Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.Dideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Peptaibols: A group of peptides characterized by length of 1-2 dozen residues with a high proportion of them being non-proteinogenic, notably alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and isovaline, and have a C-terminal amino alcohol and N terminal alkyl group. They are found in FUNGI and some are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.IranSalamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.PolynucleotidesPolynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Polyribonucleotide Nucleotidyltransferase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction RNA(n+1) and orthophosphate to yield RNA(n) and a nucleoside diphosphate, or the reverse reaction. ADP, IDP, GDP, UDP, and CDP can act as donors in the latter case. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.7.7.8.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Isolation and analysis of chemosensory behavior mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. (1/131)

A behavioral countercurrent paradigm has been developed for assaying the chemotactic responses of wild-type and mutant Drosophila melanogaster adults. Oregon R males avoid both quinine sulfate and NaCl, whereas Oregon R females reject the quinine salt but are attracted to NaCl when tested in this paradigm. Wild-type behavior is sufficiently reproducible to allow identification of mutants affecting chemotaxis, and 12 such mutants, in six complementation groups, have now been isolated. Three of the mutants respond abnormally to NaCl, two in one complementation group with atactic behavior (no chemotaxis) and the other, in a separate group, with a mistactic response (attraction to the stimulus). Four mutants in another group respond mistactically to quinine sulfate. Of the remaining mutants, two in one group behave atactically and three, in two groups, respond mistactically to either chemical stimulus. Several of the mutants also show abnormal behavior in a proboscis extension assay when tested individually with sucrose solutions.  (+info)

Role of hemoglobin in proton transfer to the active site of carbonic anhydrase. (2/131)

The binding of bovine oxyhemoglobin to bovine carbonic anhydrase with a dissociation constant between 10(-5) and 10(-7) M has been determined by countercurrent distribution using aqueous, biphasic polymer systems. This result provides an explanation for the very efficient proton transfer between hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase, a transfer which enhances the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase as measured by 18O exchange between bicarbonate and water at chemical equilibrium (Silverman, D. N., Tu, C. K., and Wynns, G. C. (1978) J. Biol. Chem, 253, 2563-2567). Two rate constants describing 18O exchange activity of carbonic anhydrase at pH 7.5 show saturation behavior when plotted against hemoglobin concentration consistent with a dissociation constant of 2.5 X 10(-6) M between bovine hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase. Interpretation of these rate constants in terms of a two-step model for 18O exchange indicates that hemoglobin enhances the rate of exchange from carbonic anhydrase of water containing the oxygen abstracted from bicarbonate, but does not affect the catalytic interconversion of CO2 and HCO3- at chemical equilibrium.  (+info)

Acoustic field assisted enhanced demixing of aqueous two-phase systems. (3/131)

Aqueous two-phase extraction has been recognized as a versatile downstream processing technique for the recovery of biomolecules. A major deterrent to its industrial exploitation is the slow demixing of the two aqueous phases after extraction, due to their similar physical properties. A method to decrease the demixing times of these systems, employing a travelling acoustic wave field, is reported. The effects of phase composition and microbial cells on demixing in a polyethylene glycol/potassium phosphate two-phase system are studied in detail. As phase composition increased, demixing time decreased gradually. Phase volume ratio was found to have a significant effect on demixing time at low phase compositions. However, at intermediate and high phase compositions, only a small effect on demixing time was observed. The effect of phase composition and volume ratio on demixing behavior was explained based on the droplet size of the dispersed phase, which is the resultant effect of the physical properties of the phases. At all the phase compositions studied, the acoustically assisted process decreased the demixing time by 17-60% when compared to demixing under gravity alone. Increasing the cell concentration increased the demixing time markedly in case of yeast cells. However, it remained practically constant in the case of Lactobacillus casei cells. Application of an acoustic field reduced the demixing times up to 60% and 40% in the case of yeast and L. casei cells, respectively. Visual observations indicated that ultrasonication caused mild circulation currents in the phase dispersion enhancing droplet-droplet interaction, which in turn enhanced the rate of coalescence, eventually resulting in an enhanced demixing rate.  (+info)

Affinity partitioning. A method for purification of proteins using specific polymer-ligands in aqueous polymer two-phase systems. (4/131)

We describe a method, called affinity partitioning, for the purification of proteins containing specific ligand binding receptor sites. This method adds specificity to the procedures for protein purification with aqueous polymer two-phase systems by introduction of a polymer derivative, coupled to an appropriate ligand. The addition of a polymer-ligand that partitions predominantly into one phase shifts the protein that binds this substance to the same phase. By performing countercurrent distribution in the presence of a polymer-ligand, the protein that binds the polymer-ligand can be separated from a heterogenous mixture. One example of affinity paritioning used dextran as the polymer-ligand. Dextran was chosen since it is a constituent of the most commonly used system for partitioning proteins. In a dextran-poly(ethylene oxide) system, concanavalin A bound dextran and partitioned predominantly into the dextran-rich phase. The addition of the specific competitor, D-mannose, displaced the partition coefficient toward unity, while the application of L-fucose, a noncompetitor, had little effect. Application of affinity partitioning to the purification of another protein required the synthesis of a specific polymer-ligand. To study this we synthesized dinitrophenyl-poly-(ethylene oxide), which binds specifically to S-23 myeloma protein. Addition of dinitrophenyl-poly(ethylene oxide) to the dextran-poly(ethylene oxide) phase system shifted the S-23 myeloma protein into the poly(ethylene oxide)-rich phase. epsilon-N-dinitrophenyl-L-lysine, by competing with binding of dinitrophenyl-poly(ethylene oxide), antagonized the latter's effect on the partition coefficient of S-23 myeloma protein. By adding various amounts of dinitrophenyl-poly-(ethylene oxide), we correlated the partition coefficient with concentration of polymer-ligand. A model of the action of polymer-ligand derivatives on the partition coefficient, derived from thermodynamic considerations, was found to be consistent with the experimental data relating the concentration of polymer-ligand and partition coefficient. Affinity partitioning should prove to be a useful complement to affinity chromatography in the purification of mixtures of proteins. Since cells and subcellular particles may be purified with aqueous polymer two-phase systems, affinity partitioning might be applied to their fractionation by using polymer-ligands specific for unique surface receptors.  (+info)

Immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen. (5/131)

A total of 69 persons were investigated for assessment of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Three groups, each consisting of 20 normal persons, 20HBsAg carriers, and 20 convalescent hepatitis B patients, were studied for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and leukocyte migration inhibition with purified HBsAg. Sequential sampling if an additional group of nine acute hepatitis B patients defined the cellular and humoral immune response to HBsAg. The antigen was eliminated rapidly by mounting of cell-mediated immune response detectable for a limited period, followed by antibody response in relatively few patients moore than 3 months after clearance of circulating HBsAg.  (+info)

Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (6/131)

The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.  (+info)

A novel two-step extraction method with detergent/polymer systems for primary recovery of the fusion protein endoglucanase I-hydrophobin I. (7/131)

Extraction systems for hydrophobically tagged proteins have been developed based on phase separation in aqueous solutions of non-ionic detergents and polymers. The systems have earlier only been applied for separation of membrane proteins. Here, we examine the partitioning and purification of the amphiphilic fusion protein endoglucanase I(core)-hydrophobin I (EGI(core)-HFBI) from culture filtrate originating from a Trichoderma reesei fermentation. The micelle extraction system was formed by mixing the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 or Triton X-100 with the hydroxypropyl starch polymer, Reppal PES100. The detergent/polymer aqueous two-phase systems resulted in both better separation characteristics and increased robustness compared to cloud point extraction in a Triton X-114/water system. Separation and robustness were characterized for the parameters: temperature, protein and salt additions. In the Triton X-114/Reppal PES100 detergent/polymer system EGI(core)-HFBI strongly partitioned into the micelle-rich phase with a partition coefficient (K) of 15 and was separated from hydrophilic proteins, which preferably partitioned to the polymer phase. After the primary recovery step, EGI(core)-HFBI was quantitatively back-extracted (K(EGIcore-HFBI)=150, yield=99%) into a water phase. In this second step, ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymers were added to the micelle-rich phase and temperature-induced phase separation at 55 degrees C was performed. Total recovery of EGI(core)-HFBI after the two separation steps was 90% with a volume reduction of six times. For thermolabile proteins, the back-extraction temperature could be decreased to room temperature by using a hydrophobically modified EOPO copolymer, with slightly lower yield. The addition of thermoseparating co-polymer is a novel approach to remove detergent and effectively releases the fusion protein EGI(core)-HFBI into a water phase.  (+info)

A new approach based on monitoring of phase formation kinetics for examination of biological particles and cells, using aqueous two phase polymer systems. (8/131)

An original technique of use of two-phase polymer systems as an analytical research method is described. The technique is based on the absorbance change of two-phase systems in visible spectrum during formation of the phases. Dynamics of this process was demonstrated as the kinetic curves. Addition of studied objects (macromolecules or cells) to the two-phase system modified the shape of the kinetic curve, depending on their individual surface properties. The technique has the following advantages as compared with traditional procedures of the particle surface analysis with the help of two-phase polymer systems: examination of particles with partition coefficients approaching zero; multiple analyses of the same samples; use of interphase as a matrix for study of spontaneous formation of studied particle complexes. The opportunities of the technique were demonstrated in a series of previous authors' works.  (+info)

