Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain xanthones and BENZOPHENONES. The common name of Mamey is also used with POUTERIA.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. It contains pungent oils and resins. It is used to flavor curries, as a carminative, and as cat and dog repellent. The occasionally used common name of 'giant fennel' should not be confused with true fennel (FOENICULUM).
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain anethole and CARBAZOLES.
A coronary vasodilator agent.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A plant genus of the family Apiaceae.
A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Coumarin derivative that acts as a long acting oral anticoagulant.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.
Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.
Esculin is a glucoside of esculetin, a coumarin derivative found in the horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) and some other plants, used in medical research for its anticoagulant properties and as a substrate in susceptibility testing of certain bacteria.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy. (1/1334)

The anticonvulsant activity of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) was reported early after the development of irreversible MAO inhibitors such as tranylcypromine, but was never clinically used because of the adverse effects of these compounds. The more recently developed reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity for either the MAO-A or MAO-B isoenzyme forms have not been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy, so it is not known which type of MAO inhibitor is particularly effective in this respect. We compared the following drugs in the kindling model of epilepsy: 1) L-deprenyl (selegiline), i.e., an irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, which, however, also inhibits MAO-A at higher doses, 2) the novel reversible MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 (3,4-dimethyl-7-(2-isopropyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-methoxy-coumarin), which is much more selective for MAO-B than L-deprenyl, 3) the novel reversible and highly selective MAO-A inhibitor LU 43839 (esuprone; 7-hydroxy-3, 4-dimethylcoumarin ethanesulfonate), and 4) the irreversible nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. Esuprone proved to be an effective anticonvulsant in the kindling model with a similar potency as L-deprenyl. In contrast to esuprone and L-deprenyl, the selective MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 was not effective in the kindling model; this substantiates the previous notion that the anticonvulsant activity of L-deprenyl is not related to MAO-B inhibition, but to other effects of this drug, such as inhibition of MAO-A. Drugs inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B to a similar extent (tranylcypromine) or combinations of selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors (esuprone plus LU 53439) had no advantage over MAO-A inhibition alone, but were less well tolerated. The data thus suggest that selective MAO-A inhibitors such as esuprone may be an interesting new approach for the treatment of epilepsy.  (+info)

7-ethoxycoumarin deethylation activity in perfused isolated rat brain. (2/1334)

7-ethoxycoumarin (7-EC) deethylation activity was measured in the perfused rat brain in situ. Infusion of 7-EC into a brain through an internal carotid artery resulted in the formation of 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) and its conjugates in the effluent perfusate collected from the superior vena cava. The rate of formation of products was 200 nmol/h/g when 130 microM 7-EC was infused. This value was much higher (more than 100 times) than that determined from the brain microsomal activity ( approximately 1 nmol/h/g), indicating that the activity determined with microsomes was an underestimate. This value was comparable to the activity in the perfused liver (30-50%), suggesting that drug metabolizing enzymes can play important roles within the brain. Pretreatment of rats with P-450 inducers such as phenobarbital and beta-naphthoflavone increased the deethylation activity in the perfused brain, as in the perfused liver. We conclude that the perfused brain is suitable for evaluating drug metabolizing activities under physiological conditions.  (+info)

Effect of praeruptorin C on spontaneous [Ca2+]i transients in cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats. (3/1334)

AIMS: To study the effects of praeruptorin C (Pra-C) on [Ca2+]i transients in cultured neonatal myocardiocytes. METHOD: Using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator, Fura 2-AM, spontaneous cytosolic Ca2+ transients were measured in cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats. RESULTS: Pra-C 10, 30 mumol.L-1 caused a decrease in the peak of Ca2+ transients. Pra-C 30 mumol.L-1 and 10-30 mumol.L-1 inhibited partly the stimulatory effects of CaCl2 4.8 mmol.L-1 and Bay k 8644 100 nmol.L-1 on peak Ca2+ transients, respectively. Pra-C did not cause any marked change in the basal [Ca2+]i level between beats. Pra-C inhibited the reduced [Ca2+]i transients after inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in ryanodine pretreated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pra-C inferred with the Ca2+ influx responsible for excitation-contraction coupling in myocardiocytes.  (+info)

Effects of praeruptorine C on the intracellular free calcium in normal and hypertrophied rat ventricular myocytes. (4/1334)

AIM: To study the intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in normal and hypertrophic left ventricular myocytes isolated from adult rat hearts and the effects of praeruptorine C (Pra-C) on them. METHODS: [Ca2+]i of single myocyte was measured with Fura 2-AM. RESULTS: The resting [Ca2+]i was 87 +/- 4 nmol.L-1 in normal left ventricular myocytes, 123 +/- 7 nmol.L-1 in hypertrophied myocytes. After exposure to KCl (20, 40, and 60 mmol.L-1), the [Ca2+]i were increased by 66%, 141%, and 268% in normal myocytes, and 77%, 185%, and 243% in hypertrophic myocytes, respectively. Pra-C (1, 10, and 100 mumol.L-1) concentration-dependently inhibited the [Ca2+]i elevation caused by KCl (35 mmol.L-1) or norepinephrine (20 mumol.L-1) in both normal and hypertrophied myocytes. All of the effects of Pra-C were similar to that of nifedipine. CONCLUSION: [Ca2+]i of hypertrophied myocytes was higher than that of normal ones and Pra-C decrease the [Ca2+]i elevation in left ventricular myocytes resulted from its calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus by using fluorescent staphylocoagulase assays. (5/1334)

Two rapid (1-h) assays for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus staphylocoagulase were developed by using the fluorogenic thrombin substrates N-t-boc-Val-Pro-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (VPA) and N-t-boc-beta-benzyl-Asp-Pro-Arg-7-amido-4-methylocoumarin (BB). The assays were compared to the tube coagulase test and latex agglutination (LA) (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom) by using 406 clinical isolates of staphylococci, and they produced positive and negative predictive values of 99.2 and 99. 1% for LA, 98.9 and 92.7% for VPA, and 98.9 and 99.1% for BB. Fluorescent assays used colonies from solid media, thereby eliminating the need for broth cultures, and were performed in microtiter trays, thus making them suitable for large-scale screening.  (+info)

Caspase-dependent activation of calpain during drug-induced apoptosis. (6/1334)

We have previously demonstrated that calpain is responsible for the cleavage of Bax, a proapoptotic protein, during drug-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells (Wood, D. E., Thomas, A., Devi, L. A., Berman, Y., Beavis, R. C., Reed, J. C., and Newcomb, E. W. (1998) Oncogene 17, 1069-1078). Here we show the sequential activation of caspases and calpain during drug-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Time course experiments using the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin revealed that cleavage of caspase-3 substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the retinoblastoma protein as well as DNA fragmentation occurred several hours before calpain activation and Bax cleavage. Pretreatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin blocked calpain activation and Bax cleavage but did not inhibit PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, or 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin-induced morphological changes and cell death. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk) inhibited PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, calpain activation, and Bax cleavage and increased cell survival by 40%. Interestingly, Z-VAD-fmk-treated cells died in a caspase- and calpain-independent manner that appeared morphologically distinct from apoptosis. Our results suggest that excessive or uncontrolled calpain activity may play a role downstream of and distinct from caspases in the degradation phase of apoptosis.  (+info)

Activation of Xenopus eggs by proteases: possible involvement of a sperm protease in fertilization. (7/1334)

