A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.

Isolation and analysis of chemosensory behavior mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. (1/131)

A behavioral countercurrent paradigm has been developed for assaying the chemotactic responses of wild-type and mutant Drosophila melanogaster adults. Oregon R males avoid both quinine sulfate and NaCl, whereas Oregon R females reject the quinine salt but are attracted to NaCl when tested in this paradigm. Wild-type behavior is sufficiently reproducible to allow identification of mutants affecting chemotaxis, and 12 such mutants, in six complementation groups, have now been isolated. Three of the mutants respond abnormally to NaCl, two in one complementation group with atactic behavior (no chemotaxis) and the other, in a separate group, with a mistactic response (attraction to the stimulus). Four mutants in another group respond mistactically to quinine sulfate. Of the remaining mutants, two in one group behave atactically and three, in two groups, respond mistactically to either chemical stimulus. Several of the mutants also show abnormal behavior in a proboscis extension assay when tested individually with sucrose solutions.  (+info)

Role of hemoglobin in proton transfer to the active site of carbonic anhydrase. (2/131)

The binding of bovine oxyhemoglobin to bovine carbonic anhydrase with a dissociation constant between 10(-5) and 10(-7) M has been determined by countercurrent distribution using aqueous, biphasic polymer systems. This result provides an explanation for the very efficient proton transfer between hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase, a transfer which enhances the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase as measured by 18O exchange between bicarbonate and water at chemical equilibrium (Silverman, D. N., Tu, C. K., and Wynns, G. C. (1978) J. Biol. Chem, 253, 2563-2567). Two rate constants describing 18O exchange activity of carbonic anhydrase at pH 7.5 show saturation behavior when plotted against hemoglobin concentration consistent with a dissociation constant of 2.5 X 10(-6) M between bovine hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase. Interpretation of these rate constants in terms of a two-step model for 18O exchange indicates that hemoglobin enhances the rate of exchange from carbonic anhydrase of water containing the oxygen abstracted from bicarbonate, but does not affect the catalytic interconversion of CO2 and HCO3- at chemical equilibrium.  (+info)

Acoustic field assisted enhanced demixing of aqueous two-phase systems. (3/131)

Aqueous two-phase extraction has been recognized as a versatile downstream processing technique for the recovery of biomolecules. A major deterrent to its industrial exploitation is the slow demixing of the two aqueous phases after extraction, due to their similar physical properties. A method to decrease the demixing times of these systems, employing a travelling acoustic wave field, is reported. The effects of phase composition and microbial cells on demixing in a polyethylene glycol/potassium phosphate two-phase system are studied in detail. As phase composition increased, demixing time decreased gradually. Phase volume ratio was found to have a significant effect on demixing time at low phase compositions. However, at intermediate and high phase compositions, only a small effect on demixing time was observed. The effect of phase composition and volume ratio on demixing behavior was explained based on the droplet size of the dispersed phase, which is the resultant effect of the physical properties of the phases. At all the phase compositions studied, the acoustically assisted process decreased the demixing time by 17-60% when compared to demixing under gravity alone. Increasing the cell concentration increased the demixing time markedly in case of yeast cells. However, it remained practically constant in the case of Lactobacillus casei cells. Application of an acoustic field reduced the demixing times up to 60% and 40% in the case of yeast and L. casei cells, respectively. Visual observations indicated that ultrasonication caused mild circulation currents in the phase dispersion enhancing droplet-droplet interaction, which in turn enhanced the rate of coalescence, eventually resulting in an enhanced demixing rate.  (+info)

Affinity partitioning. A method for purification of proteins using specific polymer-ligands in aqueous polymer two-phase systems. (4/131)

We describe a method, called affinity partitioning, for the purification of proteins containing specific ligand binding receptor sites. This method adds specificity to the procedures for protein purification with aqueous polymer two-phase systems by introduction of a polymer derivative, coupled to an appropriate ligand. The addition of a polymer-ligand that partitions predominantly into one phase shifts the protein that binds this substance to the same phase. By performing countercurrent distribution in the presence of a polymer-ligand, the protein that binds the polymer-ligand can be separated from a heterogenous mixture. One example of affinity paritioning used dextran as the polymer-ligand. Dextran was chosen since it is a constituent of the most commonly used system for partitioning proteins. In a dextran-poly(ethylene oxide) system, concanavalin A bound dextran and partitioned predominantly into the dextran-rich phase. The addition of the specific competitor, D-mannose, displaced the partition coefficient toward unity, while the application of L-fucose, a noncompetitor, had little effect. Application of affinity partitioning to the purification of another protein required the synthesis of a specific polymer-ligand. To study this we synthesized dinitrophenyl-poly-(ethylene oxide), which binds specifically to S-23 myeloma protein. Addition of dinitrophenyl-poly(ethylene oxide) to the dextran-poly(ethylene oxide) phase system shifted the S-23 myeloma protein into the poly(ethylene oxide)-rich phase. epsilon-N-dinitrophenyl-L-lysine, by competing with binding of dinitrophenyl-poly(ethylene oxide), antagonized the latter's effect on the partition coefficient of S-23 myeloma protein. By adding various amounts of dinitrophenyl-poly-(ethylene oxide), we correlated the partition coefficient with concentration of polymer-ligand. A model of the action of polymer-ligand derivatives on the partition coefficient, derived from thermodynamic considerations, was found to be consistent with the experimental data relating the concentration of polymer-ligand and partition coefficient. Affinity partitioning should prove to be a useful complement to affinity chromatography in the purification of mixtures of proteins. Since cells and subcellular particles may be purified with aqueous polymer two-phase systems, affinity partitioning might be applied to their fractionation by using polymer-ligands specific for unique surface receptors.  (+info)

Immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen. (5/131)

A total of 69 persons were investigated for assessment of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Three groups, each consisting of 20 normal persons, 20HBsAg carriers, and 20 convalescent hepatitis B patients, were studied for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and leukocyte migration inhibition with purified HBsAg. Sequential sampling if an additional group of nine acute hepatitis B patients defined the cellular and humoral immune response to HBsAg. The antigen was eliminated rapidly by mounting of cell-mediated immune response detectable for a limited period, followed by antibody response in relatively few patients moore than 3 months after clearance of circulating HBsAg.  (+info)

Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (6/131)

The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.  (+info)

A novel two-step extraction method with detergent/polymer systems for primary recovery of the fusion protein endoglucanase I-hydrophobin I. (7/131)

Extraction systems for hydrophobically tagged proteins have been developed based on phase separation in aqueous solutions of non-ionic detergents and polymers. The systems have earlier only been applied for separation of membrane proteins. Here, we examine the partitioning and purification of the amphiphilic fusion protein endoglucanase I(core)-hydrophobin I (EGI(core)-HFBI) from culture filtrate originating from a Trichoderma reesei fermentation. The micelle extraction system was formed by mixing the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 or Triton X-100 with the hydroxypropyl starch polymer, Reppal PES100. The detergent/polymer aqueous two-phase systems resulted in both better separation characteristics and increased robustness compared to cloud point extraction in a Triton X-114/water system. Separation and robustness were characterized for the parameters: temperature, protein and salt additions. In the Triton X-114/Reppal PES100 detergent/polymer system EGI(core)-HFBI strongly partitioned into the micelle-rich phase with a partition coefficient (K) of 15 and was separated from hydrophilic proteins, which preferably partitioned to the polymer phase. After the primary recovery step, EGI(core)-HFBI was quantitatively back-extracted (K(EGIcore-HFBI)=150, yield=99%) into a water phase. In this second step, ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymers were added to the micelle-rich phase and temperature-induced phase separation at 55 degrees C was performed. Total recovery of EGI(core)-HFBI after the two separation steps was 90% with a volume reduction of six times. For thermolabile proteins, the back-extraction temperature could be decreased to room temperature by using a hydrophobically modified EOPO copolymer, with slightly lower yield. The addition of thermoseparating co-polymer is a novel approach to remove detergent and effectively releases the fusion protein EGI(core)-HFBI into a water phase.  (+info)

A new approach based on monitoring of phase formation kinetics for examination of biological particles and cells, using aqueous two phase polymer systems. (8/131)