Because of the skeletal complexity and similarity of the polarity, little research was reported on the isolation of sesquiterpene lactones by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Herein, three sesquiterpene lactones were successfully purified from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of the traditional Uyghur medicinal plant Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet. by HSCCC. The separation was performed in two steps with two solvent systems: n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:5:2.75:5, v/v/v/v) and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (20:1:20, v/v/v). From 166 mg of the ethyl acetate extract, 19 mg of lactucopicrin was isolated with the first solvent system and 10 mg of 11β,13-dihydrolactucin and 16 mg of lactucin were obtained with the second solvent system. All purified compounds were over 94% purity as determined by HPLC analysis, and these chemical structures were confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR ...
Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase force ...
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article{aa135bad-de1f-42a7-9ee6-8b5b5a8d0011, abstract = {The relative proportion of stroma lamellae and grana end membranes was determined from electron micrographs of 58 chloroplasts from 21 different plant species. The percentage of grana end membranes varied between 1 and 21% of the total thylakoid membrane indicating a large variation in the size of grana stacks. By contrast the stroma lamellae account for 20.3 +/- 2.5 (SD)% of the total thylakoid membrane. A plot of percentage stroma lamellae against percentage of grana end membranes fits a straight line with a slope of zero showing that the proportion of stroma lamellae is independent of the size of the grana stacks. That stroma lamellae account for about 20% of the thylakoid membrane is in agreement with fragmentation and separation analysis (Gadjieva et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 144: 92-100, 1999). Chloroplasts from spinach, grown under high or low light, were fragmented by sonication and separated by countercurrent distribution into ...
Isolation of lipophilic compounds by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a challenge because biphasic solvent systems in which these compounds distribute evenly are difficult to obtain. In this article we present novel applications of lipid compound isolation from natural sources. Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs, log KOW ∼7) were isolated from pomegranate oil using a solvent system consisting of n-heptane/methanol/water 100:91:9 (v/v/v). The CLnA fraction was free of other fatty acids but consisted of different isomers which were not resolved from each other. In the less polar range (log KOW ∼12), three tocotrienols (α-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol) were isolated from a vitamin E capsule produced from palm oil by using the solvent system n-hexane/acetonitrile/benzotrifluoride (BTF) at a ratio of 10:6.5:3.5 (v/v/v). Between 36 and 65 mg of each of the three tocotrienols were obtained in one injection with purities ,97%. Advantages and disadvantages of the "BTF system" are discussed by ...
Dubai Color Additives, Buy High Quality Color Additives Products from Dubai Color Additives Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Citation: Berhow, M.A., Polat, U., Glinski, J., Glensk, M., Vaughn, S.F., Isbell, T., Ayala-Diaz, I., Marek, L., Gardner, C.A. 2011. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds. Meeting Abstract. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-glucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecyl-glucosinolate. We have developed methods to isolate mg quantities of these glucosinolates and flavonoids using a combination of reverse phase flash countercurrent chromatography and preparative HPLC methods. An analytical method has been developed to accurately measure glucosinolate levels in seeds, seed meal and sprouts. The camelina glucosinolates have not been assessed for their phytochemical activities in ...
It should be emphasized that the success of this preparative separation depended, not on high column efficiencies, or, for that matter, on a particularly large column, but on the selection of a phase system that provided a high retention ratio between the two isomers. The required selectivity was achieved by firstly choosing a stationary phase with strong chiral interactive properties and secondly by choosing the best complementary solvent system that would provide strong differential interaction between the isomers and the two phases.. ...
The volume is divided into three sections. Section I, edited by Lyman C. Craig, consists of physico-chemical methods of separation of biological compounds. These methods are counter-current distribution, paper chromatography, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. These methods have stimulated progress in medical research in recent years and promise much for the future.. Section III, edited by Melvin Cohn, also involves separations. These are of immunological substances. The separations are by ethanol fractionation and by precipitin reactions in liquid media and in gels.. Section II, edited by A. C. Corcoran, concerns methods of study of renal function. These include plasma disappearance rates, renal ...
Different methods have been investigated for the preparation of N-CBO-S-bensyl-L-cysteinyl-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl-L-isoleucine. Condensation of the protected tripeptide with L-glytaminyl-L-asparaginyl-S-benzyl-L-cysteinyl-L-protyl-L-leucyl glycinamide affords N-CBO-S-benzyl-L-cysteinyl-N-methyl-tyrosyl L-isoleucul-L-glutaminyl-L-asparaginyl-S-benxyl-L-cysteinyl; L-protyl-L-leucyl-gylcinamide. Cleavage of the protecting groups of the resulting nonapeptide with sodium in liquid ammonia, oxidation with air in dilute aqueous solution and purification by counter-current distribution gives the desired cyclic nonapeptide amide: (N-methyl-Tyr)(2)-oxytocin. This exhibits less than one per cent of the oxytocic potency of oxytocin. (Author)(*PITUITARY HORMONES
Courtesy of Dr. Lester Dolak and Dr Eric Seest of Pharmacia Upjohn Inc.. Figure 35. The Preparative Separation of the Enantiomers of Chlorokynurenine. An example of a commercially available preparative column designed for the separation of enantiomers is shown in figure 36. The column was manufactured by ASTEC Inc. who have a number of different types of chiral stationary phases available for preparative use. These columns vary in size from a few cm in length to a meter or more. ...
The aberrant ebook Analytical and Preparative Separation Methods in Kants Arabidopsis will design to alter the privileged or aware objects of priori that include personality, if there do any analogical women besides what the fundamental updates indicate descended. The formal summer of view provides justify a phylogenetic nothing. Kant plays that there are a government of concerns that must soon get good of government in action for reference to apply inevitable.
TLC-based strategies were proposed in 1979 (Hostettmann et al.) and 2005 (Friesen & Pauli; GUESS method) to minimize the number of partitioning experiments required for countercurrent separation (CCS) solvent system selection. As semi-empirical approaches, both proposed that the K values defining the sweet spot of optimal CCS corresponded to a matching Rf value range from the silica gel TLC plate developed in the organic phase of a biphasic or a corresponding monophasic solvent system. Despite their simplicity, there has been an absence of theoretical support and a deficiency of reported experimental evidence. The present study explores the theory required to develop correlations between Rf and K. All theoretical models surmise that the optimal Rf value range should be centered at 0.5. In order to validate the feasibility of the concept of matching Rf and K values, 43 natural products and six solvent system families were investigated. Out of 62 correlations, 45 resulted in matched Rf and K ...
A steady-state, three-dimensional, multiphase CFD modelling of a pilot-plant counter-current spray drying tower is carried out to study the drying behavior of detergent slurry droplets. The software package ANSYS Fluent is employed to solve the heat, mass and momentum transfer between the hot gas and the polydispersed droplets/particles using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The continuous phase turbulence is modelled using the differential Reynolds stress model. The drying kinetics is modelled using a single droplet drying model[1] which is incorporated into the CFD code using user-defined functions. Heat loss from the insulated tower wall to the surrounding is modelled by considering thermal resistances due to deposits on the inside surface, wall, insulation and outside convective film. For the particle-wall interaction, the restitution coefficient is specified as a constant value as well as a function of particle moisture content. It is found that the variation in the value of restitution ...
The safety of synthetic colour additives used in soft drinks, cereals and baked goods, were confirmed in a trio of studies as findings appear to back up recent EFSA and US authority findings.
Proof-of-concept is shown for two-phase countercurrent flow on paper. The device consists of two paper layers, one of which has been modified with a sizing agent to be hydrophobic. The layers exhi ...
A process for upgrading a liquid petroleum or chemical stream wherein said feedstream flows countercurrent to the flow of a treat gas, such as a hydrogen-containing gas, in at least one reaction zone. The feedstream is treated so that it is substantially free of particulate matter and foulant precursors.
The Graver CI. Process Continuous Countercurrent Filtration and Adsorption JOSEPH A. LEVENDUSKY, Director of Research Graver Water Conditioning Company Division of Union Tank Car Company Union, New Jersey INTRODUCTION The basic concept and theory of filtration and adsorption have been widely published in the literature. Specific applications relating to filtration and- adsorption have been extensively studied in the pilot plant and laboratory. These studies have resulted in the improvement in the practical utihzation of filtration and adsorption equipment. There have also been considerable innovations in the design of process equipment within the last several years. Unfortunately, the data that one derives from the literature and the pilot plant do not make it obvious how efficiently unit operations can be utilized. It is possible that there are several types of equipment design that may be suitable for varying applications. It does appear, however, that this is the middle of a technology ...
Updated Ti-Torque tube assembly from their T-Ratchet + Ti Torque multi-tool featuring three scales instead of the original single scale to measure 2-8Nm.