Egg activation in cross-fertilization between Xenopus eggs and Cynops sperm may be caused by a protease activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA in the sperm acrosome. To determine the role of the sperm protease in fertilization, the protease was purified from Cynops sperm using several chromatographic techniques. We found that purified sperm protease readily hydrolyzes Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, that protease activity was inhibited by the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin and leupeptin, and that not only the purified protease, but also cathepsin B, induces activation in Xenopus eggs. We inseminated unfertilized Xenopus eggs with homologous sperm in the presence of various peptidyl MCA substrates or protease inhibitors and demonstrated that trypsin inhibitors or MCA substrates containing Arg-Arg-MCA reversibly inhibited fertilization of both fully jellied and denuded eggs. Sperm motility was not affected by the reagents. An extract obtained from Xenopus sperm showed hydrolytic activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA, Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, and Arg-MCA. These results suggest that the tryptic protease in Xenopus sperm is involved in fertilization, most likely by participating in egg activation.  (+info)

Core RNA polymerase from E. coli induces a major change in the domain arrangement of the sigma 70 subunit. (8/1334)

Luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements were used to show that binding of E. coli core RNA polymerase induced major changes in interdomain distances in the sigma 70 subunit. The simplest model describing core-induced changes in sigma 70 involves a movement of the conserved region 1 by approximately 20 A and the conserved region 4.2 by approximately 15 A with respect to conserved region 2. The core-induced movement of region 1 (autoinhibition domain) and region 4.2 (DNA-binding domain) provides structural rationale for allosteric regulation of sigma 70 DNA binding properties by the core and suggests that this regulation may not only involve directly the autoinhibition domain of sigma 70 but also could involve a modulation of spacing between DNA-binding domains of sigma 70 induced by binding of core RNAP.  (+info)

Coumarins are a class of organic compounds that occur naturally in certain plants, such as sweet clover and tonka beans. They have a characteristic aroma and are often used as fragrances in perfumes and flavorings in food products. In addition to their use in consumer goods, coumarins also have important medical applications.

One of the most well-known coumarins is warfarin, which is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant medication used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger. Warfarin works by inhibiting the activity of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in the liver, which helps to prolong the time it takes for blood to clot.

Other medical uses of coumarins include their use as anti-inflammatory agents and antimicrobial agents. Some coumarins have also been shown to have potential cancer-fighting properties, although more research is needed in this area.

It's important to note that while coumarins have many medical uses, they can also be toxic in high doses. Therefore, it's essential to use them only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Umbelliferone is not a medical term, but a chemical compound that belongs to the class of coumarins. It can be found in various plants, including those from the family Apiaceae (also known as Umbelliferae), hence its name. Coumarins like umbelliferone have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties, such as anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. However, they are not typically considered as a medical treatment on their own.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Mammea" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in the English language. It might be a reference to a type of plant, as "Mammea americana" is a species of tree native to the Neotropics. The bark and fruits of this tree have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a precise definition related to the medical field. If you could provide more information or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

Apiaceae is a family of flowering plants also known as Umbelliferae. It includes aromatic herbs and vegetables such as carrots, parsley, celery, fennel, and dill. The plants in this family are characterized by their umbrella-shaped clusters of flowers (umbels) and hollow stems. Some members of Apiaceae contain toxic compounds, so caution should be taken when identifying and consuming wild plants from this family.

4-Hydroxycoumarins are a type of chemical compound that contains a hydroxy group (-OH) attached to the 4th carbon atom of the coumarin structure. Coumarins themselves are aromatic organic compounds, characterized by a benzene ring fused to a pyrone ring.

4-Hydroxycoumarins have gained attention in medical research due to their potential biological activities. For instance, some 4-hydroxycoumarins exhibit anticoagulant properties and are used as oral anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin. These compounds work by inhibiting the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme, thereby interfering with the blood clotting process.

Additionally, 4-hydroxycoumarins have been investigated for their potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profiles.

"Ferula" is a term that has different meanings and uses in various scientific contexts, but it is not commonly used as a medical term. In botany, "Ferula" is the name of a genus of plants that includes the giant fennel, which can grow to be quite large.

However, you may be thinking of the term "ferrule," which is sometimes used in a medical context. A ferrule is a small piece of metal or plastic that is used to reinforce or protect the end of a device or tool. In medicine, ferrules are sometimes used on the ends of walking canes or crutches to provide extra support and prevent wear and tear.

It's possible that there may be other contexts in which the term "ferula" is used in a medical sense, but it is not a widely used or well-known term in this field.

Mixed Function Oxygenases (MFOs) are a type of enzyme that catalyze the addition of one atom each from molecular oxygen (O2) to a substrate, while reducing the other oxygen atom to water. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs, carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.

MFOs are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and consist of two subunits: a flavoprotein component that contains FAD or FMN as a cofactor, and an iron-containing heme protein. The most well-known example of MFO is cytochrome P450, which is involved in the oxidation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, and vitamins.

MFOs can catalyze a variety of reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, dealkylation, and deamination, among others. These reactions often lead to the activation or detoxification of xenobiotics, making MFOs an important component of the body's defense system against foreign substances. However, in some cases, these reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that may cause toxicity or contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer.

"Heracleum" is a genus of plants in the family Apiaceae, also known as the carrot or parsley family. Many species in this genus are large herbaceous plants native to Europe and Asia, with some found in North America. One well-known species is Heracleum persicum, commonly called "giant hogweed," which can grow up to 15 feet tall and has been identified as an invasive species in certain regions.

The sap of giant hogweed contains toxic compounds that can cause phytophotodermatitis, a skin reaction characterized by redness, pain, itching, and blistering when the affected area is exposed to sunlight. This reaction can be severe and may result in scarring or long-term sensitivity to light. It's essential to exercise caution when handling or coming into contact with giant hogweed or any other members of the Heracleum genus.

In a medical context, it's crucial to differentiate between 'Heracleum' as a plant genus and 'heracleum' as a term used in anatomy. In anatomy, 'heracleum' refers to a muscle in certain animals, specifically the external abdominal oblique muscle in ruminants like cows and sheep. However, this usage is not directly related to human medicine or healthcare.

Psoralens are a class of organic compounds that can be found in several plants such as figs, celery, and parsnips. They are primarily known for their use in the treatment of skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema. When combined with ultraviolet A (UVA) light therapy, psoralens can help to slow down the excessive growth of skin cells that lead to these conditions.

Psoralens work by intercalating into DNA, which means they fit between the base pairs of the double helix structure of DNA. When exposed to UVA light, the psoralen molecules undergo a chemical reaction that forms cross-links in the DNA, which can inhibit the replication and transcription of DNA. This effect on skin cells can help to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of affected skin cells, leading to an improvement in symptoms of certain skin conditions.

It's important to note that psoralens can have side effects, including increased sensitivity to sunlight, which can lead to sunburn and an increased risk of skin cancer with long-term use. Therefore, it's essential to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using psoralen therapy.

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases (AHH) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of various aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, including potentially harmful substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. These enzymes are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells, particularly in the liver, but can also be found in other tissues.

The AHH enzymes catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the aromatic ring structure of these compounds, which is the first step in their biotransformation and eventual elimination from the body. This process can sometimes lead to the formation of metabolites that are more reactive and potentially toxic than the original compound. Therefore, the overall impact of AHH enzymes on human health is complex and depends on various factors, including the specific compounds being metabolized and individual genetic differences in enzyme activity.

"Clausena" is a genus of plants in the family Rutaceae, which includes various species such as Clausena excavata, Clausena lansium, and Clausena indica. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. They have been used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments, including gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and fever. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims.

The medical definition of "Clausena" would refer to the pharmacological or medicinal properties of the plants in this genus. Some studies have suggested that certain species of Clausena contain bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic benefits, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medicinal properties of these plants and their potential applications in modern medicine.

