16 mm Hg; +16%; P=0.006) with a decrease in systolic pressure (116+/-20 to 99+/-26 mm Hg; -15%; P=0.002). The intracoronary Doppler measure of average peak velocity increased from 11+/-5 cm/s at baseline to 23+/-5 cm/s during EECP (+109%; P=0.001). The TIMI frame count, a quantitative angiographic measure of coronary flow, showed a 28% increase in coronary flow during EECP compared with baseline (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: EECP unequivocally and significantly increases diastolic and mean pressures and reduces systolic pressure in the central aorta and the coronary artery. Coronary artery flow, determined by both Doppler and angiographic techniques, is increased during EECP. The combined effects of systolic unloading and increased coronary perfusion pressure provide evidence that EECP may serve as a potential mechanical assist device.  (+info)

Enhanced external counterpulsation improves endothelial function in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. (8/70)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) on endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counterpulsation improves symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the exact mechanisms by which this technique exerts its clinical benefit are unclear. METHODS: Reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT), a noninvasive method to assess peripheral endothelial function by measuring reactive hyperemic response in the finger, was performed in 23 patients with refractory angina undergoing a 35-h course of EECP. In each patient RH-PAT measurements were performed before and after the first, at midcourse, and the last EECP session. In addition, RH-PAT response was assessed one month after completion of EECP therapy; RH-PAT index, a measure of reactive hyperemia, was calculated as the ratio of the digital pulse volume during reactive hyperemia divided by that at rest. RESULTS: Enhanced external counterpulsation led to symptomatic improvement (>/=1 Canadian Cardiovascular Society class) in 17 (74%) patients; EECP was associated with a significant immediate increase in average RH-PAT index after each treatment (p < 0.05). In addition, average RH-PAT index at one-month follow-up was significantly higher than that before EECP therapy (p < 0.05). When patients were divided by their clinical response, RH-PAT index at one-month follow-up increased only in those patients who experienced clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced external counterpulsation enhances peripheral endothelial function with beneficial effects persisting at one-month follow-up in patients with a positive clinical response. This suggests that improvement in endothelial function may contribute to the clinical benefit of EECP in patients with symptomatic CAD.  (+info)

Counterpulsation is a medical treatment used in critical care medicine, particularly in the management of cardiovascular conditions. It refers to a technique that involves delivering therapies that counter or oppose the patient's own cardiac cycle. The most common form of counterpulsation is through the use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP).

During IABP, a catheter with a sausage-shaped balloon at its tip is inserted into the patient's aorta, usually through the femoral artery in the groin. The balloon is then connected to a console that controls its inflation and deflation. The console is programmed to detect the patient's cardiac cycle using either the ECG or arterial pressure waveform.

During diastole (when the heart muscle relaxes and fills with blood), the balloon inflates, increasing the volume of blood in the aorta and improving coronary artery perfusion. This helps to increase oxygen delivery to the myocardium (heart muscle) and reduce its workload.

During systole (when the heart muscle contracts and ejects blood), the balloon deflates, reducing afterload (the resistance against which the heart must pump). This reduces the workload of the left ventricle, allowing it to fill more easily during diastole and improving overall cardiac output.

In summary, counterpulsation is a medical intervention that uses therapies, such as intra-aortic balloon pumps, to counter or oppose the patient's own cardiac cycle. This technique aims to improve coronary artery perfusion, reduce afterload, and enhance overall cardiac function.

Intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) is a form of short-term mechanical circulatory support that is used in patients with cardiogenic shock or acute complications of coronary artery disease, such as acute mitral regurgitation or papillary muscle rupture. It involves the insertion of a specialized catheter into the aorta, which contains a sausage-shaped balloon at its tip.

The IABP is synchronized with the patient's ECG and inflates the balloon during diastole (when the heart relaxes) and deflates it during systole (when the heart contracts). By inflating the balloon during diastole, the IABP increases the diastolic pressure in the aorta, which improves coronary perfusion and myocardial oxygen supply. By deflating the balloon during systole, the IABP reduces afterload, which decreases the work of the left ventricle and improves cardiac output.