a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2 + ) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb (OOCCH3)2.3H2O). (b) Specifications. Lead acetate shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named to the extent that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Water-insoluble matter, not more than 0.02 percent. pH (30 percent solution weight to volume at 25 deg. C), not less than 4.7 and not more than 5.8. Arsenic (as As), not more than 3 parts per million. Lead acetate, not less than 99 percent. Mercury (as Hg), not more than 1 part per million.. (c) Uses and restrictions. The color additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb, shall not be in excess of 0.6 percent (weight to ...
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Shop Champion Figure-8 Ankle Support, Large (60/45-L) at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Champion Figure-8 Ankle Support, Large (60/45-L) and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Discover the most innovative C18 technologies with the SiliaChrom C18 columns. Try our Universal AQ C18 and dt C18, which can be used until 100% aqueous Mobile Phase. You will be surprised by the high resistance of our SB C18 and SB C8 in extreme low pH conditions (up to 0.8). You need to use high pH Mobile phase, No problem our XT and XT Fidelity columns will permit you to work in extreme high pH conditions (up to 12).
CORTECS T3 columns are compatible with 100% aqueous mobile phases, and provide excellent retention for polar and non-polar analytes. The particle morphology offers high efficnecy and lower backpressure when compared to fully porouse particles of similar particle size. CORTECS T3 provides you with ultra-low column MS bleed, long lifetimes and excellent peak shape.
CORTECS T3 method validation kits provide columns of three different batches. CORTECS T3 columns are compatible with 100% aqueous mobile phases, and provide excellent retention for polar and non-polar analytes. The particle morphology offers high efficnecy and lower backpressure when compared to fully porouse particles of similar particle size. CORTECS T3 provides you with ultra-low column MS bleed, long lifetimes and excellent peak shape.
Alternative selectivity to alkyl bonded phases, recommended for aromatic groups. Compatible with highly aqueous mobile phases to facilitate the retention and separation of polar compounds.
We are a world full of ignorant people. Our government has always been made up of ignorant people with the exception of a few well enlightened individuals scatter sparsely through out our countries history. The difference is that in previous times the majority of those that led us did not claim to know all. They were humble men who knew the limitation of their knowledge. What we have become or are in the process of becoming is a nation of stupid people. The people leading our nation see themselves as betters than the common man. Therefore they know more on any subject even those they know nothing about. This is what is getting us into major problems. How can you pass judgement on anything that you know nothing about and are unwilling to learn about. This is why we have statements such as we must pass it to know whats in it. Even if the leaders had read it, the content was too far out of their knowledge base to understand and they were too stupid to take the time to learn what they need to know ...
A method for conducting a ligand assay in an inert porous medium wherein a binding material is immunologically immobilized within the medium, which includes the steps of immunologically immobilizing a binding material within a finite zone of the medium, applying an analyte to the zone containing the immobilized binding material, applying a labeled indicator to the zone which becomes immobilized within the zone in an amount which can be correlated to the amount of analyte in the zone, applying a solvent to substantially the center of the zone to chromatographically separate the unbound labeled indicator from the zone, and measuring the amount of labeled indicator remaining in the zone.
In this contribution it will be outlined the basic theoretical framework and two applications of a new theoretical-computational approach specifically designed for evaluating free-energy profiles...
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
For each additional 50 cases or fraction thereof over 600 cases, one case must be added to the cases in the sample.. [St. Quarantine Officer, No. 83.10, eff. 3-1-58; A 4-1-72] - (NAC A 9-7-82; 11-7-84). MEAT AND POULTRY INSPECTION. NAC 583.211 Definitions. As used in NAC 583.211 to 583.530, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NAC 583.221 to 583.340, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.. (Supplied in codification). NAC 583.221 Capable of use as human food defined. (NRS 583.535) Capable of use as human food has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 583.272.. [Bd. of Health, Meat Inspection Reg. Art. II I subsec. h, eff. 11-4-70; renumbered as A subsec. 8, 3-5-71]. NAC 583.231 Color additive defined. (NRS 583.535) Color additive means a material which:. 1. Is a dye, pigment or other substance made by a process of synthesis or similar article, or extracted, isolated, or otherwise derived, with or without intermediate or final ...
Apparatus comprising a holder for a sample which comprises a packing or coating capable of immobilising or isolating a target compound in a layer or band, an excitation unit that emits radiation that excites fluorescence in a target compound or derivatised target compound immobilised or isolated in the packing or coating, or in another moiety stimulated by the target compound, a detection unit that is sensitive to radiation emitted by a fluorescing target compound, derivative or target compound-stimulated moiety and outputs a signal proportional to the amount of radiation detected, means for relatively moving the sample cartridge and the detection unit whereby the radiation may be sensed and a processing unit that converts the output of the detector unit into a readable value related to the amount of target compound immobilised in the layer or band.
1. Interactions of proteins with neutral polysaccharides and such polyacids as polygalacturonic acid, chondroitin sulphate, RNA and DNA in a two-phase system composed of phenol and aqueous buffers in the
The in situ combination of rheometry and Raman spectroscopy allows for real-time, synchronized measurement of both physical and chemical material properties.
Convenient kit contains all the components needed to mount the buttstock of your choice on an AR-15 rifle or carbine. Perfect for ...
A strategy for determining a suitable solvent gradient in silico in preparative peptide separations is presented. The strategy utilizes a machine-learning-based method, called ELUDE, for peptide retention time predictions based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides. A suitable gradient is calculated according to linear solvent strength theory by predicting the retention times of the peptides being purified at three different gradient slopes. The advantage of this strategy is that fewer experiments are needed to develop a purification method, making it useful for labs conducting many separations but with limited resources for method development. The preparative separation of met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin was used as model solutes on two stationary phases: XBridge C18 and CSH C18. The ELUDE algorithm contains a support vector regression and is pre-trained, meaning that only 10-50 peptides are needed to calibrate a model for a certain stationary phase and gradient. The calibration is done ...
Bioanalysis is often compared to finding a needle in a haystack, so the importance of biosample fractionation cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Gel electrophoresis, gel-exclusion chromatography and other filtration techniques have been used for bioseparation. In addition to well-known drawbacks such as manual operation, slow separation rate, and need for large equipments, the science behind the molecular sieving and filtration is still yet to be fully clarified. One issue is that most molecular sieves and filters are random nanoporous materials, making it difficult to control / optimize the separation process. In our group, patterned regular sieving structures and nanofilters have been sought as an alternative to conventional separation method: recent developments in micro-nanofluidic sieves and filters have demonstrated superior performance for both analytical and preparative separation of various physiologically relevant macromolecules, including proteins. In addition, recent development ...
HPLC Part: 00F-4454-B0 Gemini® 5 µm NX-C18 110 Å, LC Column 150 x 2 mm, Ea Recomended Use: High efficiency analytical or preparative separations under extreme pH conditions Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Fully Porous Organo-silica Format: Column USP Designation: L1
HPLC Part: 00G-4453-Y0 Gemini® 3 µm NX-C18 110 Å, LC Column 250 x 3 mm, Ea Recomended Use: High efficiency analytical or preparative separations under extreme pH conditions Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Fully Porous Organo-silica Format: Column USP Designation: L1
Honeybees fly at ambient temperatures up to forty-five degrees Celsius when other bee-sized insects cannot. Bees employ an efficient counter-current heat exchanger that apposes two oppositely directed flows of hemolymph in close proximity to control heat loss and heat gain to maintain heat balance. If one flow is of a higher temperature, heat passively flows downhill from higher to lower temperature across the wall separating the flows. At warm-up, hemolymph flowing aft conveying heat from.... ...
Aldex SB-2 UPS is a uniform particle size, premium strong base type 2 anion resin designed for use in all co-current and counter-current systems utilized in commercial and industrial water treatment. Aldex SB-2 UPS has improved regeneration efficiency, when compared to type 1 anion resins, resulting in higher operating capacity and fewer regenerations per year when substituted for a type 1 resin. However, similar to all type 2 resins, the affinity for silica is lower than a type 1. Under certain conditions it may be possible to use Aldex SB-2 UPS in dealkalization and potable water systems but it is recommended you check with Aldex technical personnel to determine if a uniform type 2 will meet your needs.
The Root effect, a phenomenon limited almost exclusively to teleost fishes, is defined as the decrease in O2 carrying capacity of the blood due to a decrease in pH (Brittain, 1987; Ingermann, 1982; Pelster and Weber, 1991; Root, 1931; Root and Irving, 1943). This mechanism at the level of the haemoglobin (Hb) evolved 400 million years ago (mya) (Berenbrink et al., 2005) and is used in many living ray-finned fishes to deliver O2 to the retina, a recognized avascular yet metabolically active tissue (Wittenberg and Wittenberg, 1974), and the swim bladder (SB), a specialized gas-filled structure within the body cavity used to maintain buoyancy, against extremely high partial pressure gradients (,50 atm, ~5050 kPa) associated with the deep sea (Alexander, 1966). A recent evolutionary reconstruction suggests, however, that the Root effect evolved long before (~150 million years) the single evolutionary appearance of the counter-current capillary network of the eye, the choroid rete, which permits ...