An original technique of use of two-phase polymer systems as an analytical research method is described. The technique is based on the absorbance change of two-phase systems in visible spectrum during formation of the phases. Dynamics of this process was demonstrated as the kinetic curves. Addition of studied objects (macromolecules or cells) to the two-phase system modified the shape of the kinetic curve, depending on their individual surface properties. The technique has the following advantages as compared with traditional procedures of the particle surface analysis with the help of two-phase polymer systems: examination of particles with partition coefficients approaching zero; multiple analyses of the same samples; use of interphase as a matrix for study of spontaneous formation of studied particle complexes. The opportunities of the technique were demonstrated in a series of previous authors' works.  (+info)

Developments in spectroscopic analysis and routine availability of X-ray crystallography have simplified structural elucidation of natural compounds. However, isolating bioactive components of interest from crude extracts of either plants or animals has always been challenging for two reasons: these extracts contain hundreds of compounds with a range of polarities, and the bioactivity of the compound of interest should be maintained throughout the purification process. This is where countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is helpful.
Because of the skeletal complexity and similarity of the polarity, little research was reported on the isolation of sesquiterpene lactones by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Herein, three sesquiterpene lactones were successfully purified from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of the traditional Uyghur medicinal plant Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet. by HSCCC. The separation was performed in two steps with two solvent systems: n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:5:2.75:5, v/v/v/v) and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (20:1:20, v/v/v). From 166 mg of the ethyl acetate extract, 19 mg of lactucopicrin was isolated with the first solvent system and 10 mg of 11β,13-dihydrolactucin and 16 mg of lactucin were obtained with the second solvent system. All purified compounds were over 94% purity as determined by HPLC analysis, and these chemical structures were confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR ...
Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase force ...
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article{aa135bad-de1f-42a7-9ee6-8b5b5a8d0011, abstract = {The relative proportion of stroma lamellae and grana end membranes was determined from electron micrographs of 58 chloroplasts from 21 different plant species. The percentage of grana end membranes varied between 1 and 21% of the total thylakoid membrane indicating a large variation in the size of grana stacks. By contrast the stroma lamellae account for 20.3 +/- 2.5 (SD)% of the total thylakoid membrane. A plot of percentage stroma lamellae against percentage of grana end membranes fits a straight line with a slope of zero showing that the proportion of stroma lamellae is independent of the size of the grana stacks. That stroma lamellae account for about 20% of the thylakoid membrane is in agreement with fragmentation and separation analysis (Gadjieva et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 144: 92-100, 1999). Chloroplasts from spinach, grown under high or low light, were fragmented by sonication and separated by countercurrent distribution into ...
Elsholtzia densa Benth. var. densa (Lamiaceae) is a famous medicinal herb which has been widely used for treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, digestion disorder, rheumatic arthritis, nephritises, and nyctalopia in China. In this study, fraction of the ethyl alcohol extract of E. densa (aerial part) by different polarity solvents indicated that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited a potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with the IC50 value of 148.2 μg/mL. Under the target guidance of DPPH experiment, isoquercitrin, trachelogenin, ethyl caffeate, and arctigenin were separated with purities 95.98%, 92.98%, 96.07%, and 88.83%, respectively, by a dual-mode high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4.5:5:3:4, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In order to evaluate the scientific basis, antioxidant activity of four isolated compounds was assessed by the radical scavenging effect on ...
Various special techniques for blind bedside transpyloric tube placement have been introduced into clinical practice. However, transpyloric spiral tube placement facilitated by a blind bedside method has not yet been reported. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of blind bedside postpyloric placement of a spiral tube as a rescue therapy subsequent to failed spontaneous transpyloric migration in critically ill patients. This prospective, tricentric, observational study was conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of three tertiary hospitals. A total of 127 consecutive patients with failed spontaneous transpyloric spiral tube migration despite using prokinetic agents and still required enteral nutrition for more than 3 days were included. The spiral tube was inserted postpylorically using the blind bedside technique. All patients received metoclopramide intravenously prior to tube insertion. The exact tube tip position was determined by radiography. The
The smooth oxidative radical decarboxylation of carboxylic acids with TEMPO and other derivatives as radical scavengers is reported. The key to success was the use of a two-phase solvent system to avoid otherwise predominant side reactions such as the oxidation of TEMPO by persulfate. and enabled the selecti Synthetic methodology in OBC
Isolation of lipophilic compounds by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a challenge because biphasic solvent systems in which these compounds distribute evenly are difficult to obtain. In this article we present novel applications of lipid compound isolation from natural sources. Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs, log KOW ∼7) were isolated from pomegranate oil using a solvent system consisting of n-heptane/methanol/water 100:91:9 (v/v/v). The CLnA fraction was free of other fatty acids but consisted of different isomers which were not resolved from each other. In the less polar range (log KOW ∼12), three tocotrienols (α-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol) were isolated from a vitamin E capsule produced from palm oil by using the solvent system n-hexane/acetonitrile/benzotrifluoride (BTF) at a ratio of 10:6.5:3.5 (v/v/v). Between 36 and 65 mg of each of the three tocotrienols were obtained in one injection with purities ,97%. Advantages and disadvantages of the BTF system are discussed by ...
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Shan, Y.; Kaspereit, M.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.: Separation of Multicomponent Mixtures Using a Combination of Batch Chromatography and Continuous Countercurrent Chromatography. In 17th International Symposium, Exhibit and Workshops on Preparative/Process Chromatography, Ion Exchange, Adsorption/Desorption Processes and Related Separation Techniques (PREP-2004): Book of abstracts, p. 74. PREP 2004: 17th International Symposium, Exhibit and Workshops on Preparative/Process Chromatography, Ion Exchange, Adsorption, Baltimore, USA, May 23, 2004 - May 26, 2004. (2004 ...
Citation: Berhow, M.A., Polat, U., Glinski, J., Glensk, M., Vaughn, S.F., Isbell, T., Ayala-Diaz, I., Marek, L., Gardner, C.A. 2011. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds. Meeting Abstract. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-glucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecyl-glucosinolate. We have developed methods to isolate mg quantities of these glucosinolates and flavonoids using a combination of reverse phase flash countercurrent chromatography and preparative HPLC methods. An analytical method has been developed to accurately measure glucosinolate levels in seeds, seed meal and sprouts. The camelina glucosinolates have not been assessed for their phytochemical activities in ...
It should be emphasized that the success of this preparative separation depended, not on high column efficiencies, or, for that matter, on a particularly large column, but on the selection of a phase system that provided a high retention ratio between the two isomers. The required selectivity was achieved by firstly choosing a stationary phase with strong chiral interactive properties and secondly by choosing the best complementary solvent system that would provide strong differential interaction between the isomers and the two phases.. ...
The volume is divided into three sections. Section I, edited by Lyman C. Craig, consists of physico-chemical methods of separation of biological compounds. These methods are counter-current distribution, paper chromatography, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. These methods have stimulated progress in medical research in recent years and promise much for the future.. Section III, edited by Melvin Cohn, also involves separations. These are of immunological substances. The separations are by ethanol fractionation and by precipitin reactions in liquid media and in gels.. Section II, edited by A. C. Corcoran, concerns methods of study of renal function. These include plasma disappearance rates, renal ...
Different methods have been investigated for the preparation of N-CBO-S-bensyl-L-cysteinyl-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl-L-isoleucine. Condensation of the protected tripeptide with L-glytaminyl-L-asparaginyl-S-benzyl-L-cysteinyl-L-protyl-L-leucyl glycinamide affords N-CBO-S-benzyl-L-cysteinyl-N-methyl-tyrosyl L-isoleucul-L-glutaminyl-L-asparaginyl-S-benxyl-L-cysteinyl; L-protyl-L-leucyl-gylcinamide. Cleavage of the protecting groups of the resulting nonapeptide with sodium in liquid ammonia, oxidation with air in dilute aqueous solution and purification by counter-current distribution gives the desired cyclic nonapeptide amide: (N-methyl-Tyr)(2)-oxytocin. This exhibits less than one per cent of the oxytocic potency of oxytocin. (Author)(*PITUITARY HORMONES