Overall, IABP can help to stabilize patients with acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock while more definitive treatments are being planned or implemented. However, it is not a long-term solution and carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and limb ischemia.

Assisted circulation refers to the use of mechanical devices to help maintain or improve the circulation of blood in the body. This is often used when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively on its own, such as during cardiogenic shock or during certain surgical procedures.

There are several types of assisted circulation devices, including:

1. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP): A catheter with a balloon at the tip is inserted into the aorta and inflated and deflated in sync with the heartbeat to help reduce the workload on the heart and improve blood flow to the coronary arteries.
2. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that are implanted in the chest to help support the function of one or both ventricles of the heart. VADs can be used as a bridge to transplant, meaning they are used temporarily while a patient waits for a heart transplant, or as a destination therapy, meaning they are used as a long-term treatment option.
3. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): This is a type of life support that uses a machine to pump blood outside the body and add oxygen to it before returning it to the body. ECMO can be used to support both heart and lung function in critically ill patients.

It's important to note that while assisted circulation devices can help improve blood flow and support heart function, they are not a cure for heart disease or other underlying conditions. They are typically used as a temporary measure to help stabilize a patient until more permanent treatment options can be explored.

Cardiogenic shock is a serious condition characterized by the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. It is a type of shock that originates from a primary cardiac dysfunction, such as severe heart muscle damage (myocardial infarction or heart attack), abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), or acute valvular insufficiency.

In cardiogenic shock, the low cardiac output leads to inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction and failure. Symptoms of cardiogenic shock include severe hypotension (low blood pressure), cool extremities, decreased urine output, altered mental status, and signs of congestive heart failure such as shortness of breath, cough, and peripheral edema.

Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment, which may include medications to support blood pressure and heart function, mechanical assist devices, or even emergency heart transplantation in some cases.

Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome is a rare condition that occurs when there is narrowing or blockage in the subclavian artery, which supplies blood to the arm. This reduced blood flow can cause the vertebral artery, which branches off from the subclavian artery and supplies blood to the brain, to reverse its flow and "steal" blood from the vertebral artery on the opposite side of the body in order to supply blood to the affected arm.

When this occurs, it can result in insufficient blood flow to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, syncope (fainting), and even transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes. The syndrome is more commonly seen in older individuals with atherosclerosis, hypertension, or diabetes, and in those who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery using the internal mammary artery as the conduit.

Diagnosis of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome typically involves imaging studies such as duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiography (CTA), or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to visualize the blood flow in the affected vessels. Treatment may involve surgical or endovascular procedures to restore normal blood flow to the arm and brain.

Angina pectoris is a medical term that describes chest pain or discomfort caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This condition often occurs due to coronary artery disease, where the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaques. These blockages can reduce blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia (lack of oxygen) and leading to angina symptoms.

There are two primary types of angina: stable and unstable. Stable angina is predictable and usually occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress when the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. The pain typically subsides with rest or after taking prescribed nitroglycerin medication, which helps widen the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the heart.

Unstable angina, on the other hand, is more severe and unpredictable. It can occur at rest, during sleep, or with minimal physical activity and may not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. Unstable angina is considered a medical emergency, as it could indicate an imminent heart attack.

Symptoms of angina pectoris include chest pain, pressure, tightness, or heaviness that typically radiates to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back. Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, and fatigue may also accompany angina symptoms. Immediate medical attention is necessary if you experience chest pain or discomfort, especially if it's new, severe, or persistent, as it could be a sign of a more serious condition like a heart attack.

Heart-assist devices, also known as mechanical circulatory support devices, are medical equipment designed to help the heart function more efficiently. These devices can be used in patients with advanced heart failure who are not responding to medication or other treatments. They work by taking over some or all of the heart's pumping functions, reducing the workload on the heart and improving blood flow to the rest of the body.