It's important to note that while some Clausena species may have medicinal benefits, they can also contain toxic compounds that can be harmful if ingested or applied topically in high concentrations. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any Clausena-based remedies or supplements.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Chromonar" does not appear to be a recognized medical term or substance. It is possible that you may have misspelled the word or it could be a term specific to a particular context within the medical field. If you have more information about where this term came from or its intended meaning, I'd be happy to help you try and clarify it further. However, without additional context, it is difficult for me to provide an accurate definition or explanation related to "Chromonar."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Aminocoumarins are a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication and transcription. These antibiotics have a coumarin nucleus with an attached amino group. The most well-known aminocoumarin is novobiocin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. However, the use of aminocoumarins has become limited due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of other more effective antibiotics.

Novobiocin is an antibiotic derived from the actinomycete species Streptomyces niveus. It belongs to the class of drugs known as aminocoumarins, which function by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, thereby preventing DNA replication and transcription. Novobiocin has activity against a narrow range of gram-positive bacteria, including some strains of Staphylococcus aureus (particularly those resistant to penicillin and methicillin), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and certain mycobacteria. It is used primarily in the treatment of serious staphylococcal infections and is administered orally or intravenously.

It's important to note that Novobiocin has been largely replaced by other antibiotics due to its narrow spectrum of activity, potential for drug interactions, and adverse effects. It is not widely used in clinical practice today.

"Calophyllum" is a genus of plants that belongs to the family Calophyllaceae. These evergreen trees and shrubs are native to tropical regions of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The name "Calophyllum" comes from the Greek words "kalos," meaning beautiful, and "phyllon," meaning leaf, which refers to the attractive leaves of these plants.

Many species of Calophyllum have medicinal properties. For example, the bark, leaves, and seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum, also known as Alexandrian laurel or Indian laurel, have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including skin diseases, rheumatism, and diarrhea. The oil extracted from the seeds of this plant, called "tamanu oil," is believed to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties and is used in cosmetics and skincare products.

However, it's important to note that while some species of Calophyllum have medicinal uses, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It's always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any natural remedies or supplements.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

'Angelica' is a common name that refers to several plant species in the genus Angelica. The most commonly used medicinally is Angelica archangelica, also known as garden angelica or wild celery. This herb has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as:

1. Digestive aid: It is believed to stimulate appetite, ease digestion, and reduce gas and bloating.
2. Respiratory health: Angelica has been used to treat respiratory conditions like bronchitis, colds, and coughs.
3. Menstrual discomfort: Some people use it to alleviate menstrual cramps and PMS symptoms.
4. Nervous system: It may help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Skin issues: The herb has been used topically for skin irritations, wounds, and insect bites.

However, it is essential to note that while angelica has potential health benefits, it can also have side effects and interact with certain medications. Pregnant women should avoid using this herb, as it may stimulate uterine contractions and lead to miscarriage. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or medication.

Acenocoumarol is an anticoagulant medication that is used to prevent and treat blood clots. It works by inhibiting the formation of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, which are necessary for normal blood coagulation. This results in a prolonged bleeding time and reduced risk of blood clots.

Acenocoumarol is a coumarin derivative and is available under various brand names, including Sintrom and Nicoumalone. It is typically administered orally in the form of tablets and its effects are monitored through regular blood tests to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and that the risk of bleeding complications is minimized.

Common side effects of acenocoumarol include easy bruising, nosebleeds, and skin rashes. It may also interact with a variety of other medications, including antibiotics, antifungals, and certain herbal supplements, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications and supplements you are taking before starting acenocoumarol therapy.

It is important to note that acenocoumarol has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is relatively small. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to have regular blood tests to monitor its effects on your coagulation status.

7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction to remove alkoxy groups (O-dealkylation) from xenobiotic compounds, particularly 7-alkoxycoumarins. This enzyme is involved in the metabolism and detoxification of these substances in the body. It is also known as CYP2B6, which is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Phenprocoumon is a vitamin K antagonist, which is a type of anticoagulant medication. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the liver that are necessary for the formation of blood clots. This results in an increased time for blood to clot, reducing the risk of blood clots forming and causing complications such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

Phenprocoumon is primarily used to prevent and treat blood clots in the veins, arteries, and heart. It is also used to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation or other heart rhythm disorders.

Like other vitamin K antagonists, phenprocoumon has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is only a small range between the effective dose and the toxic dose. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of blood clotting times (INR) to ensure that the drug is working effectively without causing excessive bleeding.

Phenprocoumon is available in oral form and is typically taken once daily. It may take several days for the full anticoagulant effect of phenprocoumon to be achieved, so it is important to carefully follow dosing instructions and monitoring schedules.

Scopoletin is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound found in some plants and fungi. It has been studied in the field of pharmacology for its potential medicinal properties. Scopoletin is a coumarin derivative and has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in various studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic uses and safety profile.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mikania" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy family. The most well-known species is Mikania micrantha, which is native to Central and South America but has become an invasive weed in many other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. It is often referred to by the common name "climbing hempvine" or "mile-a-minute weed."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Murraya" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a genus of tropical and subtropical evergreen trees and shrubs in the family Rutaceae, also known as the rue or citrus family. The most common species is Murraya paniculata, which is often used as an ornamental plant and is commonly known as the "Orange Jessamine" or "Chinese Box."

If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I'd be happy to try to help with that.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Violaceae" is not a medical term. It is the biological name of a family of flowering plants, also known as the violet family. This family includes various plants that may have medicinal uses, such as violets and pansies, but "Violaceae" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Rutaceae is a family of plants in the order Sapindales, also known as the rue or citrus family. It includes aromatic trees and shrubs, with around 150 genera and 2,000 species. Many members of this family are economically important, particularly those in the citrus genus (Citrus spp.), which include oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and other citrus fruits. These plants contain essential oils that are used in perfumes, flavorings, and traditional medicines. Some other notable members of Rutaceae include rue (Ruta graveolens), a medicinal herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine, and Cascarilla bark (Croton eluteria), which is used to make a bitter tonic.

Hydroxylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a molecule, typically a steroid or xenobiotic compound. This process is primarily catalyzed by enzymes called hydroxylases, which are found in various tissues throughout the body.

In the context of medicine and biochemistry, hydroxylation can have several important functions:

1. Drug metabolism: Hydroxylation is a common way that the liver metabolizes drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. By adding a hydroxyl group to a drug molecule, it becomes more polar and water-soluble, which facilitates its excretion from the body.
2. Steroid hormone biosynthesis: Hydroxylation is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve hydroxylation at various steps.
3. Vitamin D activation: Hydroxylation is also necessary for the activation of vitamin D in the body. In order to become biologically active, vitamin D must undergo two successive hydroxylations, first in the liver and then in the kidneys.
4. Toxin degradation: Some toxic compounds can be rendered less harmful through hydroxylation. For example, phenol, a toxic compound found in cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals, can be converted to a less toxic form through hydroxylation by enzymes in the liver.

Overall, hydroxylation is an important biochemical process that plays a critical role in various physiological functions, including drug metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and toxin degradation.

Methoxsalen is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as psoralens. It is primarily used in the treatment of skin conditions such as psoriasis and vitiligo.

Methoxsalen works by making the skin more sensitive to ultraviolet light A (UVA) after it is absorbed. This process helps to slow down the growth of affected skin cells, reducing the symptoms of the condition.

The medication is typically taken orally or applied topically to the affected area before UVA light therapy. It's important to note that methoxsalen can increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts with long-term use, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Pharmaceutic aids, also known as pharmaceutical excipients or additives, are substances that are added to pharmaceutical formulations during the manufacturing process. They are not intended to have any therapeutic effect, but rather to improve the drug's stability, bioavailability, palatability, or patient compliance.