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoate from hydrolyzed cells of Bacillus flexus using aqueous two-phase system containing polyethylene glycol and phosphate. AU - Divyashree, M. S.. AU - Shamala, T. R.. AU - Rastogi, N. K.. PY - 2009/10/9. Y1 - 2009/10/9. N2 - Main objective of present work was to isolate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from cell lysate of Bacillus flexus by aqueous-aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Selected ATPS having polyethylene glycol (12%, w/v) and potassium phosphate (9.7%, pH 8.0) containing cell lysate obtained by sonication or hypochlorite treatment of B. flexus biomass (1 g%, dry weight), was held at 28°C for 30 min, which partitioned PHA into top PEG phase and residual cell materials into bottom phase. For enzymatic cell hydrolysis, Microbispora sp. culture filtrate having protease (3 U/mL) was mixed with B. flexus biomass and ATPS, incubated at 37°C for 2 h prior to phase separation. PHA recovered by centrifugation was 19∼51% of cell dry weight, depending on ...
Courtesy of Dr. Lester Dolak and Dr Eric Seest of Pharmacia Upjohn Inc.. Figure 35. The Preparative Separation of the Enantiomers of Chlorokynurenine. An example of a commercially available preparative column designed for the separation of enantiomers is shown in figure 36. The column was manufactured by ASTEC Inc. who have a number of different types of chiral stationary phases available for preparative use. These columns vary in size from a few cm in length to a meter or more. ...
The aberrant ebook Analytical and Preparative Separation Methods in Kants Arabidopsis will design to alter the privileged or aware objects of priori that include personality, if there do any analogical women besides what the fundamental updates indicate descended. The formal summer of view provides justify a phylogenetic nothing. Kant plays that there are a government of concerns that must soon get good of government in action for reference to apply inevitable.
TLC-based strategies were proposed in 1979 (Hostettmann et al.) and 2005 (Friesen & Pauli; GUESS method) to minimize the number of partitioning experiments required for countercurrent separation (CCS) solvent system selection. As semi-empirical approaches, both proposed that the K values defining the sweet spot of optimal CCS corresponded to a matching Rf value range from the silica gel TLC plate developed in the organic phase of a biphasic or a corresponding monophasic solvent system. Despite their simplicity, there has been an absence of theoretical support and a deficiency of reported experimental evidence. The present study explores the theory required to develop correlations between Rf and K. All theoretical models surmise that the optimal Rf value range should be centered at 0.5. In order to validate the feasibility of the concept of matching Rf and K values, 43 natural products and six solvent system families were investigated. Out of 62 correlations, 45 resulted in matched Rf and K ...
A steady-state, three-dimensional, multiphase CFD modelling of a pilot-plant counter-current spray drying tower is carried out to study the drying behavior of detergent slurry droplets. The software package ANSYS Fluent is employed to solve the heat, mass and momentum transfer between the hot gas and the polydispersed droplets/particles using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The continuous phase turbulence is modelled using the differential Reynolds stress model. The drying kinetics is modelled using a single droplet drying model[1] which is incorporated into the CFD code using user-defined functions. Heat loss from the insulated tower wall to the surrounding is modelled by considering thermal resistances due to deposits on the inside surface, wall, insulation and outside convective film. For the particle-wall interaction, the restitution coefficient is specified as a constant value as well as a function of particle moisture content. It is found that the variation in the value of restitution ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of Bacillus cereus cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and recycling of phase components in an aqueous two-phase system using thermo-separating polymer. AU - Ng, Hui Suan. AU - Tan, Chin Ping. AU - Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan Mohd. AU - Ibrahim, Shaliza. AU - Ariff, Arbakariya B. AU - Ooi, Chien Wei. AU - Ling, Tau Chuan. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.12.028. U2 - 10.1016/j.seppur.2011.12.028. DO - 10.1016/j.seppur.2011.12.028. M3 - Article. VL - 89. SP - 9. EP - 15. JO - Separation and Purification Technology. JF - Separation and Purification Technology. SN - 1383-5866. ER - ...
The safety of synthetic colour additives used in soft drinks, cereals and baked goods, were confirmed in a trio of studies as findings appear to back up recent EFSA and US authority findings.
There are good arguments on both sides of this question. On the one side, we know that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was much lower during past ice-ages than during warm periods, so it is reasonable to expect that an artificially high level of carbon dioxide might stop an ice-age from beginning. On the other side, the oceanographer Wallace Broecker [Broecker, 1997] has argued that the present warm climate in Europe depends on a circulation of ocean water, with the Gulf Stream flowing north on the surface and bringing warmth to Europe, and with a counter-current of cold water flowing south in the deep ocean. So a new ice-age could begin whenever the cold deep counter-current is interrupted. The counter-current could be interrupted when the surface water in the Arctic becomes less salty and fails to sink, and the water could become less salty when the warming climate increases the Arctic rainfall. Thus Broecker argues that a warm climate in the Arctic may paradoxically cause an ...
Proof-of-concept is shown for two-phase countercurrent flow on paper. The device consists of two paper layers, one of which has been modified with a sizing agent to be hydrophobic. The layers exhi ...
A process for upgrading a liquid petroleum or chemical stream wherein said feedstream flows countercurrent to the flow of a treat gas, such as a hydrogen-containing gas, in at least one reaction zone. The feedstream is treated so that it is substantially free of particulate matter and foulant precursors.
The Graver CI. Process Continuous Countercurrent Filtration and Adsorption JOSEPH A. LEVENDUSKY, Director of Research Graver Water Conditioning Company Division of Union Tank Car Company Union, New Jersey INTRODUCTION The basic concept and theory of filtration and adsorption have been widely published in the literature. Specific applications relating to filtration and- adsorption have been extensively studied in the pilot plant and laboratory. These studies have resulted in the improvement in the practical utihzation of filtration and adsorption equipment. There have also been considerable innovations in the design of process equipment within the last several years. Unfortunately, the data that one derives from the literature and the pilot plant do not make it obvious how efficiently unit operations can be utilized. It is possible that there are several types of equipment design that may be suitable for varying applications. It does appear, however, that this is the middle of a technology ...
Updated Ti-Torque tube assembly from their T-Ratchet + Ti Torque multi-tool featuring three scales instead of the original single scale to measure 2-8Nm.
a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2 + ) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb (OOCCH3)2.3H2O). (b) Specifications. Lead acetate shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named to the extent that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Water-insoluble matter, not more than 0.02 percent. pH (30 percent solution weight to volume at 25 deg. C), not less than 4.7 and not more than 5.8. Arsenic (as As), not more than 3 parts per million. Lead acetate, not less than 99 percent. Mercury (as Hg), not more than 1 part per million.. (c) Uses and restrictions. The color additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb, shall not be in excess of 0.6 percent (weight to ...
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Shop Champion Figure-8 Ankle Support, Large (60/45-L) at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Champion Figure-8 Ankle Support, Large (60/45-L) and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Discover the most innovative C18 technologies with the SiliaChrom C18 columns. Try our Universal AQ C18 and dt C18, which can be used until 100% aqueous Mobile Phase. You will be surprised by the high resistance of our SB C18 and SB C8 in extreme low pH conditions (up to 0.8). You need to use high pH Mobile phase, No problem our XT and XT Fidelity columns will permit you to work in extreme high pH conditions (up to 12).
You might be asking this because you have read that not all columns are OK to use with highly aqueous content (,95%) in the mobile phase. Or maybe the caption caught your eye because you have recently encountered some difficulty with using highly aqueous mobile phase. There is a phenomenon called phase dewetting that can […]. ...
CORTECS T3 columns are compatible with 100% aqueous mobile phases, and provide excellent retention for polar and non-polar analytes. The particle morphology offers high efficnecy and lower backpressure when compared to fully porouse particles of similar particle size. CORTECS T3 provides you with ultra-low column MS bleed, long lifetimes and excellent peak shape.
CORTECS T3 method validation kits provide columns of three different batches. CORTECS T3 columns are compatible with 100% aqueous mobile phases, and provide excellent retention for polar and non-polar analytes. The particle morphology offers high efficnecy and lower backpressure when compared to fully porouse particles of similar particle size. CORTECS T3 provides you with ultra-low column MS bleed, long lifetimes and excellent peak shape.
Alternative selectivity to alkyl bonded phases, recommended for aromatic groups. Compatible with highly aqueous mobile phases to facilitate the retention and separation of polar compounds.
We are a world full of ignorant people. Our government has always been made up of ignorant people with the exception of a few well enlightened individuals scatter sparsely through out our countries history. The difference is that in previous times the majority of those that led us did not claim to know all. They were humble men who knew the limitation of their knowledge. What we have become or are in the process of becoming is a nation of stupid people. The people leading our nation see themselves as betters than the common man. Therefore they know more on any subject even those they know nothing about. This is what is getting us into major problems. How can you pass judgement on anything that you know nothing about and are unwilling to learn about. This is why we have statements such as we must pass it to know whats in it. Even if the leaders had read it, the content was too far out of their knowledge base to understand and they were too stupid to take the time to learn what they need to know ...