My husband Andy and I are liveaboard yachties on a British registered vessel, SV Coromandel, a 1973 Nicholson 35.. We left Virgin Gorda on 12 May and arrived off Little Creek in Chesapeake Bay ten days later having had a mixed passage as a cold front crossed the Atlantic seaboard and gave us winds up to 28 knots from time to time. We also ran into a south-going counter-current, which was a bit disappointing as we were doing only 4 knots over the ground at the time. We arrived at 0300 and made the mistake of anchoring to the east side of Little Creek off a lovely sandy beach, which we discovered next morning was a hovercraft landing site - hey ho!. We had pre-booked space in Little Creek Marina but were directed to the adjacent Bay Point Marina. We entered at low water and with our 6 6" draft ploughed the mud a little on the way into the pontoons. A member of the marina staff was on hand to take our lines, and the whole process of entry was a very pleasant experience.. The marina staff kindly ...
Generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) can be used to enhance spectral resolution in order to help differentiate highly overlapped spectral bands. Despite the numerous extensive 2D-COS investigations, the origin of the 2D spectral resolution enhancement mechanism(s) is not completely understood. In the work here, we studied the 2D-COS of simulated spectra in order to develop new insights into the dependence of 2D-COS spectral features on the overlapping band separations, their intensities and bandwidths, and their band intensity change rates. We found that the features in the 2D-COS maps that are derived from overlapping bands were determined by the spectral normalized half-intensities and the total intensity changes of the correlated bands. We identified the conditions required to resolve overlapping bands. In particular, 2D-COS peak resolution requires that the normalized half-intensities of a correlating band have amplitudes between the maxima and minima of the ...
N G R A I E I V I Y V G V F L T W --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 3 GGA TAA GGG GGC TCG TTA GAG TTA ATG TTA TAT ATG TGG TTG TTT GTT ACA AGT 14157 14166 14175 14184 14193 14202 5 CCT ATT CCC CCG AGC AAT CTC AAT TAC AAT ATA TAC ACC AAC AAA CAA TGT TCA G T V V V L W R G Y D Y L A G A G I --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- TGG TCA TTG ATG ATG ATT AGT TGC GGG TAT TAG TAT GTT TCG GGG GCG TGG TTA 14211 14220 14229 14238 14247 14256 ACC AGT AAC TAC TAC TAA TCA ACG CCC ATA ATC ATA CAA AGC CCC CGC ACC AAT P D E R I L G S G E G E Y I M W S G --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- TCC TAG GAG GGC TTA GTT GGG ACT GGG GAG AGG AAG TAT TTA ATA AGT CGA AGG 14265 14274 14283 14292 14301 14310 AGG ATC CTC CCG AAT CAA CCC TGA CCC CTC TCC TTC ATA AAT TAT TCA GCT TCC V S N F N V V V V V G D Y E K V W L --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ATG TGA TAA TTT CAA ATG GTG TTG ...
The kinetic parameters of a reaction, know to follow a Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism with alcohol inhibition, were determined on micro and bench scale. The effect of temperature on activity and denaturation was also investigated.. Lipase B from Candida antarctica was used to catalyze the esterification of 1-butanol and propionic acid in a water/decane two phase system. On bench scale this was done by end-over-end rotation. On micro scale, a 1.18 m long micro channel with a cross section of 40 x 85 µm facilitated residence times from 45 seconds to 10 minutes. The initial enzyme activity at different substrate concentrations was determined by measuring the ester concentration (product) over time.. The kinetic parameters of this reaction were determined on both scales and showed no significant differences. Parity plots of experimental versus model results are shown in figure 3. The activation energies of activation and denaturation were determined on bench scale and then applied on micro scale. ...
The tracking control of non-minimum phase systems is nowadays an open and challenging field, because a general theory is still not available. This article proposes an indirect control strategy in which a key role is played by the inverse problem that arises and their approximate solutions. These are obtained with the Galerkin method, a standard functional analysis tool. A detailed study of the effect on the output caused by the use of an approximate input is performed. Error bounds are also provided. The technique is motivated through its implementation in basic, DC-to-DC nonlinear power converters that are intended to be used as DC-to-AC voltage sources. ...
When installing a high-impedance grounded neutral system, for a 480V, 3-phase system, the following question has arisen. Which of the following choices best describes the proper routing for the grounded conductor of the system?
Thesis: Investigation of Gold Nanoprobe Extraction from Various Aqueous Two-Phase System Regions to Improve Lateral-Flow Immunoassay Detection of Protein and Bacterial Targets (2016 ...
Degreaser, dry cleaning solvent, manufacture or organic chemicals and pharmaceuticals, heat exchange liquid, diluent in paints and adhesives, caffeine extractant, textile processing, solvent in production of color additives for food, cosmetics, drugs (HSDB 1990). Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products ...
A color additive that is added to a food or beverage to enhance the color. It can be used in various forms such as liquids, powders, and gels. (The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) considers any substance added for color to be artificial color regardless of a natural or synthetic origin.). ...
Methods of forming potassium sulfate include calcining polyhalite ore particles to convert the polyhalite ore particles to a water-soluble composition. At least a portion of the water-soluble composition is dissolved in an aqueous medium to form an aqueous solution comprising K+, Mg2+, and SO4 2− ions and a calcium-containing solid. The calcium-containing solid is separated from the aqueous solution to form a filtrate comprising K+, Mg2+, and SO4 2− ions. A potassium-containing salt is dissolved in the filtrate to increase the concentration of K+ and SO4 2− ions to from a concentrated liquor, and K2SO4 is crystallized from the concentrated liquor. A system for processing polyhalite ore includes a countercurrent leaching apparatus, a first mix tank, an evaporator, and at least one crystallizer.
Water enters the buccal cavity, passes over the gills and exits through thr opercula valves. Diffusion of oxygen is due to 3 things: large surface area from the high number of lamellae that filaments are covered with, short diffusion distance because lamella are only a few cells thick and contain blood capillaries, a concentration gradient is maintained by the countercurrent system: blood and water flow side by side, water always has a higher oxygen concentration than blood - a concentration gradient exists along the whole of the lamella ...
R GUNS M4 6 POSITION STOCK MIL-SPEC WHITE WITH REAR SLING SWIVEL AND 2 QD MOUNTING POINTS AND 5.56 BUFFER TUBE ASSEMBLY AR15/M16 made in the ...
A variable diameter tube for use in a vessel inserter for performing hemodynamics researches and related operations comprises two coupled different-characteristic materials which are coupled to one another to provide a single stretchable tube assembly.
2011 Lexus CT 200h Hybrid Pure fun-to-drive. By Larry Nutson (ILM_1885) Senior Editor, Chicago Bureau The Auto Channel If you think the terms fun-to-drive and hybrid-drive dont belong in the same sentence much more as characteristics of a the same car, then think again. I spent a week driving a Daybreak Yellow mica Lexus CT 200h and must acknowledge my average driving speed for that week was up. As soon as you settle into the driverâ s seat the immediate feeling of the CT 200h being a driverâ s car is evident. The low seating position combined with the low steering column angle and the fat rim of the steering wheel provide that direct connection to the CT 200h. Its compact sizeâ ¦170.1 inches longâ ¦makes this Lexus very maneuverable and very urban and big city friendly.
A search for O-polypeptidyl-ribonucleic acids in rabbit-reticulocyte ribosomes by electrophoresis in phenol-acetic acid-water systems.: 1. When solutions of ;so
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Looking for online definition of Counter-current exchange in the Medical Dictionary? Counter-current exchange explanation free. What is Counter-current exchange? Meaning of Counter-current exchange medical term. What does Counter-current exchange mean?
Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in the earths atmosphere has initiated a wide range of efforts to mitigate emissions and to capture and sequester CO₂. Carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers provides a potential site for long-term storing large amount of CO₂ without significant leakage back to surface. However, the time-scales that characterize the immobilization of CO₂ in an aquifer, by mechanisms such as capillary trapping, dissolution and chemical reaction, are not yet fully understood. The key contributions and findings from this research effort are: • A new dimensionless time-scale is proposed to describe residual entrapment of the non-wetting phase during counter-current flow. The new time-scale is demonstrated to outperform existing time-scales for a full range of relevant aquifer settings. • By combining experimental observations with numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the use of co-current relative permeability functions is insufficient to ...
Introduction. Investigation into the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between Magnesium and 1M Hydrochloric acid AIM To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between magnesium (Mg) and 1M hydrochloric acid (Hcl). PLAN How to carry out the experiment: To begin with, put on safety glasses and set up the apparatus ensuring you fill the Burette with water, invert it, place on the retort stand and stand in water. But dont place it over the delivery tube because you should allow the gas enough time to pass up the delivery tube and into the water that the Burette is standing in. Then take some magnesium over to the balance and weigh it to 5.00g. When you have the exact amount, place it into the conical flask. Then measure 20cm3 volume of hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder making sure you have the correct temperature of acid. Check this by using a thermometer. To increase the temperature of the acid I hope to use a water bath set to 60oC and allow the acid ...
CPO-27-Ni/alginate spheres have been prepared and evaluated for post-combustion CO2 capture using both dry and moist synthetic flue-gas in a multicycle pressure-vacuum swing adsorption (PVSA) cycle. Single component equilibrium isotherms of the adsorbent spheres give estimated CO2/N2 and H2O/CO2 selectivities of 24 and 7 at 323 K for the actual gas composition (around 9 kPa H2O, 28 kPa CO2, rest N2, ptot=200 kPa). The PVSA cycle used consists of four steps; an adsorption step, a counter-current blowdown step, a counter-current purge step and, finally, a counter-current pressurization step. The results from single column testing show that the presence of moist in the flue gas reduces the CO2 working capacity somewhat (around 15%), however, even when beginning the cyclic PVSA run with an adsorbent completely saturated with water, an apparent steady state performance is reached in which the CO2 working capacity still is significant and stable over more than 100 cycles. The results are interpreted ...