Examples of pharmaceutic aids include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, preservatives, coloring agents, and flavoring agents. Binders help hold the active ingredients together in a solid form, while fillers are used to add bulk to the formulation. Coatings can be used to protect the drug from degradation or to make it easier to swallow. Disintegrants help the tablet or capsule break down quickly in the digestive tract so that the active ingredient can be absorbed more efficiently. Preservatives are added to prevent microbial growth, while coloring and flavoring agents improve the appearance and taste of the medication.

It is important to note that pharmaceutic aids must undergo rigorous testing to ensure their safety and compatibility with the active ingredients in the drug formulation. Some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain excipients, so it is essential to consider these factors when developing and prescribing medications.

Esculin is a glucoside derived from the bark of willow trees and other plants. It has been used in scientific research as a substrate to test the activity of certain types of bacteria, particularly those that have the ability to produce an enzyme called beta-glucosidase. When esculin comes into contact with this enzyme, it is broken down and forms a chemical compound called esculetin, which can be detected and measured. This reaction is often used as a way to identify and study bacteria that produce beta-glucosidase.

Esculin is not typically used in medical treatments or therapies, but it may have some potential uses in the development of new drugs or diagnostic tools. As with any chemical compound, esculin should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained professional.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

... is hepatotoxic in rats, but less so in mice. Rodents metabolize it mostly to 3,4-coumarin epoxide, a toxic, unstable ... Coumarin was first synthesized in 1868 by the English chemist William Henry Perkin. Coumarin has been an integral part of the ... Coumarins were found to be uncommon but occasional components of propolis by Santos-Buelga and Gonzalez-Paramas 2017. Coumarin ... "Chemical Sampling Information - Coumarin". Osha.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2015. "Cassia cinnamon with high coumarin contents ...
Among the various coumarin laser dyes are coumarins 480, 490, 504, 521, 504T, and 521T. Coumarin tetramethyl laser dyes offer ... Coumarin derivatives are derivatives of coumarin and are considered phenylpropanoids. Among the most important derivatives are ... Compounds derived from coumarin are also called coumarins or coumarinoids; this family includes: brodifacoum bromadiolone ... Warfarin - a coumarin - with brand name, Coumadin, is a prescription drug used as an anticoagulant to inhibit formation of ...
... coumarins; organic acids such as citric acid and a red dye; phenolics such as phenolic acid; and anthraquinone derivatives such ...
... is a coumarin. Humans have used plants rich in angelicin for centuries. The earliest known record dates back to 3000 ... The coumarins can undergo further reactions such as prenylation and oxidation to give multiple furanocoumarins one of which is ... Steck, Warren; Bailey, B. K. (1969). "Leaf coumarins of Angelicaarchangelica". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 47 (13): 2425- ... "Plant coumarins. IX.* Phenolic compounds of Ferulopsis hystrix growing in Mongolia. Cytotoxic activity of 8,9- ...
Ando, T.; Nagumo, M.; Ninomiya, M.; Tanaka, K.; Linhardt, R. J.; Koketsu, M. Synthesis of coumarin derivatives and their ... Abu-Mustafa, Effat A.; Fayez, M. B. E. (1961). "Natural Coumarins. I. Marmesin and Marmesinin, Further Products from the Fruits ...
Schönberg, Alexander; Badran, Nasry; Starkowsky, Nicolas A. (1953). "Furo-chromones and -Coumarins. VII. Degradation of ...
The Kostanecki acylation is a method used in organic synthesis to form chromones or coumarins by acylation of O-hydroxyaryl ... Sethna, S. M.; Shah, N. M. (1945). "The Chemistry of Coumarins". Chemical Reviews. 36: 1-62. doi:10.1021/cr60113a001. v. ... Use dmy dates from June 2013, Name reactions, Organic reactions, Coumarins). ... or coumarin) Alvocidib (flavopiridol) Dimefline Flavoxate Allan-Robinson reaction Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement Gaspar, A.; ...
... s are a group of chemicals consisting of a coumarin with an attached imine group. Many derivatives of 2- ...
They consist of coumarin annulated with furan. It can also be injected and used topically. In 1947, methoxsalen was isolated ( ... Nielsen BE (1970). Coumarins of Umbelliferous plants. Copenhagen: Royal Danish School of Pharmacy. Cited by Mitchell and Rook ( ... O-methylated coumarins, Catechol ethers, General cytochrome P450 inhibitors, Orphan drugs, Plant toxins). ...
Nielsen, B. E. (1970). Coumarins of Umbelliferous plants. Copenhagen: Royal Danish School of Pharmacy. Cited by Mitchell and ... Schönberg, Alexander; Badran, Nasry; Starkowsky, Nicolas A. (1955). "Furo-chromones and -Coumarins. XII. Synthesis of Fraxinol ... "The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the ... O-methylated coumarins, IARC Group 2A carcinogens, Photosensitizing agents, Resorcinol ethers). ...
His interest in coumarins, a recently isolated compound at the time, led Bargellini to experiment with multi-component ... One hundred years later, the Bargellini reaction itself was used for the condensation of coumarins, an ironic twist to the ... Sen, Prabir K.; Biswas, Bidyut; Venkateswaran, Ramanathapuram V. (2005-12-12). "Bargellini condensation of coumarins. ...
The seeds normally contain about 1 to 3% of coumarin, but rarely it can achieve 10%. Coumarin is responsible for the seed's ... Tonka beans have been used as a source of natural coumarin, and, after its synthesis in the 1940s, artificial coumarin became ... Coumarin, however, does not have anticoagulant properties. The tree grows up to 25-30 m (82-98 ft), with a trunk of up to 1 m ( ... Coumarin is bitter to the taste. In large infused doses, it may cause hemorrhages, liver damage, or paralysis of the heart. It ...
Nigg, H. N.; Nordby, H. E.; Beier, R. C.; Dillman, A.; Macias, C.; Hansen, R. C. (1993). "Phototoxic coumarins in limes" (PDF ... "The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the ...
... the coumarins aesculetin and scopoletin; the ellagitannins are roburins A and E, grandinin, vescalagin and castalagin. Guaiacol ...
Nigg, H. N.; Nordby, H. E.; Beier, R. C.; Dillman, A.; Macias, C.; Hansen, R. C. (1993). "Phototoxic coumarins in limes" (PDF ...
Several coumarins have been isolated from the roots, including one named merrillin. The alkaloid yuehchukene has been found in ... 1989). Coumarins of Merrillia caloxylon. Phytochemistry 28(2), 657-59. Kong, Y., et al. (1988). The biochemical systematics of ...
Also many other functional heterocycles are in good yields accessible from ethyl cyanoacetate, such as 3-substituted coumarin ... V.; Dangyan, M. T. (1980). "Synthesis of functionally substituted coumarins". Chem. Heterocycl. Compounds. 15 (9): 959-960. doi ...
Sato, Shouichi (2005). "Coumarin rodenticides". Drugs and Poisons in Humans. pp. 599-608. doi:10.1007/3-540-27579-7_66. ISBN ... Fumarin, also known as coumafuryl is a coumarin derivative, a structural analog of warfarin. It can be used as rodenticide. ...
It also contains coumarin, so care should be taken to avoid potential drug interactions, e.g. with blood thinners. While ... and coumarin. Chamomile, a relative of ragweed, can cause allergy symptoms and can cross-react with ragweed pollen in ...
It also contains coumarins and limonoids. Cell cultures produce the coumarins umbelliferone, scopoletin, psoralen, xanthotoxin ... INIST:2179664 Steck, Warren; Bailey, B.K.; Shyluk, J.P.; Gamborg, O.L. (1971). "Coumarins and alkaloids from cell cultures of ... INIST:18469419 Srivastava, S. D.; Srivastava, S. K.; Halwe, K. (1998). "New coumarins and limonoids of Ruta graveolens". ...
... is a coumarin derivative found in the leaves of the Australian Willow (Geijera parviflora). It is a monoamine ... Lahey FN, Macleod JK (September 1967). "The coumarins of Geijera parviflora Lindl". Aust J Chem. 20 (9): 1943-55. doi:10.1071/ ... Coumarins, Phenol ethers, Enones, Alkene derivatives, All stub articles, Heterocyclic compound stubs, Aromatic compound stubs) ...