A method for conducting a ligand assay in an inert porous medium wherein a binding material is immunologically immobilized within the medium, which includes the steps of immunologically immobilizing a binding material within a finite zone of the medium, applying an analyte to the zone containing the immobilized binding material, applying a labeled indicator to the zone which becomes immobilized within the zone in an amount which can be correlated to the amount of analyte in the zone, applying a solvent to substantially the center of the zone to chromatographically separate the unbound labeled indicator from the zone, and measuring the amount of labeled indicator remaining in the zone.
An operator in the Permian basin was experiencing electrical submersible pumping (ESP) system failures in an unconventional horizontal well producing from the Wolfcamp formation, due to gas slugs in the production stream. The well had a high gas-to-liquid ratio of 1,700 SCF/STB, a low flow rate of 219 BFPD, and was completed with 5-1⁄2 in. 17 lb casing.. Unconventional horizontal wells present unique production challenges, particularly gas slugs that accumulate in the high side of undulations in the lateral section and then break free. These gas slugs affect the operation of ESP systems, causing gas locking conditions that shutdown the system and/or pump cycling that can lead to motor overheating. These issues shorten the life of the ESP system and limit oil production.. Download the PDF to read the full case study.. ...
In this contribution it will be outlined the basic theoretical framework and two applications of a new theoretical-computational approach specifically designed for evaluating free-energy profiles...
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
Aqueous two phase-systems (ATPS) have been introduced as a new approach to remove dyes from aqueous discharges. Thus, this work evaluated the phase formation capacity in ..
For each additional 50 cases or fraction thereof over 600 cases, one case must be added to the cases in the sample.. [St. Quarantine Officer, No. 83.10, eff. 3-1-58; A 4-1-72] - (NAC A 9-7-82; 11-7-84). MEAT AND POULTRY INSPECTION. NAC 583.211 Definitions. As used in NAC 583.211 to 583.530, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NAC 583.221 to 583.340, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.. (Supplied in codification). NAC 583.221 Capable of use as human food defined. (NRS 583.535) Capable of use as human food has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 583.272.. [Bd. of Health, Meat Inspection Reg. Art. II I subsec. h, eff. 11-4-70; renumbered as A subsec. 8, 3-5-71]. NAC 583.231 Color additive defined. (NRS 583.535) Color additive means a material which:. 1. Is a dye, pigment or other substance made by a process of synthesis or similar article, or extracted, isolated, or otherwise derived, with or without intermediate or final ...
Apparatus comprising a holder for a sample which comprises a packing or coating capable of immobilising or isolating a target compound in a layer or band, an excitation unit that emits radiation that excites fluorescence in a target compound or derivatised target compound immobilised or isolated in the packing or coating, or in another moiety stimulated by the target compound, a detection unit that is sensitive to radiation emitted by a fluorescing target compound, derivative or target compound-stimulated moiety and outputs a signal proportional to the amount of radiation detected, means for relatively moving the sample cartridge and the detection unit whereby the radiation may be sensed and a processing unit that converts the output of the detector unit into a readable value related to the amount of target compound immobilised in the layer or band.
1. Interactions of proteins with neutral polysaccharides and such polyacids as polygalacturonic acid, chondroitin sulphate, RNA and DNA in a two-phase system composed of phenol and aqueous buffers in the
The in situ combination of rheometry and Raman spectroscopy allows for real-time, synchronized measurement of both physical and chemical material properties.
Convenient kit contains all the components needed to mount the buttstock of your choice on an AR-15 rifle or carbine. Perfect for ...
Convenient kit contains all the components needed to mount the buttstock of your choice on an AR-15 rifle or carbine. Perfect for ...
Formation of the muscular layer of the heart, the myocardium, involves the medial movement of bilateral progenitor fields; driven primarily by shortening of the endoderm during foregut formation. Using a combination of time-lapse imaging, microsurgical perturbations and computational modeling, we sh …
A strategy for determining a suitable solvent gradient in silico in preparative peptide separations is presented. The strategy utilizes a machine-learning-based method, called ELUDE, for peptide retention time predictions based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides. A suitable gradient is calculated according to linear solvent strength theory by predicting the retention times of the peptides being purified at three different gradient slopes. The advantage of this strategy is that fewer experiments are needed to develop a purification method, making it useful for labs conducting many separations but with limited resources for method development. The preparative separation of met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin was used as model solutes on two stationary phases: XBridge C18 and CSH C18. The ELUDE algorithm contains a support vector regression and is pre-trained, meaning that only 10-50 peptides are needed to calibrate a model for a certain stationary phase and gradient. The calibration is done ...
In this early work he applied the technique of thin layer countercurrent distribution. Subsequently, through the study of mouse ... Albertsson, P-A (1965). "Thin-layer countercurrent distribution". Analytical Biochemistry. 4: 121-125. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(65 ...
Separation by counter-current distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155 (2): 519-534. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)51183 ... and commercial counter-current distribution instruments were used for many important discoveries. The introduction of paper ... Martin, A. J. P.; Synge, R. L. M. (1 January 1941). "Separation of the higher monoamino-acids by counter-current liquid-liquid ... The process was termed "counter-current liquid-liquid extraction." Martin and Synge described the theory of this technique in ...
"Isolation of coumestrol and other phenolics from alfalfa by countercurrent distribution". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. ... atypical collagen distribution was observed in the uterine wall. When 2 day old male Wistar rats are injected with coumestrol ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ...
... from separatory funnels to countercurrent distribution equipment called as mixer settlers.[not verified in body] This type of ... For instance, if the distribution ratio for nickel (DNi) is 10 and the distribution ratio for silver (DAg) is 100, then the ... This quantitative measure is known as the distribution ratio or distribution coefficient. The separation factor is one ... a distribution ratio is often quoted as a measure of how well-extracted a species is. The distribution ratio (Kd) is equal to ...
... grossed 80 lakh in Chennai distribution territory S. Anand. "Politics, Tamil cinema Eshtyle". Countercurrents. Kaadhal ... 1.25 crores the film was a surprise blockbuster recovering almost its entire budget from Chennai distribution territory. [1][ ...
... he called this Countercurrent Distribution Craig apparatus consists of a series of glass tubes that are designed and arranged ... 250 mL countercurrent chromatography has optimal flow rate of 1-3 mL/min. Process scale example: 25 L countercurrent ... As opposed to countercurrent chromatography, it is possible to get very high flow rates (for example 10 liters / min) with ... Countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography are two different instrumental realization of the same ...
Distribution (pharmacology) Metabolism Countercurrent exchange Eructation Homeostasis Osmoregulation Respiration (physiology) ... Other parameters of interest include a drug's bioavailability and the apparent volume of distribution. Pharmacy Bioequivalence ...
... countercurrent distribution MeSH E05.196.181.500 - chromatography, micellar electrokinetic capillary MeSH E05.196.181.750 - ... binomial distribution MeSH E05.318.740.994.300 - chi-square distribution MeSH E05.318.740.994.500 - normal distribution MeSH ... E05.318.740.994.750 - poisson distribution MeSH E05.318.740.995 - statistics, nonparametric MeSH E05.318.740.996 - stochastic ...
... especially in rigid-body dynamics Countercurrent distribution, used for separating mixtures Canine compulsive disorder, a ... a second order model for a response variable without a complete three-level factorial Complementary cumulative distribution ...
Evolving from Craig's Countercurrent Distribution (CCD), the most widely used term and abbreviation is CounterCurrent ... Both countercurrent exchange and countercurrent multiplication systems have been found in the kidneys. The latter in the loop ... Benzer Seymour (1967). "Behavioral Mutants Of Drosophila Isolated By Countercurrent Distribution" (PDF). Proceedings of the ... Countercurrent multiplication has been found in the kidneys as well as in many other biological organs. Countercurrent exchange ...
The predecessor of modern countercurrent chromatography theory and practice was countercurrent distribution (CCD). The theory ... Separation by Counter-current Distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155: 535-546. Kimura, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisami; ... Finally, Lyman C. Craig introduced the Craig countercurrent distribution apparatus in 1944 which made CCD practical for ... Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two ...
DCCC is considered to be a form of liquid-liquid separation, which includes countercurrent distribution and countercurrent ... A modified version of Craig's counter-current distribution". Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 (36): 6135-6143. doi:10.1016/j. ... Conway, Walter D. (1990). "The Evolution of Countercurrent Chromatography". Countercurrent Chromatography: Apparatus,Theory, & ... Hosteeman, Kurt; Marston, Andrew (1988). "Natural Products Isolation of Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography". Countercurrent ...