There are several types of heart-assist devices, including:

1. Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs): These devices are inserted into the aorta, the large artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The IABP inflates and deflates in time with the heartbeat, helping to improve blood flow to the coronary arteries and reduce the workload on the heart.
2. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These devices are more invasive than IABPs and are used to support the function of one or both ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart. VADs can be used to support the heart temporarily while a patient recovers from surgery or heart failure, or they can be used as a long-term solution for patients who are not candidates for a heart transplant.
3. Total artificial hearts (TAHs): These devices replace both ventricles and all four valves of the heart. TAHs are used in patients who are not candidates for a heart transplant and have severe biventricular failure, meaning that both ventricles are no longer functioning properly.

Heart-assist devices can be life-saving for some patients with advanced heart failure, but they also carry risks, such as infection, bleeding, and device malfunction. As with any medical treatment, the benefits and risks of using a heart-assist device must be carefully weighed for each individual patient.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Coronary circulation refers to the circulation of blood in the coronary vessels, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) and drain deoxygenated blood from it. The coronary circulation system includes two main coronary arteries - the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery - that branch off from the aorta just above the aortic valve. These arteries further divide into smaller branches, which supply blood to different regions of the heart muscle.

The left main coronary artery divides into two branches: the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and the left circumflex (LCx) artery. The LAD supplies blood to the front and sides of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the back and sides of the heart. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the lower part of the heart, including the right ventricle and the bottom portion of the left ventricle.

The veins that drain the heart muscle include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, and the small cardiac vein, which merge to form the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus empties into the right atrium, allowing deoxygenated blood to enter the right side of the heart and be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

Coronary circulation is essential for maintaining the health and function of the heart muscle, as it provides the necessary oxygen and nutrients required for proper contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Any disruption or blockage in the coronary circulation system can lead to serious consequences, such as angina, heart attack, or even death.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

In the context of human anatomy, the thigh is the part of the lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is the upper and largest portion of the leg and is primarily composed of the femur bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body, as well as several muscles including the quadriceps femoris (front thigh), hamstrings (back thigh), and adductors (inner thigh). The major blood vessels and nerves that supply the lower limb also pass through the thigh.

A tourniquet is a device or material used to apply pressure around an extremity, typically an arm or leg, with the goal of controlling severe bleeding (hemorrhage) by compressing blood vessels and limiting arterial flow. Tourniquets are usually applied as a last resort when direct pressure and elevation have failed to stop life-threatening bleeding. They should be used cautiously because they can cause tissue damage, nerve injury, or even amputation if left on for too long. In a medical setting, tourniquets are often applied by healthcare professionals in emergency situations; however, there are also specialized tourniquets available for use by trained individuals in the military, first responder communities, and civilians who have undergone proper training.