Rosarin is a cinnamyl alcohol glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea. Purification of Phenylalkanoids and monoterpene glycosides from Rhodiola rosea L. roots by high-speed counter-current ...
The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step
0044]Nano-sized cochleates can be prepared with 2,3,5,6-tetraaminopyrimidine sulfate using previously patented hydrogel-isolated methods [11]. In brief, a liposome suspension prepared as in Example 1 was added into a dextran solution (5-25%) with a lipid content of 0.2-2%. This suspension was then dispersed into a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (5-25%) and well stirred. The solutions of dextran and PEG were immiscible and formed an aqueous two-phase system. The TAS solution prepared as in Example 1 was added drop-wise to the aqueous two-phase system under stirring and the charge of the organic cations was more than that of the lipids. The aqueous two-phase system was stirred for an additional 10 to 60 min, and then the cochleates formed were recovered by rinsing the dextran and PEG away using a sufficient amount of water (by which dextran and PEG were all dissolved in one phase), followed by centrifugation. FIG. 4A show a microscopic image of recovered cochleates. Needle structure was not ...
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The color additive FD&C Yellow No. 6 is principally the disodium salt of 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (CAS Reg. No. 2783-94-0). The trisodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-[(4- sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid may be added in small amounts. The color additive is manufactured by diazotizing 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid using hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrite or sulfuric acid and sodium nitrite. The diazo compound is coupled with 6-hydroxy-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid. The dye is isolated as the sodium salt and dried. The trisodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid which may be blended with the principal color is prepared in the same manner except the diazo benzenesulfonic acid is coupled with 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid.. Industry-sponsored animal tests indicated that this dye, the third most widely used, causes tumors of the adrenal gland and kidney. In addition, small amounts of several carcinogens ...
A spray tower (or spray column or spray chamber) is gas-liquid contactor used to achieve mass and heat transfer between a continuous gas phase (that can contain dispersed solid particles) and a dispersed liquid phase. It consists of an empty cylindrical vessel made of steel or plastic, and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessel. The inlet gas stream usually enters at the bottom of the tower and moves upward, while the liquid is sprayed downward from one or more levels. This flow of inlet gas and liquid in opposite directions is called countercurrent flow. This type of technology can be used for example as a wet scrubber for air pollution control. Countercurrent flow exposes the outlet gas with the lowest pollutant concentration to the freshest scrubbing liquid. Many nozzles are placed across the tower at different heights to spray all of the gas as it moves up through the tower. The reason for using many nozzles is to maximize the number of fine droplets impacting the pollutant particles and ...
The continuous countercurrent, high-pressure fat-splitting process, knownly as the Colgate- Emery process. • The high temperature and pressure used permit short reaction time. • Full countercurrent flow of oil and water produces a high degree of splitting without the need of a catalyst. However, a catalyst may be used to increase reaction rate. . • The splitting tower is the heart of the process. • Most splitting towers have the same configuration and basically operate the same way. • Depending on the capacity,the tower can be 508-1220 mm in diameter and 18-25 m high and is made of corrosion-resistant material such as stainless steel 316 or Inconel alloy • designed to operate at a pressure of about 5000 kPa. . • The deaerator fat is introduced by means of a sparge ring, around 1 m from the bottom with a high-pressure pump. • Water is introduced near the top at a ratio of 40-50% of the weight of the fat. • The high splitting temperature (250-260°C) ensures adequate ...
But there are other solutions in the ocean, so we need not limit ourselves to marine mammals. Tuna are the undisputed kings of the bony fishes, and, you might be surprised to learn, are effectively warm-blooded. Tuna achieve this through a circulatory system that relies on countercurrent heat exchange. Arteries and veins run in tandem. Blood in the extremities and near the surface of the skin are cooled by seawater, but, as the cold blood runs back into the fishs core, heat from the still-warm vessels on its way to the surface is transferred to the colder blood vessels. In this way, heat is retained close to the tunas core. This process may give Aquaman the cold shoulder, but it could maintain body heat around his critical organs. Aquaman has another feature in common with tuna, they both burn plenty of calories to function. A countercurrent heat exchange would allow Aquaman to retain all that extra heat he produces, fortifying him against the chilling cold of the deepest trenches.. Perhaps ...
For the following acid-base reaction, calculate the mass (in grams) of each acid necessary to completely react with and neutralize 5.00 g of the base. HCl(aq)+ NaOH(aq)-,H20(l)+NaCl(aq) Please explain how to do this ...
The overreaching purpose of this study is to evaluate new approaches for determining the optimal operational and column conditions in chromatography laboratories, i.e., how best to select a packing material of proper particle size and how to determine the proper length of the column bed after selecting particle size. As model compounds, we chose two chiral drugs for preparative separation: omeprazole and etiracetam. In each case, two maximum allowed pressure drops were assumed: 80 and 200 bar. The processes were numerically optimized (mechanistic modeling) with a general rate model using a global optimization method. The numerical predictions were experimentally verified at both analytical and pilot scales. The lower allowed pressure drop represents the use of standard equipment, while the higher allowed drop represents more modern equipment. For both compounds, maximum productivity was achieved using short columns packed with small-particle size packing materials. Increasing the allowed ...
The simultaneous transport of sulphuric and phosphoric acids through a polymeric membrane was investigated at steady state in a two-compartment counter-current dialyzer. For this purpose, an anion exchange membrane Neosepta-AFN (Astom Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used. This transport was quantified by four membrane mass transfer coefficients which are dependent upon the concentrations of both acids in the feed. These coefficients were determined by a two-step procedure. In the first step, the basic differential equations describing the dependences of the volumetric liquid flow rates and acid concentrations on the length coordinate in the individual compartments were numerically integrated. In the second step, an objective function was minimised to ensure the best coincidence between the experimental and calculated data ...
Chemical cellulose pulp (e.g. kraft pulp) is produced with enhanced strength and/or yield using a strength or yield enhancing additive such as polysulfide or anthraquinone or its equivalents or derivatives, and in a manner that allows effective recovery/reuse of the additive so as to make the process more economical. In a continuous digester a low temperature and relatively low alkalinity protecting zone is provided at the top of the digester terminating with a first screen, and a second screen is provided below the first screen. Between the first and second screens, prior to bulk delignification, a first counter-current zone is provided, and additive-containing liquid from the first screen is recirculated to the slurry at or near the digester inlet to enhance yield or strength.
Reindeer are well suited to the taigas frigid winters. They can maintain a thermogradient between body core and the environment of up to 100 degrees, in part because of insulation provided by their fur, and in part because of counter-current vascular heat exchange systems in their legs and nasal passages. ...
Aqueous-polymer two-phase partitioning The microsomal pellets obtained from 200 g crushed roots were pooled and suspended in 40 mL buffer containing 0.33 M sucrose, 0.1M EDTA, 1% DTT, protease inhibitor cocktail and 5 mM potassium phosphate buffered at pH 7.8. After resuspension of the microsomal fraction, an aliquot of 200 µL was collected for protein extraction, precipitation and separation in one dimension SDS-PAGE gel. Four aliquots, each containing nine milliliters of the microsomal fraction were subsequently applied into four aqueous-polymer two-phase partitioning containing four different polymer concentrations: 6.2%, 6.4%, 6.8% and 7.2% (w/w) PEG 3350, and 6.2%, 6.4%, 6.8% and 7.2% (w/w) dextran T500 (w/w); and 11% (w/w) sucrose, 5 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.8), 5 mM KCl and milli-Q water until a final weight of 27 g per system. Each aqueous two-phase system containing the microsomal fraction was shaken followed by centrifugation at 1,800 g for 5 min at 4º C to enhance phase ...
Partition coefficients are measured for five amino acids (aspartic acid, asparagine, methionine, cysteine and histidine) and two peptides (glycyl-glycine and hexa-glycine) in dextran + poly(ethylene glycol) + water aqueous two-phase system. The partition coefficients of the amino acids and peptides are correlated using the osmotic virial equation. The interaction coefficients contained in the equation can be calculated by hydrophilic group parameters. The partition coefficients of ,I,α,/I,-amylase calculated by the osmotic virial equation with the hydrophilic group parameters are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data, though a relatively large discrepancy is shown for ,I,β,/I,-amylase.. ...
Sounds pass from the outer ear through to the inner ear, which contains the cochlea and auditory nerve. The cochlea is a coiled, spiral tube containing a large number of sensitive hair cells. The auditory nerve transmits sound signals to the brain.. If part of the cochlea is damaged, it will stop sending information to your brain. The brain may then actively "seek out" signals from parts of the cochlea that still work. These signals might then become over-represented in the brain, which may cause the sounds of tinnitus.. In older people, damage to the cochlea often occurs naturally with age. In younger people, it can be caused by repeated exposure to excessive noise.. ...