Its distribution at sea is little known but many move south and east into the waters of the Equatorial Counter Current. It has ... Its distribution on the other islands is uncertain but it is known to breed on Molokaʻi and the island of Hawaiʻi and may breed ... It was formerly a much more common bird with a wider breeding distribution in the islands. It has declined due to habitat loss ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) https://countercurrents.org/2018/11/19/educational-innovations-through-effective- ... "Akhilesh Yadav Laptop Distribution & Specification". PaliganjTimes. Retrieved 19 April 2017. Laptop Tablet Distribution Scheme ... Free Laptop Distribution scheme : मुफ्त लैपटॉप वितरण योजना -: This is an initiative of the Government of Uttar Pradesh headed ... It is believed that through these laptop distribution, students would receive inspiration towards higher education and interest ...
A selectivity factor is defined as the ratio of distribution coefficients, which describe the equilibrium distribution of an ... Complete separation is effected by using a countercurrent exchange method. A number of cells are arranged as a cascade. After ... Retention factors are proportional to distribution coefficients. In practice substances with a selectivity factor very close to ... "Nomenclature for liquid-liquid distribution (solvent extraction)". Pure Appl. Chem. IUPAC. 65 (11): 2373-2396. doi:10.1351/ ...
132 p. (co-author G. M. Dovudov) supervised the development and implementation of an automated system for the distribution of ... in the development of the mathematical foundations for optimizing the extractant enrichment process in the countercurrent ...
The Mindanao Eddy is bordered to the north by the North Equatorial Current and to the south by the North Equatorial Counter Current ... Nutrient Flux, and Chlorophyll-a Distribution in the Mindanao Eddy. Natural Science. 8: 163-173. "Observed features of the ...
At the offtake stations the gas pressure is reduced for distribution. Gas is distributed by two statutory gas distribution ... Eades, Andrew and W. J. Brignall (1995). "Counter-Current Dissolved Air Floatation/Filtration". Water Science Technology. 31 (3 ... "The GB gas distribution network". OFGEM. Retrieved 9 July 2020. London County Council (1915). London Statistics vol. 24 1913-4 ... Chilled water is generated by absorption chillers, electricity is sold to the local distribution grid. Solid waste was ...
If the fins are designed well, the plate-fin heat exchanger can work in perfect countercurrent arrangement. The cost of plate- ... and serrated and perforated which refer to cuts and perforations in the fins to augment flow distribution and improve heat ...
Distribution of nutrients and oxygen within the Costa Rica Dome is determined primarily through the localised upwelling of the ... The upwelling within the dome is caused by circulation of the Costa Rican current, northeastern Equatorial Counter Current and ... The approach to this work is: Publication of a spatial and temporal species distribution atlas for the Costa Rica Thermal Dome ... p. 1. Broenkow, William (1965). The Distribution of Nutrients in the Costa Rica Dome in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Wiley. pp ...
... countercurrent heat exchangers between the large front flippers and the core body, and an extensive network of countercurrent ... Distribution[edit]. The leatherback turtle is a species with a cosmopolitan global range. Of all the extant sea turtle species ... Coupled with their countercurrent heat exchangers, insulating fat covering, and large size, leatherbacks are able to maintain ... Foley, Allen (2017). "Distributions, relative abundances, and mortality factors of sea turtles in Florida during 1980-2014 as ...
... with its distribution shifted northwards. It had its southern distribution limit at Peniche in the 1970s and 1980s, but is now ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Portugal coastal counter current off NW Spain: new insights on its biogeochemical ...
The uniform distribution of the solution is important when using this type of evaporator. The solution enters and gains ... The steam follows a co-current, counter-current path in relation to the liquid. The concentrate and the vapor are both fed into ...
2.2 Global distribution *2.2.1 Effect of global climate change on distribution and abundance ... composed of the North Equatorial Current and the Equatorial Countercurrent. These two currents move in opposite directions, ... 1973), "The distribution of oceanic coccolithophores in the Pacific", Deep-Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 20 (4): ... The complete distribution of coccolithophores is currently not known and some regions, such as the Indian Ocean, are not as ...
"Impact Of Aadhaar In Welfare Programmes - Countercurrents". Countercurrents. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2018. "India ... India's Public Distribution System: Utilization and Impact, Journal of Development Studies, Vol 47, No. 3, pp. 1-23, 2011. The ... Four videos that show why Rajasthan needs to desperately fix its public distribution system, Scroll.in, 9 March. What Explains ... Trends in Diversion of Grain from the Public Distribution System, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 46, No. 26, 21 May 2011. ...
Kaneko, I.; Takatsuki, Y.; Kamiya, H.; Kawae, S. (1998). "Water property and current distributions along the WHP‐P9 section ( ... the southern branch of which joins the east-bound Equatorial Counter Current. The West and East Caroline basins have similar ...
Counter Currents Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781935965541 - via Google Books. Moomaw, Graham (February 16, 2017). "In Charlottesville ... Deb, Sopan (August 30, 2017). "Pepe the Frog Cartoonist Stops Distribution of Children's Book". The New York Times. Archived ...
"The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre". Biogeosciences. 12 (4 ... a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia". Continental Shelf Research. 19 (3 ...
Atomizer wheels are known to provide broader particle size distribution, but both methods allow for consistent distribution of ... The hot drying gas can be passed in as a co-current, same direction as sprayed liquid atomizer, or counter-current, where the ... A consistent particle size distribution is a reason for spray drying some industrial products such as catalysts. Air is the ... With counter-current flow, particles spend more time in the system and is usually paired with a fluidized bed system. Co- ...
Distribution and habitat. Common ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of ... The use of countercurrent heat exchange with blood flow allows for regulated conservation/ elimination of heat of appendages.[ ... Parto, P.; Tadjalli, M.; Ghazi, S. R. & Salamat, M. A. (2013). "Distribution and Structure of Purkinje Fibers in the Heart of ... Henriquez, H.; Henriquez, J. & Olave, E. (2012). "The distribution patterns of the coronary arteries and ventricular branches ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allows for regulation of the distribution of substances between cells of the brain,[59] and ... Schmidt-Nielsen K (1981). "Countercurrent systems in animals". Scientific American. 244 (5): 118-28. Bibcode:1981SciAm.244e. ... This acts as a counter-current exchange system which short-circuits the warmth from the arterial blood directly into the venous ... but also forcing the venous blood into the counter-current system in the depths of the limbs. ...
One way that Arctic foxes regulate their body temperature is by utilizing a countercurrent heat exchange in the blood of their ... The Arctic fox has a circumpolar distribution and occurs in Arctic tundra habitats in northern Europe, northern Asia, and North ...
The Arctic fox has a circumpolar distribution and occurs in Arctic tundra habitats in northern Europe, northern Asia, and North ... a system of countercurrent heat exchange in the circulation within the paws to retain core temperature, and a good supply of ...
In addition, passive countercurrent exchange by the vessels carrying the blood supply to the nephron is essential for enabling ... As with the arteriole distribution, the veins follow the same pattern: the interlobular provide blood to the arcuate veins then ... This allows for a countercurrent exchange system whereby the medulla becomes increasingly concentrated, but at the same time ... of urine much smaller than the volume of blood from which the wastes were extracted is dependent on an elaborate countercurrent ...
Distribution and habitat[edit]. Common ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa ... The use of countercurrent heat exchange with blood flow allows for regulated conservation/ elimination of heat of appendages.[ ... "The distribution patterns of the coronary arteries and ventricular branches in the heart of the ostrich (Struthio Camelus)". ... "Distribution and Structure of Purkinje Fibers in the Heart of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) with the Special References on the ...
Distribution and habitat[edit]. The bigeye thresher has a virtually circumtropical distribution. In the western Atlantic Ocean ... There is also no blood vessel countercurrent exchange system (the rete mirabile) in the trunk to limit the loss of metabolic ...
22. A comparison between the operations and effects of a cocurrent and a countercurrent flow exchange system is depicted by the ... Henry RP, Swenson ER (June 2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas ... In fish a countercurrent flow (lower diagram) of blood and water in the gills is used to extract oxygen from the environment.[ ... Gills use a countercurrent exchange system that increases the efficiency of oxygen-uptake from the water.[51][52][53] Fresh ...
These chromatographic processes are known as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). The resin costs per amount of ... Distribution constant. *Freundlich equation. *Kovats retention index. *Retention factor. *Van Deemter equation ...
Distribution of blood vessels in cortex of kidney. (Although the figure labels the efferent vessel as a vein, it is actually an ... Unlike the descending limb, the thin ascending limb is impermeable to water, a critical feature of the countercurrent exchange ... A countercurrent system in the renal medulla provides the mechanism for generating a hypertonic interstitium, which allows the ... it passes by the medullary interstitium which has a high sodium concentration as a result of the loop of Henle's countercurrent ...
Micetrap Distribution (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017)[61][10][22][60]. *MSR Productions (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[61][10][22][60] ... Counter-Currents Publishing (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[31][10][22][33][2] ...