HRAS Coumarin resistance; 122700; CYP2A6 Cousin syndrome; 260660; TBX15 Cowden syndrome; 158350; PTEN Cowden-like syndrome; ...
Coumarin Cui, WS; Tian, J; Ma, ZJ; Guo, YQ; Wang, JH; Li, X (2003). "A new isocoumarin from bark of Pellodendron chinense". ...
The chemistry of these plants has been studied, with several known and new coumarins isolated. One such coumarin from M. ... 2001). Three new coumarins from Micromelum integerrimum.[permanent dead link] Chinese Chemical Letters 12(7) 603-06. (FloraBase ... Isolation and structural elucidation of new coumarins. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Tokyo 48(3), 334-38. He, H. P., ...
Palladium-Catalyzed Formation of Coumarins by Addition of Phenols and Alkynoates via a Net C−H Insertion". Journal of the ... Chatterjee, A. K.; Toste, F. D.; Goldberg, S. D.; Grubbs, Robert H. (2003-01-01). "Synthesis of coumarins by ring-closing ...
PATIL, SHARANABASAPPA B.; P., GOURAMMA; JALDE, SHIVAKUMAR S. (2021-07-15). "Medicinal Significance of Novel Coumarins: A Review ...
Test on stem bark extracts of Mammea africana identified the presence of coumarin derivatives many identified in Mammea ... "Cytotoxic and antimicrobial coumarins from Mammea africana". Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology. 98 (7): 733-739. doi: ... "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of isoprenylated coumarin mammea A/AA isolated from Mammea africana". Journal of ...
The leaves contain coumarins and sesquiterpene lactones. The sesquiterpenes are known to be costunolide, parthenolide, ... 10.1002/jps.2600700833 Coumarins and sesquiterpene lactones from Magnolia grandiflora leaves. Yang MH, Blunden G, Patel AV, ...
Coumarins from the Root of Seseli libanotis (L.) Koch. The Structure of Three New Coumarins" (PDF). Acta Chemica Scandinavica. ... doi:10.2478/s11535-012-0094-4. Lemmich, John; Shabana, Marawan (11 April 1984). "Coumarin sulphates of Seseli libanotis". ...
2008). Two new coumarins from Euonymus hamiltonianus. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 44(1) 10-12. Tantray, M. A., et al. (2009 ... A number of novel chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, including the coumarins euonidiol and euoniside and ...
Coumarin is hepatotoxic in rats, but less so in mice. Rodents metabolize it mostly to 3,4-coumarin epoxide, a toxic, unstable ... Coumarin was first synthesized in 1868 by the English chemist William Henry Perkin. Coumarin has been an integral part of the ... Coumarins were found to be uncommon but occasional components of propolis by Santos-Buelga and Gonzalez-Paramas 2017. Coumarin ... "Chemical Sampling Information - Coumarin". Osha.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2015. "Cassia cinnamon with high coumarin contents ...
Access to coumarins by rhodium-catalyzed oxidative annulation of aryl thiocarbamates with internal alkynes. Download Prime ... Access to Coumarins By Rhodium-catalyzed Oxidative Annulation of Aryl Thiocarbamates With Internal Alkynes. Org Lett. 2015 Mar ... Access to coumarins by rhodium-catalyzed oxidative annulation of aryl thiocarbamates with internal alkynes.. Org Lett. 2015 Mar ... Access to coumarins by rhodium-catalyzed oxidative annulation of aryl thiocarbamates with internal alkynes. Org Lett. 2015;17(6 ...
Coumarins showed an increase in plasma concentrations of up to three times in the neuroinflammation model, compared to healthy ... Among the chemical compounds that stand out in the plant against these conditions are coumarins, such as 7-O-prenylscopoletin ( ... which was able to determine the temporal concentration profiles of each of the coumarins in the plasma, brain, kidney, and ... a bioanalytical method was established by HPLC-DAD-UV for the simultaneous quantification of the coumarins present in the ...
Palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck coupling reaction for direct synthesis of 4-arylcoumarins using coumarins and arylboronic ... Boronic AcidsCatalysisCoumarinsMagnetic Resonance SpectroscopyMolecular StructureOxidative CouplingPalladiumStereoisomerism ... Regioselective palladium-catalyzed direct cross-coupling of coumarins with simple arenes.. *Sequential Pd(II)-Pd(0) catalysis ... TY - JOUR T1 - Palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck coupling reaction for direct synthesis of 4-arylcoumarins using coumarins and ...
Coumarin 10% in DPG. A dilution of Coumarin 10% in DPG. Coumarin is sweet aromatic coconut herbaceous-warm spicy haylike nut ... The odour and uses of Coumarin 10% in DPG Odour=> Tenacious, earthy-mossy odour and a leather-like undertone. 2. The absolute ...
... coumarins and related furyl coumarin derivatives has been developed, which is based on an extraordinarily facile intramolecular ... Syntheses of furo[3,4-c]coumarins and related furyl coumarin derivatives via intramolecular Wittig reactions Y. Jang, S. Syu, Y ... A new and general strategy for highly functional furo[3,4-c]coumarins and related furyl coumarin derivatives has been developed ... Syntheses of furo[3,4-c]coumarins and related furyl coumarin derivatives via intramolecular Wittig reactions† ...
From the coumarin derivates synthesized, the most potent one was warfarin, an acronym for the Wisconsin Alumni Research ... This gene encodes the protein which is the target of the coumarins. Genetically mutated variants of the gene have been shown to ... After another three decades, in 2004, the complex biochemical relationship between vitamin K, its epoxide, and coumarins was ... Pharmacogenetic Aspects and Drug Interactions in Anticoagulation Therapy with Coumarins. Publication. Publication. ...
Design, synthesis and evaluation of modified coumarins as CB receptor ligands, Reihe: Beiträge zur organischen Synthese, Bd. 88 ... Design, synthesis and evaluation of modified coumarins as CB receptor ligands Beiträge zur organischen Synthese, Bd. 88 Florian ... Design, synthesis and evaluation of modified coumarins as CB receptor ligands The endocannabinoid system represents a highly ... In the presented thesis, the design, syntheses and pharmacologic evaluation of substituted coumarins as potential new drug ...
Photohalogenation of 3-acetylcoumarins: Facile synthesis of 3-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)coumarins and their conversion into 3-[2,5- ...
Ultrafast transient spectroscopy of 7-diethyl amino coumarin 3-carboxylic acid (D-1421) sensitized TiO2 film reveals that TICT ... Ultrafast Charge Separation Dynamics of Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer State (TICT) in Coumarin Dye Sensitized TiO2 ...
Design, Synthesis, and Cytotoxicity of Novel Coumarin-1,2,3- 9 triazole-1,2,4- Oxadiazole Hybrids as Potent Anti-breast Cancer ... Background: This work reports design, synthesis, and in vitro cytotoxicity of novel coumarin-1,2,3-triazole-1,2,4-oxadiazole ... Methods: Synthetic procedure for the preparation of desired compounds was started from the reaction of coumarins or with ... propargyl bromide to give O-propargylated coumarins or 5. Then, click reaction between the later compounds and 3-aryl-5-( ...
Three of the active drugs were propyl coumarin analogues (2a, 7 and 8), two were dipyranone or chromeno-coumarins (9 and 10), ... coumarin (8); 6,6-dimethyl-9-propionyloxy-4- propyl-2H,6H-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b′]dipyran-2-one (9); 6,6-dimethyl-9-pivaloyloxy-4- ... and one was a benzotripyranone with a coumarin nucleus (18). Some appeared to be rather specific and potent inhibitors of MV ... A series of coumarin and pyranocoumarin analogues were evaluated in vitro for antiviral efficacy against measles virus (MV), ...
Coumarin dyes have proven to posses unique photophysical properties thanks to the high quantum yield, and stability and an ... Coumarin dyes have proven to posses unique photophysical properties thanks to the high quantum yield, and stability and an ... This research aimed at the design, the synthesis, the photophysical characterization of new LSS coumarin dyes and their use in ... This research aimed at the design, the synthesis, the photophysical characterization of new LSS coumarin dyes and their use in ...