Sounds pass from the outer ear through to the inner ear, which contains the cochlea and auditory nerve. The cochlea is a coiled, spiral tube containing a large number of sensitive hair cells. The auditory nerve transmits sound signals to the brain.. If part of the cochlea is damaged, it will stop sending information to your brain. The brain may then actively "seek out" signals from parts of the cochlea that still work. These signals might then become over-represented in the brain, which may cause the sounds of tinnitus.. In older people, damage to the cochlea often occurs naturally with age. In younger people, it can be caused by repeated exposure to excessive noise.. ...
Cochlea: The cochlea contains the sensory organ of hearing. It bears a striking resemblance to the shell of a snail and in fact takes its name from the Greek word for this object. The cochlea is a spiral tube that is…
Reversed phase retention mechanism of the C8 elute allows for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds from aqueous matrices that are too strongly retained on C18 sorbent. Provides for the quick release of hydrophobic molecules using weaker organic solvents. Typical applications includes peptide extraction from biological matrices (serum, plasma, urine), nutraceutical extractions from food and beverages ...
Reversed phase retention mechanism of the C18 elute allows for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds from aqueous matrices. The bonded octadecyl functional group allows for increased binding capacities with higher recoveries. This is the most commonly used sorbent for sample preparation prior HPLC or GC analysis. Typical applications include drugs and metabolites testing in biological samples, desalting aqueous matrices prior to ion exchange, nutraceutical compounds extraction, and pesticides extraction from aqueous matrices ...
The glutaconic acids are substances possessing a highly mobile three carbon tautomeric system. They also exhibit geometrical isomerism and, in the case of the symmetrically di-substituted acids, optical isomerism as well. Glutaconic acid has the trans configuration, but readily yields an anhydride which on careful hydration forms the unstable cis-acid (Malachowski, Ber., 1929, 62, (B) 1323). This is explained by the high mobility of the system which results in isomerisation from the trans to the cis form as a preliminary step in anhydride formation. ...
An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that are typically immiscible (dont blend) that forms a two phase system. One of the two liquids is dispersed in the mixture, forming the dispersed phase. The other liquid contains the dispersion and is known as the continuous phase. An example of two immiscible liquids would be water and oil. In general an emulsion will be unstable since the dispersed phase will try to decrease its surface tension by grouping with other dispersed droplets until the liquids separate again. However, a stable emulsion can be formed by the addition of emulsifiers, such as surfactants that distribute themselves around the interface between the two liquids, creating a stable system. Emulsions are generally regarded as a special class of colloids where both the continuous and dispersed mediums are liquid. However, this distinction is not rigid with some people such as Witten specifying the term colloid only for a mixture of solids and liquids. ...
Numerous challenges remain to achieve industrially competitive space-time yields for bio-oxidations. The ability to rapidly screen bioconversion reactions for characterization and optimization is of major importance in bioprocess development and biocatalyst selection; studies at conventional lab scale are time consuming and labor intensive with low experimental throughput. The direct ω-oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic alkanes in a regio- and chemoselective manner is efficiently catalyzed by monooxygenases such as the AlkBGT enzyme complex from Pseudomonas putida under mild conditions. However, the adoption of microscale tools for these highly volatile substrates has been hindered by excessive evaporation and material incompatibility. This study developed and validated a robust high-throughput microwell platform for whole-cell two-liquid phase bio-oxidations of highly volatile n-alkanes. Using microwell plates machined from polytetrafluoroethylene and a sealing clamp, highly reproducible results were
1) Types of Aerosol System 1, 3, 14, 15, 16 3.1) Solution system / Two Phase system3.2) Water based system / Two components or Three components system3.3) Suspension / Dispersion system3.4) Foam system / Emulsion systems3.5) Aqueous stable foams3.6) Non-Aqueous stable foams3.7) Quick Breaking foams3.8) Thermal Foams
fish amphibian reptiles birds & mammals 2 chamber 3 chamber 3 chamber 4 chamber A powerful four-chambered heart was an essential adaptation in support of the endothermic way of life characteristic of mammals and birds. Endotherms use about ten times as much energy as equal-sized ectotherms; therefore, their circulatory systems need to deliver about ten times as much fuel and O2 to their tissues (and remove ten times as much CO2 and other wastes). This large traffic of substances is made possible by separate and independent systemic and pulmonary circulations and by large, powerful hearts that pump the necessary volume of blood. Mammals and birds descended from different reptilian ancestors, and their four-chambered hearts evolved independently-an example of convergent evolution. Why is it an advantage to get big? Herbivore: can eat more with bigger gut. lowers predation (but will push predators to get bigger as well, although no one east elephant s.) V A A A A A A A V V V V V ...
Long lasting makeup is also known as long lasting cosmetics or cosmetic tattooing. In technological conditions the process is named micropigmentation, dermapigmentation or micropigment implantation. It is actually a modern method utilized in cosmetics exactly where pigments are placed to the skins dermis layer. The process is carried out by beauty technicians like Sally Faolls who use various strategies and machines, including specific or conventional tattoo design or coil devices. In america, the tattooing inks as well as the pigments from the inks utilized, like several makeup products and colour additives, need to successfully pass the Federal drug administration and other regulatory organization guidelines.. The funds you will conserve over a life-time by having permanent eyeliner tattoo used on your eyelids, eye brows and mouth is worth it when you compare it to what spent yearly on eyeliner and lipsticks on your own. There are more reasons than just the cost-cost savings to achieve the ...
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Packed with nutrients to feed your body and mind at the cellular level, natural energy, caffeine free, gluten free, casein free, non-GMO pea protein shake, joint nutrients, mind cognitive supplements, includes Zychrome chromium, Harvard-proven UC-II, BSCG Certified, NSF Certified and Tested, GMP Facility, Reservatrol, Goji Berry, Cognizin citicoline, Acai, Quercetin, Free of Artificial Colors Additive and Preservatives, Life Matters
Practical handbook as well as a reference allowing readers to make effective decisions concerning the use of solvents and solvent systems Written by
Thus, we see that the centripetal force acting on a body is always provided by some other type of force -- centripetal force, thus, is simply a name to indicate the force that provides this circular motion. This centripetal force is always acting inward toward the center. You will know this if you swing an object in a circular motion. If you notice carefully, you will see that you have to continuously pull inward. We know that an opposite force should exist for this centripetal force(by Newtons 3rd Law of Motion). This is the centrifugal force, which exists only if we study the body from a non-inertial frame of reference(an accelerating frame of reference, such as in circular motion). This is a so-called pseudo-force, which is used to make the Newtons law applicable to the person who is inside a non-inertial frame. e.g. If a driver suddenly turns the car to the left, you go towards the right side of the car because of centrifugal force. The centrifugal force is equal and opposite to the ...
We have reconstructed the events that led to the evolution of a key physiological innovation underpinning the large adaptive radiation of fishes, namely their unique ability to secrete molecular oxygen (O2). We show that O2 secretion into the swimbladder evolved some 100 million years after another O2-secreting system in the eye. We unravel the likely sequence in which the functional components of both systems evolved. These components include ocular and swimbladder countercurrent exchangers, the Bohr and Root effects, the buffering power and surface histidine content of hemoglobins, and red blood cell Na+/H+ exchange activity. Our synthesis reveals the dynamics of gains and losses of these multiple traits over time, accounting for part of the huge diversity of form and function in living fishes.. ...
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As only little information about the blood chemistry of reptiles is available, a contribution for the establishment of standard values of serum parameters from Uromastyx acanthinurus is given. The sera were tested for their contents of total protein, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl-transferase, iron, and calcium. In a countercurrent electrophoresis the serum proteins were separated according to their electrophoretic mobility. Additionally, the molecular masses of the proteins were determined by a discontinuous polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodiumdodecylsulfate. By means of these techniques the albumin and the 7S-antibodies from the Spiny-tailed lizard sera were characterized.
Hair care compositions which provide improved styling and hair conditioning properties are disclosed. The compositions comprise from about 0.1% to about 10.0% of a specifically-defined silicone copolymer and from about 0.5% to about 99.5% of a carrier suitable for application to hair. These compositions are characterized by the fact that, when dried, the polymer phase separates into a discontinuous phase which includes a silicone macromer and a continuous phase which includes the copolymer backbone.
RIM Bio has extensive solvent bonding experience. We use only solvent bonding applicators as they are more consistent and environmentally safe in our clean rooms. These applicators are outfitted for the desired tube size and apply a pre-measured amount of solvent to the tubing. We use this bonding method to connect PVC tubing and fittings and for a wide range of tube assemblies.. ...
A device and method for deploying self-cinching surgical clips. The device accesses at least two layers of tissue or material from only one side of the tissue or material and punctures through the two layers of tissue or material. The various configurations of clips disclosed herein are made of a superelastic material such as Nitinol, and have a constrained and a relaxed state, and no sharp edges or tips so as to reduce tissue irritation following deployment. The clip is disposed within the housing of the delivery device and held in a constrained state by a tube assembly until deployment wherein the clip assumes its relaxed state, where the ends of the clip are brought into close approximation, thereby securing the layers of tissue or material together.