Liquid liquid extraction can be also performed or countercurrent chromatography. Solid phase extraction can also be made on C18 ... Locke, M.; Krishnan, N. (1971). "The distribution of phenoloxidases and polyphenols during cuticle formation". Tissue and Cell ...
Distribution. *Metabolism. *Excretion (Clearance). *Loading dose. *Volume of distribution (Initial). *Rate of infusion ...
9.8 Countercurrent chromatography *9.8.1 Hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography (CCC). *9.8.2 Hydrostatic countercurrent ... a better distribution of the feedstock liquor added into the expanded bed ensuring that the fluid passed through the expanded ... Countercurrent chromatography[edit]. Further information: Countercurrent chromatography. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is ... Periodic counter-current chromatography[edit]. Further information: Periodic counter-current chromatography. In contrast to ...
Richter WF, Whitby BR, Chou RC (1996). "Distribution of remikiren, a potent orally active inhibitor of human renin, in ...
The high-density distributions of vasopressin receptor AVPr1a in prairie vole ventral forebrain regions have been shown to ... This adds to the countercurrent multiplication which aids in proper water reabsorption later in the distal tubule and ... In particular, there are consistent differences between monogamous species and promiscuous species in the distribution of AVP ... which indicate that the precise distribution of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors in the brain is associated with species- ...
Free-ranging dromedaries face large predators typical of their regional distribution, which includes wolves, lions[59] and ... a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which uses countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing to ...
Distribution and habitatEdit. The porbeagle has an almost global amphitemperate distribution, i.e. it is absent from the ... that act as highly efficient countercurrent heat exchangers. The porbeagle has several rete mirabile systems: the orbital retia ...
The process uses high-capacity high-speed countercurrent chromatography (high-capacity HSCCC).[5] Through this method honokiol ... Zheng, J; Tang, Y; Sun, M; Zhao, Y; Li, Q; Zhou, J; Wang, Y (2013). "Characterization, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution ... "Rapid purification and scale-up of honokiol and magnolol using high-capacity high-speed counter-current chromatography". ...
... trade or distribution of shark fins.[120] From 1996 to 2000, an estimated 38 million sharks had been killed per year for ... which the body retains via a countercurrent exchange mechanism by a system of blood vessels called the rete mirabile (" ...
... while the other is limited to a circumglobal distribution in the Southern Ocean, with the 34°S as its northern limit. Two ... first described in 2015 as exhibiting counter-current heat exchange in which the arteries, carrying warm blood, from the heart ...
Widely scattered records suggest that the longfin mako shark has a worldwide distribution in tropical and warm-temperate oceans ... Like the other members of its family, this species possesses blood vessel countercurrent exchange systems called the rete ... with a probable worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical waters. An uncommon species, it is typically lumped together ...
Stirling, Ian (1988). "Distribution and Abundance". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10100- ... Marine mammals are adept at thermoregulation using dense fur or blubber, circulatory adjustments (counter-current heat exchange ... Killer whales are apex predators throughout their global distribution, and can have a profound effect on the behavior and ... Raised sea levels, sea temperature and changed currents are expected to affect marine mammals by altering the distribution of ...
Optimizing the catalyst distribution for countercurrent methane steam reforming in plate reactors. ... Zanfir, M., Baldea, M. and Daoutidis, P. (2011), Optimizing the catalyst distribution for countercurrent methane steam ...
... described in terms of the distribution coefficient, K, by the equation ... countercurrent distribution. * In countercurrent distribution. …the two solvents, called the distribution coefficient, is ... Alternative Title: distribution ratio. Learn about this topic in these articles:. chemical separation. * In separation and ... in water is called the distribution coefficient, and it is clear that for an efficient extraction process it is desirable to ...
In this early work he applied the technique of thin layer countercurrent distribution. Subsequently, through the study of mouse ... Albertsson, P-A (1965). "Thin-layer countercurrent distribution". Analytical Biochemistry. 4: 121-125. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(65 ...
Separation by counter-current distribution". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 155 (2): 519-534. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)51183 ... and commercial counter-current distribution instruments were used for many important discoveries. The introduction of paper ... Martin, A. J. P.; Synge, R. L. M. (1 January 1941). "Separation of the higher monoamino-acids by counter-current liquid-liquid ... The process was termed "counter-current liquid-liquid extraction." Martin and Synge described the theory of this technique in ...
This is where countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is helpful. ... Countercurrent distribution of the solutes happens in such a ... The long time required for separation as well as the tedium of maintaining the countercurrent distribution have been overcome ... CCC provides a method of achieving the best possible countercurrent distribution.. *In typical solid phase/liquid phase ... Advantages of using countercurrent chromatography in the life sciences. CCC has taken about 60 years to mature as a valid ...
Application of Countercurrent Distribution to the Study 30. 52 other sections not shown ...
On the Distribution of Isotopes in a Separation Column in Countercurrent Electromigration of Molten Binary Mixtures. Okada, ...
Countercurrent Distribution. A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible ... significantly varied for proteins with lower and higher charge state distributions. Matrix effects, as well as the specificity ...
After counter current distribution the acetates are obtained of: EXAMPLE V Synthesis of A-GluHisPheLysPhederivatives l.a. BocD- ... 0.30 on SiO Finally the product obtained is subjected to a purification according tothe counter current principle. System Bu:Ac ...
Separation by counter-current distribution. J. Biol. Chem. 155, 519-534.Google Scholar ... Inoue, O., Ogihara, Y., Otsuka, H., Kawai, K., Tanimura, T., and Shibata, S. (1976) Droplet counter-current chromatography for ... Craig, L. C. (1944) Identification of small amounts of organic compounds by distribution studies. II. ...
Benzer, S.: Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 58, 1112- ...
isolated by countercurrent distribution. PNAS. 58, 1112-1119 (1967).. *Connolly, J. B., Tully, T. Drosophila: A practical ...
1967 Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-1119. ...
1967 Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-1119. ... The seed distribution of SR-miRNAs was obtained by counting the number of mature SR-miRNAs that fell within each of the three ... To compare the observed distribution of SR miRNA seeds with a null hypothesis, the aforementioned dendrogram was divided in ... This was compared to the distribution (in percentage) of all mature Drosophila miRNAs, using Pearsons χ2-test. ...
1967) Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 58:1112-1119. ... We assayed fast phototaxis in a countercurrent apparatus (Benzer, 1967) using a simplified protocol of that described. Flies ... We similarly assayed negative geotaxis, except the countercurrent apparatus was positioned vertically. The geotaxis index is ...
The ability to climb against gravity was measured by countercurrent distribution (30). Flies, placed at the bottom of a tube, ... D) Climbing activity of adults (1 week old). Histograms show distribution of the populations over climbing scores ranging from ... zero (lowest activity) to six (highest activity). (E) Flying activity of adults (1 week old). Histograms show distribution of ...
Counter-current distribution of interacting molecules: simulation of distribution behaviour and application to protein-protein ... The counter-current distribution behaviour of a solute depends on its size and surface properties including charge and ... From the counter- current distribution experiments it was possible to conclude that humain carbonic anhydrase II, the high ... In order to establish the boundary conditions and the potential as well as limitations of the counter-current distribution ...
Benzer, S. (1967). Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58, ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are credited. ... dendritic compartments likely have a different distribution of voltage-dependent calcium channels and different endogenous ...
countercurrent distribution; electrophoresis; and the like.. 5.4 CULTURE OF PLACENTAL STEM CELLS. 5.4.1 Culture Media [0078] ...
... counter-current distribution. The cells were fractionated according to the degree of differentiation of erythroblasts as ... The quality factors influenced by stress conditions are: total dry matter or starch content and distribution of starch, sugar ... of erytroblasts with affinitymediated modifications of their electrical properties using counter-current distribution Molecular ... content, types of sugars and distribution, texture, mealiness, flesh color, tuber size and shape, and tuber defects such as ...
... or countercurrent distribution; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), especially reverse phase HPLC on octyl- or ... distribution, column chromatography, dialysis, etc. The thus obtained peptides can be stored after freeze drying, if desired. ...
These methods are counter-current distribution, paper chromatography, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. These methods ...
5] using countercurrent distribution. Berg and Lagerkvist [6] have shown that E. coli sRNA also contains two leucine acceptors ... In this paper, two leucine acceptors in E. coli, separated by countercurrent distribution, are shown to have different coding ... No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided. ...
Separation by the counter-current distribution method. The process comprises of repeated repartition between two solvents, ... "counter-current distribution". After a high enough number of repartitions, the original mix is separated in fractions, each ... as well as the separations by liquid-liquid repartition and by the counter-current distribution method. ... The distribution to a variety of materials and fluids of the biologically active compounds made it impossible to adopt a ...