Lewis Acid Catalysis of Coumarin Photodimerization. / Lewis, Frederick D; Howard, Daniel K.; Oxman, Joe D. In: Journal of the ... Lewis, F. D., Howard, D. K., & Oxman, J. D. (1983). Lewis Acid Catalysis of Coumarin Photodimerization. Journal of the American ... Lewis, Frederick D ; Howard, Daniel K. ; Oxman, Joe D. / Lewis Acid Catalysis of Coumarin Photodimerization. In: Journal of the ... Lewis, FD, Howard, DK & Oxman, JD 1983, Lewis Acid Catalysis of Coumarin Photodimerization, Journal of the American Chemical ...
However, synthesis and studies of linear pyridine-fused-π-extended coumarins remained unexplored. Here, we synthesised two ... Coumarin and its derivatives have potential applications in sensing, laser dyes, fluorescent probes, and dye sensitized solar ... Coumarin and its derivatives have potential applications in sensing, laser dyes, fluorescent probes, and dye sensitized solar ... Synthesis, optical properties, acid-base vapochromism and anti-counterfeiting of novel π-extended pyridine fused coumarins. ...
Experimental charge density distributions in two known conformational polymorphs (orange and yellow) of coumarin 314 dye are ... Experimental and theoretical charge density analysis of polymorphic structures: The case of coumarin 314 dye. Parthapratim ... Experimental charge density distributions in two known conformational polymorphs (orange and yellow) of coumarin 314 dye are ...
Coumarins. Coumarins are a class of oral anticoagulant drugs, which act as antagonists to vitamin K. The mechanism of action is ... Coumarins produce their anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the carboxylation necessary for biologic activity. ... What is the role of coumarins in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surgery? ... Successful prevention strategies include LMWH (,3400 U q24hr), fondaparinux, and coumarins (INR 2-3). Dose-adjusted LDUH or ...
Coumarins. Coumarins are a class of oral anticoagulant drugs, which act as antagonists to vitamin K. The mechanism of action is ... Coumarins produce their anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the carboxylation necessary for biologic activity. ... What is the role of coumarins in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surgery? ... Successful prevention strategies include LMWH (,3400 U q24hr), fondaparinux, and coumarins (INR 2-3). Dose-adjusted LDUH or ...
Jones, G., II, W. R. Jackson, C.-y. Choi and W. R. Bergmark (1985) Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin ... de Melo, J. S. S., R. S. Becker and A. L. Maçanita (1994) Photophysical behavior of coumarins as a function of substitution and ... Ishii, H., Y. Okada, M. Baba and T. Okuyama (2008) Studies of coumarins from the chinese drug Qianhu, XXVII: Structure of a new ... Krzeszewski, M., O. Vakuliuk and D. T. Gryko (2013) Color-tunable fluorescent dyes based on benzo[c]coumarin. Eur. J. Org. Chem ...
a, The triaza-coumarin (39) is reduced in its coumarin ring inside Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cells to form the unstable ... Congeners of triaza-coumarin (39) (Fig. 3a), which bear a coumarin moiety, showed low nanomolar minimum inhibitory ... Triaza-coumarin congeners. A new class of 1,3,5-triazaspiro[5.5]undeca-2,4-dienes has been identified as a selective inhibitor ... At a molecular level, the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group in the coumarin motif of 39 is reduced to deliver 40, which is ...
DOVE - Coumarin. JavaScript disabled. Keyword search is redirected to Google.com. Keressen a termékeink között!. When ...
This is plant extract most commonly found in lavender and cherries but also in licorice and sweet clover. It often has a light grassy scent. It is known to increase blood flow so can enhance radiance and its antioxidant properties stave off the affects of the environment.
Fragraphilia is strong feeling of love or admiration for the world of perfumes, candles, and all sorts of sensational scents.
... coumarin-3-carbonylhydrazide, 7-Diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonylhydrazide, Derivatizing agent for carboxylic acid detection. ... 7-(Diethylamino)coumarin-3-carbonylhydrazide AKA: 7-Diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonylhydrazide Formula. Weight. CAS#. ... Coumarin (Umbelliferone) and Methylcoumarin. Reactive Probes and Related Products: Probes for alcohol, Aldehyde/Ketone and Acid ... 7-(Diethylamino)coumarin-3-carbonylhydrazide. I am interested in pricing for more than 24 units @ 25 mg. ...
Coumarin. Coumaric acid (o-). human. plasma. host metabolism. 1h-3h. 0.5-2µmol/L. Not Available. C9H8O3. 164.047344118. ... Coumarin. Umbelliferone. Not Available. Not Available. Not Available. Not Available. Not Available. Not Available. C9H6O3. ... Coumarins and derivatives. Super-class. Phenylpropanoids and polyketides. Sub-class. Not Available. Direct Parent Name. ... Coumarins and derivatives. Alternative Parent Names. ["1-benzopyrans", "Benzenoids", "Heteroaromatic compounds", "Hydrocarbon ...
Coumarin is a widespread substance in nature, readily soluble in ethanol, ether and essential oils, but little soluble in water ... Only then does coumarin exude its typical smell.. Coumarins are also used in food. In Germany, the limit value for coumarin as ... Especially rich in coumarin are the seeds of the tonka bean (the fruits have a coumarin content of about 2 to 3%) as well as ... Biosynthetically, coumarin is produced from coumaric acid or its glucoside(melilotoside).. Coumarin was first isolated in 1813 ...
We offer best quality of 6-Methyl Coumarin at a best price. These chemicals are mainly used in the preparation of perfumery ... Aroma Aromatics & Flavours- We are one of the reliable manufacturer, supplier and exporter of 6-Methyl Coumarin. ...
... coumarin (CO); III experimental: BD + ,italic,Bacillus cereus,/italic, + coumarin (BC + CO). Metagenomic analysis of the ... abstract, ,p,The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coumarin and Bacillus cereus derivatives on the productivity ... Thus, the additional introduction of ,italic,Bacillus cereus,/italic, and a coumarin derivative into the diet of broilers ... and a coumarin derivative was revealed. In experiments on animals, i.e. broiler chickens (4 groups, n = 30). Control group: had ...
  • Coumarin is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor reagent in the synthesis of a number of synthetic anticoagulant pharmaceuticals similar to dicoumarol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Design, synthesis and evaluation of modified coumarins as CB receptor ligands, Reihe: Beiträge zur organischen Synthese, Bd. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Background: This work reports design, synthesis, and in vitro cytotoxicity of novel coumarin-1,2,3-triazole-1,2,4-oxadiazole hybrids against three breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D. (irost.org)
  • This research aimed at the design, the synthesis, the photophysical characterization of new LSS coumarin dyes and their use in different fields such as photoredox catalysis, photopolymerization and biological applications (bioconiugation and fluorescent microscopy). (unibo.it)
  • This study involves the synthesis of eight novel albocarbon-based coumarins, which were confirmed by various spectrophotometers. (jmchemsci.com)
  • In the last several decades, though numerous coumarin-based products have been primarily separated from their biological origins, the laboratory synthesis of the coumarins is developing. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Synthesis devised for preparing various coumarin-derived compounds [18]. (jmchemsci.com)
  • The Pechmann reaction is claimed to be the most suitable synthetic pathway in the synthesis of coumarin-derived compounds which gives a promising yield towards the target product. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Coumarin anticoagulants interfere with the synthesis of vitamin-K dependent coagulation proteins (factors II, VII, IX, and X) in the liver. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The coumarin derivatives (see below coumarins, systemic ) phenprocoumon and warfarin are anticoagulants. (altmeyers.org)