Separation by Counter-current Distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155: 535-546. Horvath, C.; Melander, W. (1977). " ... Craig in 1994 and commercial counter-current distribution instruments were used for many important discoveries. The ... Martin, A J P; Synge, R L M (1941). "Separation of the higher monoamino-acids by counter-current liquid-liquid extraction: the ... The process was termed "counter-current liquid-liquid extraction." Martin and Synge described the theory of this technique in ...
... improve the apparatus and devise new applications of the countercurrent distribution into the 1970s. Countercurrent ... Separation by Counter-current Distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155: 535-546. Craig, Lyman C. (1973). "High ... In 1944 he published a seminal work on countercurrent distribution, which became an important separation technique. Craig ... Developer of the Counter-current Distribution Method". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280: 127-129. Retrieved 2016-02-26. The ...
Benzer, Seymour (1967). "Behavioral Mutants of Drosophila Isolated by Countercurrent Distribution". Proceedings of the National ...
"Isolation of coumestrol and other phenolics from alfalfa by countercurrent distribution". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. ... atypical collagen distribution was observed in the uterine wall. When 2 day old male Wistar rats are injected with coumestrol ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ...
... from separatory funnels to countercurrent distribution equipment called as mixer settlers.[not verified in body] This type of ... For instance, if the distribution ratio for nickel (DNi) is 10 and the distribution ratio for silver (DAg) is 100, then the ... This quantitative measure is known as the distribution ratio or distribution coefficient. The separation factor is one ... a distribution ratio is often quoted as a measure of how well-extracted a species is. The distribution ratio (Kd) is equal to ...
Distribution (pharmacology) Metabolism Countercurrent exchange Eructation Homeostasis Osmoregulation Respiration (physiology) ... Other parameters of interest include a drug's bioavailability and the apparent volume of distribution. Pharmacy Bioequivalence ...
Evolving from Craig's Countercurrent Distribution (CCD), the most widely used term and abbreviation is CounterCurrent ... Both countercurrent exchange and countercurrent multiplication systems have been found in the kidneys. The latter in the loop ... Benzer Seymour (1967). "Behavioral Mutants Of Drosophila Isolated By Countercurrent Distribution". Proceedings of the National ... Countercurrent multiplication has been found in the kidneys as well as in many other biological organs. Countercurrent exchange ...
... (CCD, also spelled "co "counter current" distribution) is an analytical chemistry technique which ... Lyman Craig's development of countercurrent distribution began with studying the distribution of a pharmaceutical, mepacrine ( ... Countercurrent distribution is a separation process that is founded on the principles of liquid-liquid extraction where a ... Countercurrent distribution, therefore, is a method of using a series of vessels (separatory funnels) to separation compounds ...
The predecessor of modern countercurrent chromatography theory and practice was countercurrent distribution (CCD). The theory ... Separation by Counter-current Distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155: 535-546. Kimura, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisami; ... Finally, Lyman C. Craig introduced the Craig countercurrent distribution apparatus in 1944 which made CCD practical for ... Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two ...
DCCC is considered to be a form of liquid-liquid separation, which includes countercurrent distribution and countercurrent ... A modified version of Craig's counter-current distribution". Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 (36): 6135-6143. doi:10.1016/j. ... Conway, Walter D. (1990). "The Evolution of Countercurrent Chromatography". Countercurrent Chromatography: Apparatus,Theory, & ... Hosteeman, Kurt; Marston, Andrew (1988). "Natural Products Isolation of Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography". Countercurrent ...
Its distribution at sea is little known but many move south and east into the waters of the Equatorial Counter Current. It has ... Its distribution on the other islands is uncertain but it is known to breed on Molokaʻi and the island of Hawaiʻi and may breed ... It was formerly a much more common bird with a wider breeding distribution in the islands. It has declined due to habitat loss ... 2007), "Distribution" Watling (2001) Ainley et al. (2007), "Food Habits Ainley et al. (2007), "Breeding" Ainley, D. G., T. C. ...
Counter-current deionization comes in two forms, each requiring engineered internals: Upflow columns where input water enters ... In both cases, separate distribution headers (input water, input regenerant, exit water, and exit regenerant) must be tuned to ... Counter-current deionization is the more attractive method of ion exchange. Chemicals (regenerants) flow in the opposite ... The main advantage of counter-current deionization is the low operating cost, due to a low usage of regenerants during the ...
As sardine movement during the run is northwards, this counter-current effect is expected. Other conditions associated with ... These distinct regions may affect sardine distribution and movement. Some oceanographic variables have been found useful for ...
A selectivity factor is defined as the ratio of distribution coefficients, which describe the equilibrium distribution of an ... Complete separation is effected by using a countercurrent exchange method. A number of cells are arranged as a cascade. After ... Rice, N.M.; Irving, H. M. N. H.; Leonard, M.A (1993). "Nomenclature for liquid-liquid distribution (solvent extraction)". Pure ... Retention factors are proportional to distribution coefficients. In practice substances with a selectivity factor very close to ...
... countercurrent heat exchangers between the large front flippers and the core body, and an extensive network of countercurrent ... Distribution[edit]. The leatherback turtle is a species with a cosmopolitan global range. Of all the extant sea turtle species ... Coupled with their countercurrent heat exchangers, insulating fat covering, and large size, leatherbacks are able to maintain ... Foley, Allen (2017). "Distributions, relative abundances, and mortality factors of sea turtles in Florida during 1980-2014 as ...
The Mindanao Eddy is bordered to the north by the North Equatorial Current and to the south by the North Equatorial Counter Current ... Nutrient Flux, and Chlorophyll-a Distribution in the Mindanao Eddy. Natural Science. 8: 163-173. "Observed features of the ...
Nierenstein, M.; Potter, J. (1945). "The distribution of myrobalanitannin". The Biochemical Journal. 39 (5): 390-392. doi: ... "Preparative isolation of hydrolysable tannins chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid from Terminalia chebula by high-speed counter-current ... and global distribution. http://www.haritaki.org. ...
If the fins are designed well, the plate-fin heat exchanger can work in perfect countercurrent arrangement. The cost of plate- ... and serrated and perforated which refer to cuts and perforations in the fins to augment flow distribution and improve heat ...
2.2 Global distribution *2.2.1 Effect of global climate change on distribution and abundance ... composed of the North Equatorial Current and the Equatorial Countercurrent. These two currents move in opposite directions, ... 1973), "The distribution of oceanic coccolithophores in the Pacific", Deep-Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 20 (4): ... The complete distribution of coccolithophores is currently not known and some regions, such as the Indian Ocean, are not as ...
"Computer-aided experimentation in countercurrent reaction chromatography and simulated countercurrent chromatography" (with B.B ... "Residence time distribution with many reactions and in several environments." In A. Petho and R.D. Noble (eds.). Residence time ... "The simulated countercurrent moving bed chromatographic reactor: A novel reactorseparator" (with A.K. Ray and R.W. Carr). Chem ... "The continuous countercurrent moving bed chromatographic reactor" (with B. Fish and R.W. Carr). Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 661 (1986 ...
Such differences in vessel tone create a countercurrent exchange system that attempts to retain heat. Profuse sweating would ... They may have a less symmetric distribution and may be associated with pain and tissue loss. Acrocyanosis is characterized by ... then be caused by an overwhelmed countercurrent exchange system. In addition to adenosine, other hormones may contribute to ...
"Impact Of Aadhaar In Welfare Programmes - Countercurrents". Countercurrents. 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2018-01-24. "India Together ... She has published several research papers analyzing NREGA, the Public Distribution System (PDS) and other programs that affect ... Countercurrents, India Together and India Spend (she wrote a cover story on NREGA). In January 2018, her NYT editorial, "Why ...
Datla KP, Christidou M, Widmer WW, Rooprai HK, Dexter DT (December 2001). "Tissue distribution and neuroprotective effects of ... column chromatography preparative-high performance liquid chromatography super critical fluid chromatography high speed counter current ...
Kaneko, I.; Takatsuki, Y.; Kamiya, H.; Kawae, S. (1998). "Water property and current distributions along the WHP‐P9 section ( ... the southern branch of which joins the east-bound Equatorial Counter Current. The West and East Caroline basins have similar ...
Free-ranging dromedaries face large predators typical of their regional distribution, which includes wolves, lions[59] and ... a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which uses countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing to ...
Distribution and habitat. Common ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of ... The use of countercurrent heat exchange with blood flow allows for regulated conservation/ elimination of heat of appendages.[ ... Parto, P.; Tadjalli, M.; Ghazi, S. R. & Salamat, M. A. (2013). "Distribution and Structure of Purkinje Fibers in the Heart of ... Henriquez, H.; Henriquez, J. & Olave, E. (2012). "The distribution patterns of the coronary arteries and ventricular branches ...
Countercurrent distribution (CCD, also spelled "co "counter current" distribution) is an analytical chemistry technique which ... Lyman Craigs development of countercurrent distribution began with studying the distribution of a pharmaceutical, mepacrine ( ... Countercurrent distribution is a separation process that is founded on the principles of liquid-liquid extraction where a ... Countercurrent distribution, therefore, is a method of using a series of vessels (separatory funnels) to separation compounds ...