Automatic countercurrent distribution equipment. Anal. Chem. 23:1236-1244.. OpenUrl. *↵ Degenhardt, A., U.H. Engelhardt, P. ... High-speed preparative counter-current chromatography with a coil planet centrifuge. J. Chromatogr., A 244:247-258. ... Low-Speed Rotary Countercurrent Chromatography. One of the most promising developments so far is low-speed rotary ... Countercurrent chromatography gives the wine chemist an efficient tool for the gentle and rapid separation of the various ...
Craig LC (1944) Identification of small amounts of organic compounds by distribution studies. II. Separation by counter-current ... His studies on the distribution of sulfanilamide (Marshall et al., 1937) set the standard for all future distribution studies. ... Axelrod and Brodie used the recently developed counter current distribution techniques of Craig (Craig, 1944) and the ... Marshall EKJ, Emerson KJ, and Cutting WC (1937) The distribution of sulfanilamide in the organism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 61: 196 ...
Benzer, S. Behavioral mutants of Drosophila melanogaster isolated by countercurrent distribution. PNAS. 58, 1112-1119 (1967). ... Use Gaussian distribution statistical tests, as the data follow a normal distribution. ... Transfer the flies in a test vial, and snap it into the countercurrent apparatus, with fresh empty vials in the opposite ... These snap in place in the in-house made T-maze and counter-current apparatus (see text). ...
1967). Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58, 1112-1119. ... distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly cited and all further distributions of ... Countercurrent data illustrated in Fig. 1 were modeled using a one-way ANOVA with a variable to control for day-to-day ... As with the countercurrent device, GALT-null animals had difficulty with the climbing assay. The average proportion of dGALT ...
Mycolic acids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: purification by countercurrent distribution and T-cell stimulation. ... Positional distribution of fatty acids in triacyl-sn-glycerols of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich tuna orbital and bonito head ... Reinvestigation of positional distribution of fatty acids in docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil ... ...
Benzer, S. (1967). Behavioral mutants of Drosophila isolated by countercurrent distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 58: 1112- ... While the distribution of actin is normal in Miro mutant muscles, the distribution of mitochondria is severely disrupted: ... Miro proteins coordinate microtubule- and actin-dependent mitochondrial transport and distribution. In the current model of ... The subcellular distribution of mitochondria in neurons is assumed to be important for neuronal physiology, but direct evidence ...
  • Countercurrent chromatography (CCC, also counter-current chromatography) is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography that uses a liquid stationary phase that is held in place by inertia of the molecules composing the stationary phase accelerating toward the center of a centrifuge due to centripetal force and is used to separate, identify, and quantify the chemical components of a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its broadest sense, countercurrent chromatography encompasses a collection of related liquid chromatography techniques that employ two immiscible liquid phases without a solid support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two immiscible phases flow past each other and exit at opposite ends of the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrodynamic instruments are often marketed as high-speed or high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC and HPCCC respectively) instruments which rely on the Archimedes' screw force in a helical coil to retain the stationary phase in the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predecessor of modern countercurrent chromatography theory and practice was countercurrent distribution (CCD). (wikipedia.org)
  • In countercurrent chromatography centripetal or gravitational forces immobilize the stationary liquid layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The countercurrent chromatography instrument is easily switched between normal phase chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography simply by changing the mobile and stationary phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly any pair of immiscible solutions can be used in countercurrent chromatography provided that the stationary phase can be successfully retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to column chromatography, flows and total solvent usage can in most countercurrent chromatography separations may be reduced by half and even up to a tenth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC or DCC) was introduced in 1970 by Tanimura, Pisano, Ito, and Bowman. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCCC is considered to be a form of liquid-liquid separation, which includes countercurrent distribution and countercurrent chromatography, that employs a liquid stationary phase held in a collection of vertical glass columns connected in series. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference between DCCC and other types of countercurrent chromatography techniques is that there is no vigorous mixing of phases to enhance the mass transfer of compounds that allows them to distribute between the two phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solvent motion created by a pulsed pumping action creates the mixing and settling that is common to most all forms of countercurrent chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is where countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is helpful. (news-medical.net)
  • These methods are counter-current distribution, paper chromatography, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. (annals.org)
  • One of the few liquid chromatographic techniques that can be predictably scaled up from analytical to process scale is countercurrent chromatography (CCC). (ajevonline.org)
  • Countercurrent chromatography furthermore enables a 100% recovery of the sample and, because of its gentle separation conditions, is ideally suited to the analysis of various groups of wine constituents. (ajevonline.org)
  • Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a descriptive term for continuous liquid-liquid partition methods-generally known as "Craig distribution"-that do not use any solid supporting matrix. (ajevonline.org)
  • Development of countercurrent chromatography (CCC) since 1970. (ajevonline.org)
  • He received the FLC Mid-Atlantic Region's award for Excellence in Technology Transfer for high-speed countercurrent chromatography in 2010. (nih.gov)
  • It combines attributes of two classical partition methods-counter-current distribution and liquid-liquid partition chromatography-while avoiding the pitfalls of both. (nih.gov)
  • A biennial International Conference on Countercurrent Chromatography has continued to grow since its inception in 2000. (nih.gov)
  • Application and comparison of high-speed countercurrent chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in preparative enantioseparation of α-substitution mandelic acids. (nih.gov)
  • Methomyl, the S-oxide or S,S-dioxide of methomyl, the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates of methomyl, or S-methyl-N-hydroxythio-acetimidate were not detected in urine by counter-current distribution, enzymatic treatment, or thin-layer chromatography techniques (Harvey, et al . (inchem.org)
  • Crozier, A., Aoki, H., Pharis R.P. (1969) Efficiency of countercurrent distribution, Sephadex G-10, and silicic acid partition chromatography in the purification of gibberellin-like substances. (ucdavis.edu)
  • High-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP- HPLC ) method was developed to isolate dihydrophaseic acid 3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (DHPAG) from the extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were isolated by high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (1 : 3 : 1 : 5 : 0.01, v/v) to give pure C3G (34.1 mg) and C3R (14.3 mg) from 1.5 g crude mulberry fruit extract. (bvsalud.org)
  • High-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) coupled with reversed-phase medium pressure liquid chromatography (RP MPLC) method was applied for the rapid and efficient isolation of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin 3-glucoside (P3G) from black rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae). (bvsalud.org)
  • The long time required for separation as well as the tedium of maintaining the countercurrent distribution have been overcome by the development of a number of highly efficient systems, with the result of CCC gaining popularity as a technique for the fractionation of natural products. (news-medical.net)
  • Separation by counter-current distribution. (springer.com)
  • For a successful separation, all that is required is basically an immiscible solvent pair, in which the components of the mixture have different partition coefficients according to the Nernst distribution law ( Conway 1990 ). (ajevonline.org)
  • Mycolic acids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: purification by countercurrent distribution and T-cell stimulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Purification by counter-current distribution and sequencing of isolated fragments. (springer.com)
  • Cleavage of the protecting groups of the resulting nonapeptide with sodium in liquid ammonia, oxidation with air in dilute aqueous solution and purification by counter-current distribution gives the desired cyclic nonapeptide amide: (N-methyl-Tyr)(2)-oxytocin. (dtic.mil)
  • Determining the rate and extent of absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination of investigative molecules gradually became part of the overall pharmacological evaluation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This investigation has dealt with the absorption, excretion, and metabolism of Daraprim in the rhesus monkey and with the tissue distribution and toxicity of this drug in both the monkey and the white rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Quantitation of countercurrent exchange during passive absorption from the dog small intestine: evidence for marked species differences in the effi. (nih.gov)
  • The present investigation was designed to quantitatively assess the possible influence of countercurrent exchange on passive absorption from the small intestine of the dog. (nih.gov)