... therapy (ECP) is a procedure that may be performed on individuals with angina, heart failure, or ... "Decision Memo for External Counterpulsation (ECP) Therapy (CAG-00002R2)". Zhao M, Huang Y, Li L, Zhou L, Wu Z, Liu Y, Zhang H, ... Lin S, Liu M, Wu B, Hao Z, Yang J, Tao W (18 January 2012). "External counterpulsation for acute ischaemic stroke". The ... Qin X, Deng Y, Wu D, Yu L, Huang R (2016). "Does Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Significantly Affect Myocardial ...
Unstable angina pectoris benefits from counterpulsation. Post cardiothoracic surgery-most common and useful is counterpulsation ... Counterpulsation.htm Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) Counterpulsation by P. J Overwalder, M.D. Khan, Tahir M.; Siddiqui, Abdul ... The first publication of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation appeared in the American Heart Journal of May 1962; 63: 669-675 ... The balloon inflates and deflates via counter pulsation, meaning it actively deflates in systole and inflates in diastole. ...
... and enhanced external counter pulsation, or EECP, for treatment of chest pain. In 2007, Lourdes began employing cool, pulsed ...
Cellular response to cardiogenic shock is poorly described by either method (counterpulsation or continuous flow). Control of ... intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation for treatment of cardiogenic shock " a meta-analysis of controlled trials". European ...
Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP): Pneumatically assisting the heart to move blood using inflatable cuffs on the legs. ...
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Assessment of types of shock Assessment of therapy Afterload reduction Vasopressors Beta blockers Intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation ...
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... counterpulsation MeSH E04.050.215.400 - intra-aortic balloon pumping MeSH E04.050.430 - heart-assist devices MeSH E04.062.249 ...
External counterpulsation therapy (ECP) is a procedure that may be performed on individuals with angina, heart failure, or ... "Decision Memo for External Counterpulsation (ECP) Therapy (CAG-00002R2)". Zhao M, Huang Y, Li L, Zhou L, Wu Z, Liu Y, Zhang H, ... Lin S, Liu M, Wu B, Hao Z, Yang J, Tao W (18 January 2012). "External counterpulsation for acute ischaemic stroke". The ... Qin X, Deng Y, Wu D, Yu L, Huang R (2016). "Does Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Significantly Affect Myocardial ...
Home » FDA clears Xtreem Pulses PureFlow counter pulsation system. FDA clears Xtreem Pulses PureFlow counter pulsation system ... The New York-based company said that the system was designed on a concept called external counter-pulsation, and was originally ...
Counterpulsation and dobutamine. Their use in treatment of cardiogenic shock due to right ventricular infarct. Arch Intern Med ...
Two high-dose inotropic medications (Including intraaortic counter pulsation). Respiratory support (2). Murray score ,3.0 based ...
Use of an assistive heart pump (aortic counterpulsation balloon, left ventricular assist device) ...
Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP). *Hocatt. *Hormone Replacement Therapy. *Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) ...
Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation in a Model of Septic Shock. Critical Care Medicine, 37(1):7-18, 2009. ...
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When not obsessing over counter-pulsation devices and brain surgery, she can be found letterpress printing and riding through ...
Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a treatment and rehabilitation approach for ischemic diseases, including coronary ... A numerical study on the siphonic effect of enhanced external counterpulsation at lower extremities with a coupled 0D-1D closed ...
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... intra-aortic counter balloon counter pulsation, administration of vasoactive drug infusion, failure of indirect blood pressure ...
External counterpulsation (ECP) is a non-invasive medical treatment used to treat patients with angina (chest pain). The ... The Pression Wave PRO is a non-invasive, cardiac-gated compression therapy called External Counterpulsation (ECP) which ...
EECP: Enhanced External Counterpulsation. In addition to diet and lifestyle modifications, many patients are often referred by ... What is EECP (Enhanced External Counterpulsation)?. Learn how EECP creates a natural bypass around narrowed or blocked arteries ... their doctor to a novel non-invasive therapy called Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP). EECP (also known as Flow Therapy ...
Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation - Basic principles and clinical evidence. De Waha, S., Desch, S., Eitel, I., Fuernau, G. ... Reprint of "Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation - Basic principles and clinical evidence". De Waha, S., Desch, S., Eitel, I. ...
... pig model of prolonged cardiac arrest treated by different modes of venoarterial ECMO and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation ...
Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation on patients with coronary artery disease undergone percutaneous coronary ...
Effects on blood pressure in patients with refractory angina pectoris after enhanced external counterpulsation Susanne ... Comparison of patients undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation for refractory angina pectoris ...
Arterial elastance reduction with intra aortic ballon counterpulsation is associated with hemodynamic stabilization in patients ...
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... exposure may impair symptomatic improvement in patients with chronic angina undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation. BMC ...