Optimizing the catalyst distribution for countercurrent methane steam reforming in plate reactors. ... Zanfir, M., Baldea, M. and Daoutidis, P. (2011), Optimizing the catalyst distribution for countercurrent methane steam ...
... described in terms of the distribution coefficient, K, by the equation ... countercurrent distribution. * In countercurrent distribution. …the two solvents, called the distribution coefficient, is ... Alternative Title: distribution ratio. Learn about this topic in these articles:. chemical separation. * In separation and ... in water is called the distribution coefficient, and it is clear that for an efficient extraction process it is desirable to ...
The predecessor of modern countercurrent chromatography theory and practice was countercurrent distribution (CCD). The theory ... Separation by Counter-current Distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155: 535-546. Kimura, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisami; ... Finally, Lyman C. Craig introduced the Craig countercurrent distribution apparatus in 1944 which made CCD practical for ... Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two ...
Evolving from Craigs Countercurrent Distribution (CCD), the most widely used term and abbreviation is CounterCurrent ... Both countercurrent exchange and countercurrent multiplication systems have been found in the kidneys. The latter in the loop ... Benzer Seymour (1967). "Behavioral Mutants Of Drosophila Isolated By Countercurrent Distribution". Proceedings of the National ... Countercurrent multiplication has been found in the kidneys as well as in many other biological organs. Countercurrent exchange ...
DCCC is considered to be a form of liquid-liquid separation, which includes countercurrent distribution and countercurrent ... A modified version of Craigs counter-current distribution". Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 (36): 6135-6143. doi:10.1016/j. ... Conway, Walter D. (1990). "The Evolution of Countercurrent Chromatography". Countercurrent Chromatography: Apparatus,Theory, & ... Hosteeman, Kurt; Marston, Andrew (1988). "Natural Products Isolation of Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography". Countercurrent ...
Application of Countercurrent Distribution to the Study 30. 52 other sections not shown ...
On the Distribution of Isotopes in a Separation Column in Countercurrent Electromigration of Molten Binary Mixtures. Okada, ...
Countercurrent Distribution. A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible ... significantly varied for proteins with lower and higher charge state distributions. Matrix effects, as well as the specificity ...
After counter current distribution the acetates are obtained of: EXAMPLE V Synthesis of A-GluHisPheLysPhederivatives l.a. BocD- ... 0.30 on SiO Finally the product obtained is subjected to a purification according tothe counter current principle. System Bu:Ac ...
Separation by counter-current distribution. J. Biol. Chem. 155, 519-534.Google Scholar ... Inoue, O., Ogihara, Y., Otsuka, H., Kawai, K., Tanimura, T., and Shibata, S. (1976) Droplet counter-current chromatography for ... Craig, L. C. (1944) Identification of small amounts of organic compounds by distribution studies. II. ...
Benzer, S.: Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 58, 1112- ...
isolated by countercurrent distribution. PNAS. 58, 1112-1119 (1967).. *Connolly, J. B., Tully, T. Drosophila: A practical ...
1967 Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-1119. ...
1967 Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-1119. ... The seed distribution of SR-miRNAs was obtained by counting the number of mature SR-miRNAs that fell within each of the three ... To compare the observed distribution of SR miRNA seeds with a null hypothesis, the aforementioned dendrogram was divided in ... This was compared to the distribution (in percentage) of all mature Drosophila miRNAs, using Pearsons χ2-test. ...
1967) Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 58:1112-1119. ... We assayed fast phototaxis in a countercurrent apparatus (Benzer, 1967) using a simplified protocol of that described. Flies ... We similarly assayed negative geotaxis, except the countercurrent apparatus was positioned vertically. The geotaxis index is ...
1967 Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-1119. ... and he seems to consider them as the extremes of a normal distribution of human variation. This may be a reflection of the view ...
Benzer S. Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1967; 58:1112-1119. ...
Counter-current distribution of interacting molecules: simulation of distribution behaviour and application to protein-protein ... The counter-current distribution behaviour of a solute depends on its size and surface properties including charge and ... From the counter- current distribution experiments it was possible to conclude that humain carbonic anhydrase II, the high ... In order to establish the boundary conditions and the potential as well as limitations of the counter-current distribution ...
Benzer, S. (1967). Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58, ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are credited. ... dendritic compartments likely have a different distribution of voltage-dependent calcium channels and different endogenous ...
countercurrent distribution; electrophoresis; and the like.. 5.4 CULTURE OF PLACENTAL STEM CELLS. 5.4.1 Culture Media [0078] ...
... counter-current distribution. The cells were fractionated according to the degree of differentiation of erythroblasts as ... The quality factors influenced by stress conditions are: total dry matter or starch content and distribution of starch, sugar ... of erytroblasts with affinitymediated modifications of their electrical properties using counter-current distribution Molecular ... content, types of sugars and distribution, texture, mealiness, flesh color, tuber size and shape, and tuber defects such as ...
... or countercurrent distribution; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), especially reverse phase HPLC on octyl- or ... distribution, column chromatography, dialysis, etc. The thus obtained peptides can be stored after freeze drying, if desired. ...
Benzer S (1967) Behavioral mutants ofDrosophila melanogaster isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 58 ...
Separation by Counter-current Distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155: 535-546. Horvath, C.; Melander, W. (1977). " ... Craig in 1994 and commercial counter-current distribution instruments were used for many important discoveries. The ... Martin, A J P; Synge, R L M (1941). "Separation of the higher monoamino-acids by counter-current liquid-liquid extraction: the ... The process was termed "counter-current liquid-liquid extraction." Martin and Synge described the theory of this technique in ...
  • The increase of MS sensitivity due to the difluoroacetic acid (estimated limits of detection in biological matrices 1-500 ng/mL) significantly varied for proteins with lower and higher charge state distributions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A worldwide network has, under the auspices of supranational organizations, interconnected migration, affordable tourism, mass production and distribution, economic interdependence, and world trade, acted as a catalyst for and an accelerator of the killer infection. (counter-currents.com)
  • Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • A countercurrent system in the renal medulla provides the mechanism for generating a hypertonic interstitium, which allows the recovery of solute-free water from within the nephron and returning it to the venous vasculature when appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maximum amount of heat or mass transfer that can be obtained is higher with countercurrent than co-current (parallel) exchange because countercurrent maintains a slowly declining difference or gradient (usually temperature or concentration difference). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyman Craig's development of countercurrent distribution began with studying the distribution of a pharmaceutical, mepacrine (atabrine), between the two layers of an ethylene dichloride, methanol, and aqueous buffer biphasic solvent system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution coefficient (Kc which coincides with partition coefficient) of atabrine varied by the composition of the solvent system and the pH of the buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best series of experiments on the distribution of heat among different bodies was performed before the year 1784 by Professor Gadolin of Åbo, who, rejecting the notion of Capacity, introduced the unexceptionable expression, Specific Heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using countercurrent distribution he separated individual transfer RNA's (tRNA)- the link between DNA and protein synthesis -which match up to each of the twenty two amino acids that make up all proteins. (nasonline.org)
  • Enzymolysis kinetics, thermodynamics and model of porcine cerebral protein with single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound-assisted processing. (nih.gov)
  • Countercurrent exchange along with cocurrent exchange and contra-current exchange comprise the mechanisms used to transfer some property of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a barrier allowing one way flow of the property between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Part I. Hydrodynamic distribution of two solvent phases in a helical column subjected to two types of synchronous planetary motion. (springer.com)
  • This is an important distinction to make as whilst the partition coefficient has a fixed value for the partitioning of a solute between two phases, the distribution ratio changes with differing conditions in the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Join WikiProject Biophysics ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WP:WikiProject_Biophysics ) and improve the relevant Wikipedia articles by thoughtful editing and by uploading free-license images. (biophysics.org)
  • Sometimes, the distribution ratio is referred to as the partition coefficient, which is often expressed as the logarithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that a distribution ratio for uranium and neptunium between two inorganic solids (zirconolite and perovskite) has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the distribution ratio and partition coefficient are often used synonymously, they are not necessarily so. (wikipedia.org)
  • These parameters were white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), neutrophil and lymphocyte count, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet count, platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided. (caltech.edu)
  • In that work, to obtain the drop size distribution, images were analyzed by employing visual/manual techniques which imply high costs, intensive labour, weariness buildup, and consequent high error rates. (hindawi.com)
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