  • This low absorption rate could result from diffusion limitation to absorption or countercurrent exchange. (nih.gov)
  • The striking effect of countercurrent exchange on passive absorption in the dog differs from our previous studies in the rabbit where no exchange was demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • In developing ION-IX, PuriTech's main objective was to improve on existing system design, in particular continuous countercurrent processes, and broaden and extend the technology's application base. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Standard, existing technologies include fixed-bed and continuous countercurrent ion exchange systems. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Based on a batch-style operation, fixed-bed units are used in around 90% of projects, but compared with continuous countercurrent systems their performance is relatively weak. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Other continuous countercurrent ion exchange systems use a carousel to rotate the resin cells around a central valve. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Realising the growing market potential of ion exchange, PuriTech has taken continuous countercurrent ion exchange system design to a new level. (environmental-expert.com)
  • ION-IX uses a single, multi-port distribution valve, creating a process system for continuous, countercurrent ion exchange. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The technology is markedly different from other continuous, countercurrent ion exchange systems that are available in the market place. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Countercurrent contacting on a continuous basis does not suffer these limitations, because it is not a batch process. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Finally, Lyman C. Craig introduced the Craig countercurrent distribution apparatus in 1944 which made CCD practical for laboratory work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Craig, L. C. (1944) Identification of small amounts of organic compounds by distribution studies. (springer.com)
  • the two solvents, called the distribution coefficient, is characteristic of the compound and of the solvent pair. (britannica.com)
  • The stable steady state is the result of a balance between this autocatalytic SNARE accumulation in a compartment and the distribution of SNAREs between compartments by vesicle budding. (rupress.org)
  • The resulting nonhomogeneous SNARE distribution generates coat-specific vesicle fluxes that determine the size of compartments. (rupress.org)
  • 2004. Countercurrent distribution of two distinct SNARE complexes mediating transport within the Golgi stack. (columbia.edu)
  • Comparative studies on the tissue distribution of Daraprim, chlorguanide, and chloroquine in the rat showed that at a given dose tissue concentrations of the above pyrimidine were slightly greater than those of chlorguanide but far less than those of chloroquine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This article describes the distribution of the blood and dialysate flows in hollow-fiber hemodialyzers analyzed with a computerized scanning technique. (asnjournals.org)
  • Type C had the highest clearances, although they were not significantly greater than type B. In conclusion, a significant blood-to-dialysate flow mismatch may occur in hollow-fiber hemodialyzers due to either uneven blood flow distribution or a dialysate channeling phenomenon external to the fiber bundle. (asnjournals.org)
  • Using countercurrent distribution he separated individual transfer RNA's (tRNA)- the link between DNA and protein synthesis -which match up to each of the twenty two amino acids that make up all proteins. (nasonline.org)
  • Enzymolysis kinetics, thermodynamics and model of porcine cerebral protein with single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound-assisted processing. (nih.gov)
  • Countercurrent configuration of these stages enables enhanced impurity removal and higher yield for each chromatographic step. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The increase of MS sensitivity due to the difluoroacetic acid (estimated limits of detection in biological matrices 1-500 ng/mL) significantly varied for proteins with lower and higher charge state distributions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Understanding the mechanism of cocurrent and countercurrent imbibition is essential in oil recovery from fractured reservoirs. (onepetro.org)
  • We here present the fractionation of electrically modified erythroblasts by the use of an automatic multiple-partition procedure, counter-current distribution. (authormapper.com)
  • I. Theory of countercurrent distribution (CCD). (dbcls.jp)
  • It was purified with counter current distribution method. (gpatindia.com)
  • The second explanation for this phenomenon may be found in the nonhomogeneous distribution of blood flow within the fibers observed at the sequential imaging. (asnjournals.org)
  • in water is called the distribution coefficient, and it is clear that for an efficient extraction process it is desirable to have as large a distribution coefficient as possible. (britannica.com)
  • The diffusion process can be impaired if there is a mismatch between blood and dialysate flow distribution in the dialyzer. (asnjournals.org)
  • The flow of oil from matrix system to fracture system will generally involve both cocurrent and countercurrent imbibition. (onepetro.org)
  • The influences of diffusion and grain diameter on cell performances can be investigated through 2D simulations, current-voltage characteristics, and current source distribution through electrodes. (intechopen.com)
  • The dermal penetration, tissue distribution, retention, and excretion of 14 C-methomyl were compared with those of other pesticides in ICR mice. (inchem.org)
  • Macroscopic and densitometric analysis revealed that flow distribution was most homogeneous in the dialyzer with Moiré structure (type C) and least homogeneous in the standard dialyzer (type A). Space yarns (type B) gave an intermediate dialysate flow distribution. (asnjournals.org)
  • The optimization of countercurrent flow and the improved hydraulic properties of dialytic membranes allowed the development of remarkably efficient hemodialyzers in the early 1970s. (asnjournals.org)
  • Thermal and single frequency counter-current ultrasound pretreatments of sodium caseinate: enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamics, amino acids composition, molecular weight distribution and antioxidant peptides. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, a new mathematical model, which could be used to simulate the combination of cocurrent and countercurrent imbibition with the two-ends-open oil/water (TEO-OW) boundary condition, is developed. (onepetro.org)
  • This result is in accord with theoretical calculations which suggest that countercurrent exchange should be exceedingly efficient in the dog. (nih.gov)
  • The entire villus of the rabbit may equilibrate with the lumen and no gradient for countercurrent exchange can therefore be established. (nih.gov)
  • However, despite 100 years of research on eels, there is still a lack of knowledge about the specific hydrographic and biotic conditions governing species distribution and dispersal dynamics during the larval phase. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark ( Carcharhinus falciformis) and a teleost ( Canthidermis maculata) in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM) was developed using data collected by observers in tuna purse seiners. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spectrographic and countercurrent distribution studies indicated that even this 20 per cent contained metabolic products of Daraprim as well as unchanged drug. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consequently, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In that work, to obtain the drop size distribution, images were analyzed by employing visual/manual techniques which imply high costs, intensive labour, weariness buildup, and consequent high error rates. (hindawi.com)
  • recognizing friends last year in the otherwise dehumanizing but remarkably effective countercurrent distribution down the long main hallway. (biophysics.org)
  • To prepare and study the distribution of magnetic nanoliposomes of Sesquiterpene-Rich Fraction from Cichorium glandulosum (SRF-MLN) (under magnetic field) in the main organs of mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Countercurrent distribution of the solutes happens in such a way that components with decreasing order of polarity are eluted in one liquid (say within a tubular system) and compounds with increasing order of polarity are eluted in the other liquid (mobile phase). (news-medical.net)
  • Countercurrent distribution of lymphocytes from human peripheral blood in an aqueous two-phase system. (keflex2020.site)
  • objectives are to present the operative details and to establish the feasibility of the modified technique of en bloc pelvic resection, which begins with the central ligation of vessels supplying the tumor bed. (faintpower.cf)
  • But the idea of a "Shock and Awe" treatment of the Indian Economy is as per the dictates of International Finance Capital, as pointed by Shri Sreedhar in an article in Countercurrents. (countercurrents.org)
  • This study shows that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites . (sdbonline.org)
  • Our algorithm for the analysis and interpretation of digitized images will be used for the calculation of particle size and shape distributions for modelling liquid-liquid systems. (hindawi.com)
  • The acquisition and treatment of images of particulate phases become essential for the calculation of particle size and shape distributions, namely in multiphase systems modelling in chemical engineering. (hindawi.com)
  • This work presents new information about the present and future habitat distribution under climate change of both by-catch species which can contributes to the development of ecosystem-based fishery management and spatially driven management measures. (frontiersin.org)
  • The magnetic nanocarrier carries the therapeutic agent to the target site with the aid of a magnetic field, which allows the therapeutic agent to concentrate in the target area and reduces the distribution of the drug at other sites, and thereby could enhance the curative effect and reduce the dosage and the side effects of drugs [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 1) Join WikiProject Biophysics ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WP:WikiProject_Biophysics ) and improve the relevant Wikipedia articles by thoughtful editing and by uploading free-license images. (biophysics.org)