  • Use caution in concomitant treatment with oral coumarin anticoagulants. (nih.gov)
  • Risk of bleeding is increased by use of coumarin anticoagulants. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If the mother has taken phenytoin antiseizure drugs, coumarin anticoagulants, or cephalosporin antibiotics, the risk of hemorrhagic disease is increased. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Pechmann condensation provides another route to coumarin and its derivatives, as does the Kostanecki acylation, which can also be used to produce chromones. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new and general strategy for highly functional furo[3,4- c ]coumarins and related furyl coumarin derivatives has been developed, which is based on an extraordinarily facile intramolecular Wittig reaction , starting from α , β -unsaturated ketones , tributylphosphine , and acyl chlorides . (rsc.org)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coumarin and Bacillus cereus derivatives on the productivity and ecology of the caecum of broilers. (aimspress.com)
  • Among the chemical compounds that stand out in the plant against these conditions are coumarins, such as 7- O -prenylscopoletin (PE), scoparone (SC), dimethylfraxetin (DF), herniarin (HR), and 7- O -prenylumbelliferone (PU), considered potential anti-neuroinflammatory compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Methods: Synthetic procedure for the preparation of desired compounds was started from the reaction of coumarins or with propargyl bromide to give O-propargylated coumarins or 5. (irost.org)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways involving coumarins, compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids. (planteome.org)
  • Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the synthesized albocarbon-based coumarins penetrate the gastrointestinal mucosa very well, and the majority of these compounds penetrate the blood-brain barrier only slightly. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Coumarins constitute an interesting group of compounds. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Coumarins are a class of heterocyclic compounds with a benzopyrone structure. (jmchemsci.com)
  • In various plant components such as the fruits, leaves, roots, and stems, coumarin-derived compounds can attain high levels. (jmchemsci.com)
  • According to the research results, the activity of cellular biomasses to suppress quorum sensing (QS) ( Chromobacterium violaceum 026 ) in Bacillus cereus and a coumarin derivative was revealed. (aimspress.com)
  • Coumarin derivative and Bacillus cereus change live weight and cecal ecology in broilers[J]. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2021, 6(1): 360-380. (aimspress.com)
  • This reaction, as illustrated in Scheme 3, involves the creation of coumarin-based derivative by conjugating a phenolic compound with dicarboxylic acid-containing derivative using concentrated inorganic acid like HCl or H 2 SO 4 as a promoter [22]. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Previous phytochemical studies reveal the presence of coumarins, alkaloids, limonoidal triterpenes as well as phytosterols and their fatty acid estersin this plant [4]. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • In humans, coumarin is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, but is subject to a pronounced first-pass metabolism in the liver, so that only about 2 to 6 % of the absorbed dose enters the systemic circulation. (altmeyers.org)
  • Lake B. Coumarin metabolism, toxicity and carcinogenicity: relevance for human risk assessment. (alexleaf.com)
  • Shilling W, Crampton R, Longland R. Metabolism of coumarin in man. (alexleaf.com)
  • Coumarins: their versatile use in photoredox catalysis and biological applications. (unibo.it)
  • Under catalysis of CYP2A6, coumarin is predominantly metabolised to 7-hydroxycoumarin, which is excreted renally after conjugation with glucuronide or sulphate. (altmeyers.org)
  • Coumarin (/ˈkuːmərɪn/) or 2H-chromen-2-one is an aromatic organic chemical compound with formula C9H6O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumarin is sweet aromatic coconut herbaceous-warm spicy haylike nut tobacco herbaceous odors lavender lavandin rosemary citrus oils oakmoss oriental fougere lime herbal hay fixative-effect. (perfumersworld.com)
  • Coumarin is a widespread substance in nature, readily soluble in ethanol, ether and essential oils, but little soluble in water (coumarin from the Spanish "cumarú = tonka bean tree", a tree native to Guyana (Coumaruona odorata)), which causes the aromatic scent of numerous plants (e.g. woodruff, sweet clover, dates, etc. (altmeyers.org)
  • Coumarin-infused products such as candles, lotions, and sprays have become popular alternatives to chemical-laden repellents, offering a more natural and aromatic approach to bug prevention. (whatsvegan.app)
  • for example, one study showed that authentic Ceylon cinnamon bark contained 0.012 to 0.143 mg/g coumarin, but samples purchased at markets contained up to 3.462 mg/g, possibly because those were mixed with other cinnamon varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially rich in coumarin are the seeds of the tonka bean (the fruits have a coumarin content of about 2 to 3%) as well as cinnamon. (altmeyers.org)
  • Coumarin can be found in various plants such as: the fragrant perfumed grass, clover, woodruff, umbellifers such as dill or caraway, dates, tonka bean (cumaru = tonka bean tree) and cinnamon cassava. (altmeyers.org)
  • Derived from the barks of cinnamon and cassia plants, coumarin is a natural compound known for its sweet, warm, and slightly spicy aroma. (whatsvegan.app)
  • Whether it's the classic cinnamon rolls or the popular gingerbread cookies, coumarin helps in achieving that perfect balance of flavors that make these treats simply irresistible. (whatsvegan.app)
  • I wanted to quickly address the issue of coumarin in cinnamon, as many people use this as a basis for determining what type of cinnamon to eat due to concerns over its purported liver-toxic effects. (alexleaf.com)
  • Coumarin is derived from coumarou, the French word for the tonka bean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vogel novally separated the primary component, coumarin itself, from this plant that commonly known as tonka bean in 1820 [1]. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Coumarin was first isolated from tonka beans in 1820 by A. Vogel of Munich, who initially mistook it for benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also in 1820, Nicholas Jean Baptiste Gaston Guibourt (1790-1867) of France independently isolated coumarin, but he realized that it was not benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to these exceptional photophysical properties, coumarin dyes are widespread used in different applications including fluorescent bio-label, emitting materials in OLED and dyes in solar cells as example. (unibo.it)
  • We can thank studies in mice and rats, which are species that rely almost entirely on the o-HPA pathway to metabolize coumarin, for the widespread belief that coumarin is liver toxic. (alexleaf.com)
  • A series of coumarin and pyranocoumarin analogues were evaluated in vitro for antiviral efficacy against measles virus (MV), strain Chicago. (usu.edu)
  • Three of the active drugs were propyl coumarin analogues (2a, 7 and 8), two were dipyranone or chromeno-coumarins (9 and 10), and one was a benzotripyranone with a coumarin nucleus (18). (usu.edu)
  • That being said, because humans rely on the CYP2A6 enzyme to metabolize coumarin into 7-HC, people with polymorphisms that slow this enzyme's activity could be at an increased risk of adverse effects on the liver. (alexleaf.com)
  • Link to all direct and indirect annotations to coumarin metabolic process. (planteome.org)
  • Adjust the dosage of coumarin anticoagulant to maintain the prothrombin time/INR at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications ( 5.6 ). (nih.gov)
  • In Germany, the limit value for coumarin as a food additive is laid down in the Flavour Regulation at currently 2 mg per kilogram of prepared food. (altmeyers.org)