2006). Weaning Intraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation: The Evidence. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing. 1(8), pp. 385 - 389. ... 2006). Australasian Trends in Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation Weaning: Results of a Postal Survey. Critical Care and ... Australasian Trends in Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation Weaning: Results of a Postal Survey. Lewis, Peter, Mullany, Daniel ... Weaning Intraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation: The Evidence. Lewis, Peter and Courtney, Mary. ( ...
"Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) reduces angina." -American College of Cardiology "EECP increases oxygen supply for ...
Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation can assist low-output circulatory states due to left ventricular pump failure that is ... intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation should be considered. Patients with normal MAP and high central venous pressure or ...
Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation; IP10: Interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa; LPC: Lysophosphatidylcholine; Mas: ...
Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) in Heart Failure. *Laser Angioplasty of Restenosed Stents (LARS Study) ...
External Counterpulsation (EC… by ecpforum View the latest post Wed Jun 06, 2018 12:00 pm ... Clinical research topics and discussions pertinent to external counterpulsation therapy Moderator: ecpforum Topics: 11 ...
In selected cases, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. Treatment approaches to PVE include the following:. * Intravenous ...
First Enhanced Extenal Counterpulsation (EECP) Therapy Center Opens in Rome, Italy Last post by Brianbloom « Mon Sep 04, 2017 5 ... John Hui, Medical Pioneer of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP®) Therapy Passes Away Last post by ecpforum « Tue Nov 21 ...
  • Does Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Significantly Affect Myocardial Perfusion? (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to diet and lifestyle modifications, many patients are often referred by their doctor to a novel non-invasive therapy called Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP). (flowtherapy.com)
  • Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) reduces angina. (heartstrongwellness.co)
  • External counterpulsation therapy (ECP) is a procedure that may be performed on individuals with angina, heart failure, or cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial elastance reduction with intra aortic ballon counterpulsation is associated with hemodynamic stabilization in patients with acute decompensated heart failure and low output state. (escardio.org)
  • External counterpulsation (ECP) is a non-invasive medical treatment used to treat patients with angina (chest pain). (pressionllc.com)
  • Passive tobacco exposure may impair symptomatic improvement in patients with chronic angina undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Pression Wave PRO is a non-invasive, cardiac-gated compression therapy called External Counterpulsation (ECP) which increases circulation and relieves some of the debilitating effects of heart disease. (pressionllc.com)
  • Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation is the most common form of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) used in the setting of myocardial ischemia and cardiogenic shock. (medscape.com)
  • The Evolution of Counterpulsation Techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The modern intra-aortic counterpulsation device, which consists of a balloon mounted on a flexible catheter, was described by Moulopoulos et al at the Cleveland Clinic in 1962. (medscape.com)
  • The only cardiac centre providing External CounterPulsation (ECP) therapy under direct supervision of heart specialist- Dr. Aditya Rattan. (heartlinepkl.com)
  • Relative Evaluation of Left Heart Bypass, Whether Pulsatile or Pulseless, with Counterpulsation as Technique for Myocardial Augmentation. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the feasibility of using enhanced external counterpulsation to treat patients with heart failure, 26 patients with stable heart failure (New York Heart Association classes II-III), with a left ventricular ejection fraction at or below 35%, and without fluid overload, were treated with enhanced external counterpulsation (1 hour daily, 5 days a week, to a total of 35 hours). (medscape.com)
  • Patients were followed for 6 months after completing the course of enhanced external counterpulsation. (medscape.com)
  • There were no clinically significant problems associated with the administration of enhanced external counterpulsation. (medscape.com)
  • Significant improvements were seen in exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake and exercise duration), and in quality of life assessments, at 1 week and 6 months after the course of enhanced external counterpulsation. (medscape.com)
  • This study suggests that enhanced external counterpulsation is safe and well tolerated in patients with stable heart failure, and that a randomized, controlled study of enhanced external counterpulsation in these patients is warranted. (medscape.com)
  • Studies on External Counterpulsation as a Potential Measure for Acute Left Heart Failure. (nih.gov)
  • Modern Heart and Vascular Institute is proud to offer various testing and treatment options, from electrocardiograms and CT scans to enhanced external counterpulsation and different vein treatment options. (modernheartandvascular.com)
  • [ 5 ] In this series, most patients (25 of 30) achieved hemodynamic stabilization and reversal of shock after the introduction of counterpulsation. (medscape.com)