  • Coumarin is mainly used as a fragrance and flavour in perfumery and in the tobacco industry. (altmeyers.org)
  • citation needed] In humans, the enzyme encoded by the gene UGT1A8 has glucuronidase activity with many substrates, including coumarins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumarin chemical nucleus is a gift awarded from nature to humanity. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Ltd. is one of the reliable 6-Methyl Coumarin Manufacturers In Mangalwedha and offers you 100% safe and organic 6-Methyl Coumarin In Mangalwedha. (naturalmint.in)
  • We are known for our 6-Methyl Coumarin purity and organic quality. (naturalmint.in)
  • Xanthotoxol is a coumarin and a major component in C. monnieri that has diverse biological activities. (medkoo.com)
  • Certain individuals, such as those with liver conditions, are advised to exercise caution when incorporating coumarin into their diet. (whatsvegan.app)
  • Coumarin belongs to the Fabacean family called "Coumarou" which is the plant's derogatory name. (jmchemsci.com)
  • For instance, a study of 110 European adults found the excretion rate of 7-HC to be 20-100% of the ingested coumarin dose. (alexleaf.com)
  • Due to its bitter taste, coumarin belongs to the bitter substances. (altmeyers.org)
  • The tonka bean's distinct flavor is thanks to coumarin, a chemical compound that has been banned in the United States since 1954 because it can cause liver problems in high concentrations. (rf-onlinegame.com)
  • Coumarin can be metabolized into a variety of products within the liver, but the two principle ones are 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) and coumarin 3,4-epoxide , which rapidly degrades to o-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (o-HPA) and then to o-hydroxyphenylactic acid (o-HPAA). (alexleaf.com)
  • Coumarin is believed to be liver-toxic, but that's not the case in humans. (alexleaf.com)
  • From the coumarin derivates synthesized, the most potent one was warfarin, an acronym for the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF). (eur.nl)
  • Perkin first conducted the chemical construction of the parent compound, coumarin. (jmchemsci.com)
  • The high - temperature reaction of acetate anhydride with salicylaldehyde, using an alkaline dried salt like sodium acetate, has created the coumarin-derived compound as indicated in Scheme 1. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Coumarin (and related substances) are responsible for the typical hay smell when drying grass or woodruff. (altmeyers.org)
  • Only then does coumarin exude its typical smell. (altmeyers.org)
  • It does appear to be coumarin free although the quality of the vanilla, taste and smell, is not any better than imitation. (rf-onlinegame.com)
  • Coumarins from the roots of Angelica dahurica with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. (medkoo.com)
  • 2. Li, D., and Wu, L. Coumarins from the roots of Angelica dahurica cause anti-allergic inflammation. (medkoo.com)
  • In the presented thesis, the design, syntheses and pharmacologic evaluation of substituted coumarins as potential new drug candidates as selective synthetic cannabinoids were investigated. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Coumarin is found naturally in many plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumarin is found naturally also in many edible plants such as strawberries, black currants, apricots, and cherries. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's important to note that while coumarin is naturally occurring, it is also found in some synthetic forms. (whatsvegan.app)
  • Coumarin is a remarkable food ingredient that adds a distinctive touch to various culinary delights. (whatsvegan.app)
  • Ltd. is one of the remarkable 6-Methyl Coumarin Manufacturers in India who offer you 100% pure and safe mint products. (naturalmint.in)
  • Coumarin was first synthesized in 1868 by the English chemist William Henry Perkin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumarin was first isolated in 1813 by the German chemist A. Vogel, who was able to extract the substance from the seeds of the tonka tree. (altmeyers.org)
  • With five crystal structures, coumarin has become one of the few rigid molecules showing extensive polymorphism at ambient conditions. (nyu.edu)
  • We never compromise with the quality standard of our 6-Methyl Coumarin In Mangalwedha as they are used in Food, Pharmaceutical to Cosmetic Industries. (naturalmint.in)
  • Coumarin-based products in the plant, animal and microorganism worlds are heavily marketed [2]. (jmchemsci.com)
  • In recent years, coumarin has also gained attention for its use as a natural mosquito repellent. (whatsvegan.app)
  • As a result, it is crucial to choose high-quality, natural sources of coumarin to ensure the best flavor and potential health benefits. (whatsvegan.app)
  • The geological and temporal factors can significantly affect the amount of natural coumarins in these plant zones [4]. (jmchemsci.com)
  • A number of pharmacologically significant natural coumarins have been separated from various micro-organisms. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Previous reports had shown that natural coumarins , especially mammea A/BA isolated from the tropical tree Calophyllum brasiliense, is a promissory molecule for developing new drugs , due to its potent activity, higher than benznidazole, selectivity, and its low toxicity in mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • So, explore the wonderful world of coumarin and let its unique characteristics elevate your culinary creations to new heights of flavor. (whatsvegan.app)
  • In addition to its incredible flavor-enhancing qualities, coumarin offers a myriad of creative possibilities in the world of mixology. (whatsvegan.app)
  • Whether it's a sophisticated bourbon-based creation or a refreshing gin cocktail, the inclusion of coumarin brings an enchanting twist to the flavor profile, leaving your taste buds craving more. (whatsvegan.app)
  • Just a touch of coumarin can turn a simple tomato sauce into an extraordinary culinary experience, enhancing the taste with its unique blend of sweet and spicy notes. (whatsvegan.app)
  • This protocol provides a new route to 3,4-disubstituted coumarins. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ultrafast transient spectroscopy of 7-diethyl amino coumarin 3-carboxylic acid (D-1421) sensitized TiO 2 film reveals that TICT states facilitate higher charge separation and slow recombination and proved to be new route to design higher efficient solar cell. (epj-conferences.org)
  • In the plant coumarin is partially glycosidically bound. (altmeyers.org)
  • Coumarin has appetite-suppressing properties, which may discourage animals from eating plants that contain it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumarin dyes have proven to posses unique photophysical properties thanks to the high quantum yield, and stability and an absorption and emission which cover the most part of the visible spectrum. (unibo.it)
  • The soothing and calming properties of coumarin make it a popular choice for those seeking relaxation and rejuvenation. (whatsvegan.app)
  • The biosynthesis of coumarin in plants is via hydroxylation, glycolysis, and cyclization of cinnamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from its culinary prowess, coumarin has also been valued for its potential health benefits. (whatsvegan.app)
  • However, it's important to note that coumarin should be used in moderation, as excessive consumption may have potential health implications. (whatsvegan.app)
  • The free radical-housing potential was analyzed by testing these coumarins' ability to scavenge DDPT and hydroxyl harmful radicals. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Besides, the assessment of the free radical-housing potential of these synthesized albocarbon-based coumarins also indicated that all of them were less active than the reference. (jmchemsci.com)
  • After another three decades, in 2004, the complex biochemical relationship between vitamin K, its epoxide, and coumarins was enlightened by identifying the VKORC1 gene. (eur.nl)
  • This gene encodes the protein which is the target of the coumarins. (eur.nl)